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Digital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development

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An efficient organization of the educational process within rapid acceleration of the society digitization is impossible without increasing its digital literacy, if the latter is really estimated and new models of digital learning didactics are devel-oped respectively. So, it is necessary to study an actual state of digital literacy, as well as to search for and introduce new learning models in the educational system based on the use of modern innovative technologies and digital learning methods. The objective of the research is to examine the level of the digital literacy of teachers, and also opportunities and promising trends within the digital didactics for the formation of competencies as the basis of a new model for the develop-ment of a new learning model in the context of the formation of the digital knowledge society. Two main methods have been used – elaboration of the ab-stract and logical model and a survey. In the research the data obtained as a result of the survey conducted in 2018 by NAFI Analytical Centre related to the meas-urement of the digital literacy level of teachers and lecturers in Russia were used. The number of respondents made up 634 lecturers (higher education) as well as 555 teachers (general education). The digital literacy formation model was devel-oped based on the didactic learning triangle taking into account the synthesis of three learning environments – real, virtual and neurocognitive. The analysis of the survey data demonstrated that in the aggregate of the compared indices for differ-ent social groups of the population, school teachers and lecturers of higher educa-tional institutions have reached the higher level of the digital literacy, which sig-nificantly exceeds the average Russian level. So, in Russia as a whole the index of the digital literacy of the adult population by a similar measurement method makes up 52% out of 100% possible ones, school teachers – 87%, lecturers of higher educational institutions – 88%. The use of research results in practice is possible with the improvement of training programs, the exchange of internation-al experience and further researches.
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Digital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for
New Learning Models Development
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i14.14669
Zhi-Jiang Liu ()
GuangXi Normal University, Guilin, China
51995812@qq.com
Natalia Tretyakova, Vladimir Fedorov, Marina Kharakhordina
Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg, Russia
AbstractAn efficient organization of the educational process within rapid
acceleration of the society digitization is impossible without increasing its digi-
tal literacy, if the latter is really estimated and new models of digital learning
didactics are developed respectively. So, it is necessary to study an actual state
of digital literacy, as well as to search for and introduce new learning models in
the educational system based on the use of modern innovative technologies and
digital learning methods. The objective of the research is to examine the level of
the digital literacy of teachers, and also opportunities and promising trends
within the digital didactics for the formation of competencies as the basis of a
new model for the development of a new learning model in the context of the
formation of the digital knowledge society. Two main methods have been used
elaboration of the abstract and logical model and a survey. In the research the
data obtained as a result of the survey conducted in 2018 by NAFI Analytical
Centre related to the measurement of the digital literacy level of teachers and
lecturers in Russia were used. The number of respondents made up 634 lectur-
ers (higher education) as well as 555 teachers (general education). The digital
literacy formation model was developed based on the didactic learning triangle
taking into account the synthesis of three learning environments real, virtual
and neurocognitive. The analysis of the survey data demonstrated that in the
aggregate of the compared indices for different social groups of the population,
school teachers and lecturers of higher educational institutions have reached the
higher level of the digital literacy, which significantly exceeds the average Rus-
sian level. So, in Russia as a whole the index of the digital literacy of the adult
population by a similar measurement method makes up 52% out of 100% pos-
sible ones, school teachers 87%, lecturers of higher educational institutions
88%. The use of research results in practice is possible with the improvement of
training programs, the exchange of international experience and further re-
searches.
KeywordsDigital technologies; educational process; emerging technologies
in learning; model.
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
1 Introduction
At the beginning of the 21st century there have been disruptive changes related to
intensive application of new technologies in education. The global network is stronger
affecting the daily lives of people and society. According to some estimates, now
hundreds of millions of personal computers and other mobile devices (for example,
personal digital equipment, mobile phones) are connected to the global network. We
are witnesses of the appearance of a new phenomenon, that is the global virtual edu-
cational community, which comprises more than a billion people, and the number is
continuing rigorously to increase [1].
