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Beta Glucan Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese

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Beta Glucan (3 g daily) reduces total cholesterol by 8.9% and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 12.1% over 8 weeks (Cicero et al., 2020). • Beta Glucan has higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering effect on women than in men (women: 16.3% (95% CI: 17.8 to 6.7) vs. men: 14.9% (95% CI: 14.1 to 5.9), in younger subjects (16.4% (95% CI: 17.5 to 8.3) vs. older 14.7% (95% CI: 17.1 to 5.2) (Cicero et al., 2020). • Beta Glucan causes 2.2 lbs (1 kg) weight loss per month (Khouri et al., 2011). • Beta Glucan reduces cravings by balancing responsible hormones, increasing the healthy to unhealthy gut flora ratio and increasing satiety (Khoury • Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake in the subsequent meal by greater than 96 calories (Beck, 2009; Vitaglione, 2009). That is about a 19% to 24% reduction in the next meal. • Beta Glucan slows the absorption of glucose, improves insulin sensitivity for 2 hours, and promotes lipolysis by 5%
Beta Glucan Effects on Weight Reduction, Cravings
and Diabetes in GLOBESITY Bootcamp for the Obese
Authors: Marcus, Free MD, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Waqar Ahmad PhD, Kelly Daly RDN,
and Don Juravin (Don Karl Juravin).
Abstract (research summary)
Beta Glucan (3 g daily) reduces total cholesterol by 8.9% and non-high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 12.1% over 8 weeks (Cicero et al., 2020).
Beta Glucan has higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering effect on women than in
men (women: 16.3% (95% CI: 17.8 to 6.7) vs. men: 14.9% (95% CI: 14.1 to 5.9), in
younger subjects (16.4% (95% CI: 17.5 to 8.3) vs. older 14.7% (95% CI: 17.1 to 5.2)
(Cicero et al., 2020).
Beta Glucan causes 2.2 lbs (1 kg) weight loss per month (Khouri et al., 2011).
Beta Glucan reduces cravings by balancing responsible hormones, increasing the
healthy to unhealthy gut flora ratio and increasing satiety (Khoury, 2011; Slavin, 2013;
Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake in the subsequent meal by greater than 96 calories
(Beck, 2009; Vitaglione, 2009). That is about a 19% to 24% reduction in the next meal.
Beta Glucan slows the absorption of glucose, improves insulin sensitivity for 2 hours, and
promotes lipolysis by 5% to 10% (Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Khoury, 2011; Juvonen,
2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
Beta Glucan improves postprandial glucose (28% to 62%) and insulin levels (33% to
51%) for 2 hours (Casiraghi, 2006; Jenkins, 2002; Tappy, 1996; Beck, 2009).
Beta Glucan increases healthy to unhealthy gut flora ratio by increasing lactobacilli and
bifidobacteria and decreasing coliform species and clostridium perfringens (Slavin, 2013;
Turunen, 2011; Rosburg, 2010; Snart, 2006).
Beta Glucan is a soluble dietary fiber found naturally in cereal grains, yeast, and in medicinal
mushrooms (cordyceps, reishi, shitake, and maitake). Among its sources, barley has the
highest Beta Glucan content. Beta Glucan is a polysaccharide that promotes good health by
reducing cholesterol, and controls blood sugar levels. Beta Glucan lowers blood cholesterol
by preventing the absorption of cholesterol from food in the stomach and intestines. If
injected, Beta Glucan stimulates the immune system by growing chemicals which prevent
infection. Beta Glucan also helps with constipation and bowel issues, preserves healthy
intestinal bacteria, and helps regulate weight.
Beta Glucan Effects On Weight Reduction
Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake by ~100 calories per meal, promotes fat
burning (5% to 10%), restricts absorption of dietary fats and improves insulin
sensitivity resulting in better glucose control and weight loss.
Beta Glucan supplements (3 g daily) reduces total cholesterol by 8.9% (95% Confidence
Interval (CI): 12.6 to 2.3) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels
by 12.1% (95% CI: 15.6 to 5.3) over 8 weeks (Cicero et al., 2020).
Beta Glucan has higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering effect on women than in
men (women: 16.3% (95% CI: 17.8 to 6.7) vs. men: 14.9% (95% CI: 14.1 to 5.9), in
younger subjects (16.4% (95% CI: 17.5 to 8.3) vs. older 14.7% (95% CI: 17.1 to 5.2)
(Cicero et al., 2020).
