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The role of aluminum adjuvants in vaccines raises issues that deserve independent, rigorous and honest science

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... Recently authors replied in The Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology (Crépeaux et al., 2020) to a paper published by us in Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses (Goullé and Grangeot-Keros, 2020). In their response Crépeaux et al. asserted what we did not delineate the scientific questions related to Al adjuvants in vaccines and their detrimental consequences due to exposure, kinetics and toxicity. ...
... But the amount of Al +3 released from the vaccine is too low to exert any toxicity, when additionally, the kidneys clear this element. In their response Crépeaux et al. argue regarding the fate of injected Al adjuvants that novel experimental studies on Al adjuvants toxicokinetics should be performed in the long-term, including both neonatal and adult exposures, to ensure their safety and restore population confidence in Al-containing vaccines (Crépeaux et al., 2020). We agree with the urgent need to restore population confidence in vaccines, particularly among the French. ...
... Crépeaux et al. also asserted (Crépeaux et al., 2020): "that increased Al tissue levels have been indeed repeatedly reported following Al adjuvant or adjuvanted vaccine injections, in rabbit brains (Flarend et al., 1997), in mouse brains (Crépeaux et al., 2017), in rat bones and brains (Weisser et al., 2019a). In fact, Al levels in rabbit brains are so low that they are not of any significance (Flarend et al., 1997) ranging between 10 − 8 and 10 − 7 mg/g, i.e. between 10 − 5 and 10 − 4 µg/g. ...
... Until now the safety of ABAs was built on a limited and insufficient number of experiments (Masson et al. 2018;Cr epeaux et al. 2020). From their conception and use in the early 20th century (Glenny et al. 1926a(Glenny et al. , 1926b to the beginning of the 21st century, very little research has been done on ABAs pharmacokinetics and neurotoxicity, despite an increasing number of both human and animal studies sounding the alarm on an unanticipated long persistence time of ABAs and on neurological disorders associated with this biopersistence in humans and sheep. ...
Article
Aluminum (Al) salts are commonly used as adjuvants in human and veterinary vaccines for almost a century. Despite this long history of use and the very large number of exposed individuals, data in the literature concerning the fate of these molecules after injection and their potential effects on the nervous system is limited. In the context of (i) an increase of exposure to Al salts through vaccination; (ii) the absence of safety values determined by health regulators; (iii) the lack of robustness of the studies used as references to officially claim Al adjuvant innocuity; (iv) the publication of several animal studies investigating Al salts clearance/biopersistence and neurotoxicity; we have examined in this review all published studies performed on animals and assessing Al adjuvants kinetics, biodistribution, and neuro-modulation since the first work of A. Glenny in the 1920s. The diversity of methodological approaches, results, and potential weaknesses of the 31 collected studies are exposed. A large range of protocols has been used, including a variety of exposure schedule and analyses methods, making comparisons between studies uneasy. Nevertheless, published data highlight that when biopersistence, translocation, or neuromodulation were assessed, they were documented whatever the different in vivo models and methods used. Moreover, the studies pointed out the crucial importance of the different Al adjuvant physicochemical properties and host genetic background on their kinetics, biodistribution, and neuro-modulatory effects. Regarding the state of the art on this key public health topic, further studies are clearly needed to determine the exact safety level of Al salts.
... Considering that (i) autophagy is likely to be disrupted in ASD brains, (ii) this disruption could impair ABA clearance, (iii) ABAs are persistent pro-inflammatory particles in the early environment of babies, (iv) ABAs might significantly translocate to the brain with an immature BBB, altering the autophagy process and promoting neuroinflammation, and (v) that there is no proof to support that ABAs are completely secure to use in the children, we believe that further research should address the potential link between ABAs and NDDs [240,241], including: ...
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are genetically complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) resulting from genetic factors and gene-environment (GxE) interactions for which onset occurs in early brain development. Recent progress highlights the link between ASD and (i) immunogenetics, neurodevelopment, and inflammation, and (ii) impairments of autophagy, a crucial neurodevelopmental process involved in synaptic pruning. Among various environmental factors causing risk for ASD, aluminum (Al)containing vaccines injected during critical periods have received special attention and triggered relevant scientific questions. The aim of this review is to discuss the current knowledge on the role of early inflammation, immune and autophagy dysfunction in ASD as well as preclinical studies which question Al adjuvant impacts on brain and immune maturation. We highlight the most recent breakthroughs and the lack of epidemiological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data constituting a “scientific gap”. We propose additional research, such as genetic studies that could contribute to identify populations at genetic risk, improving diagnosis, and potentially the development of new therapeutic tools.
... Furthermore, it has been proposed that the security of aluminum adjuvants added to vaccines, like other environmental elements that could represent a neurotoxic danger and with which the children are in contact, must be scientifically reanalyzed without further retardation [69], especially when the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have reported a still rising occurrence of ASD, of 1 child in 54 in the USA [70]. ...
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Background: For nearly a century, aluminum hydroxide (alum) has continued to be employed as an adjuvant in vaccinations. It was first applied by immunologist Alexander T. Glenny in 1926 to boost the immune response. Its great efficiency has allowed aluminum to continue to be used to date. Methods: Recognized scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed were utilized to search for the keywords. The selected works were reviewed and analyzed according to their relevance. Only peer-reviewed articles were included in the analysis. Results: Contemporary research carried out on animals has shown that it has a neurotoxic effect. Furthermore, increased aluminum concentrations in the nervous system tissues of people, who died from an autism condition have been discovered by using advanced imaging techniques. The paradigm shift proposes a reconsideration of the use of the alum-based adjuvants and calls for a careful dissection to avoid incorrect interpretations. This proposal does not constitute an attack on vaccination, as nobody refutes the fact that it has been systematically proven to be effective in saving millions of lives. Unfortunately, scientists, who have investigated the toxicity of aluminum-based adjuvants have been unfairly labeled as "anti-vaxxers". Rather, what they have been questioning is the safety of aluminum as an adjuvant. Conclusions: The present work encourages researchers, health regulatory agencies, and even pharmaceutical companies to allow themselves to think about the possibility that aluminum-based adjuvants could be toxic for susceptible children.
