Chapter

New Basque varieties: Accentuation and grammatical number in Standard Basque and local dialects

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In this article, we examine some aspects of the interaction between Standard Basque (see also Jauregi & Epelde in LME 2019) and traditional varieties of the Basque language. The questions that arise in this context are, on the one hand, the possible “substrate” effects of local varieties on the pronunciation of Standard Basque, so that Standard Basque may be starting to show regional variation, and, on the other, the influence that Standard Basque may be having on traditional local varieties. We focus on the singular/plural distinction, which in many traditional varieties is conveyed by differences in accentuation and in Standard Basque, instead, is expressed by differences in the segmental shape of suffixes. The results of our preliminary investigation show that accentual distinctions between singular and plurals (or other accentual contrasts) are generally not transferred to Standard Basque. That is, in some geographical areas, speakers use different accentual rules in Standard Basque and when speaking in their native dialect. On the other hand, in some other geographical areas, traditional contrasts in accentuation are no longer being made, showing perhaps convergence with the Standard in this respect; but speakers still use different morphological endings and different morphophonological rules in the two varieties that they speak. By focusing on this specific aspect of linguistic structure (accentuation and morphological number marking) we wish to contribute to a better understanding of the complex interaction between traditional Basque varieties and Standard Basque.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the spectral properties of anterior sibilant fricatives in Northern Peninsular Spanish, and sibilant-merging and non-merging varieties of Basque. Non-merging varieties of Basque have two voiceless anterior sibilant fricatives, characterized as apico-alveolar and lamino-alveolar. In other Basque varieties, however, these two phonemes have merged with varying results. Twenty-four participants divided into four different groups have been studied. One group is a set of monolingual Spanish speakers from north-central Spain while the remaining three are Basque-Spanish bilingual groups with different sibilant fricative systems in Basque. The goal is to describe the spectral properties of anterior sibilant fricatives and examine the effect of the L1-Basque sibilant system upon L2-Spanish. The Basque varieties chosen are (1)-Azpeitia Basque, where merging in favor of the lamino-alveolar sibilant fricative has occurred, (2)-Lemoa Basque, where the merging in favor of the apico-alveolar sibilant fricative is widespread, and (3)-Goizueta Basque, where no merging has happened. Participants took part in an elicitation task where they produced sentences containing target words with an intervocalic anterior sibilant fricative in Basque and Spanish. Bayesian probability was used for inferential statistics. Speakers of the non-merging Basque variety show the narrowest acoustic dispersion of /s/ in Spanish, as opposed to broader diffusion in the other three groups. Regarding L1 transfer, while the Azpeitia group does not show transfer into Spanish, the Lemoa and Goizueta groups do. Results show that /s/ is more fronted for monolingual Spanish speakers from north-central Spain than what previous literature has reported.
Article
Full-text available
Artikulu hau Jean Etxepareren Beribilez (1931) liburuari buruzko tesi baten jarraipena da. Hari nagusia da Jean Etxepareren eta Pío Barojaren arteko paralelismo bat egitea, zenbait berdintasun eta alde zerrendatuta. Paralelismoa, batez ere, idazle bi horien euskal alderdi identitarioari dagokio, nahiz eta sartu-irten bat edo beste ere egingo den haien ikuspegi filosofikoetan. Bi idazleak garaikideak dira eta Europako pentsamendu-giro beraren zordun, ahaztu gabe biek adierazten duten euskaltzaletasun konpartitua, zentzurik zabalenean. Azpimarratzekoak dira, bestalde, bi idazleon obrek izan zituzten gizarte-harrera bereziak, eta idazleon jarrera-desberdintasunak egia adierazteko, kontuan izanik bakoitzak zuen irakurlegoaren izaera, bata euskalduna eta bestea erdalduna. This article comes after a thorough study for a PhD dissertation on a book by Jean Etxepare (Beribilez, 1931). A comparative study is drawn between Jean Etxepare and Pío Baroja with the aim of finding their coincidences and differences. This research is based mostly in their basque identitary ideology, even though some attention is also paid to some philosophical issues. Both writers are part of the same European intellectual ambiance, and both are empathetic to the Basque Country. Broadly speaking, it can be said that their literary work was heavily determined by the profile of their hypothetical readers, as Jean Etxepare wrote mainly for Basque language speakers and Pío Baroja addressed his writings to Spanish ones.
