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Maintaining everyday life praxis in the time of COVID-19 pandemic measures (ELP-COVID-19 survey)

  • Science and Research Centre Koper, Slovenia

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Background: The extreme social circumstances caused by declared COVID-19 pandemic deeply intervene people's everyday life and should not be neglected but seen through the view of social reality pinpointing the "ordinary" people. In this paper, authors explored basic segments of everyday and their subjective perception to what extent sleeping habits, physical inactivity, physical activity, nutritional habits and smoking have changed. Methods: The online survey was conducted in nine European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Italy, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain) in 4108 participants, aged 15-82 years. The survey took place 30 to 40 days after WHO declared COVID-19 pandemic state, from April 15th to May 3rd, 2020. Results: The results have shown 30 minutes longer sleeping time, 50% longer physical inactivity time, 65% longer screen time, 43% shorter walking time, 24% shorter sport time and 37% longer physical work time. Additionally, body mass gains (0.3 kg) could be explained in 20.6% with meals sizes, unhealthy food consumption, screen time and sport time. Further, respondents reported more regular meals (44%) and healthier meals with less alcohol consumption and less smoking, which have been positive outcomes of home confinement. Conclusion: The findings draw attention to negative changes in everyday praxis (inactivity, body mass gain) after such a short period. Because of possible risk to population's health (especially of countries such as Italy and Spain with serious threat and more stringent measures), findings enable development of recommendations for maintaining healthy lifestyle habits with minimal negative health consequences in similar pandemic circumstances.
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European Journal of Public Health, 1–6
ßThe Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Maintaining everyday life praxis in the time of
COVID-19 pandemic measures (ELP-COVID-19 survey)
sa Pi
, Ivana Milovanovi
, Ambra Gentile
, Ksenija Bosnar
Franjo Prot
, Antonino Bianco
, Gianluca Lo Coco
, Sun
cica Bartoluci
, Darko Katovi
Peter Bakala´r
, Tere´ zia Kovalik Slan
, Lenka Tlu
, Cristina Casals
, Kaltrina Feka
Aikaterini Christogianni
, Patrik Drid
1 Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre Koper, Koper 6000, Slovenia
2 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
3 Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, Universita` degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo
90128, Italy
4 Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
5 Faculty of Sports, University of Presov, Pre
sov 080 01, Slovakia
6 MOVE-IT Research Group and Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Cadiz,
Ca´ diz 11003, Spain
7 Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cadiz (INiBICA) Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital,
University of Cadiz, Ca´ diz 11003, Spain
8 TERMOSENSELAB; Environmental Ergonomics Research Centre, LE11 3TU, Lougborough, UK
Correspondence: Ivana Milovanovi
c, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Lov
censka 16, Novi
Sad 21000, Serbia, Tel: þ381 (0) 21 45 0188, Fax: þ381 (0) 21 45 0190, e-mail:
Background: The extreme social circumstances caused by declared COVID-19 pandemic deeply intervene people’s
everyday life and should not be neglected but seen through the view of social reality pinpointing the ‘ordinary’
people. In this article, authors explored basic segments of everyday and their subjective perception to what extent
sleeping habits, physical inactivity, physical activity, nutritional habits and smoking have changed. Methods: The
online survey was conducted in nine European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo*, Italy,
Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain) in 4108 participants, aged 15–82 years. The survey took place 30–40 days after
World Health Organization declared COVID-19 pandemic state, from 15 April to 3 May 2020. Results: The results
have shown 30 min longer sleeping time, 50% longer physical inactivity time, 65% longer screen time, 43%
shorter walking time, 24% shorter sport time and 37% longer physical work time. Additionally, body mass gains
(0.3 kg) could be explained in 20.6% with meals sizes, unhealthy food consumption, screen time and sport time.
Further, respondents reported more regular meals (44%) and healthier meals with less alcohol consumption and
less smoking, which have been positive outcomes of home confinement. Conclusion: The findings draw attention
to negative changes in everyday praxis (inactivity, body mass gain) after such a short period. Because of possible
risk to population’s health (especially of countries such as Italy and Spain with serious threat and more stringent
measures), findings enable development of recommendations for maintaining healthy lifestyle habits with min-
imal negative health consequences in similar pandemic circumstances.
The term ‘everyday life’ in social sciences has long been considered
trivial, platitude and therefore irrelevant for ‘serious’ research,
its main purpose being to ‘capture life as it is lived’
within few
common denominators: the exposure of regular, repetitive phenom-
ena and situations should be exposed. That is why research concern-
ing everyday life should not be neglected as the view of social reality
that pinpoints the ‘ordinary’ people and how they subjectively per-
ceive their own and other’s actions. Therefore, in the research of
everyday life, one should emphasize ‘the inevitability of an individ-
ual actor as an analytical focus’.
Lifestyles as ‘relatively coherent sets
of material and symbolic practices in everyday life’ are to some
extent the creators of people’s personal identity. This is reflected,
among other things, in eating habits, sleeping habits, sports and
recreational activities, body care, free time habits, forms of sociality,
cultural consumption etc.
In this article, we explored basic seg-
ments of everyday life in extraordinary/extreme social circumstan-
ces, during the Coronavirus disease /COVID-19 pandemic, declared
as global health outbreak by the representatives of the World Health
Organization on 11 March 2020. Each country has adopted its own
precautionary measures either strict or mild, for their citizens during
the pandemic they undoubtedly had on everyday life of citizens.
These measures affected all segments of everyday life; the way the
active population works (e.g. work from home wherever possible),
the closure of kindergartens, schools, colleges and dormitories
imposed (home schooling), the ban on visits to the elderly in homes
as well as lockdown public life (public transport, cultural events and
non-essential consumer services). The daily life was suddenly con-
centrated on home and screen media connections.
