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Nutritional and therapeutic values of Coccinea grandis: A review

Authors:
  • Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda
  • Banda University of Agriculture and Technology

Abstract and Figures

Coccinia grandis also known as Ivy Gourd is a nutrient rich fast growing perennial vine plant of Cucurbitaceae family. It is a dioecious, perennial and herbaceous climber or trailing vine with glabrous stems and tuberous roots. Traditionally it is known for its medicinal and nutritional qualities and its all plant parts like roots, leaves and fruits are used in local medicinal purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. It is a wonderful vegetable plant species having various pharmacological properties like analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive, mutagenic.
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International Journal of Chemical Studies 2020; 8(4): 1555-1561
P-ISSN: 23498528
E-ISSN: 23214902
www.chemijournal.com
IJCS 2020; 8(4): 1555-1561
© 2020 IJCS
Received: 08-05-2020
Accepted: 12-06-2020
Neetu
Banda University of Agriculture
and Technology, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Shalini Purwar
Banda University of Agriculture
and Technology, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Vinita Bisht
Banda University of Agriculture
and Technology, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Neeraj
Jharkhand Rai University,
Ranchi, Jharkhand,
Uttarakhand, India
Brijesh KR Maurya
Banda University of Agriculture
and Technology, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Corresponding Author:
Neetu
Banda University of Agriculture
and Technology, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Nutritional and therapeutic values of Coccinea
grandis: A review
Neetu, Shalini Purwar, Vinita Bisht, Neeraj and Brijesh KR Maurya
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i4o.9832
Abstract
Coccinia grandis also known as Ivy Gourd is a nutrient rich fast growing perennial vine plant of
Cucurbitaceae family. It is a dioecious, perennial and herbaceous climber or trailing vine with glabrous
stems and tuberous roots. Traditionally it is known for its medicinal and nutritional qualities and its all
plant parts like roots, leaves and fruits are used in local medicinal purposes like jaundice, diabetes,
wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. It is a wonderful vegetable plant
species having various pharmacological properties like analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory,
antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial,
antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive, mutagenic.
Keywords: Analgesic, antioxidant, Coccinia grandis, cucurbitaceae, dioecious
Introduction
Coccinia grandis (Ivy gourd) is a member of Cucurbitaceae family. It is believed to origin of
India (Nath, 1966) [46]. Ivy gourd is a perennial vine crop, grown in tropical and Sub-tropical
region. Ivy gourd is grown for their immature tender fruits, test like a cucumber and are used
as salad and preparation of various vegetable. In southern Asia, Ivy gourd is cultivated for its
long slender edible young shoot and fruit (Linney, 1986) [34]. Ivy gourd has a many medicinal
values. It is rich in vitamin C, which is straightening the bones. It also provided vitamin B1
and B2 and also small amount of vitamin A and tendril of Ivy gourd is also rich in mineral like
potassium, calcium and iron. All part of plant are used for treating various disease, leaves
extraction of Coccinia grandis for antibacterial activities (Bhattacharya 2010) [10, 11], root are
used for antidiabetic, skin diseases, removes pain in joint, urinary tract infection (Pekamwar et
al, 2013) [48, 49] and to help in controlling diabetes (Shibib et al. 1993, Deokate and Khadabadi
2011) [57, 17]. In India, the family Cucurbitaceae is represented by 36 genera and 100 species
(Chakravarty, 1982) [15]. Cucurbitaceae are a major family among economically important
domesticated species, particularly those with edible fruits including cucumber (Cucumis
sativus), melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash and pumpkin
(Cucurbita spp.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), chayote (Sechium edule), loofah (Luffa
spp.), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina var.
anguina) and wax gourd (Benincasa hispida). Some of these represent the earliest cultivated
plants and known for their medicinal properties and so many other uses. Since ancient times,
particularly Lagenaria spp., those have hard- shelled fruits, which have been used to
manufacture musical instruments and so many containers. It is indigenous species to Bengal
and other parts of India. C. indica grows abundantly all over India, Tropical Africa, Australia,
Fiji and throughout the oriental countries. The plant has also been used extensively in
Ayurvedic and Unani practice in the Indian subcontinent (Wealth of India, 1992) [70]. It has
long tuberous fleshy roots, smooth and green fruits. Microscopy of root shows parenchyma,
phelloderm, pericyclic fibers, stone cells, starch grains.