Nowadays the digital literacy has become very popular in educational institutions
and among students. A huge leap in technologies has made significant changes to our
daily lives, one aspect of which allows us to strive for digital citizenship. Thus, the
gap as for the availability of digital devices should be narrowed, and is necessary to
expand an access to technologies for creation of the equality. When students can ex-
tensively use the media and technologies to interact with their environment, students’
personal environment is greatly enhancing and helps them uniting. They gain the
competence during the research, study and creation of their own digital works using
modern, affordable tools. This expanses the knowledge in order to facilitate a lifelong
learning in the digital learning environment [2].
Due to the opportunities provided by information and communication technologies
(ICTs) in the contemporary education, many multimedia and interactive educational
products are being developed in campus or online education (e-learning) [3].
Up-to-date information technologies are becoming one of the most important tools
for modernizing a school. They make the work of teachers and learners easier, reduce
the loading on students in the classroom, diversify teaching forms and methods, or-
ganize the learning process taking into account the personal characteristics of the
student, as well as track definite learning outcomes [4]. In didactic cyberspace you
can obtain an access to various learning environments: get digitized video lessons,
multimedia and hypertext links to books, texts, selected bibliographic links, lists of
websites and virtual laboratories. In the virtual classroom teachers of each subject
interact with students and support their learning processes. Through forums and chats
intellectuals have become interconnected and share knowledge [5].
Didactics is used at planning and the description of the process of learning individ-
ual lessons by the help of information and communication technologies (ICT). The
didactics or learning scenario is an accompanying document, from which it should be
read: student’s age (grade level), learning subject, learning package, training plan,
description of the objectives of fast learning, methods and forms of the work, learning
materials and instruments, definition and content of time phases, generalization, les-
son mark [6].
Computer-based literacy, media literacy, digital literacy and digital competence are
the concepts that focus on the necessity of the use of technologies in digital era [7].
Nowadays the digital literacy is necessary for all aspects of human life, especially
in the field of education [8]. Researches carried out for last 40 years refer to the im-
pact of computer and digital technologies on the processes of training and education,
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
and achievements of learners in the training, affirm their positive influence on differ-
ent aspects of education [9].
The changes caused by technological, economic and cultural aspects at the begin-
ning of the twenty-first century were very rapid. These changes mainly covered the
developed world. However, their influence affected the developing world. Societies
around the world have been dramatically changing, especially with regard to the
availability and ease of access to digital information and communication technologies.
So, in the era of rapid changes, teachers and dominant classroom practice were more
likely to remain traditional. It was focused on content, the teacher also directed di-
dactic training focused on the content transfer, and its reproduction remained the rule
of pedagogy [10].
With the emergence of media technologies in 21st century the traditional digital
literacy stopped to be sufficient for the human to survive in a new media environment.
More and more teachers and researchers in the field of informatics have studied the
essence of the digital literacy in the education [11].
The digital literacy is usually considered as a combination of technical, procedural,
cognitive and emotionally social skills. For example, the use of a computer program
implies the application of procedural skills (for instance, processing files and editing
visual images), as well as cognitive skills (for instance, the ability to intuitively de-
crypt or “read” visual messages embedded in graphical user interfaces). Similarly,
searching for data in the Internet is regarded as a combination of procedural skills
(working with search engines) and cognitive skills (data estimation, sorting false and
biased data, and also distinguishing between relevant and non-crucial data). Effective
chatting is deemed to be accompanied by the use of certain social and emotional
skills. In the framework of a growing addiction to digital working and learning envi-
ronments the digital literacy was conceived as a “survival skill,” a key skill that helps
users to complete efficiently complex digital tasks [12].
Currently in order to achieve the digital literacy we need media education. Regard-
less of the perspective, with the purpose of which the research and analysis are con-
ducted, especially from the point of interdisciplinary view, it is evident that we are
passing a new stage in the western civilization. After the Neolithic and then the Indus-
trial Revolution, the digital revolution leads to the third great stage: the information
society and / or communication society. This causes the emergence of a new social,
political, cultural and economic order, the evolution and results of which are so far
unpredictable and uncertain [13].