... The inclusion of well-known adjuvants consisting of aluminium-hydroxide or aluminium phosphate particles -which are easily detectable (Gatti and Montanari, 2015), and are known to cause adverse effects (Petrik et al., 2007;Tomljenovic & Shaw, 2011;Butnaru & Shoenfeld, 2015;Gherardi et al., 2019;Crépeaux et al., 2020) -is particularly relevant for children up to the age of five who will typically have already been exposed to multiple doses of vaccines containing such adjuvants. All this, before potentially being exposed to DiCoReTh-injections that are known to have deleterious effects on the immune systems of healthy adult individuals, much less can those injections be regarded as safe for use in children with lower body weight and more limited resources for ridding the body of toxicants through liver, kidney, and lymphatic functions. ...
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The engineered spike protein of SARS-COV-2, and the corresponding infectious disease COVID-19 attributed to it, hold in their grip a large portion of humanity. The global race for a counter strategy quickly turned into a search for a vaccine as the preferred means to contain the virus. An unusually rapid development of different and completely new classes of experimental therapies that would widely be referred to as “vaccines” raised questions about safety, especially with regard to emergency use approval (EUA) being granted with unprecedented urgency and hardly any critical scrutiny. At present, independent researchers, even some former proponents and insiders, of the currently ongoing global experiment represented as a “vaccination” campaign point primarily to the lack of public safety studies based on empirical datasets that should be obtainable for the tens of millions, even hundreds of millions, of doses of mRNA and DNA vector therapeutics being distributed as “vaccines”. Studies regarding efficacy and “side effects” (sometimes fatalities or permanent iatrogenic injuries) of these experimental therapies have been by-passed in favor of short-term field data from real patients which inevitably raises scientific and ethical questions particularly in view of the fact that the persons and entities responsible for public safety hold deep financial and other vested interests in speeding along the distribution of the experimental pharmaceutical products. The lack of an open discussion about the experimental therapies for COVID-19 now being applied across all age groups, even children hardly impacted by COVID-19, is worrying. The core principle of open debate without pre-conceptions or vested interests in outcomes has been and continues to be utterly ignored. We hope to engage scientific discussion that will help decision-makers, the general public, and the media alike to consider the subject-matter of what is at stake in a context of reason rather than panic.
... L'inclusione di noti adiuvanti costituiti da particelle di idrossido di alluminio o fosfato di alluminio, che sono facilmente rilevabili (Gatti e Montanari, 2015) e sono noti per causare effetti avversi (Petrik et al., 2007;Tomljenovic & Shaw, 2011;Butnaru & Shoenfeld, 2015;Gherardi et al., 2019;Crépeaux et al., 2020) -è particolarmente rilevante per i bambini fino all'età di cinque anni che in genere saranno già stati esposti a dosi multiple di vaccini contenenti tali adiuvanti. Tutto questo, prima di essere potenzialmente esposti a iniezioni di TeReCoMa che sono note per avere effetti deleteri sul sistema immunitario di individui adulti sani, tanto meno quelle iniezioni possono essere considerate sicure per l'uso nei bambini con peso corporeo inferiore e risorse più limitate per liberare il corpo da tossicità attraverso il fegato, reni e funzioni linfatiche. ...
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La proteina ingegnerizzata spike della SARS-COV-2 e la corrispondente malattia infettiva COVID-19 attribuita ad essa tengono in pugno una gran parte dell'umanità. La corsa globale per una strategia di contrasto si è rapidamente trasformata nella ricerca di un vaccino come mezzo preferenziale per contenere il virus. Uno sviluppo insolitamente rapido di diverse classi completamente nuove di terapie sperimentali diffuse come "vaccini", ha sollevato interrogativi sulla sicurezza, in particolare per quanto riguarda l'approvazione dell'uso di emergenza (EUA) che è stata concessa con un'urgenza senza precedenti e priva di qualsiasi esame critico contrario. Attualmente, ricercatori indipendenti, come anche alcuni ex proponenti e addetti ai lavori dell'esperimento globale attualmente in corso e rappresentato come una campagna di "vaccinazione", sottolineano soprattutto la mancanza di studi sulla sicurezza della campagna vaccinale che ha finito invece per strutturarsi su set di dati empirici che verranno ottenuti attraverso decine di milioni, anche centinaia di milioni, di dosi di mRNA e terapie vettoriali del DNA distribuite col nome di "vaccini". Gli studi riguardanti l'efficacia e gli "effetti collaterali" (talvolta fatalità o lesioni iatrogene permanenti) di queste terapie sperimentali sono stati omessi a favore di dati a breve termine presi sul campo su pazienti reali. Questa evidenza solleva inevitabilmente questioni scientifiche ed etiche, in particolare in considerazione del fatto che le persone e gli enti responsabili per la sicurezza pubblica hanno vasti interessi finanziari e di altro tipo che li portano ad accelerare la distribuzione di questi prodotti farmaceutici sperimentali. La mancanza di una discussione aperta sulle terapie sperimentali per il COVID-19 ora applicate su tutte le fasce di età, anche i bambini, che difficilmente sono colpiti dal COVID-19, è preoccupante. Il principio fondamentale del dibattito aperto senza preconcetti o sugli interessi nei risultati è stato e continua ad essere completamente ignorato. Speriamo di impegnare una discussione scientifica al fine di aiutare chi deve decidere, l'opinione pubblica e i media a considerare l'oggetto di ciò che è in gioco in un contesto di ragione piuttosto che di panico.
... All of these studies show that the impact of injected aluminum on human health is a valid concern, and therefore vaccination schedules that seek to minimize exposure to injected aluminum are worth investigating (Crépeaux et al. [25]). As we showed in McFarland et al. (2020), on the CDC pediatric schedule, children receive more aluminum from vaccines than from any food source or from water, at levels placing them in aluminum toxicity 100% of their days in the first year. ...
Article
Response to anonymous critic who contacted the journal and requested that our study be retracted because people might stop using the MMR vaccine if they learn about the toxicity of aluminum in pediatric vaccines (even though the MMR does not contain any aluminum).