Some other Cucurbits are also used in the indigenous system of medicines they are: Lagenaria
siceraria, Trichosanthes dioica, T. cucumerina, T. cucumerina var. anguina, and Benincasa
hispida are rich in protein and vitamin C. Each and every part of pointed gourd has high
nutritional value. The roots contain amorphous Saponin. Species of Momordica spp. are used
in diabetes. Citrullus lanatus seeds are used as cooling medicine. Coccinia grandis roots,
stems, and leaves has been used to curing the skin diseases.
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Fruits of melons are eaten when ripe and are also used in
chronic eczema. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), ribbed
gourd (Luffa acutangula), white gourd (Benincasa hispida),
cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and pointed gourd
(Trichosanthes dioica) are some of the most common
vegetables (Kirtikar, 1975 [31]. The Coccinia grandis fruit is
used as vegetable when green and eaten fresh when ripened
into bright scarlet colour (Sastri, 1950) [50]. Every part of this
plant is valuable and used in various diseases; bronchial
catarrh, bronchitis and Unani systems of medicine for ring
worm, psoriasis, small pox, scabies (Perry, 1980) [50] and other
itchy skin eruptions and ulcers (Behl et al., 1993) [8]. Oil of
this plant is used as an injection into chronic sinuses. The
plant is used in decoction for gonnorhoeae (Nadkarni, 1976)
[43], diabetes and also useful in dropsical condition, pyelitis,
cystitis, strangury, snake bite, urinary gravel and calculi
(Jayaweera, 1980; Nadkarni, 1976) [29, 43]. It is also useful to
induce perspiration in fever and cures sores in the tongue
(Anon., 1992) [5]. It has antilithic (Jayaweera, 1980) [29],
hypolipidimic (Presanna Kumar, et al., 1997) [51],
antimutagenic (Kusamran et al., 1998) [ 33] and hypoglycemic
activities (Chopra & Bose, 1925; Gupta, 1963; Brahmachari
et al. 1963; Kumar et al. 1997; Nahar et al. 1998) [16, 27, 13, 51, 44].
Vegetables are considered to be protective foods and highly
beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention
of diseases. Medical nutrition and pharmaceutical applications
of plant origin will be the new research mandate for healthy
future. Ivy gourd fruits are rich in lycopene (5.68 mg / 100 g),
β-carotene (2.24 mg / 100 g) and leaves contain protein (3.3-
4.9g), vitamin A (8000-18000 IU). Fruits are antidiabetic and
having antioxidant property. In Ayurveda, it is used for skin
eruption, tongue sores and earache. They are sources for
nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fibre and
minerals required for human health. According to some
generous estimates, almost 80% of the present day medicines
are directly or indirectly obtained from plants.
Nutritional Value of Coccinea grandis
Khatun et al., 2012 evaluated the different nutrient
Components of Coccinia grandis are carbohydrate-12.62%,
total protein- 15%, water soluble protein-11.25%, lipid-4.0%,
total phenol-61.92mg/100g, vitamin C-25.55 mg/100g, β-
carotene-70.05mg/100g, potassium-3.3 mg/100g,
phosphorous- 1.15 mg/100g, sodium-0.95mg/100g, iron-2.23
mg/100g and calcium-3.79 mg/100 g. Fruits of Coccinia
grandis contains steroids, saponin, ellagic acid, terpenoids,
lignin, other compound like alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids,
glycosides, phenols, B-amyrin acetate, lupeol, taraxerol,β, B-
carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin, xyloglucen, carotenoids
and β-sitosterol.
Table 1: Nutritional value per 100g of edible portion (fruit) of
Coccinia Grandis
Components
Amount
Energy
21 K.Cal
Protein
1.4g
Carbohydrate
3.4g
Fat
0.2g
Calcium
25mg
Iron
0.9mg
Table 2: Phytochemical properties of different parts of Coccinea Chemical constituent of different plant parts of Coccinea (Deokate et al.,
2011).
