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... Expectations from family, friends, coworkers, and significant others influence and drive human behavior (Ajzen, 2005;Basu and Virick, 2008;Guzman-Alfonso and Guzman-Cuevas, 2012;Iakovleva and Kolvereid, 2009;Roncancio et al., 2020). Consequently, social expectations and the influence of the environmental elements, political and institutional support are closely related to the subjective norm . ...
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University-Industry collaboration (UIC) literature is largely documented with Western European or North-American evidence, where universities are rich in resources and have well-developed R&D infrastructure. Likewise, our knowledge remains limited about UIC in emerging countries, where research resources and R&D are scarce. In this article, we address the research question “What are the individual micro-processes involved in UICs with social impact in emerging economies” and argue that uncovering the individual micro-processes involved in university-industry joint undertakings contribute to understanding how entrepreneurial universities promote social impact in emerging economies. The ideas presented in this paper are based on exploratory qualitative research consisting of 33 semi-structured interviews, eight focus groups, and six participatory observations in Bolivia and Colombia. Our findings suggest that UICs in emerging economies are driven by the need to solve major social challenges and are often a consequence of the individual micro-processes of low subjective norm, pro-social behavior, deontic justice, social identity, entrepreneurial culture, and championing of social welfare.
... Planteamiento del problema y vacío de conocimiento Diversidad de autores de la literatura científica relevante en innovación, mencionan la necesidad de explorar los factores que determinan el éxito de las dinámicas de colaboración entre los actores de un ecosistema de innovación(Autio, Kenney, Mustar, Siegel, & Wright, 2014;Clarysse, Wright, Bruneel, & Mahajan, 2014;Guerrero, Urbano, Fayolle, Klofsten, & Mian, 2016). Particularmente entre aquellos que se encuentran localizados en una economía en vía de desarrollo(Guerrero, Urbano, & Herrera, 2017;Roncancio, Dentchev, Diaz Gonzalez, & Crispeels, 2020;Roncancio Marin & Dentchev, 2020). De igual manera, otros autores mencionan la importancia de estudiar los precursores de las consecuencias de las colaboraciones entre los actores de un ecosistema de innovación para promover la sostenibilidad(Rubens, Spigarelli, Cavicchi, & Rinaldi, 2017).El problema de investigación planteado anteriormente es relevante, dado que la documentación científica en economías en vía de desarrollo en el tema de la presente tesis es aún escaza. ...
Thesis
In this study, the quadruple-helix theory of innovation by Carayannis et al. Is used as a theoretical lens. (2016) to capture which are the factors that determine the success of collaborations between the university, industry, the state and society, in favor of sustainability. To do this, 11 individuals belonging to the innovation ecosystem of the department of Caldas were interviewed, and grounded theory was used as a strategy for exploratory qualitative analysis. Among the findings, it is worth mentioning that the factors that would determine the success of collaborations between the actors of the tetra helix of innovation are: Improving the scientific infrastructure, having a good system of incentives for collaboration, establishing a paradigm shift in the private and industrial sector, that there is to be an open information model for all interest groups, and that the goals of the actors are aligned.
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The concept of the entrepreneurial university aims to promote the transfer of academic knowledge to companies and foster socio-economic development. The first wave occurred at pioneering universities in the United States like MIT and Stanford, defining a university-wide patent policy, establishing a technology transfer policy, setting up university-industry partnerships and churning out new companies. The second wave occurred in Western Europe, with ivory tower universities transforming themselves into entrepreneurial institutions supporting academic entrepreneurs. In terms of newly emerging economies making up the third wave, the promotion of academic entrepreneurship is high on their political agendas and, although the actual pioneering phase has already begun, it is not clear as yet which policies or structures are needed to foster the effective transfer of academic knowledge and the incubation of start-up firms, and eventually contribute to socio-economic development. In this sense, the aim of this study is to identify potential activities and effective policies to encourage the transfer of academic technology in Brazil, being one of the emerging economies. An analytical framework of the entrepreneurial university was constructed based on existing literature, consisting of five dimensions: entrepreneurial perspective, external links, access to university resources, innovation arrangement and scientific research. In an exploratory case study, eighteen interviews were carried out with incubatee-entrepreneurs and the managers of university business incubators in southern Brazil. Although all dimensions were mentioned in the interviews as being important in promoting entrepreneurship, the key finding from our research is that most academic start-ups are based on the entrepreneur's own technologies, rather than on the university's patents. The quality of entrepreneurial training, in addition to being in close contact with applied research, encourages academics to turn their business plans into start-up ventures. To conclude, although the new ventures are not based on academic patents, they are playing a proactive and dynamic role when it comes to socio-economic developments.
