Article

Conceptualizing virtual transnational diaspora: Returning to the ‘return’ of Chinese transnational academics

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Transnational migration brings to the fore the various social and professional connections migrants maintain with their home and sojourn countries. Drawing on a qualitative case study with 12 Chinese transnational academics in the field of the social sciences and humanities in three higher education institutions in Beijing, China, this article explores their transnational ways of being and belonging. Informed by the theoretical lens of transnational diaspora, our study indicates that the concept of “returnee” is too restricted to capture the transnational work and learning practices and the self-identification of Chinese transnational academics. Our analysis reveals that the study-abroad experience as a PhD student shapes the multiple and simultaneous ways of being and ways of belonging of the transnational academics in relation to China, the host countries where they pursued doctoral studies and, increasingly, de-territorialized transnational academic communities. Mobilizing digital communication technologies, they create spaces to negotiate their identities as researchers, ethnic Chinese and members of transnational academic communities. Their work and learning in transnational spaces have contributed to the formation of virtual transnational diaspora characterized by the inter-dependence of academics across borders.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Studies explaining returnees' post-return experiences are also emerging and often use theory of capitals, such as human capital, cultural capital, social capital etc. (Gill, 2010;Hao et al., 2016;Hao and Liu, 2017;Singh and Jack, 2018), transnationalism (van Meeteren et al., 2014;Gu and Schweisfurth, 2015;Setrana and Tonah, 2016;Lei and Guo, 2020;Singh, 2020), and acculturation/adjustment (Presbitero, 2016;Ai and Wang, 2017;Ai, 2019;Hoang and Ho, 2019). Our paper contributes to this research gap by employing the under-utilized theoretical framework of bioecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Bronfenbrenner and Morris, 2006) to examine the process of re-entry experiences of CROPs. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses the bioecological model of human development to understand the academic career development of Chinese returnees with overseas Ph.D. degrees (CROPs). Focuses are placed on how CROPs engaged in this process through interactions with contexts, which lead to their differentiated and similar career development in Chinese higher education. Using a qualitative approach of semi-structured interviews with 31 CROPs, our findings reveal that CROPs’ academic career development is co-shaped by personal characteristics and multi-layered environmental contexts. The study highlights the dysfunctionality of Chinese higher education system in the context of China’s ambition to build First-class Universities and First-class Subjects (Double First-class), which constrains CROPs’ academic career development. The paper offers important implications for potential CROPs, policy, and future research studies.
... In the early 2000s, Vertovec (2004) pointed out that inexpensive international telephone calls were the social glue of migrant transnationalism and the dominant medium of hyperconnectivity. Today, in the early 2020s it is the plethora of free social media including WeChat, Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok to name just a few which have contributed to the formation of 'virtual transnational diasporas' as a new space for transmigrants to maintain diasporic engagement (Lei and Guo 2020). With barriers of distance and time removed, overseas Chinese can now act and interact with their communities of origin, and others in global diasporas, on a practically real-time basis to speak daily with family, read the same newspapers, stream the same TV show, and return on daily scheduled flights. ...
Article
This introduction article examines the changing nature of the Chinese diasporas in a transnational world and its concomitant implications for Chinese diasporas studies internationally. With a shifting paradigm of transnationalism and transnational migration, new patterns of Chinese diasporas can be characterised by unprecedented hypermobility, hyperdiversity, and hyperconnectivity. Such characterisations depict the global dispersal of overseas Chinese as one of the most hyperdiverse groups with substantial sub-group differences that distinguish it from most other diasporas. As an important hallmark of contemporary Chinese diasporas, the hyperconnectivity manifests itself in the transnational social networks, talent mobility and brain circulation between China and the globalised world. Unlike earlier movements and mobilities, the latest ones are more dynamic and fluid suggesting that the Chinese sojourn is seen as multiple and circular rather than unidirectional or final. This special issue illustrates how the analytical constructs of hypermobility, hyperdiversity, and hyperconnectivity aid in the reimagining of contemporary Chinese transnational diasporas. It also offers research findings and theorisation to further stimulate new scholarship on the Chinese diasporas in a transnational world.
