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Abstract

Within this study, we focus on the consumers’ preferences regarding smart meters (SM). An empirical study has been conducted among Indian social media users, who are predicted to be potential early adopters or innovators in case of SM further market penetration. By dividing the respondents into a few market segments, the study highlights differences between consumers already having SM installed at their household, consumers in the process of installing SM, and consumers who would like to have SM in the future. The study also outlines the profile of consumers who currently have SM installed in their household. Results show that tech-savviness of India’s consumers, common access to the internet for citizens, possession of smart phones by most of the population and ambitious goals of the Indian government, are a very productive mix for a nation wide roll-out of SM in India in the coming years.

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... However, literature has shown that technology concerns reduce when more knowledge about the technology is publicized, e.g., via successful use-cases (Beaulieu et al., 2016) and when individuals become more tech-savvy (Chawla et al., 2020). As a result, one can expect that these concerns weaken over time, as governments publicize more information about the -still novel-smart metering technology. ...
... Prior work has attempted to examine the consumer sentiment about smart meters in countries spanning from Poland (Chawla et al., 2020) and the Netherlands to the UK (Milchram et al., 2018) and Australia (Riesz, 2013). Specifically for the USA, semi-structured interviews and a survey administered to 129 participants (Krishnamurti et al., 2012) were used. ...
... Therefore, positive word-of-mouth from these users can influence the public sentiment. Furthermore, more tech-savvy individuals tend to be more open toward smart meters (Chawla et al., 2020), therefore, educating the public about new technologies can have a positive impact on adoption. Finally, when more knowledge about the technology is publicized, individuals tend to become more open to adopting (Beaulieu et al., 2016). ...
Article
We investigate public awareness about sustainability, e-mobility and smart meters in Germany and the US, two countries leading the e-mobility development, but with different sustainability policies. By applying sentiment analysis and Natural Language Processing on tweets from the two countries over the last decade (2010 to end of 2019), we found that the sustainability awareness in Germany is higher than the US. We see that the US is at an earlier sustainability maturity state, creating fertile grounds for establishing sustainability policies on time to shape public opinion. Furthermore, we find that after the introduction of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, the overall awareness in both countries has increased, showing the potential of such policies. In addition, in contrast to expectations, we see that the smart meter privacy concerns have recently started to deteriorate, possibly as a result of governmental efforts to educate the public about smart meter technology. Finally, we see that the German public tweets more positively about e-mobility, compared to the US, whereas the content of e-mobility discussions differs: Germany is more concerned about e-mobility adoption, whereas the US is more focused on battery efficiency and other technological developments associated with e-mobility.
... Manually meter reading does have several drawbacks, including personal information with the installation, the absence of a client while meter reading if the weather affects personnel, and so on. In this situation, the network operator will forecast the existing meter reading by evaluating the normal power usage of such a specific client based on past information, which can be a time-consuming task [4,5].Furthermore, it pollutes the air, and consumers in some nations, particularly India, are unsatisfied with meter-reader access to their homes due to confidentiality issues [6]. The implementation of AMI wireless technology is the answer to certain uncertainties. ...
... Step 4: Apply the fitness function by using Equation 5 and select the optimized neighboring nodes. ...
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Due to its widespread serviceability, the sensor network receives considerable interest. Within smart cities featuring multiple, collection and transmission, the function of the wireless sensor system is generally significant. Effective evaluation architecture is an automated process for monitoring individual consumers' power usage. The required information was typically transmitted through Wireless LAN (WLAN) media. In addition to gathering and detecting, this is one of the main characteristics of an Advanced Meter Infrastructures (AMI) network. If the connection and node will be in the right condition, effective communication is feasible. In most of the existing methods, network congestion and occurrence of fault in continuous communication are main drawbacks. To overcome these limitations, the Grid Topological Network Architecture to give an efficient route if there is a fault-tolerance networking system is presented in this work. The experiment exhibits improvement based on the energy usage and package distribution concerning the reduced and highly compressed Networking Routing Algorithm and the Ad-Hoc On-Demand Vector Method. From the results it is observed that delivery loss, mean response and delay response is lowered by using proposed method and it is proven to be efficient as compared to the exiting methods. Delays, dependability, expandability, integration, flexibility, delivery prioritization, accessibility, ease of application, and tracking of the proposed method are compared with the existing methods like RPL, AODV and it is proved that the proposed scheme exhibits better performance.
... From the aforementioned, it is evident that there is a continuous growth in electricity consumption, forcing the generation of electricity to increase, and which is limited by the decrease in oil reserves and the environmental impact [2,3]. ...
... System Model 1) and (2). ...
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The development of modern society is centered on energy, in particular the use of electrical energy. The increasing financial, social and ecological restrictions that hinder the construction of new plants and electric power transmission lines have led to the inclusion of demand-side management (DSM) techniques in the planning studies of electrical systems, called ''minimal cost planning'' or ''integrated resource planning.'' Madhya Pradesh Paschim Kshetra Vidyut Vitran, District-Dhar, Tehsil-Manawar, Singhana Village Dedali B, in India spends a lot of money on energy bills. There is a need of energy management system in this village. The energy audit of Singhana, Village Dedali B, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India is conducted to study to energy management pattern and identify the energy saving measures thereof. Energy auditing has been conducted for village area of Patelpura and Ningwalpura to estimate the daily, monthly and annual energy consumption. The annual energy consumption of village Patelpura and Ningwalpura is estimated as 10,200 kWh in 2018. Presently, the village using utility power, but, at the time of power curtailment, a number of irrigation pumps of 3 HP, 5 HP, 7 HP are running through diesel generators to backup for the power outing. The village has a scope of energy management for energy saving and electricity bill reduction , adopting a proper approach. In this paper, the demand-side management approach is used for energy saving which is implemented to save the 15% of energy and 20-25% of cost reduction in electricity bills of the village. This paper is aimed to validate the demand-side management using Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. The problem is mathematically formulated as a DSM optimization problem with constraints along with an objective of peak to average ratio and cost reduction. MATLAB is used as a simulation tool.
... In the energy sector, these solutions affect the scale and the speed of digital business strategy implementation [79,80]. The strategies built on the economy of scale enable some enterprises to achieve advantages at a lower operational level than in the traditional analog process (for example, replacement of the energy meters) [81,82]. In this approach, a digital strategy describes the overall vision of a company in the context of digitalization, including the strategic measures to achieve it" [52]. ...