Having in mind, the described features of everyday life on one
hand and the COVID-19 pandemic measures on the other, the focus
of this article is on everyday life of citizens of nine European coun-
tries during the COVID-19 epidemic. Due to specific and unique
circumstance social actors have lived in, we searched for and found
limited evidence of research on effect of safety measures and restric-
tions (home confinement) in general everyday life praxis. The im-
portance to investigate sleeping habits, physical activity (PA), eating
habits and sedentary behaviour is to find out how people can be
affected by restrictive measurements and what can we recommend
to people how to adapt better to the new situation in terms of
health-oriented lifestyle.
Recent evidence showed that COVID-19 pandemic home confine-
ment together with restricted or prohibited physical participation
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(schools, sport events and sports clubs’ activities lockdown)
imposed increasing risk of sedentary behaviours or level of inactiv-
Just a few days of sedentary lifestyle are sufficient to induce a
lot of negative physiological adaptations of the human body.
Along the negative effect on PA, COVID-19 pandemic state has
impact on diet behavior.
Feeling forced to stay indoors (public
life lockdown, quarantine) could be considered as psychological risk
factor for consuming more quantities of food of poorer quality
compared with standard living conditions. This induced changes
in nutrition habits and challenged the energy balance proportions
resulting in gaining weight.
In addition to PA and balanced food habits, the appropriate
sleeping habits have changed. When individual habits and quality
of one’s own sleep change during life, it may significantly contribute
to alterations in people’s healthy lifestyle. Psychosocial stressors may
affect sleep indirectly through unhealthy behaviours such as poor
diet, lack of PA, increased sedentary behaviours, or other diseases
such as diabetes, hypertension or depressive symptoms.
On the
other hand, getting enough sleep improves appetite and functioning
of the immune system.
Concerning the situation people faced in COVID-19 pandemic,
we hypothesized that ‘Lefebvre’ attitude
which states that individ-
uals and groups live their everyday life according to the principle of
ambiguity, simply does not apply in the conditions of the COVID-
19 crisis. It means that everyday life praxis changed and that the
adaptation of everyday life praxis to the new situation was necessary.
Certain features of everyday life that we highlighted in the survey
were ways of spending time during the day, with special emphasis on
adjusting sleeping habits, eating habits, ways of expressing PA and
inactivity time (with emphasis on screen time) of respondents.
Although conducting the research, we tried to determine whether
and (if so) to what extent above mentioned behaviour of the
respondents have changed, and what connections the possible
changes have to do with the recommended measures in the state
COVID-19 pandemic. Following these, the main research question is
‘Are there any changes in everyday life praxis of sleeping, PA and
inactivity behaviours, and eating habits that occurred during the
COVID–19 pandemic restriction?’
A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in nine
European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece,
Kosovo*/The final political status of Kosovo is not prejudiced in
this paper, Italy, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spai) with an aim
to observe and analyze some of everyday life praxes in the time of
COVID-19 restrictions in comparison with the time before the out-
break of COVID-19 pandemic. ELP (Everyday life praxis) COVID-
19 consortium of six partners from Science and Research Centre
Koper (Slovenia), Faculties of sport, University of Novi Sad
(Serbia), University of Palermo (Italy), University of Zagreb
(Croatia), University of Pre
sov (Slovakia) and University of Cadiz
(Spain) has been established to identify determinants of common
everyday life routines: sleeping habits, inactivity with screen time,
ways of PA and eating habits in a new questionnaire.
Due to physical restrictions, the online survey was one of very few
possibilities to reach as many respondents as possible. The snow-
balling approach was used for recruitment of participants 15 years of
age and above. The survey questions were formed in 1KA, an open
source application that enables services for online surveys, devel-
oped by the Centre for Social Informatics, at the Faculty of Social
Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia (
The basic form of questionnaire was officially translated into eight
different languages and re-translated in English by each partner to
check the relevance of translations. Before the open access of online
survey was launched, a test of online questionnaire on at least six
participants per country was provided by research group to assure
correctness and understanding. Data collection lasted 14 days, from
15 to 28 April 2020, with exception of Kosovo* where it lasted
10 days, from 24 April to 3 May 2020 and Greece for 6 days from
28 April to 3 May 2020. The current cross-sectional study followed
the STROBE statement.
Survey participants were invited through different ways: personal
e-mail addresses, official pages of the partners organizations, local
online newspapers etc. By clicking on the survey, the presentation of
the main purpose with detailed instructions to fill the survey in was
provided. Participants were also informed that all data will be proc-
essed and managed in accordance with the legislation on the pro-
tection of personal data and the General Data Protection Regulation.
Participant’s responses were anonymous and confidential according
to 1KA (on
collection), and survey did not collect any personal data (names,
birth date and contact information) to enable the respondent’s iden-
tification. The participants were able to leave the questionnaire at
any stage before the submission process. Only surveys with com-
pleted mandatory questions were taken into further analysis.
New questionnaire ‘ELP in the time of COVID-19 pandemic re-
striction’ (ELP COVID-19 study) was made in English language for
additional translation. The questionnaire consists of 24 questions
and provides the adapted parts of validated questionnaires. The
part of validated SIMPAQ—Simple Physical Activity
was adapted to collect data on sleeping time, PA,
inactivity time as ‘time before COVID-19 pandemic’ (BDC) and
time ‘during COVID-19 pandemic measures’ (DDC).
Besides the SIMPAQ, additional questions and scales to assess
eating habits and indicators of quality of life were taken from
European Health Interview Survey, (National institute for public
health in Slovenia, 2007). In the view of this, we approached the
research with the following research questions: What changes
occurred in daily praxis (in everyday life) regarding the new situ-
ation of COVID-19 pandemic measures (‘BDC and DDC
i. in sleeping habits ‘time to go to bed’, ‘time to wake up’, ‘sleeping
ii. ‘inactivity time’ and ‘screen time’
iii. ‘time of walking’, ‘sports PA’ and ‘physical work habits’.
