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Micheliolide suppresses the viability, migration and invasion of U251MG cells via the NF‑κB signaling pathway

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Abstract

Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Michelia compressa and Michelia champaca, has been used previously to inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway. MCL has exerted various therapeutic effects in numerous types of disease, such as inflammatory and cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, its underlying anticancer mechanism remains to be understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MCL on human glioma U251MG cells and to determine the potential anticancer mechanism of action of MCL. From Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation assay, apoptosis assay and Confocal immunofluorescence imaging analysis, the results revealed that MCL significantly inhibited cell viability in vitro and induced cell apoptosis via activation of the cytochrome c/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In addition, MCL also suppressed cell invasion and metastasis via the wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. Furthermore, western blot and reverse transcription PCR analyses demonstrated that MCL significantly downregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels, which may have partially occurred through the inactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that MCL may inhibit glioma carcinoma growth by downregulating the NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway, which suggested that MCL may be a novel and alternative antitumor agent for the treatment of human glioma carcinoma.

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Sepsis is the principal cause of fatality in the intensive care units worldwide. It involves uncontrolled inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ failure and even death. Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was reported to inhibit dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced inflammatory intestinal disease, colitis-associated cancer and rheumatic arthritis. Nevertheless, the role of MCL in microbial infection and sepsis is unclear. We demonstrated that MCL decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria)-mediated production of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, etc) in Raw264.7 cells, primary macrophages, dendritic cells and human monocytes. MCL plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathways. It has negligible impact on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In the acute peritonitis mouse model, MCL reduced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IFN-β and IL-10 in sera, and ameliorated lung and liver damage. MCL down-regulated the high mortality rate caused by lethal LPS challenge. Collectively, our data illustrated that MCL enabled maintenance of immune equilibrium may represent a potentially new anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug candidate in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.
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Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12-14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ), a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients.
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The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel of glioma samples increasing histological grade demonstrated frequencies of CD133(+) cells which correlated with high expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). We used qRT-PCR and immunoblotting to examine the molecular interplay between MT1-MMP and COX-2 gene and protein expression in parental, CD133(+), and neurospheres U87 glioma cell cultures. We found that CD133, COX-2 and MT1-MMP expression were enhanced when glioma cells were cultured in neurosphere conditions. A CD133(+)-enriched U87 glioma cell population, isolated from parental U87 cells with magnetic cell sorting technology, also grew as neurospheres and showed enhanced COX-2 expression. MT1-MMP gene silencing antagonized COX-2 expression in neurospheres, while overexpression of recombinant MT1-MMP directly triggered COX-2 expression in U87 cells independent from MT1-MMP's catalytic function. COX-2 induction by MT1-MMP was also validated in wild-type and in NF-kappaB p65-/- mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but was abrogated in NF-kappaB 1 (p50-/-) mutant cells. We provide evidence for enhanced COX-2 expression in CD133(+) glioma cells, and direct cell-based evidence of NF-kappaB-mediated COX-2 regulation by MT1-MMP. The biological significance of such checkpoint control may account for COX-2-dependent mechanisms of inflammatory balance responsible of therapy resistance phenotype of cancer stem cells.
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Background Matrine, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exert anti-tumor effects in several types of cancers. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of matrine on the glioma cells. Methods Glioma cell line U251 cells were treated with matrine to assess viability and proliferation using CCK8 and EdU assays. PI/FITC staining was performed for apoptosis assay. Transfections were performed for circRNA-104075 or Bcl-9 overexpression. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate changes of protein levels and changes of gene level were detected by qRT-PCR in U251 cells. Results Matrine suppressed cell viability while induced apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Matrine also decreased circRNA-104075 expression significantly. Overexpression of circRNA-104075 was found to counteract the inhibitory effects of matrine on cell proliferation and promoting effects on apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Moreover, the suppressed Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways by matrine were activated by circRNA-104075 overexpression. Furthermore, Bcl-9 expression was also down-regulated by matrine treatment. Bcl-9 overexpression elevated the decreased cell proliferation while suppressed the increased apoptosis and autophagy induced by matrine in U251 cells. Conclusion Taken together, the present findings suggested that matrine induced apoptosis and autophagy through down-regulating circ-104075 and Bcl-9 expression via inhibition of PI3K/AKT and Wnt-β-catenin pathways in glioma cells. The present study provides a foundation for further preclinical and clinical evaluations of matrine as a glioma therapy.