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Problem/condition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period covered: 2016. Description of system: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance program that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). Surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by medical and educational service providers in the community. In the second phase, experienced clinicians who systematically review all abstracted information determine ASD case status. The case definition is based on ASD criteria described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Results: For 2016, across all 11 sites, ASD prevalence was 18.5 per 1,000 (one in 54) children aged 8 years, and ASD was 4.3 times as prevalent among boys as among girls. ASD prevalence varied by site, ranging from 13.1 (Colorado) to 31.4 (New Jersey). Prevalence estimates were approximately identical for non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black), and Asian/Pacific Islander children (18.5, 18.3, and 17.9, respectively) but lower for Hispanic children (15.4). Among children with ASD for whom data on intellectual or cognitive functioning were available, 33% were classified as having intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] ≤70); this percentage was higher among girls than boys (40% versus 32%) and among black and Hispanic than white children (47%, 36%, and 27%, respectively). Black children with ASD were less likely to have a first evaluation by age 36 months than were white children with ASD (40% versus 45%). The overall median age at earliest known ASD diagnosis (51 months) was similar by sex and racial and ethnic groups; however, black children with IQ ≤70 had a later median age at ASD diagnosis than white children with IQ ≤70 (48 months versus 42 months). Interpretation: The prevalence of ASD varied considerably across sites and was higher than previous estimates since 2014. Although no overall difference in ASD prevalence between black and white children aged 8 years was observed, the disparities for black children persisted in early evaluation and diagnosis of ASD. Hispanic children also continue to be identified as having ASD less frequently than white or black children. Public health action: These findings highlight the variability in the evaluation and detection of ASD across communities and between sociodemographic groups. Continued efforts are needed for early and equitable identification of ASD and timely enrollment in services.
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Background: Neuroinflammation can modulate brain development; however, the influence of an acute peripheral immune challenge on neuroinflammatory responses in the early postnatal brain is not well characterized. To address this gap in knowledge, we evaluated the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) immune responses to a mixed immune challenge in early postnatal rats of varying strains and sex. Methods: On postnatal day 10 (P10), male and female Lewis and Brown Norway rats were injected intramuscularly with either a mix of bacterial and viral components in adjuvant, adjuvant-only, or saline. Immune responses were evaluated at 2 and 5 days post-challenge. Cytokine and chemokine levels were evaluated in serum and in multiple brain regions using a Luminex multiplex assay. Multi-factor ANOVAs were used to compare analyte levels across treatment groups within strain, sex, and day of sample collection. Numbers and activation status of astrocytes and microglia were also analyzed in the cortex and hippocampus by quantifying immunoreactivity for GFAP, IBA-1, and CD68 in fixed brain slices. Immunohistochemical data were analyzed using a mixed-model regression analysis. Results: Acute peripheral immune challenge differentially altered cytokine and chemokine levels in the serum versus the brain. Within the brain, the cytokine and chemokine response varied between strains, sexes, and days post-challenge. Main findings included differences in T helper (Th) type cytokine responses in various brain regions, particularly the cortex, with respect to IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 levels. Additionally, peripheral immune challenge altered GFAP and IBA-1 immunoreactivity in the brain in a strain- and sex-dependent manner. Conclusions: These findings indicate that genetic background and sex influence the CNS response to an acute peripheral immune challenge during early postnatal development. Additionally, these data reinforce that the developmental time point during which the challenge occurs has a distinct effect on the activation of CNS-resident cells.
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Aluminium (Al) toxicokinetics after intramuscular (IM) injection of Al-adjuvanted vaccines is unknown. Since animal data are required for modeling and extrapolation, a rat study was conducted measuring Al in plasma and tissues after IM injection of either plain Al-hydroxide (pAH) or Al-phosphate (pAP) adjuvant (Al dose 1.25 mg), single human doses of three Al-adjuvanted vaccines (V1, V2, and V3; Al doses 0.5–0.82 mg), or vehicle (saline). A significant increase in Al plasma levels compared to controls was observed after pAP (AUC(0–80 d), mean ± SD: 2424 ± 496 vs. 1744 ± 508 µg/L*d). Percentage of Al dose released from injected muscle until day 80 was higher after pAP (66.9%) and AP-adjuvanted V3 (85.5%) than after pAH and AH-adjuvanted V1 (0 and 22.3%, resp.). Estimated absolute Al release was highest for pAP (836.8 µg per rat). Al concentration in humerus bone was increased in all groups, again strongest in the pAP group [3.35 ± 0.39 vs. 0.05 ± 0.06 µg/g wet weight (ww)]. Extrapolated amounts in whole skeleton corresponded to 5–12% of the released Al dose. Very low brain Al concentrations were observed in all groups (adjuvant group means 0.14–0.29 µg/g ww; control 0.13 ± 0.04 µg/g ww). The results demonstrate systemically available Al from marketed vaccines in rats being mainly detectable in bone. Al release appears to be faster from AP- than AH-adjuvants. Dose scaling to human adults suggests that increase of Al in plasma and tissues after single vaccinations will be indistinguishable from baseline levels.
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Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect up to 3% of children in the United States. Public health surveillance for ASD among children aged 4 years provides information about trends in prevalence, characteristics of children with ASD, and progress made toward decreasing the age of identification of ASD so that evidence-based interventions can begin as early as possible. Period Covered 2010, 2012, and 2014. Description of System The Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (Early ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides biennial estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 4 years whose parents or guardians lived within designated sites. During surveillance years 2010, 2012, or 2014, data were collected in seven sites: Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin. The Early ADDM Network is a subset of the broader ADDM Network (which included 13 total sites over the same period) that has been conducting ASD surveillance among children aged 8 years since 2000. Each Early ADDM site covers a smaller geographic area than the broader ADDM Network. Early ADDM ASD surveillance is conducted in two phases using the same methods and project staff members as the ADDM Network. The first phase consists of reviewing and abstracting data from children’s records, including comprehensive evaluations performed by community professionals. Sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, special education records (for children aged ≥3 years) were reviewed for Arizona, Colorado, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Utah, and early intervention records (for children aged 0 to <3 years) were reviewed for New Jersey, North Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin; in Wisconsin, early intervention records were reviewed for 2014 only. The second phase involves a review of the abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians using a standardized case definition and method. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder (2010, 2012, and 2014). For 2014 only, prevalence estimates based on surveillance case definitions according to DSM-IV-TR and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) were compared. This report provides estimates of overall ASD prevalence and prevalence by sex and race/ethnicity; characteristics of children aged 4 years with ASD, including age at first developmental evaluation, age at ASD diagnosis, and cognitive function; and trends in ASD prevalence and characteristics among Early ADDM sites with data for all 3 surveillance years (2010, 2012, and 2014), including comparisons with children aged 8 years living in the same geographic area. Analyses of time trends in ASD prevalence are restricted to the three sites that contributed data for all 3 surveillance years with consistent data sources (Arizona, Missouri, and New Jersey). Results The overall ASD prevalence was 13.4 per 1,000 children aged 4 years in 2010, 15.3 in 2012, and 17.0 in 2014 for Early ADDM sites with data for the specific years. ASD prevalence was determined using a surveillance case definition based on DSM-IV-TR. Within each surveillance year, ASD prevalence among children aged 4 years varied across surveillance sites and was lowest each year for Missouri (8.5, 8.1, and 9.6 per 1,000, for 2010, 2012, and 2014, respectively) and highest each year for New Jersey (19.7, 22.1, and 28.4 per 1,000, for the same years, respectively). Aggregated prevalence estimates were higher for sites that reviewed education and health care records than for sites that reviewed only health care records. Among all participating sites and years, ASD prevalence among children aged 4 years was consistently higher among boys than girls; prevalence ratios ranged from 2.6 (Arizona and Wisconsin in 2010) to 5.2 boys per one girl (Colorado in 2014). In 2010, ASD prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic white children than among Hispanic children in Arizona and non-Hispanic black children in Missouri; no other differences were observed by race/ethnicity. Among four sites with ≥60% data on cognitive test scores (Arizona, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Utah), the frequency of co-occurring intellectual disabilities was significantly higher among children aged 4 years than among those aged 8 years for each site in each surveillance year except Arizona in 2010. The percentage of children with ASD who had a first evaluation by age 36 months ranged from 48.8% in Missouri in 2012 to 88.9% in Wisconsin in 2014. The percentage of children with a previous ASD diagnosis from a community provider varied by site, ranging from 43.0% for Arizona in 2012 to 86.5% for Missouri in 2012. The median age at earliest known ASD diagnosis varied from 28 months in North Carolina in 2014 to 39.0 months in Missouri and Wisconsin in 2012. In 2014, the ASD prevalence based on the DSM-IV-TR case definition was 20% higher than the prevalence based on the DSM-5 (17.0 versus 14.1 per 1,000, respectively). Trends in ASD prevalence and characteristics among children aged 4 years during the study period were assessed for the three sites with data for all 3 years and consistent data sources (Arizona, Missouri, and New Jersey) using the DSM-IV-TR case definition; prevalence was higher in 2014 than in 2010 among children aged 4 years in New Jersey and was stable in Arizona and Missouri. In Missouri, ASD prevalence was higher among children aged 8 years than among children aged 4 years. The percentage of children with ASD who had a comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months was stable in Arizona and Missouri and decreased in New Jersey. In the three sites, no change occurred in the age at earliest known ASD diagnosis during 2010–2014. Interpretation The findings suggest that ASD prevalence among children aged 4 years was higher in 2014 than in 2010 in one site and remained stable in others. Among children with ASD, the frequency of cognitive impairment was higher among children aged 4 years than among those aged 8 years and suggests that surveillance at age 4 years might more often include children with more severe symptoms or those with co-occurring conditions such as intellectual disability. In the sites with data for all years and consistent data sources, no change in the age at earliest known ASD diagnosis was found, and children received their first developmental evaluation at the same or a later age in 2014 compared with 2010. Delays in the initiation of a first developmental evaluation might adversely affect children by delaying access to treatment and special services that can improve outcomes for children with ASD. Public Health Action Efforts to increase awareness of ASD and improve the identification of ASD by community providers can facilitate early diagnosis of children with ASD. Heterogeneity of results across sites suggests that community-level differences in evaluation and diagnostic services as well as access to data sources might affect estimates of ASD prevalence and age of identification. Continuing improvements in providing developmental evaluations to children as soon as developmental concerns are identified might result in earlier ASD diagnoses and earlier receipt of services, which might improve developmental outcomes.
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Abstract Aluminium salts are by far the most commonly used adjuvants in vaccines. There are only two aluminium salts which are used in clinically-approved vaccines, Alhydrogel® and AdjuPhos®, while the novel aluminium adjuvant used in Gardasil® is a sulphated version of the latter. We have investigated the physicochemical properties of these two aluminium adjuvants and specifically in milieus approximating to both vaccine vehicles and the composition of injection sites. Additionally we have used a monocytic cell line to establish the relationship between their physicochemical properties and their internalisation and cytotoxicity. We emphasise that aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved vaccines are chemically and biologically dissimilar with concomitantly potentially distinct roles in vaccine-related adverse events.
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The use of vaccines including aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants is widespread among small ruminants and other animals. They are associated with the appearance of transient injection site nodules corresponding to granulomas. This study aims to characterize the morphology of these granulomas, to understand the role of the Al adjuvant in their genesis, and to establish the presence of the metal in regional lymph nodes. A total of 84 male neutered lambs were selected and divided into 3 treatment groups of 28 animals each: (1) vaccine (containing Al-based adjuvant), (2) adjuvant-only, and (3) control. A total of 19 subcutaneous injections were performed in a time frame of 15 months. Granulomas and regional lymph nodes were evaluated by clinicopathological means. All of the vaccine and 92.3% of the adjuvant-only lambs presented injection-site granulomas; the granulomas were more numerous in the group administered the vaccine. Bacterial culture in granulomas was always negative. Histologically, granulomas in the vaccine group presented a higher degree of severity. Al was specifically identified by lumogallion staining in granulomas and lymph nodes. Al median content was significantly higher ( P < .001) in the lymph nodes of the vaccine group (82.65 μg/g) compared with both adjuvant-only (2.53 μg/g) and control groups (0.96 μg/g). Scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrated aggregates of Al within macrophages in vaccine and adjuvant-only groups. In these two groups, Al-based adjuvants induce persistent, sterile, subcutaneous granulomas with macrophage-driven translocation of Al to regional lymph nodes. Local translocation of Al may induce further accumulation in distant tissues and be related to the appearance of systemic signs.
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FDA regulations require safety testing of constituent ingredients in drugs (21 CFR 610.15). With the exception of extraneous proteins, no component safety testing is required for vaccines or vaccine schedules. The dosing of aluminum in vaccines is based on the production of antibody titers, not safety science. Here we estimate a Pediatric Dose Limit that considers body weight. We identify several serious historical missteps in past analyses of provisional safe levels of aluminum in vaccines, and provide updates relevant to infant aluminum exposure in the pediatric schedule considering pediatric body weight. When aluminum doses are estimated from Federal Regulatory Code given body weight, exposure from the current vaccine schedule are found to exceed our estimate of a weight-corrected Pediatric Dose Limit. Our calculations show that the levels of aluminum suggested by the currently used limits place infants at risk of acute, repeated, and possibly chronic exposures of toxic levels of aluminum in modern vaccine schedules. Individual adult exposures are on par with Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake “limits”, but some individuals may be aluminum intolerant due to genetics or previous exposures. Vaccination in neonates and low birth-weight infants must be re-assessed; other implications for the use of aluminum-containing vaccines, and additional limitations in our understanding of neurotoxicity and safety levelsof aluminum in biologics are discussed. Project page: http://ipaknowledge.org/Pediatric-Dosing-of-Aluminum.php
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Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue, or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Representative features of MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction include dysexecutive syndrome, visual memory impairment, and left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Most patients fulfill criteria for non-amnestic/dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment, even if some cognitive deficits appear unusually severe. Cognitive dysfunction seems stable over time despite marked fluctuations. Evoked potentials may show abnormalities in keeping with central nervous system involvement, with a neurophysiological pattern suggestive of demyelination. Brain perfusion SPECT shows a pattern of diffuse cortical and subcortical abnormalities, with hypoperfusions correlating with cognitive deficiencies. The combination of musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, and cognitive disturbance generates chronic disability with possible social exclusion. Classical therapeutic approaches are usually unsatisfactory making patient care difficult.