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Digital transformation is a concept based on the use of digitalization and digitization. Digitalization leads to change of business models and provides a competitive advantage also in the energy sector. The process of change towards a digital business requires a specific strategy type, aimed to solve problems with uncertainty caused by Industry 4.0 implementation. This paper aims to propose a theoretical model combining different digitalization strategies and business models. Their theoretical foundations were discussed in the literature review part and related empirical research questions were attempted to be answered by the reference method analysis. The quantitative method of analysis was based on the secondary data from Eurostat for all EU member states and backed the theoretical part in terms of ICT variables. The novelty of this research is based on Hellwig’s reference method used in management sciences and the presented managerial implications. The discussed challenges of the energy sector are related to the digital strategy implementation, relationships between digital transformation and business models, and solutions for such issues as strategy communication and new roles for managers, who should become digital leaders in the energy sector organizations. The main consequence of the proposed model in this study, for the energy sector companies’ managers, is that uncertainty in modern energy sector organizations is more related to employees and their technical skills than implemented ICT itself.
... While most of this footprint belongs to high-income countries, India has the fourth-largest carbon footprint from tourism in the world. India also faces challenges in the energy sector [9], which further adds to the carbon footprint as energy consumption and tourism positively contribute to emissions in India [10]. This highlights the importance of studying sustainable tourism in India. ...
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Although eco-friendly (pro-environmental) behaviour in tourism has attracted interest among practitioners and scholars, little is known about the influence of these attitudes on the choice of eco-friendly destinations, especially in the context of emerging tourist markets such as India. Thus, this article aims to verify a model of the relationships between attitudes towards the environment and eco-friendly tourism, social and personal norms regarding environmentally responsible behaviour, perceived behavioural control, behavioural intentions regarding eco-friendly destinations and the willingness to pay for such trips using the theory of planned behaviour. The study used an online survey conducted with 598 Indians. The relationships between the variables were analysed using PLS-PM. The most important results indicated that (1) there are significant relationships between the attitude towards the environment, the attitude towards an eco-friendly destination, social and personal norms and behavioural control and intentions regarding travelling to eco-destinations and (2) well-educated young Indian consumers expressed a positive attitude towards eco-friendly destinations; however, there was only a very weak relationship between this attitude and willingness to pay more for trips to them. These findings are valuable for pro-environmental planning and the growing green market/economy, as well as for the discussion on the future of pro-environmental tourism development.
... Some countries such as Spain, United Kingdom, and France have installation rates in the millions to tens of millions; whereas other countries such as Ireland, the Czech Republic and Belgium have rates close to zero. India has been a comparative laggard, with several pilots and emerging projects signaling that near-future expansion is likely (Chawla et al., 2020). Even though the Electricity Act of 2003 and National Energy Policy of 2005 discussed national objectives of improving grid reliability and quality and protecting consumer interests (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), far more effort has been invested in energy supply and attempts at expanding access to conventional forms of energy for cooking (Stephenson et al., 2021)-not smart meter diffusion, although some socially situated instances are evident (Kumar, 2019). ...
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Smart electricity meters are a central feature of any future smart grid, and therefore represent a rapid and significant household energy transition, growing by our calculations from less than 23.5 million smart meters in 2010 to an estimated 729.1 million in 2019, a decadal growth rate of 3013%. What are the varying economic, governance, and energy and climate sustainability aspects associated with the diffusion of smart meters for electricity? What lessons can be learned from the ongoing rollouts of smart meters around the world? Based on an original dataset twice as comprehensive as the current state of the art, this study examines smart meter deployment across 41 national programs and 61 subnational programs that collectively target 1.49 billion installations involving 47 countries. In addition to rates of adoption and the relative influence of factors such as technology costs, we examine adoption requirements, modes of information provision, patterns of incumbency and management, behavioral changes and energy savings, emissions reductions, policies, and links to other low-carbon transitions such as energy efficiency or renewable energy. We identify numerous weak spots in the literature, notably the lack of harmonized datasets as well as inconsistent scope and quality within national cost-benefit analyses of smart meter programs. Most smart meters have a lifetime of only 20 years, leading to future challenges concerning repair, care, and waste. National-scale programs (notably China) account for a far larger number of installations than subnational ones, and national scale programs also install smart meters more affordably, i.e. with lower general costs. Finally, the transformative effect of smart meters may be oversold, and we find that smart electricity meters are a technology that is complementary, rather than disruptive or transformative, one that largely does not challenge the dominant practices and roles of electricity suppliers, firms, or network operators.
... Literature review reveals that limited awareness, knowledge and interest among consumers towards an innovation leads to concerns regarding the acceptance of the same (see some examples from the energy market [65][66][67][68]). Customer concerns regarding AFV include high initial investment cost, unclear environmental impact in case of a battery and its storage, lack of sufficient charging stations and many others [20,29]. ...
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Limited consumer knowledge reduces the chances of the spread of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), and hence slows down AFV market spread. In our empirical survey conducted in the first quarter of 2020 among 1002 Poles planning to buy a car in the next 12 months or who have just bought one, we examine what socio-economic and attitudinal factors influence their willingness to buy an AFV. In particular, we are interested in exploring how AFV knowledge related to understanding of the differences between hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), as well as brand recognition associate with the willingness to buy. To the best our knowledge, this is a unique study among consumers in Central and Eastern Europe, characterized by lower exposure to AFVs and lower purchasing power. Our results indicate that males with pro-environmental beliefs and behaviors who are interested in modern automotive technologies and have good AFV brand recognition are predominated to be willing to buy an AFV in the near future.
... This type of billing process creates an ambiguity that is not suitable for both the customer and the provider. The second problem with the traditional meter reading process is the hiring of a meter-reader and proving them by some means of transportation is an overburden on revenue and administration [36]. Moreover, it creates pollution in the air, and in some countries, especially in India, customers are dissatisfied with meter-reader entrance to their home because of privacy concerns [4]. ...
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The wireless sensor network is gaining significant attention because of its ubiquitous deployability nature. In general, the role of the wireless sensor network is remarkable in smart city applications for data sensing, collecting, and transmitting. Advanced metering infrastructure is an automatic system for the reading of electricity consumption by individual users. The reading of data from meters normally communicated over a wireless medium. Apart from collecting and sensing, routing is one of the major attributes in the AMI network. Successful communication is possible when the link and node are in the proper state. In this paper, we propose a fault-tolerant routing mechanism named Grid Topological Routing scheme to provide an efficient route in case of encountering a faulty path. The simulation shows better performance against the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks and Ad-Hoc On-Demand Vector algorithm in terms of power consumption and packet delivery ratio. This model is explicitly designed for the smart grid in India.