Researchers around the world are exploring new ways of spreading computer-
based literacy among all. Many forms go far beyond the typical classroom format,
including a variety of learning methods and learning environments [14]. The deeper
analysis of this phenomenon would allow, in essence, calculating its impact and more
profoundly identifying those social and cultural variables that can cause a potential
gap in the use of digital media in relation to the previously mentioned risks or oppor-
tunities for the development of education [15].
Pedagogical digital competence relates to the knowledge, skills, relations and ap-
proaches towards digital technologies, educational theory, subject, context and rela-
tions between them [16].
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Undoubtedly, digital competence and its various elements are essential components
of training in the 21st century. The growing trend in the development of new technol-
ogies, such as robotics, “Internet of Things”, or artificial intelligence, among many
other aspects, sets new challenges that we, as educational institutions, cannot ignore
[17].
Didactic technological competencies were an integral part of the teacher’s profes-
sional competency profile, not considering the subject taught by the teacher. In over-
all, these competencies can be defined as the teacher’s ability to use the material and
technical learning means during teaching the school subject that he/she teaches. The
content of these competencies obviously depended on the time, and while in the past
it was changing very slowly, at present, due to the influence of the rapid development
of digital technologies, it has been changing very quickly. In terms of the latest digital
technologies, the teacher’s didactic technological competencies can be defined as her /
his professional digital literacy skills for using digital learning tools and their applica-
tion in practice of teaching the subject [9].
The methodological learning basis in complex environments is cognitive peda-
gogy. The latter, by analogy with classical pedagogy, considers the human as a system
that is perceiving the world, but from non-classical view as a self-organizing system
in the framework of his/her experience, and in post-non-classical one as a self-
developing, historical system of autopoietic type, experiencing the impact of educa-
tional communication arising in the learning environment [18].
In the age of the Internet, technologies are always a part of classrooms, courses,
and educational institutions. The matter is how integrated they are: from poorly inte-
grated, teachers exchange documents, to high integration, teachers use technologies in
the form of multimodality. The innovation of mobile technologies and media tablets
leads to a new situation in educational institutions at different levels. The application
of such “media tablets” devices influences many levels of education, starting from
people’s behavior in the classroom, from courses’ content, events and programs that
take place outside the classroom, to decision-making both at the local and national
level. The new situation covers three levels of didactics: a) the relationship between
the teacher, students and content (didactic interaction [19]), b) digital didactic design
(learning objectives, learning activity, assessment / feedback), and c) strategic institu-
tional development, curriculum development (including programs’ development and
exams) as well as advanced training for teachers (didactic conditions) and vice versa
(Fig. 1) [20].
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Fig. 1. Three layers of digital didactics
Source: Developed by authors based on Jahnke et al. [20].
The importance of competencies in the 21st century has given rise to the appear-
ance of substantial topics related to the level of ensuring a necessary knowledge data-
base for children and young people in order that they can be competent in modern and
future societies [21].
As is widely known that each student has his/her own unique style of knowledge
acquisition, his/her own cognitive characteristics that directly influence the learning
of educational material. In line with the theory of multisensory learning, people have
different types of perception, thinking and memory. So, the use of multisensory tech-
nology is important in organizing the educational process.
The concept of the multisensory learning in the digital environment covers all
components of the didactic system: definition of objectives, content selection, organi-
zation and implementation of learning process, results’ diagnostics, satisfaction of
social needs for successful realization [22].
Many world countries pay high attention to the issue of digital literacy develop-
ment and digital didactics. In our research the experience of Russia and China has
analyzed.
In the next five years, 784.5 billion rubles will be spent on the modernization of
education in the framework of the development of the national project “Education” in
the Russian Federation. One of the goals of the national project is to be in the Top ten
countries in the world as regards the quality of general education. The project imple-
mentation period is from January 2019 to the end of 2024. The project includes ten
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
federal projects, such as “Modern School”, “The Success of Each Child”, “Support
for Families with Children”, “Digital Educational Environment”, “Teacher of the
Future”, “Young Professionals”, “New Opportunities for Everyone”, “Social Activi-
ty”, “Education Export” and “Social Lifts for All”. This determines the main trend in
terms of the relevance of the research on the modernization of the educational system
[23].