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We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer's and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS-PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.
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We describe a form of the autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep, linked to the repetitive inoculation of aluminum-containing adjuvants through vaccination. The syndrome shows an acute phase that affects less than 0.5 % of animals in a given herd, it appears 2-6 days after an adjuvant-containing inoculation and it is characterized by an acute neurological episode with low response to external stimuli and acute meningoencephalitis, most animals apparently recovering afterward. The chronic phase is seen in a higher proportion of flocks, it can follow the acute phase, and it is triggered by external stimuli, mostly low temperatures. The chronic phase begins with an excitatory phase, followed by weakness, extreme cachexia, tetraplegia and death. Gross lesions are related to a cachectic process with muscular atrophy, and microscopic lesions are mostly linked to a neurodegenerative process in both dorsal and ventral column of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Experimental reproduction of ovine ASIA in a small group of repeatedly vaccinated animals was successful. Detection of Al(III) in tissues indicated the presence of aluminum in the nervous tissue of experimental animals. The present report is the first description of a new sheep syndrome (ovine ASIA syndrome) linked to multiple, repetitive vaccination and that can have devastating consequences as it happened after the compulsory vaccination against bluetongue in 2008. The ovine ASIA syndrome can be used as a model of other similar diseases affecting both human and animals. A major research effort is needed in order to understand its complex pathogenesis.
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Long-term biodistribution of nanomaterials used in medicine is largely unknown. This is the case for alum, the most widely used vaccine adjuvant, which is a nanocrystalline compound spontaneously forming micron/submicron-sized agglomerates. Although generally well tolerated, alum is occasionally detected within monocyte-lineage cells long after immunization in presumably susceptible individuals with systemic/neurologic manifestations or autoimmune (inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). On the grounds of preliminary investigations in 252 patients with alum-associated ASIA showing both a selective increase of circulating CCL2, the major monocyte chemoattractant, and a variation in the CCL2 gene, we designed mouse experiments to assess biodistribution of vaccine-derived aluminum and of alum-particle fluorescent surrogates injected in muscle. Aluminum was detected in tissues by Morin stain and particle induced X-ray emission) (PIXE) Both 500 nm fluorescent latex beads and vaccine alum agglomerates-sized nanohybrids (Al-Rho) were used. Intramuscular injection of alum-containing vaccine was associated with the appearance of aluminum deposits in distant organs, such as spleen and brain where they were still detected one year after injection. Both fluorescent materials injected into muscle translocated to draining lymph nodes (DLNs) and thereafter were detected associated with phagocytes in blood and spleen. Particles linearly accumulated in the brain up to the six-month endpoint; they were first found in perivascular CD11b+ cells and then in microglia and other neural cells. DLN ablation dramatically reduced the biodistribution. Cerebral translocation was not observed after direct intravenous injection, but significantly increased in mice with chronically altered blood-brain-barrier. Loss/gain-of-function experiments consistently implicated CCL2 in systemic diffusion of Al-Rho particles captured by monocyte-lineage cells and in their subsequent neurodelivery. Stereotactic particle injection pointed out brain retention as a factor of progressive particle accumulation. Nanomaterials can be transported by monocyte-lineage cells to DLNs, blood and spleen, and, similarly to HIV, may use CCL2-dependent mechanisms to penetrate the brain. This occurs at a very low rate in normal conditions explaining good overall tolerance of alum despite its strong neurotoxic potential. However, continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant in the population may become insidiously unsafe, especially in the case of overimmunization or immature/altered blood brain barrier or high constitutive CCL-2 production.
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Autism is a condition characterized by impaired cognitive and social skills, associated with compromised immune function. The incidence is alarmingly on the rise, and environmental factors are increasingly suspected to play a role. This paper investigates word frequency patterns in the U.S. CDC Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Our results provide strong evidence supporting a link between autism and the aluminum in vaccines. A literature review showing toxicity of aluminum in human physiology offers further support. Mentions of autism in VAERS increased steadily at the end of the last century, during a period when mercury was being phased out, while aluminum adjuvant burden was being increased. Using standard log-likelihood ratio techniques, we identify several signs and symptoms that are significantly more prevalent in vaccine reports after 2000, including cellulitis, seizure, depression, fatigue, pain and death, which are also significantly associated with aluminum-containing vaccines. We propose that children with the autism diagnosis are especially vulnerable to toxic metals such as aluminum and mercury due to insufficient serum sulfate and glutathione. A strong correlation between autism and the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccine is also observed, which may be partially explained via an increased sensitivity to acetaminophen administered to control fever.
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious multisystem developmental disorders and an urgent global public health concern. Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key points ought to be considered: (i) children should not be viewed as "small adults" as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; and (ii) if exposure to Al from only few vaccines can lead to cognitive impairment and autoimmunity in adults, is it unreasonable to question whether the current pediatric schedules, often containing 18 Al adjuvanted vaccines, are safe for children? By applying Hill's criteria for establishing causality between exposure and outcome we investigated whether exposure to Al from vaccines could be contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence in the Western world. Our results show that: (i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines; (ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and (iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248). The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted.
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Universal hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for U.S. newborns in 1991; however, safety findings are mixed. The association between hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and parental report of autism diagnosis was determined. This cross-sectional study used weighted probability samples obtained from National Health Interview Survey 1997-2002 data sets. Vaccination status was determined from the vaccination record. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds for autism diagnosis associated with neonatal hepatitis B vaccination among boys age 3-17 years, born before 1999, adjusted for race, maternal education, and two-parent household. Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Non-Hispanic white boys were 64% less likely to have autism diagnosis relative to nonwhite boys. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period. Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk.