Article
Full-text available
This dictionary focuses on the accent and phonology of Azpeitia Basque. the diction- ary provides a statement of the main phonological rules of such variety. In the diction- ary, nouns and adjectives are shown in three different forms: uninflected, absolutive singular and absolutive plural. the three forms are used to indicate any change in stress. regarding verbs, two different forms are used throughout the dictionary: the perfective and non-perfective forms, followed by a third person singular auxiliary. As for the remaining word categories, only one form is given. this is the first half of the complete dictionary.
Article
Full-text available
This dictionary focuses on the accent and phonology of Azpeitia Basque. the diction- ary provides a statement of the main phonological rules of such variety. In the diction- ary, nouns and adjectives are shown in three different forms: uninflected, absolutive singular and absolutive plural. the three forms are used to indicate any change in stress. regarding verbs, two different forms are used throughout the dictionary: the perfective and non-perfective forms, followed by a third person singular auxiliary. As for the remaining word categories, only one form is given. this is the first half of the complete dictionary.
Article
Full-text available
Goizuetako azentuera deskribatu asmoz idatzi da azentu-hiztegi hau. 2.400 sarrera inguru dituen hiztegia da, Nafarroa iparraldean egindako beste hiztegi batzuk oinarri hartuta osatu dena. Behin oinarri hori osatuta, Goizuetako azentu sistemari buruzko arau eta ezaugarri fisikoen azalpena egin da. Horretarako, orain arte Goizuetako azentuerari buruz egin diren deskribapenak laburtu dira eta horiei ekarpenen bat egin diegu ahal izan dugunean. Hitz taldeetan gertatzen dena aztertu da eta adinaren arabera ikusi diren aldaketa batzuen berri ere ematen du lan honek. Bukaeran, laburpen modura lanaren ekarpen eta ondorio nagusiak biltzen dira eta Goizuetako azentu-sistemaren ezaugarri batzuk adierazi dira.
Article
Full-text available
This is the second half of the dialectal dictionary. Like in the previous work, the dictionary focuses on the accent and phonology of Azpeitia Basque. In the dictionary, nouns and adjectives are shown in three different forms: uninflected, absolutive singular and absolutive plural. Regarding verbs, two different forms are used throughout the dictionary: the perfective and non-perfective forms, followed by a third person singular auxiliary. As for the remaining word categories, only one form is given.
Article
Full-text available
Egoera soziolinguistiko desberdina bizi izan duten hiru belaunaldi elkarbizi dira Luzaiden. Hiru belaunaldietako hiztunei galdeketa zehatz berbera egin diegu (lexikoa, izen morfologia, aditz morfologia eta sintaxiari so) sexu eta –batez ere– adin parametroaren araberako bariazioa neurtu asmoz. Dialektologia soziolinguistikoaren ikuspuntutik egindako lan honetan, muga politikoak, euskalkiaren galerak eta hiztunen bizimoduak hizkuntzaren forman duen eraginaren berri eman dugu, testuinguru soziokulturalak hizkuntza sistema diferenteak hautatzeko orduan duen eragina erakutsi asmoz. Hiztun batetik bestera sistemek dituzten desberdintasunak gogoan, hizkuntz ezaugarriak aztertzeko soziolinguistikan erabiltzen diren parametroak izan dira kontuan, dialektologia tradizionalean euskalki mugak finkatzeko baliatu izan den geografia kartesiarraz gainera, hizkuntza bariazioan eragina duten faktore sozialen bila. Eranskin moduan, azterketa sistematikoan alde batera utzi ditugun ezaugarri fonologiko batzuk ere aipatu ditugu dokumentatuak gera daitezen, ikergai interesgarri direlakoan. Three generations which have known different sociolinguistic situations live side by side in Luzaide/Valcarlos. We gave exactly the same questionnaire to speakers from the three generations (dealing with lexicon, nominal morphol - ogy, verbal morphology and syntax) to measure variation relative to parameters of gender and, above all, age. This study, performed from the perspec tive of sociolinguistic dialectology, aimed to report on the repercussions of the political border, the loss of the language and the lifestyles of the speakers on language form. Bearing in mind the differences between speakers in the system, we considered parameters used in sociolinguistics, as well as the Cartesian geography used in traditional dialectology to mark the dialectal division, in search of other social factors. By way of an appendix, we have included a set of phonological features in order that they be documented, their being interesting subjects for future studies.