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Individual and organizational entrepreneurial activity varies across regions/countries. Universities have increasingly become knowledge-intensive environments that support entrepreneurship. Extant studies demonstrate the need to explore graduate start-ups using different levels of analysis an across economies. This paper explores individual and university determinants of graduates' start-ups creation from a multi-campus entrepreneurial university in a transition economy. A proposed model was tested with 11,569 graduates from 30 campuses across 21 Mexican cities. Results show that specific individual determinants are the most relevant determinant of graduate entrepreneurship as well as that some university mechanisms (incubators and research parks) have limited impact on graduates' entrepreneurship.
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Este artículo presenta la validación del cuestionario de intención emprendedora (CIE) en Colombia. Este cuestionario, desarrollado y validado en España (Rueda, Moriano y Liñán, 2015), se enmarca dentro de la Teoría de la Acción Planificada (TAP, Ajzen, 1991). La TAP resulta en la actualidad el modelo más ampliamente utilizado para predecir las intenciones emprendedoras. Con una muestra de 316 estudiantes universitarios colombianos, el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales confirma que el CIE tiene una alta fiabilidad y validez predictiva sobre la intención emprendedora. Disponer de escalas de medidas fiables y validadas en distintos contextos culturales permite las comparaciones entre distintas entidades y/o para una misma entidad en diferentes momentos temporales (por ejemplo, antes y después de impartir un curso orientado al emprendimiento). Un mejor conocimiento de los antecedentes psicosociales (actitudes hacia el emprendimiento, norma subjetiva y autoeficacia emprendedora) que conducen a jóvenes universitarios a emprender puede contribuir a un diseño más adecuado de los programas de formación emprendedora que se están impulsando en muchas universidades y desde otro tipo de instituciones.
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The purpose of this paper and the special issue is to improve our understanding of the theoretical, empirical, managerial and political implications of emerging models of entrepreneurial universities in the new social and economic landscape. We accomplish this objective by examining the role of entrepreneurial universities as drivers of innovation and entrepreneurship activities. Our analysis starts with an overview by outlining an overarching framework. This allows us to highlight the contributions made in this special issue within the framework. We conclude by outlining an agenda for future research and discuss implications for university managers, policy makers, and other academic agents involved in the development of entrepreneurial/innovation ecosystems.
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The preference for self-employment varies much between countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the preference for self-employment, new business start-up intentions and actual start-up efforts. This research is an application of the theory of planned behaviour. Data was collected using telephone interviews from a representative sample of Norwegian adults aged 18-64. The results support the theory, showing that the preference for self-employment, together with measures of subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, predict business start-up intentions. These intentions, in turn, together with perceived behavioural control predict involvement in business start-up efforts. This study has important implications for policy makers and future research.