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Background/aims: Ginsenoside Rg1 is regarded as the primary bioactive ingredient in Panax notoginseng that has been well recognized for its protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms still remain elusive. Our study aims to investigate the effects of Rg1 against lung injury induced by hind-limb IR in rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were randomly submitted to sham operation (SM group), hind-limb IR (IR group), hind-limb IR + Rg1 (Rg1 group), and hind-limb IR + Pro-DTC group (PD group). All the rats except those in SM group were subjected to 3 h of ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, and extra intravenous Rg1 and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (Pro-DTC), a selective inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), was administered intravenously before ischemia in the Rg1 and PD group, respectively. The activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as protein expressions of NF-κB p65 and cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) in lung tissue, and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-ProstaglandinF1α (6-keto-PGF1α) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were detected. Morphological changes, index of quantitative assessment of histologic lung injury (IQA), apoptosis index (AI) and lung Wet/Dry ratio were also evaluated. Results: The levels of Wet/Dry ratio, IQA, AI, activities of MPO and 6-keto-PGF1α/TXB2 ratio were increased, and NF-κB p65 and COX-2 protein expression were upregulated, while SOD and CAT levels were decreased in lung tissue in IR group as compared with SM group (p < 0.05), all the alterations could be significantly reversed by Rg1 or Pro-DTC pretreatment (p < 0.05). And Rg1 and Pro-DTC also significantly attenuated the pulmonary histological abnormalities induced by IR. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rg1 potentially attenuated lung injury induced by hind-limb IR by regulating NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway.
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The anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer effects of micheliolide (MCL) isolated from Michelia champaca were previously reported, but its role and underlying mechanisms in relieving liver steatosis remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of MCL on hepatic steatosis using a db/db mouse model and lipid mixture (LM)-induced AML12 and LO2 cells. The body and liver weights, food consumption, lipid content and liver aminotransferase levels in serum, the lipid content and inflammatory cytokine levels in liver tissue, and the extent of hepatic steatosis in db/db mice were increased compared with those in db/m mice, and these increases were reversed by MCL treatment. Similarly, MCL also attenuated the inflammatory responses and lipid accumulation in LM-treated AML12 and L02 cells by upregulating PPAR-γ and decreasing p-IкBα and p-NF-κB/p65, thereby inhibiting the NF-κB pathway and reducing lipotoxicity. Furthermore, MCL administration increased LC3B, Atg7 and Beclin-1 expression and the LC3B-II/I ratio in db/db mouse livers and LM-treated AML12 and L02 cells, and these MCL-induced increases were mediated by the activation of PPAR-γ and p-AMPK and inhibition of p-mTOR and induce autophagy. These effects were blocked by PPAR-γ and AMPK inhibitors. Our findings suggest that MCL ameliorates liver steatosis by upregulating PPAR-γ expression, thereby inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammation and activating AMPK/mTOR-dependent autophagy.