... Therefore, by using smart metering, the authorities would not need to physically read the meters, send the monthly bills to the consumers or to visit the locations to check tampering. Despite the positive attribute associated with smart meters, these have not yet been implemented at most locations in the developing countries such as Pakistan, India (Chawla et al., 2020), Bangladesh etc. COVID-19 situation can be regarded as an opportunity for deploying the smart meters in such countries. ...
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Social distancing has been regarded as a key method by the authorities worldwide to manage the pandemic of COVID-19. Digital technologies play a crucial role to support the social, professional and economic activities when people are forced to stay locked-down in their homes. Internet of things (IoT) technologies have a track of providing high quality remote health care and automation services which could guarantee social distancing while maintaining health and well-being of populations. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end IoT architecture to support the social distancing in the event of pandemic. The architecture comprises of the major use cases of IoT in relevance with the COVID-19. Furthermore, we also present a short-term and long-term strategy to mange the social distancing methodology using the proposed IoT architecture. The challenges associated with each layer of architecture have been highlighted and design guidelines have been presented to deal with them.
... Global roll-outs of SM are usually initiated by pilot programs and local deployment of SM in a given region or city [11][12][13][14][15]. A good example of such practices is Wroclaw-a capital city of Lower Silesia in Poland, with nearly 630,000 inhabitants. ...
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The objective of this research was to explore correlates and predictors that play a role in the process of adopting and withdrawing from using a smart metering information platform (SMP). The SMP supports energy monitoring behaviors of the electricity consumers. The literature review shows, however, that not every customer is ready to the same extent to adopt novel solutions. Adoption requires going through stages of readiness to monitor energy consumption in a household. In a longitudinal field experiment on Polish residential consumers, we aimed to see whether messages congruent with the stage of readiness in which participants declared to be at a given moment will be more effective in prompting participants to progress to the next stage than a general message or a passive control condition. We also tested the effect of attitude and knowledge about energy monitoring on phase changes. Our study reveals that what affects the phase change is the participation in the study. The longer the participants were engaged in the usage of SMP, the more willing they were to monitor their energy consumption in the future. This result sheds light on the future educational and marketing efforts of the authorities and energy suppliers.
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Digitization of the energy industry is the key to a successful energy transition. To this end, all consumers and generators should be able to communicate permanently with each other so that the energy system as a whole functions safely and efficiently. Smart meter technology can make a contribution to this. Unfortunately, the rollout selected in Germany initially affects only about 11% of all consumers. The objective of this paper is therefore to determine the current status of this technology in companies and to pursue the research question of which factors influence acceptance and use. For this purpose, an extensive literature search with more than 50 keywords was conducted in scientific databases. After reviewing and cleaning the literature, 47 papers were selected for the literature review and considered in detail. The literature review was conducted using eight evaluation criteria: Origin and year of publication, identification of trends with Big Data and AI (artificial intelligence), type of organization, type of data, collection method, number of participants, type of data collection, and analysis method. In order to evaluate the main statements and results of the considered works, we also performed a Strengths–Weaknesses–Opportunities–Threats Analysis (SWOT). Our analysis showed that: (1) The studies only address households as end-users, no companies are considered as end-users in relation to smart meter technology. (2) Technical aspects and barriers were often chosen as research focus and content, and secondary data were mostly used. (3) Studies examining soft factors such as acceptance criteria in general and for decision making are rare and also focused purely on residential customers. (4) Of the studies that collected primary data as part of their research, 71% used the survey method of a questionnaire survey. Further research should investigate company acceptance criteria, as this can increase implementation and make better predictions about the technology.
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With substantial decrease in the cost of renewable energy technologies (RETs), governments around the world stepped up efforts to transform the ways energy is produced, and the manners it is consumed. Focusing on attainment of SDG-7 through clean energy transition, the aim has been to achieve energy security as well as energy equity while reducing dependence on energy imports. Although ongoing technological breakthroughs and maturity offers promising opportunities, many developing nations are grappling with intertwined socioeconomic dynamics and policy prioritization. Under the resource-constrained financial situation, Government of Pakistan adopted prosumers’ approach to harness year-round available solar energy. Regulatory measures were accordingly instituted, and the electricity distribution companies (DISCOs) were instructed to facilitate people in becoming prosumers. The adoption rates were however well short of the desired outcomes. Besides cultural and socioeconomic dynamics, human interaction with technology, and their level of awareness about related policy parameters play critical role in the technology adoption. In part, this realization led Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) Pakistan to conduct a survey on the consumers’ willingness for taking up the prosumers’ role and, on the parameters contributing to their decision e.g., economic conditions, energy quality and reliability, relevant government policies, and their level of awareness about going solar. Utilizing data from the IPS survey, this study explored the linkage between consumers’ inclination to install solar energy systems and their awareness about solar photovoltaics (PV) technology, the cost factor and relevant government policies. The study revealed significant correlation between target populace’s awareness level and their willingness to become prosumers, highlighting the need for taking policy measures to enhance public awareness on relevant aspects of roof-top solar (RTS) for their due contribution towards sustainable energy solutions in Pakistan.
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Purpose India is a fast-growing economy, that has a majority share in the global information technology industry (IT). Rapid urbanisation and modernisation in India have strained its energy sector, which is being reformed to cope. Despite being the global IT heart and having above average research output in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), India has not yet managed to leverage its benefits to the full. This study aims to address the role of AI and information management (IM) in India’s energy transition to highlight the challenges and barriers to its development and use in the energy sector. Design/methodology/approach The study, through analysis of proposed strategies, current policies, available literature and reports, discusses the role of AI and IM in the energy transition in India, highlighting the current situation and challenges. Findings The results show dispersed research and development incentives for IT in the Indian energy sector; however, the needed holistic top-down approach is lacking, calling for due attention in this matter. Adaptive and swift actions from policymakers towards AI and IM are warranted in India. Practical implications The ongoing transition of the Indian energy sector with the integration of smart technologies would result in increased access to big data. Extracting the maximum benefits from this would require a comprehensive AI and IM policy. Social implications The revolution in AI and robotics must be carried out in line with sustainable development goals, to support climate action and to consider privacy issues – both areas in India must be strengthened. Originality/value The paper offers an original discussion on certain applicable solutions regarding the energy transition of AI coming from the Global South; they are based on lessons learned from the Indian case studies presented in this study.