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El presente trabajo identifica los campos actuales de investigación alrededor del comercio internacional y los negocios, desde lo que se registra en la literatura académica hasta el abordaje del tema desde la institucionalidad mundial, regional y nacional-local (Colombia). El objetivo es que estudiantes, docentes, investigadores y empresarios de las áreas de comercio internacional y negocios internacionales se adentren en la comprensión de las tendencias globales y enmarquen los procesos de investigación propiamente dicha y aquellos con fines formativos, prácticas de investigación, trabajos de grado y formulación de proyectos, en las áreas identificadas en este documento con el fin de construir comunidad académica alrededor del tema. Asimismo, se busca promover el trabajo interdisciplinario con otros actores de la comunidad académica que permitan alcanzar un mayor grado de profundidad y complejidad en los tópicos investigados.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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An application of the theory of planned behaviour is developed here to analyse factors influencing entrepreneurial intent among university students. The study provides a test of the robustness of the intent approach using international comparisons. The samples are from Finland (Helsinki University of Technology), Sweden (Linköping University), USA (Stanford University and University of Colorado, Colorado Springs), and the UK (London Business School). The international comparisons indicate a good robustness of the model. Perceived behavioural control emerges as the most important determinant of entrepreneurial intent.
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The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was tested as a predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final-year commerce students at two universities in the Western Cape (n = 247). The theoretical sufficiency of the theory was examined by considering four additional factors that are believed to influence entrepreneurial intention (i.e. personality traits, situational factors, prior exposure to entrepreneurship, and demographics). The results of the multivariate data analysis indicate that the TPB significantly explains 27% of the variance in students' entrepreneurial intentions. Of all the other purported predictors of entrepreneurial intent examined in this study, only prior exposure to entrepreneurship was found to significantly add to the predictive power of TPB in explaining entrepreneurship intention. Personality traits, demographic factors and situational factors did not add significantly to the variance explained by TPB. The findings therefore suggest that TPB is a valuable tool for predicting entrepreneurial intent.
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The emergence of new technologies is acting both as a driving force and an enabling factor to globalization. At the same time, these technologies are changing rapidly, shortening the life cycles of products and the underlying processes, and raising technology costs. Technology transfer from academic and scientific institutions has thus transformed into a strategic variable for companies and nations to cope with these challenges in a global economy. This article introduces the rationale for the special issue on the role of technology transfer in a global economy. The paper summarizes the main topics and themes covered by a selection of papers and keynotes presented at the annual conference of the Technology Transfer Society in 2011, as well as providing some pointers towards a future research agenda.
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We use the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to detect gender effects in the variables that shape entrepreneurial intentions. We find that the effect of gender on intentions is mediated via personal attitudes toward entrepreneurship and more so via perceived control over becoming an entrepreneur. These mediation effects at factorial level can be explained by moderation effects at indicator level. Where male students are driven by the more dominant achievement-oriented entrepreneurial values, female students are more driven by the less dominant balance-oriented entrepreneurial values. Where male students are driven by both internal and external feelings of control, female students are driven by the more dominant internal feelings of control. This study adds to the research that studies entrepreneurial intentions and clarifies how different entrepreneurial definitions for men and women may drive entrepreneurial behavior.
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The commercialization of research has become a key task of universities and public research institutions. This development is partly stimulated by an increasing number of government support programmes (GSPs) that are designed to stimulate academic entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the role that is played by this new type of actor in the innovation system is not very well understood. We use a principal–agent theory to guide our analysis of a Norwegian GSP. The programme contributes to reducing the agency problems of adverse selections and moral hazards in the relationships between the government and the actors that are involved in the commercialization of research. Key tasks include collecting and sharing information, engaging in long-term relationships with principals and agents, developing strategies and specific contractual relationships, taking higher risks for risk-averse agents and using multiple indicators. The programme also plays an institutional role by reducing goal conflicts. This approach requires a long-term effort that is generally less visible for outside stakeholders, and it is under constant pressure from short-term expectations.
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Emphasising the level of the observation of university configurations and the example of academic entrepreneurship, the author analyses the drivers of economic returns of public research in France. Based on the study of national public policy in this field since 1999 and a general survey of the paths of researchers-entrepreneurs, the article highlights the weight of political and scientific logics. It also shows that behind the justification of promoting the knowledge economy lies a commercialisation of knowledge that underpins a process to defend the interests of a public research sector in support of mixed mercantile, managerial and professional and scientific logics.
