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Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej – sukces czy zmarnowana szansa?

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  • Poznan University of Economics and Business

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Warszawa 2019
Trzydziestolecie
restytucji kapitalizmu
w Polsce
Ryszard Michalski
redakcja naukowa
Recenzent:
dr hab. Janusz Kostecki



ISBN 978-83-64614-52-1

Korekta i redakcja

Skład i łamanie

Projekt okładki

Druk
MCP
SPIS TREŚCI
Wstęp .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Rozdział 1. Polska droga do gospodarki rynkowej ................................................................................... 9
1. Reformy gospodarcze na fali Polskiego Października (1956–1958) .................. 9
2. Próby ekonomizacji gospodarki centralnie kierowanej (1964–1970) ............. 11
3. Częściowa dekompozycja systemu ekonomicznego
w dekadzie Gierkowskiej ......................................................................................................... 13
4. Reforma trzech S (1980–1987) ........................................................................................... 14
5. Próba stworzenia hybrydowego systemu ekonomicznego (1988–1989) ... 16
6. Zwrot w kierunku gospodarki rynkowej (jesień 1989 r.) .................................... 18
Podsumowanie ............................................................................................................................. 19
Rozdział 2. Preliminaria restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce
– elementy praktyki społeczno-gospodarczej .............................................................. 23
1. Przesłanki zewnętrzne transformacji ............................................................................. 24
2. Przesłanki wewnętrzne transformacji .......................................................................... 25
3. Restytucja kapitalizmu w sektorze przedsiębiorstw ............................................ 27
4. Próba uogólnień ..................................................................................................................... 34
Rozdział 3. Przemiany instytucjonalne w Polsce
– proces zakończony czy nieustające wyzwanie? ........................................................ 39
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 39
1. Przemiany instytucjonalne – proces ewolucyjny a radykalna zmiana ...... 40
2. Ocena instytucji w międzynarodowych badaniach .......................................... 42
3. Worldwide Governance Indicators ............................................................................. 44
4. Economic Freedom of the World .................................................................................. 47
5. Index of Economic Freedom .......................................................................................... 49
6. Freedom of the World ........................................................................................................ 53
7. Freedom of the Press ........................................................................................................... 55
8. Corruption Perception Index ............................................................................................ 57
9. Doing Business ........................................................................................................................ 58
Podsumowanie .............................................................................................................................. 60
Rozdział 4. Polska transformacja gospodarcza
– wielki sukces czy wielki przekręt ......................................................................................... 65
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 65
1. Próby reform przed 1989 rokiem .................................................................................... 66
2. Przełom polityczny ................................................................................................................. 67
3. Pierwsze cztery lata .............................................................................................................. 68
4. Lata 1993–2015 .......................................................................................................................... 75
5. Przekrój wyjątkowych patologii i zaniedbań .......................................................... 80
6. Ogólna ocena transformacji gospodarczej ............................................................ 84
Rozdział 5. Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej
– sukces czy zmarnowana szansa? ......................................................................................... 89
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 89
1. Reputacja państwa – uwagi teoretyczne ................................................................. 90
2.Geopolityczne uwarunkowania reputacji Polski po 1989 r. ................................ 91
3. Globalna reputacja Polski .................................................................................................. 95
Podsumowanie i wnioski ........................................................................................................ 101
Rozdział 6. Działalność gospodarcza w dobie przemian
ustrojowo-systemowych w Polsce .......................................................................................... 111
Wprowadzenie .............................................................................................................................. 111
1. Kształtowanie się gospodarki wolnorynkowej ...................................................... 112
2. Wolność działalności gospodarczej ........................................................................... 117
Podsumowanie ............................................................................................................................ 117
Rozdział 7. Napływ zagranicznych inwestycji bezpośrednich
a innowacyjność polskiej gospodarki .................................................................................. 121
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 121
1. Innowacje i problem pomiaru innowacyjności gospodarki ......................... 122
2. Innowacyjność polskiej gospodarki w kontekście napływu
zagranicznych inwestycji bezpośrednich .................................................................... 124
3. Poziom wydatków w gospodarce na B+R w funkcji
miernika jej innowacyjności .................................................................................................. 131
Podsumowanie ........................................................................................................................... 137
Rozdział 8. Innowacyjność gospodarki a wydatki publiczne ......................................................... 141
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 141
1. Słaba innowacyjność polskiej gospodarki .............................................................. 145
2. Otoczenie fiskalne przedsiębiorstwa ........................................................................ 150
3. Wydatki na naukę oraz badania i rozwój ................................................................. 152
Podsumowanie ........................................................................................................................... 154
Rozdział 9. Polska spółdzielczość w okresie transformacji ustrojowej ...................................... 157
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................ 157
1. Destrukcja spółdzielczości ................................................................................................ 158
2. Próby odbudowy spółdzielczości .............................................................................. 160
Rozdział 10. Samorząd terytorialny w Polsce a restytucja kapitalizmu ........................................ 171
Wprowadzenie ............................................................................................................................. 171
1. Restytucja ................................................................................................................................... 173
89
Rozdział 5.
GLOBALNA REPUTACJA POLSKI
30 LAT PO TRANSFORMACJI
USTROJOWEJ  SUKCES CZY
ZMARNOWANA SZANSA?
Marcin Leszczyński
Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu, Wydział Ekonomii
Wprowadzenie