Plant parts
Constituents
Roots
Triterpenoid,saponin, coccinioside k(i). C41H66O12
Flavonoid glycoside ombuin 3-o- arabinofuranoside 3- o-β- -l- arabinopyranosyl)-(1→2) –β-d-glucopyranosyl- (1→3)- β-
hydroxylup 20(29)- en-28- oic acid. Lupeol, β-amyrin, and β- sitosterol. Stigmast -7- en-3-one,
Fruits
Taraxerone, taraxerol, and (24R)-24- ethylcholest- 5- en- - ol glucoside. Β- carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and apo- 6’-
lycopenal Β- sitosterol and taraxerol
Aerial parts
Heptacosane Cephalandrol, C29H58O tritriacontane C33H68 Β- sitosterol alkaloids Cephalandrine a and Cephalandrine b.
Botanical description
Coccinia grandis is a fast-growing perennial vine crop that
grows several meters long. It can form dense mats on lands
that easily cover shrubs and small trees.
Leaves
Their leaves are arranged alternately along the stems; the
shape of the leaves varies from heart to pentagon shaped. (Up
to 10 cm wide and long). The upper surface of the leaf is
hairless, whereas the lower is hairy and simple tendrils. There
are 3-8 glands on the blade near the leaf stalk.
Flower
Flowers are star-shape, large and white in colour. The calyx
has five subulate, recurved lobes, each 2-5 mm long on the
hypanthium; peduncle 1-5 cm long. The corolla is white,
campanulate, 3-4.5 cm long, deeply divided into five ovate
lobes. Each flower has three stamens. The Coccinia grandis
flower ovary is inferior. Staminate is solitary, rarely in
axillary clusters of 2-3, pedicels 15-50 mm long, lobes of
calyx is subulate, recurved, 2-5 mm long, corolla lobes ovate,
white, long about 15-20 mm; pistillate flowers solitary on
stalks10-30 mm long, hypanthium 10- 15 mm long (Starr et
al., 2003) [62].
Fruit
The fruit of Coccinia grandis is red colour, shape ovoid to
elliptical, 25-60 mm long, 15-35 mm in diameter, glabrous,
hairless on stalks. Seeds 6-7 mm long, tan-colored and thick
margins.
Root
The roots and stems are succulent in nature, tuberous and
most likely facilitate the plant to survive prolonged drought.
Dispersal of Coccinia grandis are done by the humans and
also spread by birds and other animals, pigs, moved
unintentionally on equipment or on wood and germinate
where they land. Hybridization and clonal selection are one of
the viable methods to develop improved clone in ivy gourd
(Maurice et al., 2012; Ajmal Ali et al., 2005-2006) [38, 3].
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Table 3: Medicinal value of various parts of Coccinea grandis (Pekamwar et al., May, 2013) [48, 49].
Leaf
Fruit
Stem
Root
Pharmacological Activities
Antibacterial
Bhattacharya et al., (2010) [10, 11] analyzed the aqueous extract
of leaves of Coccinia grandis for antibacterial activity against
Shigella flexneri NICED, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli,
Salmonella choleraesuis, Shigella dysenteries, and Shigella
flexneri. Aqueous extract of Coccinia grandis showed more
significant antibacterial activity in comparison to ethanol
extract. A polar moiety of the extract is more responsible for
antibacterial properties. The chloroform extracts of Coccinia
cordifolia moderately active against Sarcina lutea, Bacillus
subtilis. Ethyl acetate extracts active against staphylococcus
aurous. Hexane extract active against the Sarcina lutea,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Bulbul et al., 2011) [14].
Sivaraj et al. (2011) [60] has been evaluated the antibacterial
activity of Coccinia grandis leaf extract with solvents like
acetone, ethanol, methanol, aqueous and hexane against five
bacterial species. Ethanol leaf extract of Coccinia grandis
showed high antibacterial activity against S. pigeons, E. Coli,
B. Ceres, K. pneumonia and S. aureus (Sivaraj et al., 2011)
[60]. Antibacterial activity of Coccinia grandis extract tested
against the six gram positive and gram negative bacteria,
Hexane extract moderately active against all gram positive
and gram negative bacteria except Proteus mirabilis. Ethyl
acetate extracts moderately antibacterial against all except
Proteus mirabilis and staphylococcus aeruginosa (Farukhh et
al., 2008; Tamilselvan et al., 2011) [24, 67].