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It is now generally accepted that globalization process and internationalization have modified the roles of main agents of social and economic changes. In this case, Universities have been affected by new responsibilities such as regional economic and social development, the reduction of public funds, and the educational market competence. On this, universities are being required to operate more entrepreneurially, commercializing the outcomes of their research and spinning out new, knowledge-based enterprises. In this context, the main purpose of this paper is to revise the literature about the environmental factors that affect the creation and development of the Entrepreneurial Universities. With this aim the study adopts institutional economic theory, and more specifically the works realized by North (1990, 2005), to focus on the formal and informal factors that facilitate or retard the phenomenon of an entrepreneurial university. The main contribution of this paper could be help design policies that will stimulate the entrepreneurial activity of universities and stimulate, therefore, their contribution to the development of the modern knowledge economy.
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Empirical research has recently paid considerable attention to the role of environmental factors in explaining regional variations in entrepreneurial activity. However, cognitive models have not usually included these factors in their analyses. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to identify some of the environmental cognitive elements that may explain regional differences in start-up intentions. Thus, an entrepreneurial intention model is developed, theoretically based on the planned behaviour approach, institutional economic theory and social capital theory. The empirical analysis is carried out using structural equation techniques over a sample of 549 final year university students from two Spanish regions (Catalonia and Andalusia). Results confirm that valuation of entrepreneurship in each region helps explain regional differences in entrepreneurial intentions. As expected, social valuation of the entrepreneur was higher in the more developed region (Catalonia), positively affecting perceived subjective norms and behavioural control. In Andalusia, the influence of perceived valuation of the entrepreneur in the closer environment was more important, affecting attitude towards the behaviour and subjective norms. These results explain some of the differences in the pool of potential entrepreneurs in each region. They also justify the need by public-policy decision-makers to promote more positive entrepreneurial values in relatively backward regions.
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An entrepreneurial society refers to places where knowledge-based entrepreneurship has emerged as a driving force for economic growth, employment creation and competitiveness. In this context, entrepreneurial universities play an important role as both knowledge-producer and a disseminating institution. In the literature, several studies contributed with relevant findings. Most of these studies reveal a tendency to use case studies to explain this phenomenon justified by the embryonic nature of the topic field, and with the lack of a robust theoretical framework to understand it. No empirical study, however, has highlighted the interrelations among environmental and internal factors that conditioned the development of entrepreneurial universities with the teaching, research and entrepreneurial missions that they need to achieve. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of these interrelations identifying the most critical factors that conditioned these missions and to this end brings a proposal model to measure this phenomenon empirically in the light of the Institutional Economics and the Resource-Based View. The methodology adopted is integrated by the Spanish Entrepreneurial University Scoreboard to identify this phenomenon and Structural Equation Modeling to analyze the relationships among independent and dependent variables that integrate the proposal model of entrepreneurial university. This research could cover invaluable strategies to bring further benefits to society (in terms of the creation of new business and employment) and, in particular, to educational institutions. KeywordsEntrepreneurial universities–Institutional economics–Resource-based view–Higher education–Knowledge transfer–Technology transfer
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Studies adopting the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) mostly use quantitative methods. Sometimes, however, researchers choose to use a qualitative method because of the nature of available data (e.g., interviews) or availability of only a limited number of cases. This paper describes a study in which the TPB was used with qualitative methods to explain differences in university teaching. It focuses primarily on the methods used: qualitative data coding, data analysis and interpretation, and methods for presenting and supporting results. The study explored factors which influence university teachers to adopt teaching models based on online social interaction when an e-learning platform is used to complement undergraduate classroom teaching. Participants were 26 university teachers (15 from Australia and 11 from Italy). They responded to a semi-structured interview based on the TPB. Three approaches to use of e-learning platforms were identified: upload of materials, use of discussion forums, and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Using this approach, it was possible to highlight substantial differences in the attitudes, social influence, and perceived behavioral control among the three groups.