Article
Full-text available
1984. urtean euskararen azentueraren gaineko azterketek itzelezko bul-tzada hartu zuten; orduan ere, euskara batuak azentua eduki zezakeela hasi ginen entzuten. Ilunpeko argi izpi hari ia bakardade osoan eutsi behar izan dio Txillardegik urte luzeetan barrena. Ordutik hona beste ikertzaile batzuk ager-tu dira plaza honetara eta euskal azentuaren arazoa argitzen hasi da; euskara, honetan ere, hizkuntza arrunta dela erakutsi da. Batzuen artean (+2, -1) ospetsu bilakatu da eta xehetasunak xehetasun onarpen osoa bildu duela esan dezakegu. Jakina, onarpen hori ez da gertatu autoritatea daukatenen artean eta arlo honetan zain segitzen dugu. Zabala da Txillardegiren lana, arlo askotan jardun du, bikain jardun ere; (+2, -1) hori nahikoa litzateke beste baten lana justifikatzeko. Baina bere meri-turik handiena beharbada ez da emaitza zientifiko batera mugatzen; askoz harago doa, egiteko era zintzo eta konprometitu bat defendatu eta ikasleak inguruan biltzen jakin du. Bera gidaria, akuilaria eta adore emalea izan da guretariko askorentzat. Zer edo zer nabarmentzekotan, merezimendu guztie-tan, horixe nabarmenduko nuke, hots, irakasle onaren apaltasuna, ingurukoak erakartzeko eta zaletzeko gaitasuna. Badakit ezin objektiboa izan naitekeena asko baita ikasi diodana, UEUren saioetan irakasle nuenean, AHO taldean lankide eta beti ere adiskide dudanean. Bere omenez idazteko ohorea egikeran zer aukeratu? Bada, ezinbestez euskara batuaren azentua izan behar da, nire honen gaia, atzera begira barik, etorkizuna gogotan.
Article
Full-text available
Dialektoen eta hizkuntza estandarraren arteko harremanak lantzeko ikuspuntu teorikoaren bilaketan abiatzen da artikulua. Hizkuntza estandarraren eta dialektoen arteko bateratze-motetan eta tipologian sakondu ondoren euskararen bi gunetako kasuak aztertzen dira: Arratiako Dima eta Gipuzkoako Goierri. Ezaugarri fonologikoak, morfologikoak eta sintaktikoez gain lexikoa ere aztertzen da. The article starts in search of the theoretical point of view of the relationship between dialects and standard language. After going deeply into the type of levelling between the standard language and the dialects, and his typology, the author examines two cases on the basque language: the case of the speaked language in Dima, in Bizkay, and the case of the speaked language in Goierri, en Gipuzkoa. In these two areas he investigates phonological, morphological and syntactical characteristics, without forgetting the lexical characteristics. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UZTARO, 50 - 2004, 45 - 57 orrialdeak.
Article
This article analyzes the nature of Differential Object Marking (DOM) in Basque varieties. It demonstrates that, despite their identical dative morphology, DOM objects display a different syntax to goal indirect objects. Based on the licensing of depictive secondary predication and on the absolutive marking of non-human and indefinite objects, it argues that DOM objects are generated in a direct rather than indirect object configuration. Moreover, given the tight relation between case and agreement in ditransitive constructions and the possibility to check Case in Exceptional Case Marking (ECM) contexts, it proposes that dative Case in DOM is structurally checked in an Agree relation against a functional head of the verbal agreement complex. The article thus identifies a different dative argument which has not been previously characterized in this manner: one that does not originate within an applicative or postpositional phrase and checks Case structurally.