The factors generating the need for building a digital educational process of the vo-
cational education and training are three trends that characterize the development of a
digital society [24]:
Digital economy and new personnel requirements arisen due the digital economy;
New digital technologies that form a digital environment and which are developing
in it;
Digital generation (new generation of students that has specific social and psycho-
logical features).
China has been a pioneer in integrating information and communication technolo-
gies for education (ICT4E) into national educational policy. Recognizing the role that
technologies can have in the education in the late 1990s, the country has now become
an international leader in promoting the benefits of ICT4E. However, at school and
individual students’ levels, ICT4E still plays a subordinate role [25].
In overall, educational technologies are facing a rapid growth in China. The expan-
sion of integration technologies in the education has become the main area of a gov-
ernment activity as a means to reform the school education and improve the quality of
education throughout the country. The Chinese educational system has made signifi-
cant efforts to improve its technology infrastructure and develop an appropriate policy
with reference to the integration of technologies [26].
Since 2010 the Chinese government has been restructuring its educational system,
and IT penetration in the education has played an important role within such changes.
In 2010 the Ministry of Education of China published the Plan of the National Plan
for the Reform and Development of Secondary and Long-Term Education in China,
where accelerating of IT penetration in the education pays a special attention [27].
After online learning implementation in the country, distance learning in China in
the form of radio and television became the basis for the gradual development of
network education as the main form of modern distance learning. Tsinghua Universi-
ty, Zhejiang University, Hunan University and Peking University of Posts and Tele-
communications, which are four common higher educational institutions, carried out
pilot researches at the Institute of Modern Distance Learning through a large class of
professionals. After more than 10 years of development the Ministry of Education of
China has approved pilot schools for small education networks, in which tens of thou-
sands of basic educational institutions are small-scale and the number of students
reaches several million. In addition, training methods of internal employees for online
learning applications are rapidly extending, and most of the country's leading enter-
prises create their own online learning network environment [27,28].
One of the key detected issues is that teachers have used technologies as a learning
means more often than the use of technologies as a learning means of students [26].
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Thus, the professional development leads to the change of the concept as well as the
curriculum development. Such a professional development differs from the traditional
one, in the framework of which the main focus is on technological transactions and
will become important in the improvement of technological integration via the assis-
tance to conceptual and pedagogical changes in teacher’s activity [26].
Given the fact that our researches were originally based on efforts to better under-
stand how to approach the organization of the learning process in the digital society
and digital literacy, it has some limitations that affect the generalization of its results.
When using data from an online survey, it should be born in mind that the total sam-
ple was small and limited to the digital literacy in Russia. Thus, our study is aimed at
studying the achieved level of the digital literacy of teachers, as well as opportunities
and promising trends in the field of digital didactics for the formation of necessary
competencies, which is vital under building a new model for the education develop-
ment within the establishment of the digital knowledge society.
2 Materials and Methods
2.1 Research design
In the present research two main methods have been used that is creation of ab-
stract and logical model, and survey. We have used as a basis the hypothesis of the
updated model of the didactic triangle, which incorporates the context (as a broad
concept, including the curriculum, assessment, culture, etc.), proposed in the work of
Choshanov [1], as well as elaborated by us its improved version taking into account
the synthesis of three learning environments real, virtual, and neurocognitive.
In the research there have been applied the data from the survey “Digital Literacy
of Russian Teachers” conducted by NAFI Analytical Center [29]. The survey in-
volved 634 teachers (higher education), as well as 555 teachers (general education).
The survey results were estimated in order to adhere to the proportion of teachers’
allocation in the federal districts of Russia.
2.2 Intervention
Data collection was carried out by an online survey of school teachers and teachers
of higher educational institutions on a structured questionnaire, including closed and
open questions. In order to obtain objective results, respondents were asked not only
to answer test questions, but also to assess the share of teachers in their educational
institutions who do not work with digital technologies and do not use them in profes-
sional activities.
2.3 Research limitations
In the research the level of teachers’ digital literacy as the grounds for developing
competencies in the field of contemporary education were studied. The proposed
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
modification of the model of developing digital literacy on the basis of the learning
didactic triangle considers three main environments real, virtual, and neurocogni-
tive.