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This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally satisfactory, indicating that the model is probably adequate for studying entrepreneurship. Support for the model was found not only in the combined sample, but also in each of the national ones. However, some differences arose that may indicate demographic variables contribute differently to the formation of perceptions in each culture
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The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor model combines insights on the allocation of effort into entrepreneurship at the national (adult working-age population) level with literature in the Austrian tradition. The model suggests that the relationship between national-level new business activity and the institutional environment, or Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions, is mediated by opportunity perception and the perception of start-up skills in the population. We provide a theory-grounded examination of this model and test the effect of one EFC, education and training for entrepreneurship, on the allocation of effort into new business activity. We find that in high-income countries, opportunity perception mediates fully the relationship between the level of post-secondary entrepreneurship education and training in a country and its rate of new business activity, including high-growth expectation new business activity. The mediating effect of skills perception is weaker. This result accords with the Kirznerian concept of alertness to opportunity stimulating action.
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The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive set of measures to predict entrepreneurial intentions drawn from measures used in existing studies. Since intentions can be valuable for explaining the act of creating the venture, it is vital to develop a set of comprehensive measures that can better predict the intentions and the entrepreneurial behaviour. An extensive search of literature for a complete set of measures that are capable of explaining entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour did not yield any result. The present study was, therefore, attempted to address this gap in the extant literature. The final scale developed in this study is, in essence, the drawing together of various items from disparate sources and it should provide a more comprehensive research tool. Data was collected from four leading Indian business school students through an online survey. One hundred and one responses completed responses were obtained through the online survey which was open for one week. The data was subjected to statistical analysis to check the psychometric properties of the instruments. The scales were tested for validity and reliability. A total of 13 factors (measures) emerged from the study totalling 54 items. Out of these, seven factors were for motivators (28 items), five factors were for barriers (20 items) and one factor was for intention (6 items). These measures can be used by researchers to determine entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour of students, women, working managers and other sections of the society.
Chapter
Culture is deemed as a fundamental determinant of human behavior. Cross-cultural studies on management, business, and entrepreneurship practices represent a comparatively new class of interdisciplinary research. This movement represents the intersection of the cultural, sociological, psychological, historical, economic, management, technological, and business studies. This chapter encompasses the main definitions of culture and the theoretical assumptions of the impact of culture on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship.
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Since societies depend on energy and its management, extensive changes in energy-related technologies, such as the Smart Grid (SG), are likely to bring out subsequently enormous forms of social change. Imagine, there are several claims about the risks that lie ahead as conventional energy resources terminated, as populations increase, and as assumption accelerate. Therefore, the future societies will be subject to creative development and wide-ranging transformation to optimize their energy consumption. The SG can integrate an assorted set of electricity resources, containing large power plants as well as distributed renewable energy resources, electric energy storage, demand response, and electric vehicles. In line with many visions for the SG, consumers will play a more ‘active’ role in the future energy systems. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure customers’ acceptance to successfully build a SG. The eventual deployment of the SG depends on the consumers’ acceptance of SG products and services. Yet fully engaging the residential space in the SG remains a challenge. This work aims to provide energy systems researchers and decision makers with proper insight into the underlying drivers of consumer acceptance of the SG and the logical steps for their engagement to promote the SG technology and making it feasible in a timely manner.
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Universities are currently in the process of change and adaptation to shifting expectations that for example include closer engagement with businesses and increased facilitation of entrepreneurship among faculty and graduates. By supporting academic entrepreneurship, universities can address these expectations whilst also becoming more entrepreneurial institutions. However, more knowledge is needed on how this support provided by different levels in the university organisation is perceived by academics. This is particularly relevant in the case of PhD students because many of them will go on to become the next generation of senior faculty and because PhD education constitutes a considerable part of most universities’ activities with PhD students performing a large share of university research. Our study is based on survey responses of 464 PhD students from all faculties at one of the biggest universities in Sweden. The results show that the perceived support of commercialisation of research results varies at different hierarchical levels within the university. The score for perceived support from the highest level (central administration) did not differ much between the faculties, while significant differences were found at lower levels. We argue that variations between faculties and departments with regard to norms and cultures should be considered when stimulating entrepreneurial engagement, for example by using multiple channels of communication, as well as tailor-made strategies and activities.