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Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is commonly used as intrinsic biomarker for several characteristics of the cell such as respiration, energy level and apoptosis. In the present study a simple colorimetric sensor should be developed and tested for the real-time detection of Cyt c in living cells. We synthesized cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a fluorometric Cyt c nanosensor. The synthesized TGA/CdTe QDs nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and absorption as well as fluorescence spectrophotometry. We investigated the developed TGA/CdTe QDs sensor with regard to its applicability in the fluorometric detection of Cyt c. Results showed that the TGA/CdTe QDs could be used as a sensitive fluorescence probe for the quantification of different concentrations of Cyt c ranging from 0.5 - 2.5μM. Increased binding of QDs to Cyt c results in decreasing fluorescence. The fluorescence of the QDs is inversely correlated to the Cyt c concentration. Based on these data, a standard curve up to 2.5μM Cyt c was established. Moreover, the developed nanosensor was applied in different concentrations on primary human dermal fibroblasts. Results showed that TGA/CdTe QDs were taken up by cells and could be visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Quantification of Cyt c within living cells via QDs is, however, influenced by various factors such as cell damage, QD aggregation or the level of reactive oxygen species, which have to be taken into account.
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Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.
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Most imaging studies in the biological sciences rely on analyses that are relatively simple. However, manual repetition of analysis tasks across multiple regions in many images can complicate even the simplest analysis, making record keeping difficult, increasing the potential for error, and limiting reproducibility. While fully automated solutions are necessary for very large data sets, they are sometimes impractical for the small- and medium-sized data sets common in biology. Here we present the Slide Set plugin for ImageJ, which provides a framework for reproducible image analysis and batch processing. Slide Set organizes data into tables, associating image files with regions of interest and other relevant information. Analysis commands are automatically repeated over each image in the data set, and multiple commands can be chained together for more complex analysis tasks. All analysis parameters are saved, ensuring transparency and reproducibility. Slide Set includes a variety of built-in analysis commands and can be easily extended to automate other ImageJ plugins, reducing the manual repetition of image analysis without the set-up effort or programming expertise required for a fully automated solution.
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From the time of diagnosis of a primary malignant brain tumour (PMBT) and throughout the illness trajectory, the patient and intimate partner face many psychosocial challenges ranging from fear and uncertainty to hope and loss (Fox & Lantz, 1998; Janda et al., 2007; Kvale, Murthy, Taylor, Lee, & Nabors, 2009). While many patients diagnosed with cancer may go on to live with cancer as a chronic illness, this may not be said of individuals diagnosed with a PMBT, in particular those diagnosed with a glioma, the most common form of brain tumour (Gupta & Sarin, 2002). Gliomas are associated with a short disease trajectory and multiple deficits (functional, cognitive and psychiatric). What makes the PMBT experience unique from other cancers is that the intimate partner must not only deal with the diagnosis of cancer in their spouse, but also the accompanying personality, functional and behavioural changes wrought by the disease, as well as grieve the loss of the person they once knew (Sherwood et al., 2004). These multi-dimensional deficits are thought to place the intimate partner, as caregiver, at greater risk for adverse psychosocial effects such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress (Goebel, von Harscher, & Mehdorn, 2011; Keir, Farland, Lipp, & Friedman, 2009). The following discussion will provide an overview of the extant literature on the experience of living with a PMBT from the intimate partner (spouse) perspective with a particular emphasis on how intimate partners cope. The intimate partner is considered to be the heterosexual or same-sex, married or common-law partner of the patient. Highlights from the psychotherapy practice of the author will be used to further strengthen the need for more research, education and enhanced practice to more effectively meet the unique needs of this under-researched and supported population.
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Current treatments for both IBD and colitis-associated CRC suffer from numerous side effects. Parthenolide (PTL) is a sesquiterpene lactone with anti-inflammatory activity, and previous studies have demonstrated that PTL is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. Micheliolide (MCL), substantially more stable than PTL in vivo, was recently developed, and this study aimed to decipher its suitability as therapeutic tool for IBD and IBD-associated diseases. Similar to PTL, MCL inhibited NF-κB activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory pathways activation in vitro. Pro-drug forms of both compounds inhibited the DSS-induced colitis when administrated intraperitoneally or encapsulated in a polysaccharide gel designed to release drugs in the colon. Interestingly, MCL was found to attenuate carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS-induced CRC, thus providing new candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and CRC.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 28 July 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.89.