Thesis
Innovations are entering the market so rapidly that managing these innovations and ensuring that consumers are aware of its full potential, is a huge challenge. Energy markets, around the world, have been experiencing significant changes and an influx of innovative technologies, such as Electricity Smart Meters (SM), which are an integral element of Smart Grids (SG). This study explores the consumer willingness and acceptance of SM, their preferred communication channels and recommends a social media management plan that would be effective for enhancing diffusion of SM. Results derived through an empirical survey among social media users, in four countries, show that there is still a lack of knowledge about SM among consumers and more marketing communications are required to facilitate the acceptance of SM. Social media can play a major role in these marketing communications and its effective strategy has also been discussed with empirical evidence and experiments in a real business environment.
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National roll-outs of electricity smart meters (ESM) have been undertaken in most of the European countries. The exchange of traditional meters into smart ones is a part of power system transmission into so called smart grids. In these smart grids, the communication and sharing of information happens in real-time and all market players, such as energy suppliers, sellers and consumers, play an important role. As the literature reveals, the successful deployment of ESM requires consumers’ awareness and engagement. That is why, within this paper, we investigate the impact of consumers’ knowledge on what ESM is, as well as the role of marketing platforms: both traditional (i.e. TV or radio) and modern ones (i.e. social media) in ESM diffusion. Based on the on-line survey conducted in Portugal (N=518), we provide some policy and practical recommendations for energy companies and local authorities regarding the effective usage of marketing platforms and content.
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Increasing the efficiency of electricity transmission is nearing the top of the agenda in many countries around the world. Turkey, the world’s most newly industrialized country, is no different. Modernizing the current transmission grids to smart grids (SG) and the national rollout of smart meters (SM), are some of the measures taken by the government to meet the growing demand for electricity. Consumer acceptance and engagement are among the most important elements for the success of SG and SM, however, there have not been much studies done among Turkish electricity consumers. This purpose of this study is to fill this void, by detailing the attitudes, awareness and expectations among Turkish citizens regarding SM and listing recommendations for energy companies based on the findings. Through an online questionnaire, responses from 504 social media users were collected and analyzed. Results show that the consumers are open towards the acceptance of SM, but there is a need to raise awareness and knowledge through proper communication channels. The study has also revealed that a range of conventional and digital channels need to be actively used in order to enhance consumer willingness to accept SM. Increasing social interactions regarding SM is one of the key recommendations detailed by the authors.
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Both people and things are becoming smarter by the day. Industrial evolution at the peak of the 4.0 phase and indications of 5.0 phase are fascinating. In these circumstances, fulfilling the demand for energy is a challenge faced by countries all over the world. Upgrading the current energy distribution systems with smart grids and smart meters are steps towards facing this challenge, especially for Poland, which is primarily relying on conventional sources of energy. For any innovation or new technology, creating public awareness and consumer acceptance enhances the chance for a fruitful deployment. To achieve this, various communication channels are adopted and social media is found to be one of the most effective tools for it. This study discusses the awareness level and consumer acceptance of social media users in Poland. The source through which they receive information regarding electricity in general and smart meters (SM) in particular and their preferences and willingness about the installation of SM under various conditions are discussed in detail. Findings show that there is low level of public awareness among the respondents which causes them to develop myths, fears and doubts about SM installation in their households. More effort is required from the government as well as from the energy companies in order to increase the public awareness which will result in an increase in consumer acceptance. Based on the results, the article also contains recommendations that can be used by governments as well as energy companies to create a positive feeling about SM to affect consumer behavior.
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This paper analyses attitudinal and socio-economic determinants of the householders’ willingness to monitor their energy consumption. Residential consumers can monitor their energy consumption by means of traditional (electricity bill) and modern tools (smart metering information platforms, SMP). Within this empirical study we test the effect of environmental attitudes, knowledge and perceived possibilities on consumers’ stages of readiness to adopt SMP based the stage model of self-regulated behavioral change (SSCB). Perceived possibilities to monitor energy consumption on a regular basis was found to be the predictor of adoption in every examined stage of readiness. General knowledge predicted adoption of the stage in which consumers declared willingness to learn know-how of using SMP. The results suggest that an effectiveness of educational campaigns may be restricted to only some consumers.
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The radiological test is cost-effective, widely available, allows for the visualisation of large areas of the skeleton and can identify long bones potentially at risk for fractures in osteolysis sites. Therefore, radiology is often used in the early stages of multiple myeloma, in the detection and characterisation of complications, and in the assessment of the patient's response to treatment. The accuracy of this method can be improved through the use of appropriate algorithms of computer image processing and analysis. In the study, the feature vector based on humerus CR images was extracted. As a result of the analysis, 279 image descriptors were obtained. Hellwig's method in the selection process was applied. It found the set of feature combinations of the largest integral index of information capacity. To evaluate these combinations, 11 classifiers were built and tested. As a result, 2 feature sets were identified that provided the highest classification accuracy in combination with the KNN classifier. The 9-NN classifier for the first combination (2 features) was used and 5-NN for the second one (3 features). The classification accuracy (depending on the quality index used) was as follows: overall classification accuracy – 93%, classification sensitivity – 92%, classification specificity – 96%, positive predictive value – 96% and negative predictive value – 93%. Results show that: (1) the use of humerus CR images may be useful in the detection of bone damages caused by multiple myeloma; (2) the Hellwig's method is effective in the feature selection of the analysed kind of images. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbe.2018.11.008
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With India transforming as matured democracy, the government is focusing upon improving quality of life of citizens by urban renewal and infrastructure development vide ambitious smart cities project. Energy, the electrical power in particular, has been the most crucial and the resource always in scarcity in India and proving itself as a major bottleneck. Therefore, India has been transforming legacy conventional non-smart non-intelligent unidirectional electrical power grids into modern smart grids which are bidirectional and intelligent in nature by leveraging ICT, IoTs, e-Governance and e-Democracy. Smart grids are likely to serve as energy backbones of smart cities and involve high interactive participation of citizens in energy management, based on humanitarian and customer centric approach. Different types of Prosumers (Producers + consumers), their different energy requirements at different timings, different types of energy resources and their switching feasibilities considering different aspects have been integrated. The Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar twin city metropolitan region (Naroda area) has been considered as region of interest and study. The region is surrounded by reputed industrial, commercial, educational-research organizations, heritage monuments and demonstrates extremely encouraging potential for creative research and technological developments with variety of Prosumers in particular. To study existing economic and spatial strategies and recommend suggestions for smart metropolitan region development have been main objectives of the work presented. Useful approach for smart metropolitan region development has been presented by effective energy management, active citizen participation and e-governance by proposing deployments of smart grid and smart buildings with integration of renewables, ICT and IoTs. Ensuring 24 × 7 electricity with limiting carbon footprint has been the major challenge.