2.4 Statistical analysis
The maximum statistical error of the survey results makes up ± 3.9% for the sam-
ple of teachers of higher educational institutions and ± 4.2% is for the sample of
school teachers.
3 Results
Based on the study of the level of teachers’ digital literacy, as well as opportunities
and promising trends in the field of digital didactics in the formation of competencies
as the grounds of a new model for the development of a new educational model, a
comparative assessment of the digital literacy index was carried out both for Russians
in general and for individual social subgroups.
To do this, we analyzed the data of the comprehensive measurement of the level of
digital literacy in Russia conducted in 2018 by NAFI Analytical Center. In the
framework of the research the obtained values of the digital literacy index were ana-
lyzed both for Russians in general and for individual social subgroups. In the aggre-
gate of the compared indices for different social groups of the population, it was
found that school teachers and teachers of higher educational institutions have a high-
er level of the digital literacy, which significantly exceeds the average Russian level.
So, in Russia as a whole, the digital literacy index of the adult population by a similar
measurement method makes up 52% out of 100% possible ones (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Digital literacy of different social groups in Russia
Source: developed by authors based on NAFI survey “Digital literacy of Russian teachers” [29]
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Considering the data obtained during the survey upon a comparative analysis of the
level of digital literacy of teachers and their students, we can point out that teachers’
level exceeds the same one of the digital literacy of adolescents 12-17 years old and
young people 18-24 years old, despite the fact that representatives of these target
subgroups have demonstrated rather high level of the digital literacy 73% out of
100% possible ones among adolescents (14-17 years old), and 77% out of 100% pos-
sible ones among young people aged 18-24 years.
The digital literacy index of teachers is 87% out of 100% possible ones, which is a
fairly high indicator. In terms of the digital literacy elements, the lowest value of the
“attitude to technological innovation” sub-index makes up 76%. This indicator meas-
ured the knowledge of modern technological trends, skills to work with modern gadg-
ets and applications, and attitudes to the benefits of technological innovations. We
should highlight that teachers reached the highest level in information and computer
based literacy indicators are 93% and 92%, respectively (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3. Digital literacy of Russian school teachers
Source: developed by authors based on NAFI survey “Digital literacy of Russian teachers” [29]
The other aspect of measuring the digital literacy index referred to teachers of
higher educational institutions, upon which rather high indicators were also received.
This testifies the presence in the teaching environment of the necessary level of
knowledge, skills and attitudes in the field of digital technologies. We can state that
the work in the system of modern education today is impossible without knowledge,
skills and attitudes in all five components of the digital literacy. The digital literacy
index of teachers of higher educational institutions is 88% out of 100% possible ones
(Fig. 4). The analysis of the individual components of the digital literacy index among
teachers of higher educational institutions revealed lower indicators compared to
school teachers (for example, computer literacy). At the same time, the ratio of the
attitude of teachers of higher educational institutions to technological innovations is
higher 78%.
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
Fig. 4. Digital literacy of Russian teachers of higher educational institutions
Source: developed by authors based on NAFI survey “Digital literacy of Russian teachers” [29]
In view of the survey and theoretical researches, we justified a modern model of
digital literacy formation based on the didactic learning triangle. The model is
grounded on the synthesis of three learning environments - real, virtual, and neu-
rocognitive (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Model of digital literacy formation based on the didactic learning triangle
Source. The own development of the author considering the modification of approaches [1,19,20]
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
The proposed approach as for the model development of digital literacy based on
the didactic learning triangle in up-to-date environment supposes a synergetic interac-
tion of real and virtual environment, as well as neurocognitive one. The real learning
environment is a traditional school and university institutional activity. The virtual or
the so-called e-learning environment is a new one grounded on the use of information
and communication technologies of transfer and acquisition of the knowledge. The
neurocognitive learning environment is an activity on acquiring knowledge and skills
through experience, emotions, personal contacts and other cognitive forms.
4 Discussion
The general research is focused on the search of means for the development of
competent knowledge of students under the specialty “pedagogy” as regards the selec-
tion and assessment of e-learning resources as an integral part of didactic and meth-
odological learning means at the different learning stages and in different classes.