>5 g Beta Glucan decreases calorie intake in the subsequent meal by greater than 96
calories (Beck, 2009). Assuming a meal of 400 calories, this is an energy reduction of
Beta Glucan slows the absorption of glucose, improves insulin sensitivity for 2 hours,
promotes lipolysis (5% to 10%) by restricting the absorption of dietary fats and lean mass
that promote weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Khoury, 2011; Juvonen, 2009;
Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007; Dikeman, 2006).
Beta Glucan causes 2.2 lbs (1 kg) weight loss per month (Khouri et al., 2011), or 26.5 lbs
(12 kg) per year.
Beta Glucan decreases energy intake by 19% and ghrelin levels by 23%. It also
decreases postprandial glucose and insulin levels (Vitaglione, 2009).
Beta Glucan Effects On The Healthy Gut Flora
Beta Glucan creates microbiota diversity by significantly increasing the ratio of
healthy gut flora. This is proven to be linked to reduced sugar cravings and
weight loss.
High viscosity Beta Glucan increases the ratio of healthy gut flora by increasing
lactobacilli (Snart, 2006). Unhealthy gut flora feed on sugar, therefore, reducing their
count in the gut reduces cravings for sugar and carbohydrate rich food, finally exerting
desirable effects on weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995).
Beta Glucan consumption significantly decreases coliform species after 30 days and
clostridium perfringens after 90 days (unhealthy microbiota), accompanied by reduced
bloating and abdominal pain (Turunen, 2011). Unhealthy microbiota feed on sugar, and
therefore, reducing their count in the gut reduces cravings for sugar, finally exerting
desirable effects on weight loss (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995).
Beta Glucan has a protective effect on bifidobacteria (healthy gut flora) (Rosburg, 2010).
This is beneficial in creating microbiota diversity as well as improving healthy to
unhealthy microbiome ratio, both proven to be linked to weight loss and reduced sugar
cravings (Slavin, 2013; Yatsunenko, 2012; Gibson, 1995).
Beta Glucan significantly increases healthy gut microbiota (Slavin, 2013; Cloeten, 2012;
JADA, 2008).
Beta Glucan Effects On Cravings
Beta Glucan reduces cravings by increasing the viscosity of the digestive tract
and by improving the amount of healthy gut flora. The increase in healthy gut
flora decreases the consumption of sugary food, satiety setpoint and cravings
favoring decreased food intake.
In a 50 g carbohydrate portion, each gram of Beta Glucan reduces the glycemic index of
food by 4 units that can improves insulin sensitivity in glucose intolerant and obese
patients, which causes cravings (Jenkins, 2002).
Beta Glucan improves glucose metabolism (2.2 g to 5.7 g per meal) that reduces glucose
and insulin secretion up to 2 hours thus decreasing cravings associated with glucose
intolerance and insulin resistance (Beck, 2009).
Beta Glucan improves the healthy gut flora which helps in the growth of healthy species
such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (Snart, 2006) and inhibits the growth of unhealthy
species like coliform and clostridium perfringens that consume carbohydrates obtained
from sweet and sugary food items leading to cravings (Slavin, 2013; Gibson, 1995;
Turunen, 2011).
Beta Glucan improves satiety by increasing gastric transit time and viscosity of food
which inhibits the release of ghrelin which causes cravings (Tappy, 1996).
Beta Glucan reduces cravings by improving the balance of hormones, healthy to
unhealthy gut flora and increasing satiety that altogether promote weight loss (Khoury,
2011; Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin,
2007; Dikeman, 2006).
Beta Glucan Effects On Diabetes
Beta Glucan reduces the glycemic index of food and slows the absorption of
glucose. This in turn reduces postprandial glucose (33% to 62%) and insulin
(33% to 51%) levels, making it easier to control blood glucose levels and avoid
complications caused by hyperglycemia.
The addition of 4 g to 8.4 g of Beta Glucan added to a cereal meal reduced glycemia by
33% to 62% and subsequent insulin spikes by 33% to 51% (Tappy, 1996).
Beta Glucan slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream by inhibiting its absorption
from the gut, resulting in increased satiety and decreased ghrelin (hunger hormone)
(Slavin, 2013; Cloetens, 2012; Juvonen, 2009; Beck, 2009; JADA, 2008; Slavin, 2007;
Dikeman, 2006).