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This paper examines individuals’ engagement in entrepreneurship in emerging economies. We conceive of such engagement as encompassing opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploitation. We investigate the influence of individuals’ household income and level of education on their engagement in entrepreneurship, as well as the interaction effects between these individual-level factors and country-level regulatory, cognitive, and normative institutions. We test our hypotheses on a multisource dataset from 22 emerging economies using a multilevel analysis technique. Our results indicate that the direct effect of individuals’ household income on their engagement in entrepreneurship is persistent, regardless of institutional conditions; but the influence of education level varies contingent upon various institutional conditions.
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El objetivo general de este estudio es doble. Por una parte, realizamos una reflexión sobre las posibilidades que ofrece el marco teórico del Modelo de Schwartz (1992) al estudio de la conducta emprendedora y, por otra parte, exploramos de manera empírica los valores personales dentro de las dimensiones de Individualismo y Colectivismo que favorecen dicha conducta. Para ello, hemos realizado un estudio descriptivo comparando los diferentes tipos de valores y los valores específicos entre un grupo de sujetos emprendedores y otro grupo que no lo son. Los resultados muestran que existen diferencias significativas, tanto en el tipo de valores, como en los valores específicos de ambos grupos. Estas diferencias apuntan que los emprendedores están inspirados por unos tipos de valores más individualistas.
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This article argues that cultural and personal values are relevant in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions, and that the interplay between both value-levels deserves attention. Individualist values such as achievement, pleasure, self-direction, and an exciting and stimulating life are related to entrepreneurial intention and activity, both at the cultural and personal level. From a sample of 2069 adults with a university degree, the results support a double effect of culture on entrepreneurial intention: the personal values effect (a more individualist culture leads to more members exhibiting higher entrepreneurial intentions) and the outliers’ effect (those who are more individualist than the average in their culture will exhibit a higher entrepreneurial intention). Within the two individualist dimensions considered (i.e. self-enhancement and openness to change), the relationship of self-enhancement to entrepreneurial intention is stronger than that of openness to change. The implications of these results are discussed and some avenues for future research are proposed.
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I outline a synthesis of micro and macro levels that attempts to provide a broader conceptualization of academic entrepreneurship and an appreciation of the contextual heterogeneity of academic entrepreneurship and the implications for how it occurs. The micro-level concerns how firms orchestrate their resources and capabilities, specifically knowing where resources come from and how to accumulate, bundle and configure them to generate sustainable returns. At the macro level, I analyse four different dimensions of context: temporal, institutional, social and spatial. Consequently, I argue that there is a need for a reconciliation of utilitarian and education-for-education’s sake perspectives on the role of universities.
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The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship predicts that entrepreneurial activity is greater in regions with more knowledge conditional on the commercialization efficiency of incumbents, which limits entrepreneurial discovery. We extend the theory to contend that localized competition impedes entrepreneurial activity by reducing the incentive to exploit new knowledge. We test this conjecture using spatial panel estimation. We find a positive relationship between new knowledge and entrepreneurial activity that is negatively moderated by localized competition. We also find that greater agglomeration counteracts the moderating effect localized competition has on the relationship between new knowledge and entrepreneurial activity.
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Mixed methods research is becoming an increasingly popular approach in several fields. However, its application in the field of entrepreneurship has not been studied. The authors reviewed the use of mixed methods research in three entrepreneurship journals and two leading generalistic journals that publish entrepreneurship research, examining the main purposes and designs. A total of 955 articles were reviewed and 81 mixed methods studies were identified. The analysis of these articles revealed opportunities associated with the application of this approach. Mixed methods may help to improve entrepreneurship research addressing challenges emphasized in earlier studies. Suggestions on why and how to use mixed methods research are offered, and recommendations are provided to guide future mixed methods studies to advance our understanding of the entrepreneurial phenomenon.