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Sheep health management strategies often include the use of aluminum (Al)-containing vaccines. These products were associated with the appearance of the ovine autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome), which included an array of ethological changes in the affected animals. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate cognitive and behavioral changes in sheep subjected to a protocol of repetitive inoculation with Al-containing products. Twenty-one lambs were assigned to three groups (n = 7 each): Control, Adjuvant-only, and Vaccine. Vaccine group was inoculated with commercial Al- hydroxide containing vaccines; Adjuvant-only group received the equivalent dose of Al only (Alhydrogel®), and Control group received Phosphate-buffered saline. Sixteen inoculations were administered within a 349-day period. Ethological changes were studied in late summer (7 inoculations) and mid-winter (16 inoculations). Animals in Vaccine and Adjuvant-only groups exhibited individual and social behavioral changes. Affiliative interactions were significantly reduced, and aggressive interactions and stereotypies increased significantly. They also exhibited a significant increase in excitatory behavior and compulsive eating. There were increased levels of stress biomarkers in these two groups. In general, changes were more pronounced in the Vaccine group than they were in the Adjuvant-only group. Some changes were already significant in summer, after seven inoculations only. This study is the first to describe behavioral changes in sheep after having received repetitive injections of Al-containing products, and may explain some of the clinical signs observed in ovine ASIA syndrome.
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The use of vaccines containing aluminum (Al) adjuvants is widespread in ovine production. Al adjuvants induce an effective immune-response but lead to the formation of post-vaccination granulomas from which Al can disseminate. This work aims to study the accumulation of Al in the central nervous system of sheep subcutaneously inoculated with Al-hydroxide containing products. Lumbar spinal cord and parietal lobe from 21 animals inoculated with 19 doses of Vaccine (n = 7), Adjuvant-only (n = 7) or phosphate-buffered saline as Control (n = 7) were analyzed with transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and lumogallion staining for Al analytical measurements and Al tisular localization respectively. In the lumbar spinal cord, Al median content was higher in both the Adjuvant-only and Vaccine group (p = .001) compared with the Control group. Animals of the Adjuvant-only group showed the higher individual measurements in the lumbar spinal cord (14.36 μg/g and 7.83 μg/g). In the parietal lobe, Al median content tended to be higher in the Adjuvant-only group compared with Control group (p = .074). Except for three replicates of the Adjuvant-only group, Al content was always below 1 μg/g. In the lumbar spinal cord, lumogallion-reactive Al deposits were more abundant in the gray matter than in the white matter in both Vaccine (p = .034) and Adjuvant-only groups (p = .017) and Al deposits were mostly associated with glial-like cells (p = .042). In the parietal lobe, few Al deposits, which were sometimes related to blood vessels, were found. In sheep, Al-hydroxide adjuvants inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue selectively accumulate in the lumbar spinal cord.
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French people have never been so wary about vaccines. The use of aluminum salts in vaccine adjuvants to enhance effectiveness is one of the major reasons for this lack of confidence. The direct toxicity of aluminum is often put forward. Direct toxicity of aluminum has long been known-especially with occupational exposure-to be associated with characteristic clinical manifestations and increased blood aluminum level. Intoxication related to the excessive amount of an element in the body, whether be it lead poisoning following exposure to lead or mercury poisoning for instance, is always associated with metal increase in biological media. To date no link has been established between the direct toxicity of aluminum and vaccines. Aluminum levels in biological media of vaccinated subjects are not different from those of unvaccinated subjects. This is consistent with the very small amount of aluminum contained in one dose of vaccine. Indirect toxicity of aluminum was suggested to explain macrophagic myofasciitis in humans in 2011, a disease that could be mediated by an autoimmune/autoinflammatory mechanism. This hypothesis has recently been refuted in a large pharmaco-epidemiological study proving that aluminum-containing adjuvants of vaccines are not responsible for this autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome.
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Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multifactorial and poorly undersood disabling disease. We present epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that ME/CFS constitutes a major type of adverse effect of vaccines, especially those containing poorly degradable particulate aluminum adjuvants. Evidence has emerged very slowly due to the multiplicity, lack of specificity, delayed onset, and frequent medical underestimation of ME/CFS symptoms. It was supported by an epidemiological study comparing vaccinated vs unvaccinated militaries that remained undeployed during Gulf War II. Affected patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction affecting attention, memory and inter-hemispheric connexions, well correlated to brain perfusion defects and associated with a stereotyped and distinctive pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Deltoid muscle biopsy performed to investigate myalgia typically yields macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF), a histological biomarker assessing longstanding persistency of aluminum agglomerates within innate immune cells at site of previous immunization. MMF is seemingly linked to altered mineral particle detoxification by the xeno/autophagy machinery. Comparing toxicology of different forms of aluminum and different types of exposure is misleading and inadequate and small animal experiments have turned old dogma upside down. Instead of being rapidly solubilized in the extracellular space, injected aluminum particles are quickly captured by immune cells and transported to distant organs and the brain where they elicit an inflammatory response and exert selective low dose long-term neurotoxicity. Clinical observations and experiments in sheep, a large animal like humans, confirmed both systemic diffusion and neurotoxic effects of aluminum adjuvants. Post-immunization ME/CFS represents the core manifestation of “autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants” (ASIA).
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Aluminum (Al)-containing vaccines are common in sheep management and they have been associated with the Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive and behavioral changes in sheep subjected to a protocol of repetitive inoculation with Al-containing products. Twenty-one lambs were assigned to three groups (n = 7 each): A (Control), B (Adjuvant-only), C (Vaccine). Group C was inoculated with commercial Al-containing vaccines; Group B received the equivalent dose of Al only (Alhydrogel®) and Group A received PBS. Sixteen inoculations were administered within a 349-day period. Ethologic changes were studied in late summer (7 inoculations) and mid-winter (16 inoculations). Animals in groups B and C exhibited behavioral changes: affiliative interactions were significantly reduced and aggressive interactions and stereotypies increased significantly. They also exhibited a significant increase in excitatory behavior and compulsive eating. In general, changes were more pronounced in the Vaccine group than they were in the Adjuvant-only group. Some changes were already significant in summer, after seven inoculations only. This study is the first to describe behavioral changes in sheep after having received repetitive injections of Al-containing products, explaining some of the clinical signs observed in ovine ASIA syndrome.