Considering the level of the development of information and communication technol-
ogies such type of competencies is becoming an important element of the professional
teacher’s profile and defines his/her achievements in the class and out of it within the
general learning process. The experience in technologies and a content filling are
foremost components. To reflect and extend opportunities for the implementation of
various learning strategies through different e-learning resources become more essen-
tial. So, as technology advances, in addition to access to electronic resources and
content design, navigation capabilities, levels of intuitive interface and personaliza-
tion, integration degree, caution, and research perspectives should focus on training
design. All this, in the conditions of developing the competence of specialists under
the specialty “pedagogy” on the comprehensive examination of electronic educational
resources, will ensure their more targeted and systematic use in the educational pro-
cess, as well as their continuous improvement in accordance with the applied learning
strategies in their diversity [22].
Classical learning models in the form of the didactic triangle, which includes the
student, teacher and educational content, reflect a number of didactic principles wide-
ly used in pedagogy, which are deemed as the main active element of the learning
environment of the teacher who implements a training methodology. The student is to
a certain extent non-active and may undergo the teacher’s influence. The relations
between the teacher and the student determine the quality of the learning process.
Thus, in opinion of designers of e-learning systems and simulators with the purpose to
create an effective e-learning system, the modeling of the working environment, func-
tions and logic of the teacher’s actions using technology is sufficient. This assump-
tion, which is controversial from the point of view of psychology and pedagogical
psychology, is widely discussed in the engineering and pedagogical environment and
is the basis of e-didactics a comprehensive discipline about teaching methods in the
new pedagogical reality of the technology age [18].
Digital literacy skills are those that characterize the ability to localize, systematize,
assess and analyze the information using digital technologies. The Internet phenome-
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
non promotes web-based multimedia learning tools that include images, video and
audio files, as well as the text. The person knowing the digital literacy is deemed a
socially responsible user of the Internet and social networks [11].
Moreover, the traditional understanding of the didactics does not meet require-
ments of the information society with a fast ICT development. The didactics of the
digital era is transformed into the science, engineering and learning art. The didactics
represents a developing area, which is theoretically expanded based on the combina-
tion of the research and teaching. In order to accept the challenge and react to learning
complexities in the digital era with intensive use of information and communication
technologies, scientists are looking for innovative solutions [1].
In higher education, one of the most outstanding tasks is to train people to solve
global issues today and tomorrow. Accordingly, as the educational content is now
freely proposed and available anytime, anywhere via the Internet, traditional educa-
tional formats are challenging. The main role of universities, apart from researches, is
to provide unique learning opportunities in a stimulating environment [30].
College students need to develop core competencies suitable for the society with
knowledge and information, especially for the fourth industrial revolution. In the
digital learning environment, when students use a learning strategy, it is important to
take into account that digital devices and applications will contribute to the develop-
ment of core competencies. In this regard, this study examined the impact of the digi-
tal literacy and the role of learning strategies on students' perception of core compe-
tencies [31].
The formation of a new information ecosystem requires rethinking of our approach
towards higher education. The high level skills needed by the society cannot be effec-
tively developed in the framework of traditional teaching models based on the repro-
duction of material from the teacher to the student [23].
The education is a practical activity, and the training is an art, not only the science,
both equally knowledge and skills [16].
The digital literacy is a number of competencies, which the individual has with the
purpose of a proper use of digital devices in the digital era, convenient access, appli-
cation, assessment, analysis and data fusion, as well as the creation of new knowledge
[2].
One of the key factors to success in the development of the digital literacy among
the smart generation is supported by an active role of librarian teachers in conducting,
connecting and continuing the process of intellectual transformation. Only due to
librarian teachers who have initiated changes in digital transformation the synergetic
capacities can be greatly used in the formation of smart cities using data and digital
technologies in local and global contexts [32].
5 Conclusion
The digital literacy formation model was developed based on the didactic learning
triangle taking into account the synthesis of three learning environments real, virtual
and neurocognitive.