Being one of the most important life basic needs, the provision of
food and related eating habits were additional variables investigated
in this research. First, we would like to know whether changes in
everyday life also had effect on gaining and reducing body weight
and whether changes occurred on some indicators of eating habits.
Participants were asked to estimate: (i) precisely the change (in kg) if
they regularly monitor their body weight, or if they don’t, to esti-
mate of weight changes: ‘my body weight...1—decreased a lot; 2—
decreased a little; 3—stays the same; 4—increased a little; 5—
increased a lot’(during the 1 month of pandemic restrictions time).
Additionally, the changes in eating and other health related habits
(alcohol and tobacco consumption) were collected by estimating of
variables: ‘regular meals’, ‘meal size’ (quantity), ‘unhealthy food
(sweets, fast food) consumption’, ‘alcohol consumption’, ‘smoking
habits’ with the scale: 1— much less, 2— less, 3— stays the same,
4— a little more, 5— much more, 6—can’t estimate and 7—not
applicable (for alcohol and smoking). Due to the open online avail-
ability of the survey we were aware that survey will not reach less
educated, less affluent people, men and older people, not skilled or
equipped with information technology (IT) and we take a risk of
non-representative sample.
Data were analyzed using software of STATISTIKA (version 13.0,
TIBCO, USA) and SPSS (version 24.0, IBM, USA). All data were
presented as mean (standard deviation) values. Data were grouped
for nine countries and time before and after COVID-19 pandemic
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measures and checked for normal distribution (Histogram, Q–Q
plot, Skewness, Kurtosis and Shapiro–Wilk test) and homogeneity
of variance (Levene test) were met. The multivariate difference in all
12 everyday praxis variables were tested by multivariate Hotelling’s
), while differences in each variable was tested by two-way
ANalysis Of VAriance/ANOVA (time and country) at statistical sig-
nificance of P<0.01 and after Bonferroni correction Pvalues was
accepted as P<0.0008. A Multiple Linear Regression was used to
identify significant predictors of body mass changes, where predic-
tors passed also non-multicollinearity assumptions (variance infla-
tion factor <2). Additionally, we presented frequency analysis of
changes in eating habits, alcohol consumption and smoking in sup-
plementary file. For that purpose, only subjects that responded from
1 to 5 on a 5-point Likert scale were analyzed: 1—much less, 2—less,
3—the same, 4—little more, and 5—much more. Although those
that indicated 6—cannot estimate or 7—not applicable were
The sample consisted of respondents of 9 European countries
[n¼4108, male ¼1527 (37.2%), age 32.0 (13.2), ranged from 15
to 82 years; table 1, see Supplementary table S1 for details descrip-
tion of study sample]. Most of the respondents were between 21 and
30 years (44.4%), and representing the active population [employed
or self-employed (46.5%) and students (46.7%)]. Education level of
the sample is quite high, majority exceed the secondary level, prob-
ably because the primary channel of online destinations was among
students and university workers. Respondents answered the survey
in the period of 34.6 (7.0) days after the state governments declared
Pandemic measures, in the period when most changes could become
Everyday life praxis, primarily sleeping and eating habits and PA
behaviours as regular, repetitive phenomena were interrupted by
sudden changes of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of public life,
and transportation with strict restriction of movement and recom-
mended mantra ‘stay at home’. Consequences after a month of the
newly introduced state showed that social reality from the position
of ‘ordinary’ people and subjective meaning of ‘new’ everyday life
has changed significantly.
The multivariate Hotelling’s T
test confirmed differences in 12
main variables related to everyday praxis (P<0.001). Additionally,
post-hoc analysis in 12 variables indicated changes in sleeping habits,
physical inactivity with screen time and PA habits.
Sleeping habits
There was a visible difference in all scores of nine countries in
sleeping habits in ‘go to bed’ time [M
¼23.4 (1.2) vs. M
¼24.5 (1.7) o’clock; P<0.0008], in ‘wake up’ time [M
(1.3) vs. M
¼8.7 (1.3) o’clock; P<0.0008] and sleeping time
¼7.6 (1.2) vs. M
¼8.1 (1.3) h; P<0.0008]. In summary,
during the COVID-19 pandemic measures participants went to bed
a 1.0 (1.5) h later, woke up 1.4 (1.6) h later and consequently slept
0.5 (1.4) h longer (figure 1A). Post-hoc analysis confirmed increase
in sleeping time in all countries, except Italy.
Physical inactivity with screen time
During COVID-19 pandemic measures, participants spent 50%
more time in physical inactivity [M
¼5.6 (3.5) vs. M
8.4 (3.9) h; P<0.0008] and had 65% longer screen time [M
¼4.9 (2.3) vs. M
¼8.1 (3.7) h; P<0.0008]. Post-hoc analysis
indicated increased physical inactivity and screen time in all coun-
tries (figure 1B and C). The increase in physical inactivity is closely
related to increased screen time, such as TV, smart phone, computer
or tablet.
PA behaviour
During COVID-19 pandemic measures daily walking decreased for
43% [M
¼116.6 (98.8) vs. M
¼66.0 (78.9) min;
P<0.0008], sports activities decreased for 24% [M
(86.2) vs. M
¼60.8 (67.4) min, P<0.0008]; However, daily
physical work increased for 37% [M
¼38.7 (71.2) vs. M
¼52.9 (83.0) min; P<0.0008]. Post-hoc analysis revealed that walk-
ing time decreased in all countries except Slovenia (figure 1D). The
time spent in sport activities decreased in majority of countries,
except in Slovenia, Slovakia and Kosovo (figure 1E); and the time
spent in physical working (e.g. gardening) increased also in majority
of countries, except in Italy, Spain and Greece (figure 1F).