... Distinct from Dai's (2020) study, Ai (2019) critically analyses his working experiences as an academic returnee from Australia to China, and that how he experienced a journey of dynamic changes of identity across various intercultural settings. Similarly, Lei and Guo (2020) examine Chinese academic returnees' (re)adjustment experiences in Chinese higher education, revealing how these returnees conduct their research in a transnational space with multiple types of identities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The dominant idea is that transnational academic mobility stimulates research and the production of scientific knowledge. However, what processes are behind this pattern? What are the mechanisms and factors of impact of academic mobility for the production of scientific knowledge? Despite the extensive literature on academic mobility, research on the topic is scattered, and these questions remain without a satisfactory answer. We contribute to the study of these issues through a systematic problem-oriented review of English-language and Russian-language publications for 1994–2021 based on the Web of Science and Scopus databases. Research mostly confirms the positive effect of mobility, brought about by the action of three interrelated mechanisms: scientific cooperation, acquisition / transfer of knowledge, and integration into the scientific community. However, this effect does not arise automatically and depends on a number of factors that determine the variability of the consequences of academic mobility. The novelty of our review consists in the identification of negative effects along with positive, the analysis of qualitative knowledge transformations along with the quantitative, and attention to various types of knowledge created, including tacit knowledge.
Article
Considering the rising tide of international student return mobility, the UK needs to pay attention to the long‐term circulation and development of international student returnees. This study analyses the mobility, variations and pathways of the transnational in‐between identity of Chinese student returnees from the UK, an under‐researched group in the changing dynamics of international student mobility. This longitudinal study uses original data from 48 semi‐structured interviews to show how student returnees’ identities change over time in transnational sociocultural contexts. This study develops a spider chart comprising multiple manifestations of transnational selves to account for returnees’ intermediary and heterogeneous states of transnational in‐between identities. Based on the empirical evidence, the study finds that transnational in‐between identity is characterised by a ‘self‐in‐between mobility’, seeking compromises and connections between the polar extremes of essentialist and non‐essentialist approaches to identity. In such an identification process, the changing dynamics of agency play a pivotal role in (re)shaping multiple identity pathways as variegated temporal outcomes of mobility. The findings not only advance the theoretical and methodological constructs of identity, but also have implications for relevant concerns in international education.
Book
Full-text available
This book offers an account of Chinese students' intercultural learning experiences in China-Australia articulation programmes. While these students learn in programmes that Chinese and Australian partner universities collaboratively operate, differences in educational practices still make them encounter barriers. To deal with cross-system differences, some students indicate a positive sense of agency. However, some of them feel disempowered. Notably, many students develop a sense of in-betweenness through learning in such programmes. Based on the investigation, Kun Dai argues that intercultural learning and adjustment in the transnational higher education context may become more complex than other forms of international education.
Article
This study examines the problem of the development of students’ universal competencies at Russian universities related to the diversity of cultures and the ability to enhance intercultural communication in professional field and everyday communication. The development of this competency is significantly influenced by the content of the cultural memory of students. Modern universities are a multicultural space where various persons and communities with different collective cultural memory interact. The objective of the study is to identify the functional features of the students’ cultural memory at Russian universities that are historically characterised as a multicultural space. The main method involved focus groups and a theoretical interpretation of the data obtained. The results obtained from two focus groups of students from several universities located in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are presented. The total number of focus group participants was 14 bachelor’s and master’s degree students. The focus groups consisted of students belonging to the first- and second-generation migrants from among ethnocultural groups with high ethnodemographic dynamics in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The study showed the need for special programme activities for adaptation and integration of students belonging to the second-generation of migrants into the multicultural university community
Article
Full-text available
Using a transnational perspective, this article analyzes the soriocultural and political transformation of US-Dominican transmigrants who have relocated to the Dominican Republic as one step in their transnational journey. Transmigrants and their society of origin have forged a dense web of transnational relations that unites them in a continuous transterritorial social formation. This formation is evident in the incessant back and forth traveling and multidirectional exchanges of material and intangible resources and symbols between the US and the DR. Transmigration has spread people's lives across national borders and generated a transnational habitus. Thus, even transmigrants who resettle in the DR maintain enduring transnational relationships. However, instead of being a social equalizer that empowers all migrants alike, transnational migration tends to reproduce and even exacerbate class, gender, and regional inequalities. Finally, internal and transnational migration seem to form a single system connecting the Dominican rural population to the US via large Dominican urban centers.