Beta Glucan slows the rate of glucose metabolism (Cloetens, 2012) making it easier for
diabetics to control their disease.
14.5 g Beta Glucan significantly lowers concentrations of glucose and insulin after meals
(Braaten, 1991; Ostman, 2006).
Beta Glucan reduces the maximum rise of blood glucose levels secondary to its high
viscosity (Paquin, 2013).
Beta Glucan (2.2 g to 5.7 g per meal) decreases insulin secretion over 2 hours (Beck,
2009), resulting in better glycemic control for diabetics and promoting weight loss.
Beta Glucan decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels until 4 hours after meals
(Bourdon, 1999).
Beta Glucan reduces postprandial glucose by 28% and insulin by 26% (Casiraghi, 2006).
Beta Glucan (4 g to 8 g) decreases postprandial blood glucose and glycemic index (by
43% to 47%) 45 to 60 minutes after a meal (Thondre, 2009).
Benefits, Side Effects, Interactions
Beta Glucan has antitumor properties and enhances the destruction or killing process of
cancer cells (Akramiene, 2007).
Beta Glucan improves immune response by increasing the activity of macrophages and
lymphocytes (Chan, 2009; Daou, 2012).
Beta Glucan decreases dyslipidemia and associated risks such as cardiovascular
complications, hypertension, nephrotoxicity and hepatic injury (Daou, 2012; Clemens,
2012; Paquet, 2010).
Beta Glucan is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) according to FDA.
Side effects
These symptoms are generally short-lived and can be minimized or avoided by
increasing intake of fiber-rich foods gradually and increasing water intake to 3
liters per day.
Flatulence: Beta Glucan increases gas production resulting in increased flatulence.
Abdominal cramping: Beta Glucan increases gas production which may result in
abdominal cramping.
Drug interactions
Antidiabetic drugs: As both Beta Glucan and antidiabetic drugs decrease blood glucose
levels, it is important to monitor glucose levels and speak to a physician about decreasing
the antidiabetic drugs if required.
Antihypertensive drugs: Beta Glucan may reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in
hypertensive individuals, particularly those who are obese (Katz, 2001). Therefore,
concomitant use of Beta Glucan and antihypertensive drugs (like captopril (Capoten),
enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem),
amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), etc.) may
increase the risk of hypotension and should be used with caution.
Immunosuppressants: Beta Glucan might decrease the effects of immunosuppressants
(like azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune),
daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate
(CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone,
Orasone), and other corticosteroids (glucocorticoids)) because of its immunostimulant
effects (Sherwood, 1987).
Indomethacin: Combination of indomethacin and Beta Glucan increases the lethal toxicity
of oral indomethacin (Yoshioka, 1998). Until more information is available, use the
combination of indomethacin and Beta Glucan cautiously.
Interactions with Herbs & Supplements
Herbs and supplements with hypotensive effects: Beta Glucan may have hypotensive effects
in some individuals (Katz, 2001). Therefore, combining Beta Glucan with other herbs or
supplements with hypotensive effects (like andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw,
coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, etc.) might increase the
risk of hypotension.
Interactions with Foods
None known.
Interactions with Lab Tests
Diagnosis of fungal infections: (1,3)-Beta-D-glucan in the blood is used as a surrogate
marker for fungal infection diagnosis (Hachem, 2009). Theoretically, consumption of Beta
Glucan may produce false positive results when beta-glucan assays are used (Pazos, 2007).
White blood cells count: Beta Glucan can cause a transient increase in the number of white
cells (leukocytosis) (Babineau, 1994).
Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is limited research and therefore best to avoid while
pregnant or breastfeeding.
Diabetes: As Beta Glucan lowers blood glucose levels, it is important to monitor glucose
levels to avoid hypoglycemic episodes.
AIDS/HIV: Thick patches of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
(keratoderma) can develop. The condition can start during the first 2 weeks of ingestion
and generally disappear 2 to 4 weeks after use of Beta Glucan stops (Duvic, 1987).
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This research was sponsored by GLOBESITY FOUNDATION (nonprofit organization) and
managed by Don Juravin.
Tags: Beta Glucan, healthy gut bacteria, prebiotic, weight loss, weight reduction, healthy
weight, diabetes, food craving, cravings
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3964416
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.