Eating habits
First, we analyzed body mass adaptation and found that participants
that monitored their body mass (n¼2208) had an increase for 0.3
(2.2) kg during COVID-19 pandemic measures (P<0.0008). Those
who did not use scale regularly (n¼1746) reported subjective
change on 5-point Likert scale [3.31 (0.74); P<0.0008], being be-
tween ‘stays the same’ and ‘gain a little’; however, results again in-
dicate gaining body mass (P<0.0008). To explain body mass gains
in a subsample of 2208 participants that reported exact body mass
changes we used multiple linear regression and found that the model
explained 20.6% of body mass change variance (P<0.001) with
increased meal sizes, unhealthy eating, increased screen time and
decreased sport time during COVID-19 restriction measures
(table 2).
When comparing eating habits during COVID-19 restriction
measures with those prior to restriction, we found more regular
meals, larger meal sizes, less unhealthy food, lower alcohol and to-
bacco consumption (figure 2). Descriptive analysis is presented in
Supplementary figure S1, where we found that 44% of the partic-
ipants adopted eating habits with more regular meals, whereas 16%
had fewer regular meals. Further, 29% of the participants enlarged
meal size, whereas 20% of them decreased meal size. Unhealthy food
consumption was increased in 33% of respondents, whereas 35%
reported a decrease. Unexpectedly, increase of the alcohol consump-
tion and smoking behaviour were reported in <10% of the partic-
ipants, while at the same time 36% drink and 14% smoke less or
much less than before.
The results of this study focus on the changes in everyday life praxis
after 30–40 days of COVID-19 restriction measures. We found mar-
ginal changes in all studied everyday life praxis. Participants
reported 0.5 h longer sleeping time, 50% longer physical inactivity
most likely due to 65% longer screen time, whereas walking time
decreased for 43%, sport time decreased for 24% and physical work
time decreased for 37%. Abovementioned changes were consistent
Table 1 The characteristics of the sample for each country (see
details in Supplementary table S1)
Total respondents Male population Age
Country n%n% Mean (SD)
Slovenia 445 10.8 117 26.3 42.1 (14.9)
Croatia 1646 40.1 545 37.9 31.2 (12.4)
Italia 512 12.5 258 50.4 29.7 (11.0)
Serbia 366 8.9 183 50.3 30.2 (12.7)
Slovakia 530 12.9 112 21.1 28.5 (11.1)
Spain 313 7.6 157 50.2 31.3 (13.1)
Greece 97 2.4 50 51.6 42.3 (16.6)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 92 2.2 33 36.0 33.5 (11.6)
Kosovo* 107 2.6 42 39.2 30.6 (11.3)
Total 4108 100 1497 36.4 32.0 (13.2)
A cross-sectional comparison study of nine European countries 3of6
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in almost all countries, with some exceptions, which will be dis-
cussed below.
Going to bed half an hour after midnight and later waking up
times were probably the effect of home confinement since people
needed to compensate for having to organize working and schooling
from home, which allowed a bit looser timetable. The results could
be reported in two ways, the later bedtime could be related with
increased screen time and physical inactivity or poor diet,
on the other hand, people who used home confinement and got
sufficient sleep could improve appetite and immune system
The increased time of physical inactivity and on the other side the
decrease of all studied phenotypes of PA have been confirmed also
by other studies reporting PA levels during COVID-19 pandem-
Because of emphasized serious negative physiological effect
on human body caused by physical inactivity and sedentary behav-
iour, these can be disruptive also to disease parameters (i.e. rheum-
atic diseases), cardiovascular risk profile, physical capacity and
function, and mental health.
Indeed, we determined decrease in daily levels of PA (walking and
sports), with an exception in Slovenia and Slovakia where reported
slightly increase of sports engagement (3–6 min/day) probably be-
cause of less strict movement restriction posed by government and
additional free time. On the other hand, we were determined the
increase in physical work in some countries that could be explained
by additional ‘free time’, nice spring weather and typical tasks at
home (e.g. house repairs, gardening), with exception of decrease in
all level of PA in Italy, Spain and Greece where government imposed
Figure 1 Comparison of (A) sleeping time, (B) physical inactivity, (C) screen time, (D) walking time, (E) sport time and (F) physical work time
before and during COVID-19 pandemic measures
Table 2 Multiple linear regression of body mass gains in a sub-
sample of 2208 participants
Variables BbPartial
VIF P-value
Constant 3.385
Meal size 0.845 0.339 0.332 1.168 <0.001
Unhealthy food 0.330 0.183 0.167 1.192 <0.001
Screen time 0.031 0.052 0.051 1.022 0.006
Sport time 0.0020.0460.0501.034 0.017
VIF, Variance Inflation Factor.
Figure 2 Changes of food, alcohol and smoking consumption during
COVID-19 restriction measures from before (see details in supple-
mentary figure S1)
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most strictly measures of movement. We assume that the estimated
differences in level of PA depend on the level of COVID-19 meas-
urements (quarantine, movement restriction and curfew) or add-
itional analysis should be made on correlation of country’s specific
cultural tradition or habits. Nevertheless, the reported results show
that after 34–40 days of restrictive measures, people observed mostly
negative differences in PA behaviour and that is a problem that
should be highlighted.
Regarding the body mass, we found the increase of 0.3 kg of
those who monitored and was similar to those that reported their
subjective estimates towards gaining a little weight. We found that
body mass gains could be explained in 20.6% with meals sizes,
unhealthy food consumption, screen time and sport time. Indeed,
we found increased meal sizes, higher screen time and lower sport
time during COVID-19 restriction measures, which was also
reported by Butler and Barrientos (2020), but in opposite partici-
pants reported more regular meals and less unhealthy food con-
sumption. The latter was found to be in contradiction with Butler
and Barrientos (2020) and Ammar et al.
; however, the changes we
reported were rather small but significant. Alcohol consumption and
smoking decline could be explained by severe restrictions in order to
control the pandemic outbreak reflected in social life and the
accompanied social habits, drinking and smoking (especially in
young people).