Anthelmintic
Methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis posses the
anthelmintic activity. Methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis
acts through paralyzing the worm. (Tamilselvan et al. 2011)
[67].
Antioxidant
Moideen (2011) [39] evaluated Ethanol extract of root of
Coccinia grandis contain flavonoids, Methanol extracts of the
fruit of Coccinia grandis posses the potent antioxidant
activity. The methanol extract of Coccinia grandis contains
glycoside and flavonoid. The antioxidant activity of Coccinia
grandis is due to the reducing power ability, hydrogen
peroxide scavenging potential (Deshpande et al., 2011) [1]
Ethanol and methanol extract shows the antioxidant activity
(Ashwini et al., 2012) [6] Coccinia grandis stem extract
containing solvent petroleum, chloroform and ethyl acetate
shows antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate possess potent
antioxidant activity than petroleum (Deshpande et al., 2011) [1]
Coccinia grandis methanol extract and leaf powder contain
the antioxidant principle (Mujumder et al., 2008) [41].
Antiulcer
Aqueous extract of Coccinia grandis at doses of 250 and 500
mg/kg produced significant inhibition of the gastric lesions
induced by pylorus ligation induced ulcer and ethanol induced
gastric ulcer. The extract showed significant reduction in
ulcer index, free acidity and gastric (Girish et al., 2011) [25] On
the other hand; Manoharan (2010) [37] studied the Ethanol,
aqueous and total aqueous extract for antiulcer activity in
pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer.
Antimalarial
Extract of Coccinia grandis shows excellent antiplasmodial
activity against the Plasmodium falciparum (Sundaram et al.,
2012) [63]. Aqueous leaf extract of Coccinia grandis decreases
the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, total protein, blood urea nitrogen
concentration. Hydrophilic moiety of Coccinia grandis
extract is responsible for antimalarial activity. The extract
significantly reduces the Plasmodium berghei parasite
strength in mice (Samanta et al., 2011) [54]. The methanolic
extract from Coccinia grandis which is used for reducing the
larvicidal activity (Rahumann., 2008) [52] .
Antiinfammatory
Deshpande (2011) [ 1] evaluated the aqueous extracts of
Coccinia grandis leaves and stem for the anti-inflammatory
activity against formaldehyde induced paw edema in rats. The
formaldehyde causes the cell damage and which provokes the
production of histamine, prostagrandis bradykikin and
serotonin. Aqueous extract of leaves showed more significant
percentage inhibition of paw edema than the aqueous extract
of the stem and standard, used as indomethacin.
Formaldehyde induced inflammation results production of
endogenous mediators, such as; histamine, serotonin,
prostaglandins, and bradykinin treated with Coccinia grandis
extract (Bernard et al., 1998) [9].
Antipyretic
Aggarwal (2011) [1] was evaluate methanolic extract of
Coccinia grandis for antipyretic activity at the doses of 100
and 200 mg/kg in yeast-induced fever. The extract showed
antipyretic activity by influencing the prostaglandin
biosynthesis. Prostaglandin is considered as a regulator of
body temperature.
Analgesic
Analgesic action of the active compound(s) in the methanol
extract of Coccinia grandis May be mediated through
peripheral but not central mechanism. Coccinia grandis
reduce the complications produced by acetic acid (Aggarwal
et al., 2011) [1].
Hypoglycemic
Mallick (2007) [35] studied the combined extracts of Musa
paradisiaca and Coccinia indica aqueous extract of leaf for
antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetes rats.
The ethanolic extract of the aerial part decreases blood
glucose levels and lipid parameters in streptozotocin induced
diabetic rats at 100 or 200 mg/kg. Chronic administration of
fruit extract 200 mg/kg for 14 days reduces the blood glucose
level in alloxan induced. diabetic rat (Gunjan et al., 2010) [26].