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Retailing is witnessing a transformation due to rapid technological developments. Retailers are using smart technologies to improve consumer shopping experiences and to stay competitive. The biggest future challenge for marketing and consequently for retailing seems to be generation Z, since members of this generation seem to behave differently as consumers and are more focused on innovation. The aim of this paper is to explore Generation Z consumers’ current perceptions, expectations and recommendations in terms of their future interactions in smart retailing contexts. To do so, we used a qualitative approach by conducting a series of semi-structured in depth interviews with 38 university students-consumers in the UK market. The findings showed that smart technologies have a significant influence on generation Z consumers’ experiences. Moreover, this particular group of consumers expects various new devices and electronic processes to be widely available, thus offering consumers more autonomy and faster transactions. In addition, they expect the technology to enable them to make more informed shopping decisions. Interviewees also stressed the importance of training consumers how to use new smart retailing applications. In addition, some of the participants were sceptical about the effects of further advancing smart retailing on part of the job market. Relevant theoretical and practical implications are also provided.
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Demand for flexibility in electricity systems and the transition to the Smart Grid is increasing opportunities for demand response (DR). However, there are many barriers which prevent the full potential of DR being realised. Unlocking of this potential, through identification of DR enablers, can be aided through systematic classification and analysis of DR barriers. To this end, while previous works mostly focused on individual aspects, this paper develops a comprehensive 'socio-techno-economic' review, classification and analysis of DR barriers and enablers in a Smart Grid context. This provides an intellectual framework which may be used to underpin further work on the study and integration of DR. DR barriers are classified as either fundamental (i.e., relating to intrinsic human nature/essential enabling technology) or secondary (i.e., relating to anthropogenic institutions/or system feedbacks). Fundamental barriers are defined as economic, social or technological, whilst secondary barriers relate to political regulatory aspects, design of markets, physical (electrical network) issues, or to general understanding of DR. Subsequently, associated enablers for the defined barriers are suggested. Consideration of technical and commercial/social aspects for both power system and information and communication technology (the " internet of things ") domains provides a foundational contribution to improve understanding of DR within the Smart Grid paradigm. Finally, the complexity resulting from connections between various barriers, enablers and the energy system generally, and the existence of the signature characteristics of complex systems is acknowledged and implications discussed.
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Renewable Energy (RE) sources form a minuscule portion of India's overall Energy consumption today. India continues to rely on fast depleting fossil fuel and expensive Oil imports to satisfy the energy demands of the economy. But this is hardly sustainable and India has to quickly get RE sources to play a major role in servicing the energy needs of its population. Despite the best efforts the adoption of RE sources by consumer communities in India is patchy. This article will focus on what needs to be done to create a pull from the market for RE sources, by looking at Consumer Behaviour literature available in the area of Diffusion of Innovation. Demand for RE sources from consumer communities must reach a tipping point quickly; for the sector to take-off on its own and become a self-sustaining business
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1 The authors are economists with The Brattle Group located respectively in San Francisco, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts. We are grateful to the analysts who worked on the pricing experiments reviewed in this paper for providing us their reports and presentations. Our research was funded in part by the Edison Electric Institute and the Electric Power Research Institute. Questions can be directed to ahmad.faruqui@brattle.com. 2 HOUSEHOLD RESPONSE TO DYNAMIC PRICING OF ELECTRICITY—A SURVEY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE Since the energy crisis of 2000-2001 in the western United States, much attention has been given to boosting demand response in electricity markets. One of the best ways to let that happen is to pass through wholesale energy costs to retail customers. This can be accomplished by letting retail prices vary dynamically, either entirely or partly. For the overwhelming majority of customers, that requires a changeout of the metering infrastructure, which may cost as much as $40 billion for the US as a whole. While a good portion of this investment can be covered by savings in distribution system costs, about 40 percent may remain uncovered. This investment gap could be covered by reductions in power generation costs that could be brought about through demand response. Thus, state regulators in many states are investigating whether customers will respond to the higher prices by lowering demand and if so, by how much. To help inform this assessment, we survey the evidence from the 15 most recent experiments with dynamic pricing of electricity. We find conclusive evidence that households (residential customers) respond to higher prices by lowering usage. The magnitude of price response depends on several factors, such as the magnitude of the price increase, the presence of central air conditioning and the availability of enabling technologies such as two-way programmable communicating thermostats and always-on gateway systems that allow multiple end-uses to be controlled remotely. Across the range of experiments studied, time-of-use rates induce a drop in peak demand that ranges between three to six percent and critical-peak pricing tariffs induce a drop in peak demand that ranges between 13 to 20 percent. When accompanied with enabling technologies, the latter set of tariffs lead to a drop in peak demand in the 27 to 44 percent range.
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Purpose: This study examines the current status of digital integration of five Indian state governments’ departments’ websites with social media platforms and suggests improvements for better customer engagement. Approach: Content analysis of 259 government departments’ websites was done to understand their integration with social media platforms, in top five populated states. The analysis on customer engagement was done in the light of Open Government Maturity Model. Findings: While examining the websites, it is observed that despite the digital infrastructure of the government, the reach seems to be towards a particular kind of audience rather than for all citizens. The analysis of top five departments’ websites from each state with presence of maximum number of social media platforms links showed absence of linkage with social media platforms. Originality and value: Analysis of the presence and digital integration social media platforms of five state departments’ websites was done till 1 May 2017. This research will provide insights about the status and need to design a framework to use social media platforms in Indian public system for citizen engagement.