Despite all professional recommendations in mass media how to
stay healthy and active in the time of quarantine, declines of PA
levels with large increases in physical inactivity were reported.
Consequently, the most evident change in the study was in physical
inactivity and screen time which increased for 3 h, where physical
inactivity reached above the threshold area (6–8 h daily). It is already
known that sedentary lifestyle is one of the strongest factors for
increasing risk of disease or mortality,
going along with
increased screen time.
The strength of this research is to include a standardized survey in
nine European countries which enables a broader insight into the
research question. Some limitations and bias were mentioned above
and coincide with the characteristics of participants of online sur-
veys while more educated and more affluent people, women and
younger people are more likely to participate, what
confirmed. On the other hand, we are aware that online
surveys bypass the vulnerable groups who are not skilled or
equipped with IT.
Nevertheless, the results of the survey clearly indicate significant
differences in some important everyday life praxis (sleep, sedentary
and PA behaviour and eating habits) and regarding the countries
state of threat, because the results imply that the problem of espe-
cially increased inactivity (sedentary behaviour with screen time)
and opposite decline of PA became legitimate as people were unable
to adequately maintain their ordinary PA patterns during the pan-
demic restriction.
Additionally, the new ways (probably with IT tools) to maintain a
more optimal PA as regular low/medium intensity volume exercise,
also in the time pandemic restriction, together with a 15–25% re-
duction in caloric intake have to be promoted in order to preserve
neuromuscular, cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine health.
The findings definitely impose the need to draw attention to the
negative changes in everyday practices and their risk to the health of
population, which was evident in the more endangered countries
(Italy and Spain) with stricter measures on everyday life (quarantine
and movement restriction). Consequently the perspective of this
‘ELP COVID-19 study’ is also to target the extent of effect of pan-
demic measure in each country following the demographic charac-
teristics. Knowing the specific reaction in adopting the ‘new
normality’ by participated countries will enable us to prepare rec-
ommendations for positive outcomes in similar situations with min-
imal consequences to health of population.
Supplementary data
Supplementary data are available at EURPUB online.
Conflicts of interest: None declared.
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Key points
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The reduced time for physical activity (waking, sports)
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representatives when developing and implementing recom-
mendations for maintaining healthy lifestyle habits with min-
imal negative health consequences in extreme daily life
context, such as COVID-19 pandemic.
A cross-sectional comparison study of nine European countries 5of6
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... A detailed statistical analysis shows that 31.1% of the adult population is physically inactive worldwide. Furthermore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the PI increased further, which is confirmed by previous reports (11)(12)(13)(14). The study (11) reported that during the COVID-19 pandemic in nine European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo * , Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Serbia), the PI and screen time in the adult population increased. ...
... Furthermore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the PI increased further, which is confirmed by previous reports (11)(12)(13)(14). The study (11) reported that during the COVID-19 pandemic in nine European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo * , Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Serbia), the PI and screen time in the adult population increased. Furthermore, in Croatia (12) and Spain (13,14), during the COVID-19 pandemic (from January to April 2020), the PI increased in adolescents. ...
... In Qatar, Hermassi et al. (17) reported that the COVID-19 pandemic reduced vigorous-intensity PA from 663 ± 320 metabolic equivalents (MET-min/week) to 323 ± 187 MET-min/week in young adults. Accordingly, it can be observed that the adult population before the COVID-19 pandemic (10) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (11,(15)(16)(17) is physically inactive. This is concerning because PI is one of the leading modifiable risk factors for global mortality (18). ...
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Background The physical activity (PA) of the youth and adult population underwent changes during the last 2 years due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and all for the purpose of maintaining the health of the population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of PA in the youth population and the adult population (young and old) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the territory of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to determine the differences between them, as well as to compare these results with the results before the pandemic. Methods A total of 1,117 subjects (age 36.27 ± 15.08 years) from the territory of Vojvodina, Serbia, participated in the study. Subjects were recruited and assigned to one of the three groups according to their age: youth group ( N = 395; age 18–24 years), young adults group ( N = 347; from 25 to 44 years), and old adults group ( N = 375; age 45–65 years). All participants in this study completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short-Form between July and November 2021, during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Vojvodina, Serbia. The Kruskal–Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison post-hoc method were used for statistical analyses. Results The youth showed the highest result in total weekly energy expenditure (3,893.72 ± 2,010.01 MET-min/week) compared to young adults (2,528.20 ± 1,804.11 MET-min/week) and old adults (2,369.07 ± 2,084.95 MET-min/week) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vojvodina, Serbia. In addition, adults (young and old) spent more time sitting than youth during the same period. Furthermore, the youth achieved greater results in levels of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the situation before the COVID-19 pandemic. However, adult populations achieved lower results during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, the youth from Vojovida, Serbia, achieved greater results in PA levels than the adult populations. Based on that, we recommend that it is necessary to take steps toward increasing PA in the adult population, especially old adults.
... Hence the new circumstances caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the presence of "liquid life" in "liquid modernity" that affects rapid changes in habits and routines that have little chance of consolidating and settling and becoming a pattern, have fuelled uncertainty, insecurity and fear. This is also reflected in eating habits, sleeping habits, sports and recreational activities, which represent a significant part of the everyday life of young people (12). Individuals are the ones who have to find their own ways to deal with the anxiety and fear that is endemic to "liquid life". ...
... Relying on the referential theoretical framework (7)(8)(9), as well as previously published papers on compatible topics (12,13), this paper is based on the results of field research of everyday student practices in three European countries: Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. Namely, this is part of a larger study we conducted in the first wave of the pandemic from 15th to 28th April 2020, on the population of citizens aged 18 to 82 (N = 4,018) in nine European countries (12). ...