      




         
 


      

       



90
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce


  

1. Reputacja państwa – uwagi teoretyczne
        

    

      
  
   

        
     
      
      
         
    
    

 
           



spready 
swapy






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Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
    



       


-
 

Country
Brand Index
           
Nation Brand Index
   

     
          
         
       
      
Global Competitiveness IndexDemocra-
cy Index World Press Freedom Index
EU Coalition Explorer
  Eurobarometr
2. Geopolityczne uwarunkowania reputacji Polski
po 1989 r.
      
      

         
       
   


92
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce



            
   

    




   
Eurobarometru


 
 
  
        
       
     

 



Pulse of Europe
      

     



  
         

    
       
         
93
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
       

Wykres 1. Zaufanie obywateli państw UE do innych narodów
69 64 59
50
37 36 34 30
24 21
18 18
32
38
44 47 47 50
62 64
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ufam Nie ufam
Źródło: opracowanie własne na podstawie: Komisja Europejska (1997).
       Eurobarometer  
         
          


    





 


     

   
 
94
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce
      

Eurobarometrze


    





Wykres 2. Poparcie obywateli krajów członkowskich dla przystąpienia
poszczególnych państw postkomunistycznych do Wspólnoty
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
199219941996199719981998a19991999a20002000a200120022002a2003
Węgry Polska Czechy Estonia Litwa Łotwa Słowacja Słowenia
Źródło: opracowanie własne na podstawie: Komisja Europejska (1992–2003a).

 
         
 Eurobarometrze
    
           

       
        
95
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
      



        



       
 



3. Globalna reputacja Polski


         




     




        

         

Eurobarometru


     
    
96
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce
      
 

       
         
 
   Country

 

   
        


 


      
          
        

           


          
  
             
  

    
   
   

         

 
       


97
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
         Coun-
        
        



 

     




        


   The New Persua-
ders

Wykres 3. Zmiany reputacji Polski na tle państw UE-15 oraz państw
postkomunistycznych
30
40
50
60
70
80
20092010201120122013201420152016
Polska Państwa UE-15 Państwa postkomunistyczne
Źródło: opracowanie własne na podstawie: Reputation Institute (2009–2018).


   

98
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce






Tabela 1. Zmiany reputacji Polski na tle regionu (w %, r/r)
Państwo/
Grupa 2013/2014 2014/2015 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018
Polska -5,6 13,1 -0,1 11,1 -5,5
UE -5,2 12,2 0,7 8,1 -0,2
Państwa
postkomu-
nistyczne
-15,2 16,2 4,1 11,1 -4,2
Źródło: opracowanie własne na podstawie: Reputation Institute (2013–2018).
    


     
              


  

       
       
            



    


99
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…

    



       





       



 


    
        
   


 



            
  

          
  
        
  

  



100
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce


          



 

 
       




              



           
       



 





  
 
   

      
.
 
     
   

101
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…


 

            
 

        
          
              
     
         
          





  
  
 

 

Podsumowanie i wnioski
          
  
       

 




        
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Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce

  

   

          
      




   
       
    
        

        
 -
  


Polska waluta

   
        



         


      
 

 
Nation Brands
  
         
 
103
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
       
        
         
        




        

   
         

    

      
     
            


             

    

      


   


 

   

       


      
       
104
Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce
           
    
 

 
     



        
     
        

 
            
  

    
   



        




  
           

  
       
       

 

  

     klinczu reputacyjnym  
105
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…



Bibliografia



Country risk premium


















.










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Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce

EuropejskiejObraz Polski i Polaków w Europie





Community


Community

















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107
Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…
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of the European Union
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



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Trzydziestolecie restytucji kapitalizmu w Polsce
Pulse of Europe


How Poland became only EU nation to avoid recession




Paris.











occurred





i wyzwania





Badanie opinii


Obraz Polski i Polaków w europejskim dyskursie


Globalna reputacja Polski 30 lat po transformacji ustrojowej…




i antypatieObraz Polski i Polaków w Europie
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Wprowadzenie............................................................................................................................. 141 1. Słaba innowacyjność polskiej gospodarki.............................................................. 145 2. Otoczenie fiskalne przedsiębiorstwa........................................................................ 150 3. Wydatki na naukę oraz badania i rozwój................................................................. 152
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