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PaperDigital Literacy and Digital Didactics as the Basis for New Learning Models Development
The analysis of the survey data demonstrated that in the aggregate of the compared
indices for different social groups of the population, school teachers and lecturers of
higher educational institutions have reached the higher level of the digital literacy,
which significantly exceeds the average Russian level. So, in Russia as a whole the
index of the digital literacy of the adult population by a similar measurement method
makes up 52% out of 100% possible ones, school teachers 87%, lecturers of higher
educational institutions 88%.
The use of research results in practice is possible with the improvement of training
programs, the exchange of international experience and further researches.
6 Acknowledgement
The first author was supported by Innovation Project of Guang Xi Graduate Edu-
cation (No.JGY2018020; JGY2019031); Ali Research’s 2020 “Huoshui” Young Aca-
demics Project; Scientific Research Funding Project of ZhuJiang-XiJiang Economic
Belt Development Research Institute in GuangXi Normal University; Guangxi Natu-
ral Science Foundation.
7 References
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91/ijet.v14i03.8326
[3] Abderrahim, E.M., Mohamed, E., Azeddine N. (2013). An Evaluation Model of Digital
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8 Authors
Zhi-Jiang Liu is with School of Economics and Management, GuangXi Normal
University in Guilin of China.
Tretyakova Natalia Vladimirovna is a Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences & Asso-
ciate Professor of the Theory and Methods of Physical Culture Department in Russian
State Vocational Pedagogical University at Ekaterinburg in Russia.
Fedorov Vladimir Anatolyevich is a Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences and Profes-
sor of the Vocational Pedagogical Education Methodology Department in Russian
State Vocational Pedagogical University at Ekaterinburg in Russia.
Kharakhordina Marina Viktorovna works in Russian State Vocational Pedagog-
ical University at Ekaterinburg in Russia.
Article submitted 2020-04-06. Resubmitted 2020-05-11. Final acceptance 2020-05-11. Final version
published as submitted by the authors.
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... The global network is stronger and affects the daily lives of individuals and society. We are witnessing the emergence of a new phenomenon: the global virtual educational community that comprises more than one billion people, this number continues to increase rigorously (LIU, TRETYAKOVA, FEDOROV, KHARAKHORDINA, 2020). For their part, Mercader, Gairín (2020) stated that studies to date continue to show that there is a lack of use of new technologies and digital resources by university teachers, despite the fact that digital technologies are currently the most widespread and popular resources in the world. ...
... According to Liu et al. (2020), the concepts of computer, media and digital literacy are based on the imperative need to use the new technologies of the digital age. ...
... It is clear that the transcript of DL is at the mercy of time, and while in the past it changed slowly, it is now changing rapidly under the influence of the rapid development of digital technologies (ZÁHOREC, HAŠKOVÁ, MUNK, 2019;LIST, 2019). According to the estimates of Liu et al. (2020), an efficient organization of the educational process, together with a rapid acceleration of the digitalization of society, would be impossible if the AD is not increased, if the latter is really estimated and new models of didactics of digital learning are developed respectively. Such processes become even more forceful when they are aligned in relation to the burdensome complexity of the problems in the educational field, especially in Latin America, in which teachers are currently involved. ...
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... The students considered creating presentations and text documents to be their strengths, and listed creating interactive worksheets, video creation and editing, processing data in a spreadsheet editor and creating an e-questionnaire as their weaknesses. Comparing their results with prior studies, the authors conclude that teachers' digital literacy and ability to use digital technology for educational purposes differs based on their country of origin [12,13]. ...
