Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor of cells of smooth muscle lineage arising commonly in retroperitoneum, uterus, large veins, and the limbs. The genetics of leiomyosarcomas are complex and there is very limited understanding of common driver mutations. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) offers a rapid and noninvasive method of next-generation sequencing (NGS) that could be used for diagnosis, therapy, and detection of recurrence.
ctDNA testing was performed using Guardant360, which detects single nucleotide variants, amplifications, fusions, and specific insertion/deletion mutations in 73 genes using NGS.
Of 73 patients, 59 were found to have one or more cancer-associated genomic alteration. Forty-five (76%) were female with a median age of 63 (range, 38–87) years. All samples were designated metastatic. The most common alterations were detected in Tp53 (65%), BRAF (13%), CCNE (13%), EGFR (12%), PIK3CA (12%), FGFR1 (10%), RB1(10%), KIT (8%), and PDGFRA (8%). Some of the other alterations included RAF1, ERBB2, MET, PTEN TERT, APC, and NOTCH1. Potentially targetable mutations, by Food and Drug Administration–approved or clinical trials, were found in 24 (40%) of the 73 patients. Four patients (5%) were found to have incidental germline TP53 mutations.
NGS of ctDNA allows identification of genomic alterations in plasma from patients with leiomyosarcoma. Unfortunately, there is limited activity of current targeted agents in leiomyosarcomas. These results suggest opportunities to develop therapy against TP53, cell cycle, and kinase signaling pathways. Further validation and prospective evaluation is warranted to investigate the clinical utility of ctDNA for patients with leiomyosarcoma.