Article
The investigation of the accentual systems of the languages of the world within metrical phonology has revealed that the typology of accentual systems is severely constrained. Theoretical considerations also allow us to predict the existence of certain accentual systems and to point out typological gaps. In particular, accent on the third syllable in quantity-insensitive systems, the mirror image of antepenultimate accent, has been considered an unattested pattern (van der Hulst i.p.). In this paper, I demonstrate that postpostinitial accent is precisely the unmarked pattern in the Basque variety spoken in Azkoitia. This is important in that a predicted but previously unattested pattern is shown to occur in at least one language. It is further argued that the Azkoitia accentual system derives historically from a system with penultimate accentuation. In fact, in the Azkoitia system both edges are taken into account since regular postpostinitial accentuation is constrained by a nonfinality condition.
Article
Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Aspect (2000)
Article
The aim of this thesis was to study dialectal variation in Swedish vowel pronunciation. The data were recorded within the project SweDia at 98 rural sites in Sweden and the Swedish speaking parts of Finland around year 2000. At each site approximately twelve speakers were recorded: three older women, three older men, three younger women and three younger men. The vowel quality of nineteen different vowels was analyzed acoustically by means of principal component analysis (PCA) of Bark-filtered spectra. High correlations with formants were measured for a subset of the data. Separate PCAs of vowels produced by men and women effectively reduced the variation in the acoustic measures related to anatomical/physiological differences between the sexes. Dialectal variation was studied both in each vowel and on an aggregate level. The thesis includes maps that display the pronunciation of each vowel in the two age groups at each site. Co-occurring vowel features were identified by a factor analysis. The aggregate analysis showed that the Swedish dialects form a linguistic continuum without abrupt dialect borders. Within the continuous distribution of vowel features, however, some more coherent dialect areas can be identified. The analyses indicate a large-scale leveling of Swedish dialects. In central Sweden the aggregate distance in vowel pronunciation between older and younger speakers is large. In some peripheral areas the linguistic change is smaller. The ongoing change in vowel pronunciation in central Sweden is connected to an ongoing chain shift in front mid-vowels. This language change is the result of dialect contact in combination with convergence to Standard Swedish. http://irs.ub.rug.nl/ppn/327505672
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph.D.)--New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 2005. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 337-356).
Tolosako eta Ataungo hizkerak: hizkuntz bariazioa eta konbergentzia joerak [Basque varieties of Tolosa and Ataun: linguistic variation and
  • Borja Ariztimuno
Ariztimuno, Borja. 2010. Tolosako eta Ataungo hizkerak: hizkuntz bariazioa eta konbergentzia joerak [Basque varieties of Tolosa and Ataun: linguistic variation and
Resurreccion María de. 1931-1932. Del acento tónico vasco en algunos de sus dialectos
  • Azkue
Azkue, Resurreccion María de. 1931-1932. Del acento tónico vasco en algunos de sus dialectos [On the tonic accent of some Basque varieties].
Carte des sept province basques, montrant la delimitation actuelle de l'euscara [Map of the seven Basque provinces showing the current limits of Basque
  • Louis Bonaparte
  • Lucien
Bonaparte, Louis Lucien. 1869. Carte des sept province basques, montrant la delimitation actuelle de l'euscara [Map of the seven Basque provinces showing the current limits of Basque]. London: Strangeways & Walden. Google Scholar
Gernika-Lumoko euskararen aldakortasuna: aldagai fonetiko zenbait [Variation in Gernika-Lumo Basque: some phonetic variables
  • Ariane Ensunza
Ensunza, Ariane. 2012. Gernika-Lumoko euskararen aldakortasuna: aldagai fonetiko zenbait [Variation in Gernika-Lumo Basque: some phonetic variables].
Busturialdeko euskararen hizkuntza-aldakortasuna denboran eta espazioan [Linguistic variation in time and space in Busturialdea Basque
  • Ariane Ensunza
Ensunza, Ariane. 2015. Busturialdeko euskararen hizkuntza-aldakortasuna denboran eta espazioan [Linguistic variation in time and space in Busturialdea Basque].