Article
We reviewed the three toxicokinetic reference studies commonly used to suggest that aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants are innocuous. A single experimental study was carried out using isotopic 26Al (Flarend et al., Vaccine, 1997). This study used aluminum salts resembling those used in vaccines but ignored adjuvant uptake by cells that was not fully documented at the time. It was conducted over a short period of time (28days) and used only two rabbits per adjuvant. At the endpoint, Al elimination in the urine accounted for 6% for Al hydroxide and 22% for Al phosphate, both results being incompatible with rapid elimination of vaccine-derived Al in urine. Two theoretical studies have evaluated the potential risk of vaccine Al in infants, by reference to an oral "minimal risk level" (MRL) extrapolated from animal studies. Keith et al. (Vaccine, 2002) used a high MRL (2mg/kg/d), an erroneous model of 100% immediate absorption of vaccine Al, and did not consider renal and blood-brain barrier immaturity. Mitkus et al. (Vaccine, 2011) only considered solubilized Al, with erroneous calculations of absorption duration. Systemic Al particle diffusion and neuro-inflammatory potential were omitted. The MRL they used was both inappropriate (oral Al vs. injected adjuvant) and still too high (1mg/kg/d) regarding recent animal studies. Both paucity and serious weaknesses of reference studies strongly suggest that novel experimental studies of Al adjuvants toxicokinetics should be performed on the long-term, including both neonatal and adult exposures, to ensure their safety and restore population confidence in Al-containing vaccines.
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Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. It is suggested to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors including in the latter environmental toxins. Human exposure to the environmental toxin aluminium has been linked, if tentatively, to autism spectrum disorder. Herein we have used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with a diagnosis of autism. We have also used an aluminium-selective fluor to identify aluminium in brain tissue using fluorescence microscopy. The aluminium content of brain tissue in autism was consistently high. The mean (standard deviation) aluminium content across all 5 individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) μg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. These are some of the highest values for aluminium in human brain tissue yet recorded and one has to question why, for example, the aluminium content of the occipital lobe of a 15 year old boy would be 8.74 (11.59) μg/g dry wt.? Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy was used to identify aluminium in brain tissue in 10 donors. While aluminium was imaged associated with neurones it appeared to be present intracellularly in microglia-like cells and other inflammatory non-neuronal cells in the meninges, vasculature, grey and white matter. The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with non-neuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.
Article
Background: Our group has shown that significant correlations exist between rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and total aluminum adjuvants given to children through vaccines in several Western countries. These correlations satisfied eight out of nine Hill criteria for causality. Experimental studies have demonstrated a range of behavioural abnormalities in young mice after postnatal exposure to aluminium. To build on our previous work, the current study will investigate the effect of aluminium adjuvants on social behaviour in mice. Anomalies in social interaction are a key characteristic of those with ASD. Methods: Neonatal CD-1 mice pups were injected with either a total of 550μg of aluminum hydroxide gel (experimental group) or saline (control) spread out during the first two weeks of postnatal life. The mice were then subjected to behavioural tests for social interest and social novelty at postnatal week 8, 17 and 29. p-Values were calculated using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Aluminum injected mice showed diminished social interest compared to controls at week 8 (p=0.016) and 17 (p=0.012). They also demonstrated abnormal social novelty from controls at week 8 (p=0.002) and week 29 (p=0.042). Conclusion: This is the first experimental study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that aluminum adjuvants can impair social behaviour if applied in the early period of postnatal development. The study, however, is insufficient to make any assertive claims about the link between aluminium adjuvants and ASD in humans.
Article
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel®), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain. The present study aimed at evaluating mouse brain function and Al concentration 180 days after injection of various doses of Alhydrogel® (200, 400 and 800 μg Al/kg of body weight) in the tibialis anterior muscle in adult female CD1 mice. Cognitive and motor performances were assessed by 8 validated tests, microglial activation by Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, and Al level by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.
We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored.
Article
Description of System: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving specialeducation services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. Results: For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD. Non-Hispanic white children were approximately 30% more likely to be identified with ASD than non-Hispanic black children and were almost 50% more likely to be identified with ASD than Hispanic children. Among the seven sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified as having IQ scores in the range of intellectual disability (IQ ≤70), 23% in the borderline range (IQ = 71-85), and 46% in the average or above average range of intellectual ability (IQ > 85). The proportion of children classified in the range of intellectual disability differed by race/ethnicity. Approximately 48% of non-Hispanic black children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability compared with 38% of Hispanic children and 25% of non-Hispanic white children. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was 53 months and did not differ significantly by sex or race/ethnicity. Interpretation: These findings from CDC's ADDM Network, which are based on 2010 data reported from 11 sites, provide updated population-based estimates of the prevalence of ASD in multiple communities in the United States. Because the ADDM Network sites do not provide a representative sample of the entire United States, the combined prevalence estimates presented in this report cannot be generalized to all children aged 8 years in the United States population. Consistent with previous reports from the ADDM Network, findings from the 2010 surveillance year were marked by significant variations in ASD prevalence by geographic area, sex, race/ethnicity, and level of intellectual ability. The extent to which this variation might be attributable to diagnostic practices, underrecognition of ASD symptoms in some racial/ethnic groups, socioeconomic disparities in access to services, and regional differences in clinical or school-based practices that might influence the findings in this report is unclear. Public Health Action: ADDM Network investigators will continue to monitor the prevalence of ASD in select communities, with a focus on exploring changes within these communities that might affect both the observed prevalence of ASD and population-based characteristics of children identified with ASD. Although ASD is sometimes diagnosed by 2 years of age, the median age of the first ASD diagnosis remains older than age 4 years in the ADDM Network communities. Recommendations from the ADDM Network include enhancing strategies to address the need for 1) standardized, widely adopted measures to document ASD severity and functional limitations associated with ASD diagnosis; 2) improved recognition and documentation of symptoms of ASD, particularly among both boys and girls, children without intellectual disability, and children in all racial/ethnic groups; and 3) decreasing the age when children receive their first evaluation for and a diagnosis of ASD and are enrolled in community-based support systems.