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(link valid until November 10, 2017) Download https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Vln2,oI6xXoSE The modern struggle to generate electricity reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions has found an ally in Smart Grid technology. This new trend involves a renewed perspective on how to generate, transmit, distribute and manage electricity networks, which not only helps to reduce power demand and cost, but can also improve efficiency, reliability, quality and security. This paper aims to study comprehensively the Smart Grid power system by comparing experiences and success stories from around the world. Developed countries, like the United States and those in the European Union, and developing countries, like India and Brazil, have been taken as examples of the current development and state of the Smart Grid concept. Europe and the U.S. lead the development of Smart Grids systems, while Brazil and India strongly depend on foreign technology and investment for their development in their countries. Climate change represents an extra challenge for developing countries, in addition to other issues related to economic and social advancement. Nevertheless, Smart Grids offer an array of possibilities and opportunities that work towards climate change international goals. However, state motivations and national energy resources limit the advancement of Smart Grids on this matter.
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Energy feedback is a prominent feature of policy initiatives aimed at reducing domestic energy consumption. However little research has been conducted on the phenomenon of energy monitoring itself, with most studies looking at whether, and how, feedback impacts on energy conservation. This paper aims to address that gap from a practice theory perspective. In particular we: set out the difference between energy feedback and energy monitoring; define the practice of energy monitoring; and investigate the rationale and qualitative experiences of those performing energy monitoring. An online energy feedback tool (‘iMeasure’) was the basis of the case study. A netnographic analysis of online discussion about the tool informed complementary in-depth interviews with ten current/former iMeasure users. We found energy monitoring to be a distinct practice that focuses on measuring and identifying energy use trends and requires specific know-how to perform. However, its connections to other household practices were weak and, for those who did perform monitoring, there was no guarantee that this practice would reorganise other practices to induce household energy saving. In fact, monitoring often followed decisions to make energy-related changes, rather than prompting them. We conclude that policy expectations need to be reframed in terms of how energy monitoring tools are used.
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Relationship marketing (RM) is about retaining customers through the achievement of long-term mutual satisfaction by businesses and their customers. Sport organizations, to retain customers by establishing, maintaining, and enhancing relationships, need to communicate and engage in dialogue with their customers. To achieve this on an ongoing basis, sport organizations need to employ effective communication platforms. In this regard, social media (SM) is becoming an ideal tool for a continuing 2-way dialogue. However, the effects of SM, primarily in terms of addressing RM goals, are not yet well understood. This study explores the opportunities and challenges facing managers in sport organizations in using SM in an RM strategy. Eight case studies were undertaken on organizations that put on running events. The article presents the findings on the use, opportunities, and challenges of SM and recommendations encouraging continued investigation.
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Since societies depend on energy and its management, extensive changes in energy-related technologies, such as the Smart Grid (SG), are likely to bring out subsequently enormous forms of social change. Imagine, there are several claims about the risks that lie ahead as conventional energy resources terminated, as populations increase, and as assumption accelerate. Therefore, the future societies will be subject to creative development and wide-ranging transformation to optimize their energy consumption. The SG can integrate an assorted set of electricity resources, containing large power plants as well as distributed renewable energy resources, electric energy storage, demand response, and electric vehicles. In line with many visions for the SG, consumers will play a more ‘active’ role in the future energy systems. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure customers’ acceptance to successfully build a SG. The eventual deployment of the SG depends on the consumers’ acceptance of SG products and services. Yet fully engaging the residential space in the SG remains a challenge. This work aims to provide energy systems researchers and decision makers with proper insight into the underlying drivers of consumer acceptance of the SG and the logical steps for their engagement to promote the SG technology and making it feasible in a timely manner.
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Carolina K. Reid shares her views on the prevailing condition of the digital advertising industry. She states that digital advertising continued to gain popularity in 2013, with an increase in the adoption of online video along with a sharpening of the tools available to advertisers. A report released in September 2013 by Nielsen reveals that trust in online banner ads has increased to 42% during that year. Trust in digital advertising is led, by the prevalence of audience postings. Sixty-eight percent of survey respondents have indicated that they trust consumer opinions points from 2007 posted online, which is up seven percentage. Advertisers have started to leverage their brand's social media and Web 2.0 postings to inspire content that rang true.
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Recent advancements in behavioral sciences have spurred a lot of interest in its application in the field of energy efficiency and conservation. Cost effective behavioral interventions have shown to induce energy consumers to take positive steps toward reducing their energy consumption. This paper aims to spark interest amongst researchers, policymakers, utilities, appliance manufacturers, energy service companies (ESCOs) and other relevant stakeholders to organize and undertake concerted research into behavioral interventions in energy efficiency and conservation in India and make use of the knowledge to design and implement effective energy policies. In this paper we provide a brief review of behavioral interventions that were successful in promoting energy efficiency and conservation. We also highlight the various limitations and issues regarding behavioral interventions which need to be addressed and resolved. We further identify the challenges to carrying out behavioral interventions in the Indian context and suggest a possible approach to overcome them and steer the direction of behavioral research in India.
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As part of the move toward renewable energy sources in Germany it is expected that an increasing number of residential households will be equipped with communication-capable electricity metering systems (="smart meters" [SM]). SM cause considerable investment and operating expenses. For providers of such systems one avenue to recoup SM costs is to explicitly invoice various SM price components to end customers. The feasibility of this strategy heavily depends on residential electricity customers' willingness to pay (WTP) for SM and, furthermore, an understanding of factors that have an impact on WTP. Therefore, the present article develops hypotheses on associations between three perceived SM benefit facets, one perceived intangible SM cost type as well as environmental awareness in general on the one hand, and WTP for SM on the other. The hypotheses are tested in a sample of 453 German-speaking residential electricity customers who filled in an online questionnaire. PLS analysis of the survey data reveals that trust in the protection of personal SM data and the intention to change one's electricity consumption behaviors after SM deployment are the constructs most strongly related to WTP for SM. Expectations regarding SM-triggered electricity volume saving and environmental awareness contributed less toward explaining WTP. Overall, the considered WTP antecedents left 72% of the criterion variance unaccounted for. Implications of the findings are discussed for electricity suppliers planning large-scale SM deployments and future research in the field of energy policy.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw from the diffusion of innovations theory to explore multi-levels of influences (i.e. individuals, networks, news attributes) on news sharing in social media. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was designed and administered to 309 respondents. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted to examine the three levels of influential factors. These included self-perceptions of opinion leadership and seeking at the individual level, perceived tie strength and homophily at the network level, and finally, perceived news credibility and news preference at the news attribute level. Findings – The results revealed that the influences of self-perceptions of opinion leadership, perceived tie strength in online networks and perceived preference of online news had significant effects on users’ news sharing intention in social media. However, self-perceptions of opinion seeking, homophily, and perceived news credibility were not significant. Originality/value – This is one of the first studies on news sharing in social media that focus on diverse levels of influential factors. In particular, the research suggests the viability of the diffusion of innovations theory to explain this pervasive global phenomenon. Further, the influential factors identified may help to stimulate active participation in social media platforms and ultimately enhance the sustainability of these platforms.