... Relying on the referential theoretical framework (7)(8)(9), as well as previously published papers on compatible topics (12,13), this paper is based on the results of field research of everyday student practices in three European countries: Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. Namely, this is part of a larger study we conducted in the first wave of the pandemic from 15th to 28th April 2020, on the population of citizens aged 18 to 82 (N = 4,018) in nine European countries (12). When processing the data, we noticed greater similarities (see Table 1) of epidemiological measures in Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia and the limitation in the implementation of study programs in isolation as well as the similarity of the epidemiological situation (number of infected/100,000 inhabitants, number of deaths/100,000 inhabitants) in comparison with the epidemiological situation and emergency measures in other European countries covered by the study. ...
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The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to extreme global consequences. In this paper, changes in the basic segments of students' everyday life and their subjective perception are investigated. The research was conducted in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. The application of the mixed method was performed to provide breadth and depth of understanding of students' responses to lifestyle changes. The research was conducted in two phases: a quantitative, using an online survey ( N = 1,053), from April 15th to April 28th 2020, and a qualitative, using semi-structured interviews ( N = 30), from June 10th to July 27th 2020. Students showed similar responses to the measures, but it turned out that the response in that population was different when their gender and study program were taken into account. The results suggest that students of study programs that are not “health-related” were more sensitive to change in habits than students of “health-related” study programs, but generally changes are visible in sleep patterns (going to bed late and waking up 60 to 80 min earlier). At the same time, the time spent in front of screens increased, from M = 4.49 (SD = 2.72) hours to M= 8.27 (SD = 3.44) hours during Covid-19, not only due to the transition to e-learning, but also due to a “stay at home” measure. Furthermore, students were less physically active, there was a decrease in exercise by 20 min (SD = 86.52) and a decrease in walking (M = 54 min, SD = 103.62) per day, and what is positive is that they were able to maintain the recommended amount of physical activity. The research contributes to the understanding of social consequences of extraordinary measures in students as young, healthy and highly educated social actors, as well as deeper insight into everyday strategies they undertake to counter or adapt to the new situation.
... Un mayor tiempo en el uso de dispositivos electrónicos se asocia a un empeoramiento en la calidad del sueño, una latencia del sueño elevada, y hora de levantarse más tarde (Amra et al., 2017;Christensen et al., 2016;El Hangouche et al., 2018). En este aspecto, estudios han reportado un aumento significativo en el uso de pantallas durante la pandemia (Pišot et al., 2020). Específicamente, los estudiantes de Educación Física realizaron sus clases y prácticas en una modalidad principalmente "online". ...
During the period of confinement, university education was delivered in a virtual modality, which could have an impact on the healthy lifestyles of students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between academic performance, physical activity, and sleep quality and determine the existing differences by gender in Physical Education Pedagogy students during the pandemic in 2020. This study was designed as a multicenter, cross-sectional study of 278 university students from Santiago, Talca, and Temuco, Chile. An online survey was applied from July to December, which included questions on physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and sociodemographic information. The results show that women presented better academic performance, worse quality of sleep, and similar physical activity-MET than men. The women (β = 0.26, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.43 points, p = .002) and those university students who presented a worse indicator in subjective quality of sleep (β = 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 at 0.20 points, p = .014) obtained better academic performance in the context of COVID-19. There was no association between academic performance and physical activity. It is essential to look for strategies that allow students to have adequate academic performance and promote healthy habits in this population.
... The COVID-19 pandemic created a global emergency in Spring 2020. Alongside the explosive infection and death rates, the world had to rapidly adopt social distancing practices, resulting in working from home [7,16] often balanced with the demands of the co-located family [19], increasing social media use [22,24], and spending generally more time looking at screens [25]. A multitude of businesses and communities struggled to keep their daily operations running in the conditions where face-to-face meetings were restricted or forbidden. ...
Conference Paper
This paper explores trust in online-only-collaboration, where a team was gathered to organise a COVID-19 online hackathon with only three days notice. The study is based on the thematic analysis of ten in-depth interviews with the hackathon organisers. The findings report how trust among the organisers was encapsulated in 1) the shared big goal, 2) the significance of real-life networks, 3) a strong lead organiser on the collaboration forming on the fly, and 4) the lack of face-to-face contact in relation to becoming familiar or staying unknown. Technology related findings showed that the collaboration platforms were selected based on familiarity and ease of use. The chosen communication channels created a split between age groups, and transparency of the communication suffered somewhat from one-to-one communications in the background and divided application use. However, trust between the organisers helped them to overcame the transparency challenges. The findings are applicable to societal crisis situations in which technologies are used to build collaboration in aim to address shared challenges.
... Globally, the fatality rate of COVID-19 infection was estimated at 0.5% to 1% [1]. Its negative impact reached the everyday lives of all human beings globally [2][3][4][5] to the extent of disrupting the normal economic and social activities of the world's population [6][7][8][9][10]. In response, global communities took different measures to contain its spread, and these included lockdowns and border closures [11][12][13]. ...
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Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the everyday lives of the world's population and to this end, the development of curative vaccines was upheld as a welcome panacea. Despite the undeniable negative impact of the disease on human beings, lower than expected proportions of people have taken up the vaccines, particularly in the developing non-Western world. Ethiopia represents an interesting case example, of a nation where COVID-19 vaccine acceptance levels have not been well investigated and a need exists to assess the overall level of vaccine acceptance. Methods: A systematic multidatabase search for relevant articles was carried out across Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Hinari, EMBASE, Boolean operator, and PubMed. Two reviewers independently selected, reviewed, screened, and extracted data by using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The Joanna Briggs Institute prevalence critical appraisal tools and the modified NewcastleOttawa Scale (NOS) were used to assess the quality of evidence. All studies conducted in Ethiopia, reporting vaccine acceptance rates were incorporated. The extracted data were imported into the comprehensive meta-analysis version 3.0 for further analysis. Heterogeneity was confirmed using Higgins's method, and publication bias was checked by using Beggs and Eggers tests. A random-effects meta-analysis model with a 95% confidence interval was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence. Furthermore, subgroup analysis based on the study area and sample size was done. Results and Conclusion. After reviewing 67 sources, 18 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Ethiopia was 57.8% (95% CI: 47.2%-67.8%). The level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Ethiopia was at a lower rate than necessary to achieve herd immunity. The highest level of vaccine acceptance rate was reported via online or telephone surveys followed by the southern region of Ethiopia. The lowest vaccine acceptance patterns were reported in Addis Ababa.