Article
Background: In addition to antigens, vaccines contain small amounts of preservatives, adjuvants, and residual substances from the manufacturing process. Some parents have concerns about the safety of these ingredients, yet no large epidemiological studies have specifically examined associations between health outcomes and vaccine ingredients, other than thimerosal. This study examined the extent to which the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) could be used to study vaccine ingredient safety in children. Methods: Children born 2004-2011 were identified in VSD data. Using immunization records, two cohorts were identified: children who were up-to-date and children who were undervaccinated before age 2 years. A database was also created linking vaccine type and manufacturer with ingredient amounts documented in vaccine package inserts. Thirty-four ingredients in two or more infant vaccines were identified. However, only amounts (in mg) for aluminum were consistently documented and commonly contained in infant vaccines. Analyses compared vaccine aluminum exposure across cohorts and determined the statistical power for studying associations between aluminum exposure and hypothetical vaccine adverse events. Results: Among 408,608 children, mean cumulative vaccine aluminum exposure increased from 1.11 to 4.00mg between ages 92-730 days. Up-to-date children were exposed to 11-26% more aluminum from vaccines than undervaccinated children. Power analyses demonstrated that safety studies of aluminum could detect relative risks ranging from 1.1 to 5.8 for a range of adverse event incidence. Conclusions: The safety of vaccine aluminum exposure can be feasibly studied in the VSD. However, possible biological mechanisms and confounding variables would need to be considered before conducting any studies.
Article
Concerns regarding vaccine safety have emerged following reports of potential adverse events in both humans and animals. In the present study, alum, alum-containing vaccine and alum adjuvant tagged with fluorescent nanodiamonds were used to evaluate i) the persistence time at the injection site, ii) the translocation of alum from the injection site to lymphoid organs, and iii) the behavior of adult CD1 mice following intramuscular injection of alum (400 μg Al/kg). Results showed for the first time a strikingly delayed systemic translocation of adju-vant particles. Alum-induced granuloma remained for a very long time in the injected muscle despite progressive shrinkage from day 45 to day 270. Concomitantly, a markedly delayed translocation of alum to the draining lymph nodes, major at day 270 endpoint, was observed. Translocation to the spleen was similarly delayed (highest number of particles at day 270). In contrast to C57BL/6J mice, no brain translocation of alum was observed by day 270 in CD1 mice. Consistently neither increase of Al cerebral content, nor behavioral changes were observed. On the basis of previous reports showing alum neurotoxic effects in CD1 mice, an additional experiment was done, and showed early brain translocation at day 45 of alum injected subcutaneously at 200 μg Al/kg. This study confirms the striking biopersistence of alum. It points out an unexpectedly delayed diffusion of the adjuvant in lymph nodes and spleen of CD1 mice, and suggests the importance of mouse strain, route of administration, and doses, for future studies focusing on the potential toxic effects of aluminum-based adjuvants.
Article
Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to alum particles have emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, revealing an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells and a fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term. However, lack of specific staining makes difficult the assessment of low quantities of bona fide alum adjuvant particles in tissues. We explored the feasibility of using fluorescent functionalized nanodiamonds (mfNDs) as a permanent label of alum (Alhydrogel(®)). mfNDs have a specific and perfectly photostable fluorescence based on the presence within the diamond lattice of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers). As the NV center does not bleach, it allows the microspectrometric detection of mfNDs at very low levels and in the long-term. We thus developed fluorescent nanodiamonds functionalized by hyperbranched polyglycerol (mfNDs) allowing good coupling and stability of alum:mfNDs (AluDia) complexes. Specificities of AluDia complexes were comparable to the whole reference vaccine (anti-hepatitis B vaccine) in terms of particle size and zeta potential. In vivo, AluDia injection was followed by prompt phagocytosis and AluDia particles remained easily detectable by the specific signal of the fND particles in the injected muscle, draining lymph nodes, spleen, liver and brain. In vitro, mfNDs had low toxicity on THP-1 cells and AluDia showed cell toxicity similar to alum alone. Expectedly, AluDia elicited autophagy, and allowed highly specific detection of small amounts of alum in autophagosomes. The fluorescent nanodiamond technology is able to overcome the limitations of previously used organic fluorophores, thus appearing as a choice methodology for studying distribution, persistence and long-term neurotoxicity of alum adjuvants and beyond of other types of nanoparticles.
Article
Nursing children are exposed to dietary aluminum (in breast milk and/or infant formulas) and through aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines (AAVs). We studied total hair-Al concentrations of nursing children that had been immunizeed with hepatitis B, DTP, and meningococcal vaccines. We studied the hair of 37 young children (aged 26 to 824days) who were exposed to cumulative doses of Al ranging from 0.63 to 6.88mg from AAVs. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to reliably measure total Al concentrations in hair samples. The analytical method proved sensitive enough to quantify Al in the hair of nursing children. At current levels of exposure it is possible to determine total Al in hair sample of 1.65mg. Cumulative doses of AAV in children ranged from 0.63 to 6.88mg Al. Median hair-Al was 47.7μg.g(-1) (ranging from 12.2 to 221.9μg.g(-1)). There was no statistically significant correlation between hair-Al concentration and age of child (r=-0.049; p=0.774), total exposure from vaccine (r=-0.078; p=0.643), or the time elapsed after the last AAVs (r=0.015; p=0.931). Aluminum in children's hair can be reliably measured but we are still uncertain how representative it can be of the Al body burden.
Article
Gulf War veterans have reported health problems that they attribute to their military service, but little is understood about the nature or extent of these conditions. To determine whether Kansas Gulf War veterans are affected by excess health problems, a population-based survey of 1,548 veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and 482 veterans who served elsewhere (non-PGW) was conducted in 1998. Gulf War illness, defined as having chronic symptoms in three of six domains, occurred in 34% of PGW veterans, 12% of non-PGW veterans who reported receiving vaccines during the war, and 4% of non-PGW veterans who did not receive vaccines. The prevalence of Gulf War illness was lowest among PGW veterans who served on board ship (21%) and highest among those who were in Iraq and/or Kuwait (42%). Among PGW veterans who served away from battlefield areas, Gulf War illness was least prevalent among those who departed the region prior to the war (9%) and most prevalent among those who departed in June or July of 1991 (41%). Observed patterns suggest that excess morbidity among Gulf War veterans is associated with characteristics of their wartime service, and that vaccines used during the war may be a contributing factor.
  • R E Flarend
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  • A C Rudy
R.E. Flarend, S.L. Hem, J.L. White, D. Elmore, M.A. Suckow, A.C. Rudy, et al., In vivoabsorption of aluminium containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al, Vaccine 15 (1997) 1314-1318.
Vaccins anti-HPV et risque de maladies autoimmunes: étude pharmacoépidémiologique. Rapport final
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ANSM et CNAMTS. Vaccins anti-HPV et risque de maladies autoimmunes: étude pharmacoépidémiologique. Rapport final; 2015. p. 92.
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C.A. Shaw, L. Tomljenovic, Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity G. Crépeaux, et al. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 62 (2020) 126632