Article
Full-text available
Using a transnational perspective, this article analyzes the soriocultural and political transformation of US-Dominican transmigrants who have relocated to the Dominican Republic as one step in their transnational journey. Transmigrants and their society of origin have forged a dense web of transnational relations that unites them in a continuous transterritorial social formation. This formation is evident in the incessant back and forth traveling and multidirectional exchanges of material and intangible resources and symbols between the US and the DR. Transmigration has spread people's lives across national borders and generated a transnational habitus. Thus, even transmigrants who resettle in the DR maintain enduring transnational relationships. However, instead of being a social equalizer that empowers all migrants alike, transnational migration tends to reproduce and even exacerbate class, gender, and regional inequalities. Finally, internal and transnational migration seem to form a single system connecting the Dominican rural population to the US via large Dominican urban centers.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the first author narrates his experiences of the challenges of integration into several Chinese universities as a PhD graduate after returning from Australia. His patterns of communication and psychological changes are examined in terms of identity construction and transformation. His insider position as a Chinese native and academic returnee enables him to see the realities of practice in average Chinese universities at close range, yet with the altered vision gained from his overseas experience. This study highlights the challenges for academic returnees in Chinese higher education institutions and may also have resonances for academic returnees in other countries. Wider questions about the assessment of English research writing and the attitudes to academic returnees in Chinese universities are raised, contributing to debate over the future development of Chinese higher education institutions in a globalizing world.
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the 1990s, the internationalization of higher education has resulted in an influx of Chinese students into many western universities. More recently, the number of Chinese graduates returning to China has increased dramatically.
Article
Full-text available
International students constitute a substantial and growing mobile population globally. However, as yet, the experiences of returnees and the ways in which their overseas studies impact on their identity and professional and personal lives over time have been under-researched areas. In this article we employ concepts from theories of transnationalism as a framework for the analysis of the experiences of Chinese graduate returnees. The empirical basis for the article is a 20-month, two-stage, mixed-method study of 652 Chinese students who returned home for work on completion of their degrees in UK universities over the last 25+ years. Evidence suggests that their journeys of studying abroad and returning home are dynamic and interconnected transnational experiences. Such experiences are avenues for diverse social networks that reinforce a complex cosmopolitan identity and awareness. They are, also, avenues for transnational(ised) new competences, skills and worldviews, which are increasingly valued by the students themselves upon return home. Irrespective of differences in their demographics and backgrounds, studying and living abroad was perceived by most returnees in our research as a profound identity transformating experience. These new connections, competences and identities enabled them to view and live life with a new sense of self at ‘home’ and, as a result, function in ways that continued to distinguish themselves from those around them over time. The findings have implications for higher education institutions and agencies that are concerned with enhancing the quality of university internationalisation. They also have implications for a broadened empirical and conceptual understanding of transnationalism.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose From a policy perspective, this article discusses the phenomenon of international talent mobility and competition in relation to China’s engagement in the “talent war” for attracting, retaining, and managing global talents. Design/methodology/approach I adopt an approach combining literature review and international comparative analysis. Findings Factors explaining global talent mobility have been predominantly economic. This paper argues that China should also focus on other non-economic incentives, which may prove just as critical for attracting and retaining talents in the long term. The government can learn from the experience of other competing countries in developing a national strategy for attracting and retaining global talents. In particular, global talents of Chinese origin are more likely to be attached to China due to their cultural roots and associated identity. Thus China has an advantage in attracting overseas Chinese who are residents or citizens of other competing countries. Practical Implications An attractive policy is key to winning the global talent war and determining the future development path of a nation. The talent policy at a national level should address not only economic factors, but also personal, professional, and institutional factors. Originality/value Winning the global talent war is a policy competition among countries. The Chinese Government may succeed in the war for talent by adopting a multi-pronged and long-term talent strategy. This paper calls for China to reconsider its recent reform on permanent residence (Green Card) policy reform from a global talent competition perspective.