Busturialdeko euskararen hizkuntza-aldakortasunaz: (i_V) aldagaia denboran eta espazioan
  • Ariane Ensunza
Ensunza, Ariane. 2017. Busturialdeko euskararen hizkuntza-aldakortasunaz: (i_V) aldagaia denboran eta espazioan [On the linguistic variation of Busturialdea Basque: The variable (i_V)].
Zeberio haraneko euskararen azterketa etno-linguistikoa [An etnolinguistic examination of Zeberio Valley Basque
  • Etxebarria Ayesta
  • Juan Manuel
Etxebarria Ayesta, Juan Manuel. 1991. Zeberio haraneko euskararen azterketa etno-linguistikoa [An etnolinguistic examination of Zeberio Valley Basque].
Euskaldunen azentuak [The accentual patterns of Basque speakers
  • Iñaki Gaminde
Gaminde, Iñaki. 1999a. Euskaldunen azentuak [The accentual patterns of Basque speakers]. Bilbao: Labayru. Google Scholar Authenticated | anderb2@illinois.edu Download Date | 7/31/20 7:02 PM
Etxeko azentua eta eskolako azentua: Azentuera biren azterketa [Home accentuation and school accentuation: An analysis of two accent types
  • Iñaki Gaminde
Gaminde, Iñaki. 1999b. Etxeko azentua eta eskolako azentua: Azentuera biren azterketa [Home accentuation and school accentuation: An analysis of two accent types].
Asier Romero, & Aitor Iglesias. 2017. Dardarkari anizkunaren aldakortasunaz
  • Iñaki Gaminde
  • Aintzane Etxebarria
  • Naia Eguskiza
Gaminde, Iñaki, Aintzane Etxebarria, Naia Eguskiza, Asier Romero, & Aitor Iglesias. 2017. Dardarkari anizkunaren aldakortasunaz [On the variation of the alveolar trill].
Notas sobre el sistema acentual de Zeberio
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 1992. Notas sobre el sistema acentual de Zeberio [Notes on the accentual system of Zeberio Basque].
Euskararen azentuerak
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 1997. Euskararen azentuerak [Accentual systems of Basque].
Word prosodic systems in the languages of Europe
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 1999. Basque accentuation. In Harry van der Hulst (ed.), Word prosodic systems in the languages of Europe, 947-993. Berlin & New York, NY: De Gruyter Mouton. Google Scholar
Ander Beristain , & Ane Icardo Isasa. Submitted. Word-prosodic contrasts and bidialectalism in Basque
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio, Ander Beristain, & Ane Icardo Isasa. Submitted. Word-prosodic contrasts and bidialectalism in Basque. Google Scholar
Lexical tone and stress in Goizueta Basque
  • José Hualde
  • Oihana Ignacio
  • Francisco Lujanbio
  • Torreira
Hualde, José Ignacio, Oihana Lujanbio, & Francisco Torreira. 2008. Lexical tone and stress in Goizueta Basque. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1). 1
Gogoetak euskal dialektologia diakronikoaz: Euskara batu zaharra berreraiki beharraz eta haren banaketaren ikerketaz
  • Joseba A Lakarra
Lakarra, Joseba A. 2011. Gogoetak euskal dialektologia diakronikoaz: Euskara batu zaharra berreraiki beharraz eta haren banaketaren ikerketaz [Thoughts about the diachronical dialectology of Basque: On the need to reconstruct Old Common Basque and on the investigation of its diversification].
Differential Object Marking and datives in Basque syntax . Vitoria-Gasteiz: UPV/EHU dissertation. Google Scholar Authenticated | anderb2@illinois
  • Ane Odria
Odria, Ane. 2017. Differential Object Marking and datives in Basque syntax. Vitoria-Gasteiz: UPV/EHU dissertation. Google Scholar Authenticated | anderb2@illinois.edu Download Date | 7/31/20 7:02 PM
Euskara batuari Iparraldetik behatuz
  • Beñat Oihartzabal
Oihartzabal, Beñat. 1993. Euskara batuari Iparraldetik behatuz [Examining Standard Basque from the north].
Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois dissertation. Google Scholar Rodríguez-Ordóñez, Itxaso. 2019. Changes in the pitch-accent system of Gernika Basque
  • Itxaso Rodríguez-Ordóñez
Rodríguez-Ordóñez, Itxaso. 2016. Differential Object Marking in Basque: Grammaticalization, attitudes and ideological representations. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois dissertation. Google Scholar Rodríguez-Ordóñez, Itxaso. 2019. Changes in the pitch-accent system of Gernika Basque. Fontes Linguae Vasconum 127. 123-151. Google Scholar
Euskalkiak: euskararen dialektoak
  • Peter Trudgill
Trudgill, Peter. 2003. A glossary of sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar Zuazo, Koldo. 2008. Euskalkiak: euskararen dialektoak [Basque dialects]. Donostia: Elkar. Google Scholar Zuazo, Koldo. 2010. El euskera y sus dialectos. Irun: Alberdania. Google Scholar Zuazo, Koldo. 2015. Euskalkiak [Basque dialects].
Azpeitia: lapurréna [the one of the thieves
  • Ander Beristain
Beristain, Ander. 2018. Azpeitia: lapurréna [the one of the thieves] [audio].
Goizueta: asúnana [the one of the nettles
  • Ander Beristain
Beristain, Ander. 2018. Goizueta: asúnana [the one of the nettles] [audio].
Ondarroa: enborraná dala
  • Ander Beristain
Beristain, Ander. 2018. Ondarroa: enborraná dala [that it is the one of the trunks] [audio].
Notice the rise in pitch from the vowel of the second syllable
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 2019. Azpeitia: lapurréna [the one of the thief]. Soundwave and F0 contour. Notice the rise in pitch from the vowel of the second syllable, /u/, to that of the third, /e/ (see Aud. 1). [figure].
Notice the fall in pitch from the vowel of the second syllable
  • Soundwave
Soundwave and F0 contour. Notice the fall in pitch from the vowel of the second syllable, /u/, to that of the third, /e/ (see Aud. 2). [figure].
Density plots. Difference in Hz between second and third syllable in singular (discontinuous green line) and plural (continuous red line) words for Azpeitia speakers. Four panels, a: speaker A24, dialect; b: speaker A24, standard; c: speaker A25, dialect
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 2019. Density plots. Difference in Hz between second and third syllable in singular (discontinuous green line) and plural (continuous red line) words for Azpeitia speakers. Four panels, a: speaker A24, dialect; b: speaker A24, standard; c: speaker A25, dialect; d: speaker A25, standard [figure].
Ondarroa: enborraná dala
  • José Hualde
  • Ignacio
Hualde, José Ignacio. 2019. Ondarroa: enborraná dala [that it is the one of the trunk] [figure].
An overview of Basque dialects
  • Iñaki Camino
Camino, Iñaki. 2019. An overview of Basque dialects
Education in the Basque autonomous community: from monolingualism to bilingualism and towards multilingual education Jauregi, Oroitz & Irantzu Epelde
  • Luisa García Gurrutxaga
García Gurrutxaga, Luisa. 2019. Education in the Basque autonomous community: from monolingualism to bilingualism and towards multilingual education Jauregi, Oroitz & Irantzu Epelde. 2019. Standard Basque Martinez de Luna, Iñaki. 2020. The contemporary flourishing of the Basque Language Oñederra, Miren Lourdes. 2016. Standardisation of Basque: From grammar (1968) to pronunciation (1998)
New speakers of Basque: a Basque-Spanish contact approach External sources Authenticated | anderb2@illinois
  • Itxaso Rodríguez-Ordóñez
Rodríguez-Ordóñez, Itxaso. 2020. New speakers of Basque: a Basque-Spanish contact approach External sources Authenticated | anderb2@illinois.edu Download Date | 7/31/20 7:02 PM
The R Project for Statistical Computing
  • R Core Team
R Core Team. 2016. The R Project for Statistical Computing [website].