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Small molecules that can selectively target cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain rare currently and exhibit no common structural features. Here we report a series of guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones (GSLs) and their derivatives that can selectively eradicate acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) stem or progenitor cells. Natural GSL compounds arglabin, an anticancer clinical drug, and micheliolide (MCL), are able to reduce the proportion of AML stem cells (CD34(+)CD38(-)) in primary AML cells. Targeting of AML stem cells is further confirmed by a sharp reduction of colony-forming units of primary AML cells upon MCL treatment. Moreover, DMAMCL, the dimethylamino Michael adduct of MCL, slowly releases MCL in plasma and in vivo and demonstrates remarkable therapeutic efficacy in the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency AML models. These findings indicate that GSL is an ample source for chemical agents against AML stem or progenitor cells and that GSL is potentially highly useful to explore anti-CSC approaches.
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is associated with worse prognosis in breast cancer. COX-2 is encoded by a polymorphic gene, called PTGS2, and its expression may be genetically influenced. In this article, we investigate the association between PTGS2 haplotypes and histopathological parameters with prognostic value on the clinical outcome of breast cancer. The study involved 606 women under current treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer. Patients were genotyped for rs689465, rs689466, rs20417, and rs5275, and their haplotypes were inferred. The distribution of PTGS2 genotypes and haplotypes was evaluated according to histopathological categorical groups used for prognostic determination of low/intermediate versus high risk of tumor recurrence. Our results indicate positive associations between variant genotypes of rs689465 and estrogen receptor negativity (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.04-2.44, P: 0.02) or HER2 positivity (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.00-3.18, P: 0.03), and between variant genotypes of rs20417 and estrogen receptor negativity (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.15-2.57, P: 0.005), progesterone receptor negativity (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.09-2.22, P: 0.01) or HER2 positivity (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.04-3.13, P: 0.02). In contrast, variant genotypes of rs689466 are negatively associated with estrogen receptor negativity (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.98, P: 0.03). A total of eight haplotypes were inferred, and there was a significant difference in their distribution as a function of tumor size (P: 0.011), estrogen receptor status (P: 0.018), and HER2 status (P: 0.025). PTGS2 haplotype *7 (formed by rs689465G, rs689466A, rs20417C, and rs5275T) is positively associated with higher tumor size (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.19-11.22, P: 0.006), estrogen receptor negativity (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 0.97-5.98, P: 0.032), progesterone receptor negativity (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.05-6.39, P: 0.02), and HER2 positivity (OR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.19-14.44, P: 0.007). Our results suggest that PTGS2 haplotype *7 may contribute to higher growth of untreated breast cancer and that PTGS2 haplotypes need to be considered in the characterization of breast cancer prognosis.
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A chronic inflammatory state (CIS) commonly accompanies advanced cancers. Elements of a CIS include aberrant immune system activity and changes in hypothalamic-neuroendocrine control mechanisms. The end result is stimulation of tumour growth and metastases. In addition to tumour stimulation, cancer symptoms may be enhanced. While for most symptoms correlation with a CIS remains tenuous, clearly a CIS is linked to the aetiology of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. To date clinical studies aimed at a CIS are modest, but the increased understanding of the partnership of a CIS, cancer progression and anorexia-cachexia must lead to targeting a CIS in concert with conventional efforts to directly destroy tumour tissue.
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth and survival factor in human glioblastoma cells and plays an important role in malignant progression. However, its role in glioblastoma invasion is still unknown. This study shows how IL-6 promotes cell invasion and migration in U251 and T98G glioblastoma cell lines. The underlying mechanism includes both protease-dependent and -independent manners. Stimulation with IL-6 increased MMP9 expression in the two cell lines but had no influence on MMP2 expression. Fascin-1 is a cell skeleton binding protein and plays a key role in cell migration and invasion. Its binding style directly influences cell morphology and tendency to become deformed. After IL-6 exposure, fascin-1 expression increased in an IL-6 dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence also revealed that the binding style of fascin-1 had changed after IL-6 exposure, resulting in a more invasive phenotype of the cells. Three most commonly emphasized invasion-associated signaling pathways, including JAK-STAT3, p42/44 MAPK, and PI3K/AKT, were verified to further illustrate its underlying mechanism. Only phosphorylation of STAT3 at ser 727 site paralleled the IL-6 stimulation, and JSI-124, a specific JAK-STAT3 pathway blocker, deterred the invasion and migration promotive effect of IL-6, indicating that the JAK/STAT3 pathway mediates signal transduction. Furthermore, IL-6 also acts in a paracrine fashion to promote vascular endothelial cell migration, thus facilitating tumor angiogenesis and invasion. These results suggest that IL-6 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis and may be a potential anti-invasion target.