Article
Full-text available
This article reinforces the calls, including those articulated by the editors of this special issue, for scholarship that does not rely on an ethnic lens to study migrant practices, socialities and identities. We offer a concept of migrant emplacement that focuses analytical attention on the relationship between the economic, political and cultural positioning of cities within broader networks of power and the ability of migrants to forge a place for themselves within a specific locality. Using the example of Halle/Saale in eastern Germany but calling for comparative research, the article notes the synergies between urban regeneration and rebranding efforts and the emplacement of migrants in that city through local situated and transnationally connected small businesses. Time is also shown to be a factor: a welcoming ambience and opportunity structure in urban regeneration at one point can be replaced by a reduction in possibilities at a later period.
Article
Full-text available
For some fortunate developing countries, the international flow of their human talent in the recent decade has been more of a 'reverse brain drain' than the terrible brain drain. South Korea (before it joined the OECD), Taiwan, Hong Kong, and India have all seen a significant 'brain gain.' And while UNESCO still worries that the bleeding of talent to the developed states continues, a better balance has clearly been struck. China, too, joined the group of states whose students, after going abroad to study, now find sufficient opportunity and an acceptable quality of life back home to make returning after graduation a reasonable option. Still, much debate exists over the reasons for this shift. Is it purely that these states' economies have grown, creating new jobs and opportunities for people with talent, capital, ideas and technology, or has the state played a critical role in this important change in national development?
Article
Full-text available
This article puts forward a cosmopolitan reading of international migration, focusing on the role played by ICTs in generating new ways of living together and acting transnationally in the digital era. After underlining some of the complex dimensions of the transnational debate and the limits of methodological nationalism, I will argue that revisiting the national–transnational nexus by adopting an ‘inclusive cosmopolitan’ stance would lead to a better understanding of the dialogically ubiquitous condition of the modern migrant. An analysis of Internet use by Romanian professionals in Toronto and their transnational families will shed light on the mechanisms through which ICTs produce connected lifestyles, enhance the capacity to harness otherness, and facilitate socialisation beyond borders, thus generating new transnational habitus.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore how Chinese scholars in the USA recount their transnational collaborations and linkages. Guided by post-colonial theories and cultural studies of transnational academic mobility, we utilise in-depth interviews to resituate the scholars' experiences within a discourse of diasporic intellectual networks. We argue that their movement is not simply a transfer from one physical location to another, but rather that the movement itself constitutes a new space of identification, of belonging and of global imagination. We conclude by considering the transnational implications of local agency for global connectivity and emergence of new subjectivities in a fluid global world.
Article
Full-text available
Lifelong learning has recently re-emerged as one of the "hottest" topics in public discussion about the organization of education and training for adults in the 21st century. The almost unopposed return of "lifelong learning" to the policy agenda demands an analysis of the dynamics of what is now generally understood as "late modernity." This paper examines current theories of late modern societies in terms of their implications for understanding the pre-eminence of lifelong learning. It argues that late modernity is the period of social development in which lifelong learning becomes the necessary. condition of survival. Societies, organizations and individuals have to learn in order to survive in the lifelong learning society. In particular the focus is upon the implications of new theoretical perspectives for the formulation of key research questions about adult and continuing education in the "lifelong learning society." The first section addresses key theoretical perspectives in the literature of late modernity. Attention then turns to issues concerning the societal organization of social allocation and the distribution of opportunities to participate in lifelong learning. This is followed by a discussion of the emergence of learning organization as specific arenas for the location of lifelong learning in late modern societies. Attention is focused subsequently on the biographical competencies which individuals require in order to manage their learning careers and participation in lifelong learning.
Article
Full-text available
Between 1978 and 2007, more than 1.21 million Chinese went abroad for study and research, of whom only about a quarter have returned. The Chinese government's policies of attracting first- rate overseas academics back have yielded mixed results at best. This article discusses why overseas Chinese academics hesitate to return at a time when China is in desperate need of talent to turn itself into an innovation-oriented society. Common reasons relate to low salaries, problems of education for children and jobs for spouses, and problems of separation if some family members still reside abroad. More important are institutional factors. Guanxi still matters. The opportunity costs in career development are too high. In social science research, there are still taboos. Rampant misconduct has also tainted the Chinese scientific community. The article concludes that unless the research culture becomes conducive to doing first-rate work and meritocracy is rewarded, China is unlikely to witness the return migration of first-rate academics.