Diets low in energy and fat, such as those typically recommended for obese people are poorly satiating. Adding fibre to low-calorie/low-fat foods may enhance satiety. Consumption of high fibre diets is linked to lower body weight and body fat and less weight gain over time in epidemiological studies. Dietary fibre may impact body weight by many mechanisms including hormonal, intrinsic, and colonic effects. Adding bulk to the diet with fibre will also reduce the energy density of the diet. Satiety signals are generated both pre- and post- absorptively so different types of fibre may be effective by different mechanisms. Viscous fibres have been linked to improved satiety, but insoluble fibres that survive gut transit also are satiating. We conducted an acute, double-blind randomized study to compare the effects of four fibres on satiety. On five separate visits, healthy men and women (n=20) fasting subjects consumed either a low-fibre control muffin (1.6 g fibre) or a high-fibre muffin (8.0 - 9.6 g fibre) for breakfast. Subjects used 100mm visual analogue scales to rate hunger and appetite at baseline and at regular intervals for 180 minutes after muffin consumption. Responses were analyzed as change from baseline. Despite similar amounts of dietary fibre in the four high-fibre muffins, satiety responses varied among treatments. Subjects were significantly less hungry at 180 minutes after consuming either resistant starch or barley with oat fibres than after polydextrose; subjects also felt more satisfied after resistant starch and corn bran than after polydextrose. Additionally subjects were significantly more full after consuming resistant starch, barley with oat fibres, corn bran, and control muffins than after eating the polydextrose muffin. Results from this study support that not all fibres influence satiety equally. Effectiveness of different functional fibres on satiety must be balanced with gastrointestinal tolerance of these fibres. In general, resistant starches are well tolerated while oligosaccharides including fructo- and galacto- may cause gastrointestinal disturbances when consumed in quantities that impact satiety. Other factors to consider when evaluating satiety and fibre are dose of fibre and form of fibre. Generally small doses of any fibre are not effective in altering satiety. Our research with doses of fibre found that mixed fibres in a muffin were only effective at the highest amount of fibre fed, 12 gram dose. A dose response study with fenugreek fibre found that 8 grams of fenugreek fibre was effective in enhancing satiety. Food form studies suggest that whole foods containg fibre are more satiating than beverages, even when isolated fibres are added to the beverages. Thus, public health messages to increase consumption of dietary fibre are widely accepted, although scientific support for isolated fibres impacting body weight are lacking.
Probiotics must be consumed at a level of 10^7CFU/mL for successful colonization of the gut. In yogurts containing beneficial cultures, the survival of probiotic strains can quickly decline below this critical concentration during cold storage. The inclusion in yogurt of beta-glucan, a possible prebiotic for bifidobacteria also known to have heart-healthy effects, would increase the healthfulness of yogurt. We hypothesized that beta-glucan would increase the viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt during cold storage. Yogurts were produced containing 0.44% beta-glucan (concentrated or freeze-dried) extracted from whole oat flour and/or 1.33% corn starch, and bifidobacteria (B. breve or B. longum) at a concentration of at least 10^9 CFU/mL. All yogurts were stored at 4yC. Bifidobacteria and yogurt cultures, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus, were enumerated from undisturbed aliquots before fermentation, after fermentation, and once a week for five weeks. S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus maintained a concentration of at least 10^8 CFU/mL in yogurts containing concentrated or freeze-dried beta-glucan regardless of starch addition, and in the control with no added beta-glucan or starch. Similarly, the probiotic, B. breve, survived above a therapeutic level in all treatments. The addition of beta-glucan prolonged the survival of B. longum at a concentration of at least 10^7 CFU/mL by up to two weeks on average beyond the control. Further, the inclusion of concentrated beta-glucan in yogurt improved survival of B. longum above 10^7 CFU/mL by one week longer than did freeze-dried beta-glucan. Study results suggest that beta-glucan has a protective effect on bifidobacteria in yogurt when stressed by low-temperature storage. The combined benefits of the heart-healthy effects from beta-glucan and of the gut-health effects from bifidobacteria should provide the food industry with information needed to formulate more healthful yogurt products.