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Modern times, especially digital technology, place greater demands on people working in all areas of human activity. Teachers are no exception. In their case, it is not enough to develop their own digital literacy, but they also need to develop their students' digital literacy. An important factor affecting the successful and effective use of digital technology in teaching is the confidence of the teacher in their digital knowledge and skills, which then also affects their ability to develop their students' digital literacy. That is why the authors consider future teacher self-assessment to be extremely important as it may help determine whether the methods used in the training of future teachers have the desired effect not only on their knowledge and skills but also on their attitude. The paper presents the results of student self-assessment, focusing on the microlearning course Digital Technology in Education taught at the Pedagogical Faculty of the University of Ostrava. The aim of this course was to show future teachers how digital technology could be used in the education process. Student self-assessment was focused on specific skills related to digital literacy and digital skills as described in the DigComp 2.1 framework. The self-assessment was carried out using an electronic questionnaire consisting of Likert scale questions. 203 students (future teachers) participated in the self-assessment. In order to determine the true effect of the microlearning course, the students were asked to perform a self-assessment twice-before and after completing the course. The results show that after completing the microlearning course, the students' confidence in their knowledge and skills increased in all the monitored areas. The areas in which the students were the least confident at the beginning of the course, were the ones that showed the greatest increase in confidence at its conclusion. The differences were determined to be statistically significant.
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... Regarding the Teaching Methodology, they found a greater advance of the model focused on learning than the model focused on teaching and, in terms of teaching skills, educational planning and management skills were more developed compared to interaction and assessment skills. Similar results were obtained in a study developed in Russia [19]. In fact, based on the training model developed from the didactic learning triangle, which takes into account the synthesis of three learning environments, namely, the real, the virtual and the neurocognitive, the authors demonstrated, using comparative indicators for different social groups in the population, that non-higher education teachers as well as teachers from higher education institutions recorded the highest levels of digital literacy, significantly exceeding the population average. ...
... In line with that, Perdana, Yani, Jumadi and Rosana (2019) found that students' digital literacy skills vary based on their education level. Meanwhile, Liu, Tretyakova, Fedorov and Kharakhordina (2020) found that school teachers and lecturers from universities have achieved a higher level of digital literacy than ordinary people. The findings of the previous researchers indicate that it is still rather difficult to generalize from the results of this study. ...
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... One confirmation of this is the impressive and steadily growing volume of academic literature about e-learning, addressing innovation and practical teaching in tertiary education (Pokrzycka, 2021), didactics (Schneuwly & Vollmer, 2018;Liu, Tretyakova, Fedorov et al., 2020), learning technologies (Jiao & Lissitz, 2020; Kergel, 2020;Glăveanu, Ness & de Saint Laurent, 2020), learning design (Spence 2020, Daniela, 2020;Hai-Jew, 2020;Lowenthal & Dennen, 2020), or the future (Nichols, 2020; Alexander, 2020; Dede & Richards, 2020; Bull & Keengwe, 2020). For instance, Schneuwly and Vollmer (2020) discuss how Humboldtian Bildung can be used today for research in subject didactics . ...
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With the progress of society, traditional online learning platforms have demonstrated the uneven distribution of information resources, and teacher–student communication exhibits a certain delay. At present, cloud computing, which is a new product of information technology, has been favored in many areas because of its superior feedback mechanism and storage space. Therefore, to improve the integration of online learning information resources and facilitate interaction between teachers and students, we designed our own online learning system based on the Google cloud computing platform. We used Google’s cloud computing platform and the Google App Engine to develop a unified and open online learning platform that is capable of storing large amounts of data, integrating considerable amounts of learning resources, and storing them on cloud. Through a test, we determined that the designed online learning platform for sharing information resources and integrating teacher–student exchanges is highly beneficial. The platform helps the classroom learning atmosphere become active, and has a positive effect on teaching methods. The proposed platform can promote further development of online learning.
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Information communication technologies and media have challenged traditional education and changed teachers’ thinking. These technologies present unique opportunities for supporting creativity, which is the key aim of learning in arts education. Despite the direct and close link between them and arts education, how to integrate these technologies into traditional education has long challenged government and educational experts. Teachers’ digital literacy has been regarded as an important part of information communication technologies-enabled education. Because an arts education uses more equipment than other types of education, it is more dependent on digital media. Thus, arts teachers’ digital literacy has directly affected their teaching, and has played an increasingly important role in education. This paper, having investigated eight Chinese arts teachers’ digital concepts and utilities in their teaching, explores digital literacy in arts teaching in China from different perspectives. It also offers recommendations for research into arts teachers’ digital literacy and arts education research in China for the future. Overall, this study designs a framework of factors for Chinese arts teachers’ digital literacy.