Article
Full-text available
This paper evaluates the use of the concept of 'diaspora' as an alternative way of thinking about transnational migration and ethnic relations to those ways that rely on 'race' and 'ethnicity'. It examines the heuristic potential of the concept, as a descriptive typological tool and as a social condition and societal process. Both approaches are described and key elements within each are assessed. It is argued that although very different in emphasis, and though containing different strengths and weaknesses, both approaches are problematised by their reliance on a notion of deterritorialised ethnicity which references the primordial bonds of 'homeland'. It is also argued that both approaches are unable to attend fully to 'intersectionality', that is to issues of class, gender and trans-ethnic alliances. It is concluded that although potentially enabling a broader sweep of questions that can relate to the transnational aspects of population movements and settlement, the concept of 'diaspora', as it has been articulated so far, does not overcome fully some of the problems identified with the 'ethnicity' problematic.
Article
Full-text available
The master discourses of economic globalisation and the knowledge economy each cite knowledge diasporas as vital ‘trans-national human capital’. Based on a case study of a major Australian university, this article examines the potential to deploy China's large and highly-skilled diaspora in the service of Chinese and Australian scientific and technological development. It finds that at a time when much of the world is deeply mired in a global financial crisis, this treasured resource of highly-skilled intellectuals assumes even greater significance. Meanwhile, there are key challenges to be confronted to fully utilise China's overseas talent. It argues that the Chinese knowledge diaspora are a modern kind of cosmopolitan literati, and could contribute actively to higher education internationalisation in both Australia and China.
Article
Full-text available
In order to sustain its economic growth, China has been pursuing a number of policies aimed at recovering its expatriate brain power by encouraging scholars living abroad to return. While local government authorities compete to recruit returnees, the central Government has introduced various policies to facilitate repatriation and resettlement, including preferential treatment for housing and research, financial benefits (fellowships), better dissemination of information, etc. The author concludes that these efforts have not been in vain, but notes that few of those who have returned have given up. particularly successful careers abroad to do so.
Article
Full-text available
In a context of intensified globalisation, knowledge diaspora as “trans-national human capital” have become increasingly valuable to society. With an awareness of a need for more empirical studies especially in Australia, this article concentrates on a group of academics who were working at a major university in Australia and came originally from the Chinese mainland. The study explores their life, work and international research collaborations, using a case study approach with semi-structured interviews as the data collection method. The study found that while globalisation shapes the work and the contributions to Australia, by academics from China, they exert their initiatives to respond to and further reshape globalisation. Equipped with their Chinese cultural and educational backgrounds, academic experience in the West, and active membership in the international knowledge system, the Chinese knowledge diaspora are a modern kind of cosmopolitan literati. They are aware of the impact of globalisation and contribute actively to higher education internationalisation in both Australia and China, have maintained their cultural identity and made good use of their Chinese educational background. Their international collaborations, however, are more likely to be with the scholars from Western countries due to some difficulties they have experienced in China and Australia, and to the current setup of the global knowledge system.
Article
Full-text available
Incl. bibl., index.
Article
This paper highlights how returnees and knowledge diaspora are important sources for China’s human resources development, identifying push and pull factors that also contribute significantly to innovation in the higher education sector. By outlining China’s key projects and schemes for recruiting international professional workers, the paper argues that bringing advanced knowledge and skills back to a country of origin through international education and experiences is neither new, nor limited to China. At the same time, the rise of a large, worldwide Chinese knowledge diaspora is now of global importance in promoting transnational scientific and business networks that underpin both research and development, and the quest for world-class universities. China’s size and weight, its determination to boost development and improve its higher education system, as well as the willingness of both diaspora and returnees to contribute, constitute its advantages. However, there remain limitations to its success, notably a lack of high-quality research, reservations regarding new ideas, low awareness of international collaborations, too much attention given to material rewards and quick results, corruption, and too many administrative controls and government regulations.
Book
Few recent phenomena have proved as emblematic of our era, and as little understood, as globalization. Tying ethnography to structural analysis, Flexible Citizenship explores how political upheavals and global markets have induced Asian elite families, in particular, to blend strategies of migration, capital and cultural accumulation. She details how their transnational practices of flexibility manipulate different immigration regimes as well as schemes of multiculturalism in advanced liberal societies. Refuting claims about the clash of civilizations, Ong presents a clear account of the cultural logics of globalization as Asian peoples disperse and shape forms of Asia-Pacific modernity.