The aqueous extract of Coccinia indica reduced the blood
glucose level; also reduced the cholesterol, protein and urea
with prolonged treatment. Coccinia grandis stimulated
gluconeogenesis, or inhibited glycogenolysis in the diabetic
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International Journal of Chemical Studies http://www.chemijournal.com
rat liver. Treatment with Coccinia extract increases the total
protein, SGPT, SGOT (Doss et al., 2008) [20].
The Coccinia indica leaves extract exerts hypoglycemic
activity on blood glucose and cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL
level in alloxan induced diabetic rats (Manjula et al., 2007)
[36]. The hypoglycemic activity of Coccinia grandis fruit
evaluated by using alloxan induced diabetic rat. Ethanolic
extract shows the decreased blood glucose level.
Pectin from fruit reduces the blood glucose by decreasing the
absorption of glucose from the intestine and increasing liver
glycogen and decreasing glycogen phosporylase. Combined
Methanolic extract of leaves of Coccinia indica and
Salvadora oleoides shows the hypoglycemic activity (SaklaniI
et al., 2012). Alcoholic extract of Coccinia grandis leaves
(Eliza Jose, 2010) [23] and stem have the capacity to lower the
blood glucose level in normal fasted rats (Doss et al., 2008)
[20] Ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract of
Coccinia contains triterpines, alkaloid, flavonoid, β -carotene
which is responsible for the hypoglycemic activity.
Antifungal
Bhattacharya (2010) [10, 11] found the antifungal activity of the
Coccinia grandis leaves extract against the Candida albicans-
II, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus Niger, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis II, Cryptococcus neoformans
and Candida albicans ATCC. Aqueous extract is more
sensitive for both strains of Candida albicans and Ethanolic
extract is more sensitive for Aspergillus Niger and both
strains of Candida albicans (Bhattacharya et al., 2010) [10, 11].
Hepatoprotective
Vadivu (2008) revealed the alcoholic extract of the fruit of
Coccinia grandis for Hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-
induced Hepatotoxicity in experimental rats, Treatment with
250 mg/kg ethanolic extract of fruit significantly reduced the
SGPT, SGOT and bilirubin level. Hepatoprotective activity of
the extract may be due to the antioxidant effects of flavonoid
found to be present in the fruits. Flavonoids, triterpens and
tannin were antioxidant agent present in Coccinia grandis and
may interfere with free radical formation confirmed that
Hepatoprotective activities of certain flavonoids are known.
(Vinothkumar et al., 2009; Anil Kumar. 2012; DR.
Krishnkumari et al. 2011; Sunilson., et al. 2009) [29, 4, 21].
Antidyslipidemic
Singha (2007) [58] evaluated chloroform extract of Coccinia
grandis leaves for antidyslipidemic activity by lowering the
triglycerides and cholesterol level in hamsters. Chloroform
extract of Coccinia grandis leaves containing polyprenol,
lowers the plasma lipid profile then increasing high density
lipid cholesterol and total cholesterol ratio. C60-polyprenol
isolated first time from this plant. It drastically decreased
serum triglycerides by 42%, total cholesterol 25% and
glycerol 12%, in high fat diet feed dyslipidemic hamsters at
the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Aqueous and ethanolic
extracts of leaves can be used for control of obesity (Mishra et
al., 2012) [59].
Anticancer
There have so many vegetables occurred to reduce the risk of
cancer. The anticancer activity of the Coccinia grandis is due
to it antioxidant nature. The antioxidant nature of Coccinia
grandis reduces the ferrocynaide to ferrous and Hydrogen
peroxide scavenged from Coccinia grandis neutralizes to
water (Behera et al., 2012) [7].
Bhattacharya (2011) [54] found the aqueous extract of leaves of
Coccinia grandis for anticancer activity. Nitric oxide is a free
radical which acting an important role in the pathogenesis of
pain, inflammation. The antioxidant principle of Coccinia
grandis decreases the nitrite generated by decomposition.
Graded response produced by the cell is comparatively less.
Coccinia grandis significantly reduced viable cell count and
increased nonviable cell count suggesting comparable
anticancer property with that of the reference drug
(Vinblastine) (Nanasombat et al., 2009; Bhattacharya et al.,
2011) [45, 54].