... The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has overturned the normalcy of daily life and has left entire countries at a standstill. The first positively tested case of SARS in India was identified on January 30th, 2020 (Banerjee & Bhattacharya, 2020) and has ever since deeply intervened in the lives of people, leading to negative changes in everyday praxis (Pišot et al., 2020). In these troubled times, most people particularly the medical professionals of the country and other frontline service sectors have experienced many changes in their own lifestyles. ...
Full-text available
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to healthcare professionals worldwide, bringing changes in both their personal and professional lives. Motivation has become a driving factor along with cognitive flexibility during such demanding situations. Little importance has been given to the personality dimension while assessing these aspects, especially in the Indian context. The principal aim of this paper is to understand the relationship between Personality, Cognitive Flexibility, and Motivation among medical professionals during the COVID-19 Pandemic. A correlational research design was used to conduct the research and a snowball sampling technique was used to collect data from a sample size of 204 medical professionals, consisting of 101 nurses and 103 doctors, working as frontline workers. The variables were assessed using the Neo Five-Factor Inventory, Cognitive flexibility Inventory, and Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Questionnaire. A nonparametric test of correlation was used. The research findings revealed that among Medical Professionals, certain Personality factors, Cognitive Flexibility, and Motivation shared a significant relationship. Cognitive Flexibility and Motivation were found to be significantly correlated. There was no significant difference in cognitive flexibility and motivation among doctors and nurses. There was a significant difference in Neuroticism between the groups. The findings will help in gaining a clearer insight into the needs of medical professionals in India, facilitating the development of appropriate training interventions for the medical professionals to be better equipped for similar crises situations in the future.
... The corresponding authors of the included studies were contacted to request more information when necessary. Previous evidence suggests that the strictness of government policies taken to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic have an influence on tobacco use behaviors (26,27). Thus, a part from the variables reported above, the COVID-19 stringency index (as a measure of country-level response to COVID-19) created by the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), was used (28) to calculate the mean daily COVID-19 stringency index. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a global health crisis that has negatively impacted the mental health and wellbeing of the population. A large amount of scientific literature has emerged since 2019, but none of these studies have focused on assessing the impact of COVID-19 on smoking consumption. We aimed to analyse the changes in smoking consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic through longitudinal studies. This systematic review follows the PRISMA Statement. This study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021282235). MEDLINE, ERIC, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched from inception to 24 October 2021. We completed an extensive assessment of all prospective cohort studies that aimed to explore the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on tobacco consumption habits. According to the PICOS's acronym, we included all population (P) types and studies developed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (I) with a change in nicotine consumption as the outcome (O), as well as prospective cohort studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. The results showed that 14 cohorts reported in 11 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 58,052 participants were included in the review. Most of the studies pointed out a reduction in the number of cigarettes and e-cigarettes consumed from baseline (before the pandemic) to follow-up (during the pandemic). Only two studies reported an increase in cigarette or e-cigarette consumption from baseline to follow-up. The majority of studies presented a low risk of bias. In conclusion, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on smoking behavior is complex and uncertain. The decrease in smoking consumption during the pandemic could be related to the fear of becoming infected by COVID-19, the advancement of COVID-19, and the reduction in social gatherings. In several cases, the increases in nicotine consumption can be explained by psychological distress. These findings can be used to create strategies to prevent relapses during the post-vaccination phases of the pandemic. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021282235.
... The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought dramatic changes to everyday life [1,2]. Scholars argued that the experience of lockdown and home confinement due to the pandemic has been an undesirable condition, which has negatively impacted individuals' wellbeing [3,4]. ...
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The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) have exacerbated body image concerns. A society that perpetuates the attempt for a perfect and thin appearance represents a fertile ground for the development of exercise addiction (EA). This cross-sectional study aims to explore EA during the second wave of the pandemic (October–December 2020) and to examine the independent influence of both time spent on moderate and vigorous physical activities and body image variables (i.e., drive for leanness and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance) on EA. A sample of Italian sporty people (N = 194; 48.5% females; Mage = 25.91 ± 6.32) was surveyed using the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the Drive for Leanness Scale, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire, and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 82% of the sample were symptomatic of and 11.3% were at risk of EA. Hierarchical regressions revealed an association between the time spent on vigorous physical activities and levels of EA (p < 0.05). Moreover, body image variables were positively related to EA, explaining an additional 11% of variance (p < 0.05). Results showed the importance of considering and addressing body image factors to investigate and dampen the risk of EA among sporty people.
... Previous studies have reported that lockdown and COVID-19 fear influenced eating and food purchasing behaviour (Jribi et al., 2020;Naja and Hamadeh, 2020). While several studies reported that negative eating behaviours such as irregular eating behaviour and increased food intake are associated with COVID-19 fear (Celik and Dane, 2020;Luo et al., 2021), there were also studies showing that this situation causes positive behaviour development (Nguyen et al., 2020;Pi sot et al., 2020). One study found a negative association between COVID-19 fear and health-related behaviours such as alcohol use and smoking (Nguyen et al., 2020). ...