Article
The study analyzed 143 empirical studies on Chinese returnees published during 2005−2015. Three major categories of research topics emerged from the analysis: motivations for return, post-return status and the impact of returnees in China. The review detected two major debates in the literature concerning the impact of remittances and the contributions of returnees. Though variables such as gender, age, marital status and duration of the stay abroad might be correlated with return decisions as well as post-return adjustment, empirical studies based on large-scale data were scarce. The gaps identified by the review can be explored by future studies.
Chapter
Since the 1980s, against the backdrop of economic globalization and the international flow of talents, transnational mobility of students as an important part of international trade in education services and education internationalization has received widespread attention. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the number of students studying abroad surpassed 4.5 million in 2012.
Article
This study theorizes double diaspora based on the experiences of Chinese Canadians in Beijing who had previously immigrated to Canada from China and later returned. The study reveals that Chinese Canadians are increasingly internationally mobile as a result of globalization, modern communications and transportation. Their transnational migration experiences can be classified as “double diaspora”—a hybrid experience that transcends boundaries of ethnicity and nationalism. The double diaspora is characterized by a number of dualities as both Chinese and Canadian, living in Chinese and Canadian diaspora, simultaneously diasporas and returnees, playing a double role as cultural and economic brokers between Canada and China. The double diaspora views the diaspora sojourn as neither unidirectional nor final, but rather as multiple and circular. It rejects the primordial notion of diaspora and theorizes diaspora as heterogeneous and conflictual forms of sociality. This study provides an alternative framework in understanding transnational migration and representing multiple ways of affiliations and belonging.
Article
In recent decades, the rise of world markets and the technological revolutions in transportation and communication have brought what was once distant and inaccessible within easy reach of the individual. The territorial and social closure that characterized nation-states is fading, and this is reflected not only in new forms of governance and economic globalization, but also in individual mobility and transnational transactions, affiliations and networks. Social Transnationalism explores new forms of cross-border interactions and mobility which have expanded across physical space by looking at the individual level. It asks whether we are dealing with unbridled movements and cross-border interactions which transform the lifeworlds of individuals fundamentally. Furthermore, it investigates whether, and to what degree, increases in the volume of transnational interactions weaken the individual citizen's bond to the nation-state as such, and to what extent citizens' national identities are being replaced or complemented by cosmopolitan ones.
Article
'Transnationalism' refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation-states. This book surveys the broader meanings of transnationalism within the study of globalization before concentrating on migrant transnational practices. Each chapter demonstrates ways in which new and contemporary transnational practices of migrants are fundamentally transforming social, political and economic structures simultaneously within homelands and places of settlement. Transnationalism provides a much-needed single, clear and condensed text concerning a major concept in academic and policy discourse today. The book is for advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and academics.
Article
Mass elite or ‘knowledge’ migration from developing countries has led to debate about brain drain and how to convert this loss of human talent into brain gains, or at least into brain circulation. Discussion of migration and diaspora, therefore, is intimately linked to migration as potential leverage for development. In the absence of being able to prevent people from living, countries with increasing levels of outgoing migrants are actively encouraging their talent diaspora to return, as well as to contribute to the ‘motherland’ from afar. This paper will discuss how two of the countries with the largest migrant output in the world – India and China – view and harness the talent potential of their global diasporas. Adopting a historical approach, the paper will first trace the evolution of diaspora policies and infrastructure in each country, showing how historically the level of diaspora engagement varied according to both domestic and international political contexts. China, for example, has gone from considering migration to be an imperial crime, to considering all ethnic Chinese as an integral part of the Chinese nation. It will then compare and contrast the actual policies of diaspora engagement adopted by India and China, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of each country's policies. While China has promoted the return of its scientific and entrepreneurial elite, India has made it progressively easier to travel and invest in India for people of Indian origin. Despite different policy focuses, India and China are united in using a discourse of ethnic pride – what can be termed ‘emotional citizenship’ in encouraging its ethnic diasporas to cultivate an emotional bond to the country of their ancestors. The diaspora policies of India and China reveal that, in an attempt to attract investment and stem brain gain, developing countries, while stopping short of introducing full dual nationality for geopolitical reasons, are seeking to create new forms of flexible citizenship that enable them to reap an ‘ethnic dividend’ from their global ethnic diasporas.