Oat and barley β-glucans are polysaccharides known for their beneficial effects on glycemia and cholesterol. These physiological effects seem to be related to increased viscosity in the digestive tract. It has recently been shown that free radicals derived from the reaction of ascorbic acid and oxygen can cause a viscosity loss in β-glucan due to depolymerization through the Fenton reaction. However, recent studies have reported a synergistic effect between xanthan gum and β-glucan on viscosity in heat-treated fruit juices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if xanthan gum has a protective effect against OH radical-induced depolymerization of β-glucan by ascorbic acid. Oat β-glucan (0.4%) solutions were studied in water at pH 4. Ascorbic acid concentrations and viscosity profiles were measured over a period of 56 days. The addition of ascorbic acid caused a rapid decrease in β-glucan viscosity. The presence of xanthan gum reduced the viscosity loss (p≤0.0001) but did not provide complete protection for β-glucan over time. Therefore, incorporation of β-glucan in food formulations still presents a challenge in ensuring its physical and nutritional stability in the final product. The use of OH radical scavengers such as sugars and antioxidant compounds could be used in addition to xanthan gum to obtain improved protection.
The present review examines the evidence regarding the effect of β-glucan on variables linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including appetite control, glucose control, hypertension, and gut microbiota composition. Appetite control can indirectly influence MetS by inducing a decreased energy intake, and promising results for a β-glucan intake to decrease appetite have been found using gut hormone responses and subjective appetite indicators. Beta-glucan also improves the glycemic index of meals and beneficially influences glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or MetS, as well as in healthy subjects. Furthermore, a blood-pressure-lowering effect of β-glucan in hypertensive subjects seems fairly well substantiated. The gut microbiota composition might be an interesting target to prevent MetS, and preliminary results indicate the prebiotic potential of β-glucan. The evidence that β-glucan influences appetite control and gut microbiota in a positive way is still insufficient or difficult to interpret, and additional studies are needed in this field. Still, much evidence indicates that increased β-glucan intake could prevent MetS. Such evidence should encourage increased efforts toward the development of β-glucan-containing functional foods and promote the intake of β-glucan-rich foods, with the aim of reducing healthcare costs and disease prevalence.
Bread products with three different levels (35, 50 and 75%) of the (1→3;1→4)-β-glucan rich barley genotype Prowashonupana (PW), 50% common barley (CB) or 100% white wheat, were given as a breakfast meal to 10 men and their postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses were measured. In addition, the viscosity of (1→3;1→4)-β-glucans isolated from the pw flours was measured, and the fluidity characteristics of the (1→3;1→4)-β-glucans in the bread products estimated in in vitro enzymatic digests prepared under conditions simulating those prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bread containing 50 and 75% PW flour lowered the glycaemic index (GI) (40 and 48%, respectively) and insulinaemic index (II) (37 and 34%) compared with a white wheat reference bread (GI=100; II=100). A high correlation (r=0.9782; P=0.0007) was found between the fluidity index (FI) of the enzymatic digests and GI of all bread products (GI=50.8+0.441FI). The overall conclusions were that incorporation of (1→3;1→4)-β-glucan rich barley in bread may lower its glycaemic and insulinaemic properties and that the metabolic response could be predicted by measuring the in vitro fluidity of bread digests.
Soluble glucan, a beta-1,3-linked polyglucose, is a biologic response modifier effective in the therapy of experimental neoplasia, infectious diseases and immunosuppression. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are endogenous immunomodulators which are essential for effective immune responsiveness. In view of its broad spectrum of immunobiological activity, the ability of glucan to enhance the production of IL-1 and IL-2 was evaluated. Splenic IL-1 and IL-2 secretion as well as plasma IL-1 and IL-2 levels were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving glucan (100 mg/kg, i.p.) at intervals ranging from 12 days to 1 h prior to collection of splenocytes and plasma. Glucan (100 mg/kg) was also injected either s.c., i.p. or i.v. on days -4, -3 and -2 prior to harvesting splenocytes on day 0. Splenic macrophage IL-1 production was initially elevated 12 h following glucan injection and was maintained for a 5 day period. IL-2 secretion by splenic lymphocytes was enhanced 6 h post-glucan and remained elevated for an additional 9 days. Plasma IL-1 activity was elevated 12 h post-injection, while IL-2 activity in plasma was enhanced at 1 h post-glucan. Peak IL-1 and IL-2 activity in plasma occurred 9 and 12 days, respectively, following glucan administration. With regard to route of administration, IV glucan was most effective in inducing lymphokine production. This study demonstrates that: (1) glucan will enhance IL-1 and IL-2 production and (2) elevations in lymphokine production can be maintained up to 12 days post-glucan.