Purpose: There are many studies investigating people's eating habits during the COVID-19 period, and people have been encouraged to eat healthier. Healthy nutrition is made possible by making healthy food choices and food labels are one of the tools that help consumers make healthy food choices. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ food label reading behaviours and their level of trust in food labels. Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1012 adults aged 18-65 years from 7 different regions of Turkey. Participants’ food label reading behaviours and their trust in food label information were assessed using an online questionnaire, and COVID-19 fear scores were determined using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Findings: Although not statistically significant, participants’ rate of reading food labels increased during the pandemic (65.6% vs 68.7%, p=0.078). On the contrary, trust in label information decreased significantly (47.9% vs 59.3%, p<0.001). In addition, increased COVID-19 fear was associated with an increased rate of food label reading and decreased trust in the label information (p<0.001). Originality: COVID-19 fear appears to have affected consumers' food label reading behaviours. As far as we know, there is no study about the effects of COVID-19 on consumers' food label reading behaviours. In conclusion, the information given on the label should be clear and apparent for a better understanding of the food label information. In addition, it is beneficial to give detailed education to consumers about food label reading. To determine the long-term effects of COVID-19 on this area, more comprehensive studies are needed.
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Background: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020, in seven languages, to elucidate the behavioural and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours. Methods: Following a structured review of the literature, the "Effects of home Confinement on multiple Lifestyle Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak (ECLB-COVID19)" Electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists and academics. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. Thirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format, with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. Results: 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included in the analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all PA intensity levels (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Additionally, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h per day. Food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of main meals) were more unhealthy during confinement, with only alcohol binge drinking decreasing significantly. Conclusion: While isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a health compromising direction. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups, which will help develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during the COVID-19 confinement.
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Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Italian government has adopted containment measures to control the virus's spread, including limitations to the practice of physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of PA, expressed as energy expenditure (MET-minute/week), among the physically active Sicilian population before and during the last seven days of the COVID-19 quarantine. Furthermore, the relation between this parameter and specific demographic and anthropometric variables was analyzed. Methods: 802 Sicilian physically active participants (mean age: 32.27 ± 12.81 years; BMI: 23.44 ± 3.33 kg/m 2) were included in the study and grouped based on gender, age and BMI. An adapted version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) was administered to the participants through an online survey. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test were used for statistical analyses. Results: As expected, we observed a significant decrease of the total weekly energy expenditure during the COVID-19 quarantine (p < 0.001). A significant variation in the MET-min/wk in the before quarantine condition (p = 0.046) and in the difference between before and during quarantine (p = 0.009) was found for males and females. The male group decreased the PA level more than the female one. Moreover, a significant difference in the MET-min/wk was found among groups distributions of BMI (p < 0.001, during quarantine) and of age (p < 0.001, both before and during quarantine). In particular, the highest and the lowest levels of PA were reported by the young and the elderly, respectively, both before and during quarantine. Finally, the overweight group showed the lowest level of PA during quarantine. Conclusion: Based on our outcomes, we can determine that the current quarantine has negatively affected the practice of PA, with greater impacts among males and overweight subjects. In regards to different age groups, the young, young adults and adults were more affected than senior adults and the elderly.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented health crisis as entire populations have been asked to self-isolate and live in home-confinement for several weeks to months, which in itself represents a physiological challenge with significant health risks. This paper describes the impact of sedentarism on the human body at the level of the muscular, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine and nervous systems and is based on evidence from several models of inactivity, including bed rest, unilateral limb suspension, and step-reduction. Data form these studies show that muscle wasting occurs rapidly, being detectable within two days of inactivity. This loss of muscle mass is associated with fibre denervation, neuromuscular junction damage and upregulation of protein breakdown, but is mostly explained by the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Inactivity also affects glucose homeostasis as just few days of step reduction or bed rest, reduce insulin sensitivity, principally in muscle. Additionally, aerobic capacity is impaired at all levels of the O2 cascade, from the cardiovascular system, including peripheral circulation, to skeletal muscle oxidative function. Positive energy balance during physical inactivity is associated with fat deposition, associated with systemic inflammation and activation of antioxidant defences, exacerbating muscle loss. Importantly, these deleterious effects of inactivity can be diminished by routine exercise practice, but the exercise dose-response relationship is currently unknown. Nevertheless, low to medium-intensity high volume resistive exercise, easily implementable in home-settings, will have positive effects, particularly if combined with a 15-25% reduction in daily energy intake. This combined regimen seems ideal for preserving neuromuscular, metabolic and cardiovascular health.
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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to be having a major impact on physical activity behaviours globally. The pandemic has forced many people around the world to stay at home and self-isolate for a period of time. WHO recommends 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for 6–17-yr-olds, and 75 min/wk of vigorous or 150 min/wk of moderate physical activity for adults and elderly, including 3 and 2 days/wk, respectively, with muscle and bone strengthening. Practical recommendations for staying active at home, with aerobic exercise training on a bike or rowing ergometer, bodyweight training, dance and active video gaming, can aid to counteract the detrimental physical and mental side-effects of the COVID-19 protective lifestyle regulations. This commentary provides useful information on home-based physical activity for sedentary people across the lifespan, including children and adolescence, that can be undertaken during the present pandemic or other outbreaks of infectious disease.
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The aim of the paper is to re-examine the concept of marathon as a sportsrecreational activity that presupposes a healthy lifestyle. Through the theoretical concept of escapism on the example of the Belgrade Marathon, the autobiographical book of a recreational marathon runner and autobiographical records of recreational runners, recreational participation in marathons is studied as a form of escapism from the problems of everyday life that ends up as a certain form of fanaticism. Fanaticism expressed in the imperative of success imposed through the obligation to finish the race changes the approach to a recreational activity whose goal is, among other things, to improve and nurture health. In the social context of neo-liberalism, this (self-)imposed imperative often leads in the direction of disrupting health for its own fulfillment. Keywords: marathon, health, escapism, recreationists, fanatics
Physical inactivity is common during periods of self-isolation, but for patients with rheumatic diseases, there are crucial benefits to be gained from maintaining an active lifestyle throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients should be provided with support to maintain physical activity and avoid prolonged periods of time spent sitting.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.