Book
China's rise is having a large impact on the global science system. The internalisation of this system in the past two decades would not have been possible without the outbound and especially the return flows of overseas Chinese scientists. This book explores their impact combining macro-level institutional and statistical analysis with an account of how the research culture has changed at the operational level. The theoretical framework used departs from the human capital approach, by building on literature from migration studies and evolutionary theories of the science system. It presents the results of an innovative mix of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. Overseas Chinese scientists and returnees are shown to have played an important role in shaping the internal development of the Chinese research system, as well as its relationship with research systems in Western Europe and North America. Now that the situation is improving, return has become an increasingly interesting option for expatriate researchers. This development may result in a virtuous cycle. Based on extensive and original empirical research Mobility, Migration and the Chinese Scientific Research System will be of interest to scholars and postgraduate students of research systems in general and the Chinese research and innovation system in particular.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The paper examines how the Chinese knowledge diaspora contributes to Peking University's endeavours to become a world-class university through an in-depth study of its implementation of the 111 Project. Based on the participants' personal experiences of international collaboration, the article finds that overseas Chinese scholars have played an invaluable role in linking Peking University to the international scholarly community. As well, they have constituted a key resource for its development, deploying their unique advantages, notably their familiarity with the research system and wider cultural dimensions of both milieus. Clearly, the vast size of the Chinese diaspora, its increasingly highly-skilled character, together with a strong and persistent sense of Chinese identity, provide a solid platform for international scientific collaboration. The virtually ubiquitous expressions of obligation to China constitute a major advantage for China's deployment of its knowledge diaspora in the service of the motherland. This paper delineates the key impediments that hinder full utilization of China's overseas academics. It concludes that despite some considerable achievements, the long-term effects of the 111 Project remain to be seen in the context of a complex global and internal situation.
Book
Introduction 1. Surprising Success 2. Learning the Silicon Valley System 3. Creating Cross-Regional Communities 4. Taiwan as Silicon Sibling 5. Taiwan as Partner and Parent 6. Manufacturing in Mainland China 7. IT Enclaves in India 8. The Argonaut Advantage Appendix A: Immigrant Professional and Networking Associations, Silicon Valley Appendix B: Survey Results: Immigrant Professionals in Silicon Valley Notes References Abbreviations Acknowledgments Index
Article
This paper presents an evolutionary explanation of diaspora for the Korean-Japanese using a method of ‘global ethnographic revisits’. By expanding the scope of the Korean-Japanese to those who repatriated to South Korea and North Korea in addition to those who remained in Japan, the paper finds that their migration trajectory has gradually evolved from passive nationalistic migration to active transnational diaspora, a conclusion that was not easily replicable using the conventional method of observing Korean residents only in Japan. The three-stage evolution process includes passive diaspora during the colonial period, post-diaspora during the cold-war era, and transnational diaspora after the cold war. The three ethnographic cases presented in this paper indicate that motivation and environmental structures affect the whole evolutionary process, whereas distancing from their imaginary homeland is key in evolving into transnational diaspora for the Korean-Japanese.
Article
In this special issue on transnational urbanism, we are interested in accounts of transnational mobility that are attentive to everyday practices and geographical emplacement. Eschewing narratives of trouble-free movement by disembedded actors, consideration is thus given to the mundane and situated efforts by which people make their lives across international borders. We also wish to amplify the social scientific register of transnational migrants by considering groups whose mobility has thus far been little examined. In this introductory paper we elaborate these arguments, while also summarising the content of the substantive papers which follow.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Book
This book presents a disciplined, qualitative exploration of case study methods by drawing from naturalistic, holistic, ethnographic, phenomenological and biographic research methods. Robert E. Stake uses and annotates an actual case study to answer such questions as: How is the case selected? How do you select the case which will maximize what can be learned? How can what is learned from one case be applied to another? How can what is learned from a case be interpreted? In addition, the book covers: the differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches; data-gathering including document review; coding, sorting and pattern analysis; the roles of the researcher; triangulation; and reporting.
Article
After 1978, the People's Republic of China (PRC) moved to (re-)legitimise, by both institutional and discursive means, allegiance to China in established overseas Chinese communities. In this article, I attempt to show how it has progressed to the next step: celebrating migration as a patriotic and modern act, and encouraging transnational practices among people who are in the process of leaving China. More specifically, I discuss how the state discursively constructs 'new migrant' culture; how it engages in imagining the transnational community of new migrants and operationalises imaginaries of the home province and the homeland. I also explore how identity construction among recent migrants is manipulated by elites that participate in this state-promoted imagining process.