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This article attempts to apply the diffusion of innovations theory to the current concepts of branding of products and services that have roots in both marketing and communication. The authors attempt to analyse the diffusion of innovation theory and to draw correlations between the fundamental principles of diffusion and those of branding of products and services in practice. The following research question was posed: What are the correlations between the diffusion of innovations theory and branding principles and practices today? The concepts of ‘diffusion of innovations’ and ‘diffusion of information’ are used interchangeably throughout this article. The rationale for this is that in some cases, a technology may be almost entirely composed of information although a methodological problem in such studies is that their adoption cannot be so easily traced or observed in a physical sense. The innovation–decision process is essentially an information-seeking and information-processing activity in which the individual is motivated to reduce uncertainty about the advantages and disadvantages of the innovation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Agent-based simulations coupled with an analysis of the flow of electric power are carried out to examine the influence of the social policy of the government and the neighboring communication between customers on the adoption of distributed rooftop photovoltaic electrical power generators (PVs). How the relationships between the social policy and the possibility of a reverse current restriction give rise to the collective behavior of autonomous individuals, and how the end customers interact and form relationships with its environment are described. Strong intervention by the government in the areas near a main high-voltage power distribution transformer, where the possibility of a reverse current restriction is relatively low, drives the greatest adoption of the PV system. The near areas are primarily occupied by customers with only a PV to improve the diffusion rate of PVs via the self-organization by the communication between customers. It also lead in a decrease in the need for compensation devices, which in turn minimizes the social cost. Growth in the number of PVs in areas far from the transformer is assisted by the installation of batteries as compensation for the lost opportunity due to restrictions in those areas on reverse power currents. Therefore, excessive intervention by the government in the far areas results in an increase in the social cost of managing reverse currents.
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In discussions on smart grids, it is often stated that residential end-users will play a more active role in the management of electric power supply and demand. They are expected to shift from a passive role as consumer of electricity to an active role as co-provider. In this article, the extent to which current technologies, products and services empower end-users to take up an active role as co-providers is evaluated. Based on a review of literature and related pilot projects, current approaches are driven by technical and financial considerations. There appears to be a lack of product and service design that supports end-users in their role as co-providers. This is reflected in the lack of thought given to how the end-users’ process of behavioral change can be supported to enable the transition from consumer to co-provider. Several recommendations are provided for product and service designers towards fostering the role of co-provider, which comes under: (a) user interaction needs, (b) approaches to behavioral change and (c) community initiatives and management of resources. Designers are considered to play a bridging role between policy making and engineering, whilst facilitating involvement of end-users in the design process.
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This paper provides an insight into consumer engagement in smart grid projects in Europe. Projects analysed are those included in the catalogue annexed in the JRC Report “Smart Grid projects in Europe: lessons learned and current developments”. The analysis suggests an increase in the interest in consumer engagement projects at European level and a strong focus on the residential sector, and emphasises the key importance of public funding to support these projects. The study also reveals that projects involving consumers are characterised by the pursuit of two main objectives: gaining deeper knowledge of consumer behaviour (observing and understanding the consumer) and motivating and empowering consumers to become active energy customers (engaging the consumer). The paper reviews the main activities undertaken to obtain these objectives and highlights trends and developments in the field. Finally, the paper discusses obstacles to consumer engagement and the strategies adopted by the projects surveyed to tackle them, highlighting the need to build consumer trust and to design targeted campaigns taking into consideration different consumer segments. The conclusions are in line with findings and analyses presented in the literature and underscore the need for further research and action at European level.
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This article analyses practices and perceptions of stakeholders on including users in smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. In-depth interviews have been conducted and smart grid projects have been analysed, using a Strategic Niche Management framework. The analysis shows that there is a clear trend to pay more attention to users in new smart grid projects. However, too much focus on technology and economic incentives can become a barrier. Some institutional barriers have been identified. New innovative business models should be developed to explore different options to involve users. The many pilot and demonstration projects that are taking shape or are being planned offer an excellent opportunity for such an exploration. Learning on the social dimensions of smart grids, and the international exchange of experiences can prevent a premature lock-in in a particular pathway.
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Social interaction (peer) effects are recognized as a potentially important factor in the diffusion of new products. In the case of environmentally friendly goods or technologies, both marketers and policy makers are interested in the presence of causal peer effects since social spillovers can be used expedite adoption. We provide a methodology for the simple, straightforward identification of peer effects with sufficiently rich data, avoiding the biases that occur with traditional fixed effects estimation when using the past installed base of consumers in the reference group. We study the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels in California, and find that at the average number of owner-occupied homes in a zip code, an additional installation increases the probability of an adoption in the zip code by 0.87 percentage points. Our results provide valuable guidance to marketers designing strategies to increase referrals and reduce costs of customer acquisition. They also provide insights into the diffusion process of environmentally-friendly technologies.
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The paper considers the general problems faced when evaluating the risk of investing in a local energy market by computer tools. The proposal formulated for the emerging local energy markets suggests broadening the method of evaluating investment risk so as to include elements of cluster analysis. The paper also discusses the significance of estimating investment risk in market terms and the importance and range of the local energy market. Finally, the work formulates a method to estimate investment risk by a computer program and gauge its impact on the investment expenditure. The presented approach to estimating the cost of risk allows for identifying such cost in changing market conditions, with technical, economic and location parameters specific for a given investment in the power industry recognised. This is particularly crucial in planning the processes of investing in the regional power industry and local energy markets.