Antitussive
Pattanayak (2009) [47] analyzed the methanol extracts of the
fruit of Coccinia grandis for analgesic activity and
extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the
indigenous people of India. The methanol extracts of the fruit
of Coccinia grandis show the presence of alkaloid, tannin,
steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, carbohydrates and reducing
sugar. The Antitussive activity of methanol extract has been
compared with that of codeine (Antitussive drug). The
methanol extract of Coccinia grandis fruit showed the
significant decrease in cough induced by the chemical
simulation similar to codeine phosphate in a dose dependant
manner. The methanol extract produces maximum inhibition
of cough at 90 min. The highest inhibition of cough (56.71%)
was produced by the extract of the 400 mg/kg dose level at 90
min. The methanol extract act through the central nervous
system.
Mutagenic effect
Aqueous extract of leaves of Coccinia grandis showed
inhibition of growth and mutagenesis on Neurospora crassa
by a gradual decrease of growth of mycelia. This result
indicates that Coccinia grandis plant shows mutagenic effect
on Neurospora crassa. (Bhuiyan et al., 2009) [12].
Alpha-amylase inhibition
Jaiboon (2011) [28] evaluated the methanolic extract of
Coccinia grandis for alpha amylase inhibitory activity. The
dried plant material extracted with 50% aqueous methanol (10
ml/g drywt.) and redissolved in 50% aqueous DMSO (10 ml/g
dry wt.) and subjected to alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.
The Coccinia grandis showed the 81.13% of alpha amylase
inhibitory activity.
Conclusion
Coccinia grandis is an important source of many
pharmacological and medicinally important chemicals. In this
review study Coccinia grandis medicinal plants play a
fundamental role against various diseases. Coccinia cordifolia
is a true miracle of nature because of the presence of effective
chemical constituents responsible for diversified
pharmacological applications. Also, it has been developed by
some medicinal industries as a drug. The various parts of
plant extracts have significant analgesic, antipyretic, anti-
inflammatory, antimicrobial, Antiulcer, antidiabetic,
antioxidant, anticancer, antitussive hypoglycemic,
hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidyslipidemic.
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... It becomes sweet, soft, and juicy once it is ripened. In the traditional system of medicine, fruits of Coccinia grandis have been used to treat leprosy, fever, asthma, bronchitis, and jaundice [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
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Natural eco-friendly materials are recently employed in products to replace synthetic materials due to their superior benefits in preserving the environment. The herb Coccinia grandis is widely distributed in continents like Asia and Africa and used traditionally to treat fever, leprosy, asthma, jaundice, and bronchitis. Mucilage of Coccinia grandis was accordingly extracted, isolated by a maceration technique, and precipitated. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity was evaluated and the compatibility was analyzed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage was used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as examples of standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the mucilage were performed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a better disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS for paracetamol tablets. Use of a concentration of 3% or less demonstrated the ability of the mucilage to act as a super disintegrating agent and showed faster disintegration and dissolution, which makes it as an attractive, promising disintegrant in formulating solid dosage forms to improve the therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.
... It is commonly found in Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and also distributed in Tropical Africa [8]. In traditional system of medicine, fruits of Coccinia grandis have been used to treat leprosy, fever, asthma, bronchitis, and jaundice [9][10][11][12][13]. Recently, it was discovered that the polysaccharide found in Coccinia grandis can be used as an anti-diabetic agent [14]. ...
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Mucilage from Coccinia grandis was extracted, isolated by maceration technique and precipitated, accordingly. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity were evaluated and the compatibility was analysed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage were used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of granules and was evaluated for the flow properties. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity study of the mucilage was performed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line using cytotoxic assay by MTT method. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance when compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a good disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS to paracetamol tablets. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.
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C. cordifolia has been widely used for its medicinal and pharmaceutical properties throughout the world. During the past several years, there has been increasing interest among the people for the uses of various medicinal plants for the treatment of different diseases. The whole plant of C. cordifolia having pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antitussive, mutagenic. Our study has also revealed that ethanolic leaf extract of this plant has potential effect against several bacterial strains compare to root. The present review is the pool information that highlights the botany, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and recent research in C. cordifolia.
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