Article
The controversy concerning the value of qualitative, quantitative and triangulation approaches to nursing research for understanding human behaviour and increasing nursing knowledge has been an increasing source of debate among nurse scholars. However, the differences and similarities of these three perspectives have not been fully compared as either philosophies or methodologies. The purposes of this paper are to provide an understanding of the origin and development of the triangulation research method, clarify major sources of confusion in the presentation of a triangulation study, and discuss the problems and possible solutions of a triangulation study. Finally, an example of multiple triangulation in a nursing research within a Taiwanese cultural context —turning points of recovery from cardiac surgery during the intensive care unit transition — is presented. In the course of the paper, suggestions are also given to help nurse researchers recognize when it is most appropriate to use a certain research method, whether that be qualitative, quantitative or triangulation.
Article
This article explores the social theory and consequent methodology that underpins studies of transnational migration. First, we propose a social field approach to the study of migration and distinguish between ways of being and ways of belonging in that field. Second, we argue that assimilation and enduring transnational ties are neither incompatible nor binary opposites. Third, we highlight social processes and institutions that are routinely obscured by traditional migration scholarship but that become clear when we use a transnational lens. Finally, we locate our approach to migration research within a larger intellectual project, taken up by scholars of transnational processes in many fields, to rethink and reformulate the concept of society such that it is no longer automatically equated with the boundaries of a single nation-state.
Book
International migration is, by definition, a social phenomenon that crosses national borders and affects two or more nation-states. Its analysis requires theories and methodologies capable of transcending the national gaze. This applies more than ever in the current epoch of global migratory flows and growing South-North mobility. Sociology claims to be based on the work of scholars from around the world and to have theories and methods valid for all societies. It should therefore have an important role in the development of global migration studies. Yet national approaches, deriving from historical projects of nation-building, have often been dominant. Moreover, the study of migration has been peripheral in national scientific discourses and hierarchies. This has often led to the diverging dual roles of the sociology of migration either as an administrative tool based on micro-analyses of 'social problems', or as a form of social critique cut off from actual struggles in institutions, workplaces and neighbourhoods. This article argues for a global sociology of migration, devoted to analysis of migration as part of the social transformations associated with globalisation, and based on global networks of scholars.
Article
This paper describes how methodological triangulation was used in two nursing research studies. The literature identified a number of principles in reporting studies that used triangulation, including giving the rationale for using triangulation, detailing the process used to assist with triangulation and explaining how rigour was maintained. A brief review of triangulated studies revealed that few adhered fully to these principles. A 'within method' and an 'across method' study are used to illustrate how methodological triangulation was used, and the ways in which rigour was addressed are also described. In addition, the different contributions of triangulation to nursing research are highlighted.
Over eighty percent of internationally educated students chose to return for personal development
  • L Dong
Dong L (2017) Over eighty percent of internationally educated students chose to return for personal development. China Education Newspaper. 1 March, 17. Available at: www.moe.edu.cn/jyb_xwfb/s5147/201703/t20170302_297870.html
Analysis of the returned outstanding overseas Chinese
  • X Cheng
Cheng X (2001) Analysis of the returned outstanding overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese History Studies 6(2): 22-31.
The Ministry of Education: Eighty percent of internationally educated returnee employees are master's degree holders
  • China Daily
China Daily (2017) The Ministry of Education: Eighty percent of internationally educated returnee employees are master's degree holders. 6 March, 17. Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/micro-reading/2017-03/06/content_28449402. htm
Returnees help voice of China to be heard
  • H Wang
Wang H (2019) Returnees help voice of China to be heard. Chinadaily, 10 October, 19. Available at: www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201910/10/WS5d9e844ca310cf3e3556f931. html
Diaspora nation: An inquiry into the economic potential of diaspora networks in Canada
  • M Bitran
  • S Tan
Bitran M and Tan S (2013) Diaspora nation: An inquiry into the economic potential of diaspora networks in Canada. Available at: https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/ mowatcentre/wp-content/uploads/publications/72_diaspora_nation.pdf