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This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association for Promoting Academic Entrepreneurship Research (FGF), noteworthy milestones in the development of entrepreneurship education in Germany will be discussed, along with those trends that are likely to be important in the future.
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This study analyzes the interplay between gender differences and the social environment in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Data were obtained from two different European regions. The results show that the formation of entrepreneurial intentions is similar for men and women. At the same time, men consistently exhibit more favorable intentions than women do. Nevertheless, the perception of the social legitimation of entrepreneurship only serves to reinforce male entrepreneurial intentions, and not those of women. This holds for both regions and probably is a consequence of women feeling entrepreneurship to not be an acceptable career option for them. The implications of these results are discussed.
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The formation of university spinoff companies is described, and their role in the commercialization of university technology and wealth creation in the United States and else where is investigated. Why university spinoffs are a subject of importance in scholarly investigation is explained, as well as the historical development of university spin off activity. The factors of the university and societal environment, the nature of technology, the industries in which spinoffs occur, and the people involved inthe spinoff process that influence those activities are described. Also, thespinoff creation process and the development of university technology into new products and services, the identification and exploitation of markets for new products and services, and the acquisition of financial resources for the new organizations that exploit these new technologies are described. Factors that enhance the performance of university spinoffs are also examined in the hope of differentiating successful and unsuccessful companies. Finally, the effects of the spinoffs on the universities that created the mare examined. All these goals are achieved in this investigation by providing conceptual arguments, reviewing existing work by academic researchers and informed observers, and offering primary data collected from original studies of spinoffs from U.S. academic institutions. (JSD)
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We contribute to research on country-level entrepreneurship by introducing the concept of National Systems of Entrepreneurship and by providing an approach to characterizing them. We suggest that National Systems of Entrepreneurship are fundamentally resource allocation systems that are driven by individual-level opportunity pursuit, through the creation of new ventures, with the outcomes of this activity regulated by country-specific institutions. In contrast with the institutional emphasis of the National Systems of Innovation frameworks, where institutions engender and regulate action, National Systems of Entrepreneurship are driven by individuals, with institutions regulating the outcomes of individual action. Building on these principles, we introduce a novel index methodology to characterizing National Systems of Entrepreneurship. The distinctive features of the methodology are: (1) systemic approach, which recognizes interactions between components of National Systems of Entrepreneurship; (2) the Penalty for Bottleneck feature, which identifies bottleneck factors that hold back system performance; (3) contextualization, which recognizes that national entrepreneurship processes are always embedded in a given country’s institutional framework.
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This article uses Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to build an entrepreneurial intention questionnaire (EIQ) and analyzes its psychometric properties. The entrepreneurial intention model is then tested on a 519-individual sample from two rather diverse countries: Spain and Taiwan. EIQ and structural equation techniques have been used to try to overcome previous research limitations. The role of culture in explaining motivational perceptions has been specifically considered. Results indicate EIQ properties are satisfactory and strong support for the model is found. Relevant insights are derived about how cultural values modify the way individuals in each society perceive entrepreneurship.
Article
Although sources and determinants of academic entrepreneurship have begun to command the attention of policy-makers and researchers, there remain many unanswered questions about how individual and social factors shape the decisions of academics to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Using a large-scale panel of academics from a variety of UK universities from 2001 to 2009, this paper examines how an academics' level of entrepreneurial capacity in terms of opportunity recognition capacity, and their prior entrepreneurial experience shape the likelihood of them being involved in starting up a new venture. In addition, we explore what role university Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) play in stimulating venture creation. The results show that individual-level attributes and experience are the most important predictors of academic entrepreneurship. We also find that the social environment surrounding the academic also plays an influential role, but its role is much less pronounced than individual-level factors. Finally, we show that the activities of the TTO play only a marginal, indirect role, in driving academics to start new ventures. We explore the implications of this analysis for policy and organizational design for academic entrepreneurship.
