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... In some cases, employees would resort to deviant methods to learn skills after the implementation of a new technology, called "shadow learning" (Beane, 2019). Additionally, intelligent technologies with more control over decision-making, such as intelligent personal assistants or even intelligent project managers, can interrupt team learning and knowledge sharing which can then impact overall team performance (Yan et al., 2020). ...
Intelligent technologies have the potential to transform organizations and organizing processes. In particular, they are unique from prior organizational technologies in that they reposition technology as agent rather than a tool or object of use. Scholars studying human-machine communication (HMC) have begun to theorize the dual role played by human and machine agency, but they have focused primarily on the individual level. Drawing on Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984), we propose a theoretical framework to explain agency in HMC as a process involving the negotiation of control between human and machine agents. This article contributes to HMC scholarship by offering a framework and research agenda to guide future theory-building and research on the use of intelligent technologies in organizational contexts.
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