Book
Getting an innovation adopted is difficult; a common problem is increasing the rate of its diffusion. Diffusion is the communication of an innovation through certain channels over time among members of a social system. It is a communication whose messages are concerned with new ideas; it is a process where participants create and share information to achieve a mutual understanding. Initial chapters of the book discuss the history of diffusion research, some major criticisms of diffusion research, and the meta-research procedures used in the book. This text is the third edition of this well-respected work. The first edition was published in 1962, and the fifth edition in 2003. The book's theoretical framework relies on the concepts of information and uncertainty. Uncertainty is the degree to which alternatives are perceived with respect to an event and the relative probabilities of these alternatives; uncertainty implies a lack of predictability and motivates an individual to seek information. A technological innovation embodies information, thus reducing uncertainty. Information affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among alternatives; information about a technological innovation can be software information or innovation-evaluation information. An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or an other unit of adoption; innovation presents an individual or organization with a new alternative(s) or new means of solving problems. Whether new alternatives are superior is not precisely known by problem solvers. Thus people seek new information. Information about new ideas is exchanged through a process of convergence involving interpersonal networks. Thus, diffusion of innovations is a social process that communicates perceived information about a new idea; it produces an alteration in the structure and function of a social system, producing social consequences. Diffusion has four elements: (1) an innovation that is perceived as new, (2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) a social system (members jointly solving to accomplish a common goal). Diffusion systems can be centralized or decentralized. The innovation-development process has five steps passing from recognition of a need, through R&D, commercialization, diffusions and adoption, to consequences. Time enters the diffusion process in three ways: (1) innovation-decision process, (2) innovativeness, and (3) rate of the innovation's adoption. The innovation-decision process is an information-seeking and information-processing activity that motivates an individual to reduce uncertainty about the (dis)advantages of the innovation. There are five steps in the process: (1) knowledge for an adoption/rejection/implementation decision; (2) persuasion to form an attitude, (3) decision, (4) implementation, and (5) confirmation (reinforcement or rejection). Innovations can also be re-invented (changed or modified) by the user. The innovation-decision period is the time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Rates of adoption of an innovation depend on (and can be predicted by) how its characteristics are perceived in terms of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The diffusion effect is the increasing, cumulative pressure from interpersonal networks to adopt (or reject) an innovation. Overadoption is an innovation's adoption when experts suggest its rejection. Diffusion networks convey innovation-evaluation information to decrease uncertainty about an idea's use. The heart of the diffusion process is the modeling and imitation by potential adopters of their network partners who have adopted already. Change agents influence innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable. Opinion leadership is the degree individuals influence others' attitudes
Article
Purpose The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the impact of the internet on teenage childrens' roles in purchase decisions. Design/methodology/approach Based on a survey administered to 346 parent‐child dyads, regression analysis and ANOVA analysis were employed to analyze the impact of the internet on teenagers' influence on several purchase subdecisions related with purchase of high technology products and vacation planning in urban Indian households. Findings Results indicate that teenage children in urban Indian households are significantly influenced by the internet, i.e. they perceive and disseminate consumption related information from the internet and, further, this influence is positively related to their role in family purchase decisions. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found on children's participation in decision making across the six subdecisions. Originality/value These results are important to academicians, researchers and practitioners because they show that the internet does act as a contemporary influence on consumer socialization of children and impacts the teenage child's participation in family which has been relatively unexplored.
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The label ‘green electricity’ is commonly used to refer to power generated from various renewable natural sources (e.g. wind). The present article develops hypotheses on the effects of eight attitudinal and perceptual characteristics of residential electricity consumers on their propensity to adopt a green electricity supplier. The hypotheses are tested empirically with data generated by means of a standardized telephone survey of 267 household electricity customers of a German regional power supplier. Questionnaire answers are augmented with information derived from the supplier's billing system on a participant's actual annual electricity consumption. Measurement and structural relationship models are obtained via Partial Least Squares analysis. Regardless of a person's level of actual power consumption in the recent past, propensity to adopt green electricity is most strongly influenced by general consumer attitudes towards environmental protection issues and social endorsement of green power use by close social contacts. In the subsample of participants with low actual electricity consumption, the propensity to purchase green energy is significantly positively affected by the weight an individual attaches to electricity prices in supplier selection decisions and the person's belief that his current electricity supplier takes over social responsibility. In contrast, in the subsample of respondents with high actual electricity consumption consumer's willingness to adopt green electricity is significantly enhanced by the degree of perceived dissimilarity among power company offerings. The identification of factors influencing the adoption of green electricity offers both practical implications for marketers of utilities and contributes to the academic knowledge base of a service domain characterized by increasing societal importance.
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The argument for the implementation of 'smart' metering, which is an elastic term, varies according to circumstance and place. In some countries, the business case for establishing an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) relies in part on improving consumption feedback to customers and assisting in the transition to lower-impact energy systems. There is an expectation that AMI will lead to reductions in both the demand and the cost to serve customers through improved communication, but little evidence exists to show overall demand reduction. To what extent might smart meters improve the prospects for customer engagement? To assess this question, end-user perceptions and practices must be considered along with metering hardware and economics. Using the theory of affordances, qualitative research is examined to understand how householders have used consumption feedback, with and without smart meters. Although AMI offers possibilities for household energy management and customer-utility relations, there is little evidence to suggest it will automatically achieve a significant reduction in energy demand. For that, there has to be a determined focus on overall demand reduction (rather than on peak electricity demand reduction), on designing customer interfaces for ease of understanding, and on guiding occupants towards appropriate action. Appropriate forms of interface, feedback, narrative, and support will be needed to reach diverse populations.
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Using a unique set of data and exploiting a large-scale natural experiment, we estimate the effect of real-time usage information on residential electricity consumption in Northern Ireland. Starting in April 2002, the utility replaced prepayment meters with “smart” meters that allow the consumer to track usage in real-time. We rely on this event, account for the endogeneity of price and plan with consumption through a plan selection correction term, and find that the provision of information is associated with a decline in electricity consumption of up to 20%. We find that the reduction is robust to different specifications, selection-bias correction methods and subsamples of the original data. At £15-17 per tonne of CO2e (2009£), the smart meter program delivers cost-effective reductions in carbon dioxide emissions.
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This paper investigates what encourages consumers to adopt a green electricity tariff. When people decide to adopt an innovation, such as green electricity, they consider not only functionality, usability, costs and intended outcomes, but also what the innovation means to them, for example, the way it reflects their identity, image, memberships, values and norms. The study reviews the theoretical frameworks of innovation adoption and consumption, and cognitive and normative behaviour, relevant to consumer adoption of pro-environmental innovations, and develops a research framework. Through focus group discussions, a questionnaire survey with 103 respondents and an interview with 10 people, the study finds that consumers sympathetic to environmental issues do not necessarily adopt green electricity. This is due to lack of strong social norms and personal relevance, inconvenience of switching, uncertainty about the quality of green electricity and lack of accurate information. The implications of these findings for strategy, policy and future research are explored. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.