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Much of the literature examining the impact of the Bayh-Dole Act has been based on the impact on patenting and licensing activities emanating from offices of technology transfer. Studies based on data generated by offices of technology transfer, suggest a paucity of entrepreneurial activity from university scientists in the form on new startups. There are, however, compelling reasons to suspect that the TTO generated data may not measure all, or even most of scientist entrepreneurship. Rather than relying on measures of scientist entrepreneurship reported by the TTO and compiled by AUTM, this study instead develops alternative measures based on the commercialization activities reported by scientists. In particular, the purpose of this paper is to provide a measure of scientist entrepreneurship and identify which factors are conducive to scientist entrepreneurship and which factors inhibit scientist entrepreneurship. This enables us to compare how scientist entrepreneurship differs from that which has been established in the literature for the more general population. We do this by developing a new database measuring the propensity of scientists funded by grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to commercialize their research as well as the mode of commercialization. We then subject this new university scientist-based data set to empirical scrutiny to ascertain which factors influence both the propensity for scientists to become an entrepreneur. The results suggest that scientist entrepreneurship may be considerably more robust than has generally been indicated in studies based on TTO data.
Article
Varying institutional environments provide the foundation for a great deal of international business (IB) research yet relatively little empirical work has examined the association between institutional factors and new business development in emerging economies, although the importance of new business development for economic transition and growth is widely acknowledged. Drawing from social network and institutional theories, we address this gap by examining the effect of associational activity on the level of new business activity in emerging economies, and testing the thesis that associational activity becomes more instrumental for new business creation when aspiring entrepreneurs confront higher institutional burdens (i.e., obstacles derived from underdeveloped or absent institutions). On the basis of data from two cross-national research projects—the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the World Values Survey—we find a positive relationship between a country's associational activity and new business activity; this relationship is stronger for higher regulatory and normative institutional burdens and lower cognitive institutional burdens. This study is among the first to examine empirically the possible substitution effect between social ties and institutions to predict new business activity; it paints a nuanced picture of how social networks might be more instrumental in contexts characterized by weak institutions. We discuss the implications of these findings for IB theory and practice and offer directions for further research in the area.
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In common with other Newly Industrialized Economies in Asia, Singapore is moving toward a knowledge-based strategy for growth. Increasing prominence has been given to the role of Singapore’s universities in stimulating economic growth through industrially relevant research, technology commercialization, high-tech spin-offs, attracting foreign talent, and inculcating entrepreneurial mindsets. The National University of Singapore (NUS) is examined as a case study of how East Asian universities are responding to the globalization of the knowledge economy. It is argued that a shift toward an “entrepreneurial university” model [Etzkowitz, H., Webster, A., Gebhart, C., & Terra, B. R. C. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: Evolution of ivory tower to entreprenenurial paradigm. Research Policy, 29(2), 313–330] is critical for NUS to contribute effectively to Singapore’s transition to a knowledge-based economy.
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Policy makers are increasingly recognizing the catalytic role of academics’ spin-off companies in a national economy, which derives from their innovativeness that result in new value generation, and job creation. Although research on academics’ spin-off companies has been increasing, knowledge gaps exist as to the specific determinants and processes that characterize the emergence of academics’ entrepreneurial intentions that lead them to spin off companies. This research aims to fill this gap. Drawing from psychological and entrepreneurship research on intentionality, the authors propose a conceptual model of academics’ entrepreneurial intentions. They empirically test the model using structural equation modeling and a robust data set collected in two European academic settings to guide future research on this important topic.
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The authors present a model suggesting that innovative output is influenced by R&D and market struc ture characteristics. Using a new and direct measure of innovation in a cross-section regression model estimating the total number of inno vations and large- and small-firm innovations, they find that: (1) th e total number of innovations is negatively related to concentration and unionization, and positively related to R&D, skilled labor, and t he degree to which large firms comprise the industry; and (2) these d eterminants have disparate effects on large and small firms. Copyright 1988 by American Economic Association.