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Recently we purified a 900 kDa cytokine-responsive IkappaB kinase complex (IKK) and molecularly cloned one of its subunits, IKKalpha, a serine kinase. We now describe the molecular cloning and characterization of IKKbeta, a second subunit of the IKK complex. IKKbeta is 50% identical to IKKalpha and like it contains a kinase domain, a leucine zipper, and a helix-loop-helix. Although IKKalpha and IKKbeta can undergo homotypic interaction, they also interact with each other and the functional IKK complex contains both subunits. The catalytic activities of both IKKalpha and IKKbeta make essential contributions to IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. While the interactions between IKKalpha and IKKbeta may be mediated through their leucine zipper motifs, their helix-loop-helix motifs may be involved in interactions with essential regulatory subunits.
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NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) is a collective name for inducible dimeric transcription factors composed of members of the Rel family of DNA-binding proteins that recognize a common sequence motif. NF-kappaB is found in essentially all cell types and is involved in activation of an exceptionally large number of genes in response to infections, inflammation, and other stressful situations requiring rapid reprogramming of gene expression. NF-kappaB is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm of nonstimulated cells and consequently must be translocated into the nucleus to function. The subcellular location of NF-kappaB is controlled by a family of inhibitory proteins, IkappaBs, which bind NF-kappaB and mask its nuclear localization signal, thereby preventing nuclear uptake. Exposure of cells to a variety of extracellular stimuli leads to the rapid phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and ultimately proteolytic degradation of IkappaB, which frees NF-kappaB to translocate to the nucleus where it regulates gene transcription. NF-kappaB activation represents a paradigm for controlling the function of a regulatory protein via ubiquitination-dependent proteolysis, as an integral part of a phosphorylationbased signaling cascade. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding the details of the signaling pathways that regulate NF-kappaB activity, particularly those responding to the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1. The multisubunit IkappaB kinase (IKK) responsible for inducible IkappaB phosphorylation is the point of convergence for most NF-kappaB-activating stimuli. IKK contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, both of which are able to correctly phosphorylate IkappaB. Gene knockout studies have shed light on the very different physiological functions of IKKalpha and IKKbeta. After phosphorylation, the IKK phosphoacceptor sites on IkappaB serve as an essential part of a specific recognition site for E3RS(IkappaB/beta-TrCP), an SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby explaining how IKK controls IkappaB ubiquitination and degradation. A variety of other signaling events, including phosphorylation of NF-kappaB, hyperphosphorylation of IKK, induction of IkappaB synthesis, and the processing of NF-kappaB precursors, provide additional mechanisms that modulate the level and duration of NF-kappaB activity.
Article
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the enzyme isoform involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. The role of the up-regulation of COX-2 in the formation and progression of gliomas has been dealt with in earlier reports, which describe increased levels of PGs within gliomas. In the present study, we examined the expression of COX-2 in diffuse gliomas of astrocytic origin in relation to microvascular parameters, angiogenic factors and survival. A total of 83 cases of diffuse astrocytomas (grade II-IV) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of COX-2. COX-2 expression was detected in 79 cases (95%) with an increased expression in grade IV as compared to grades II/III (p=0.024). A positive correlation occurred between COX-2 and angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p<0.0001) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha (p=0.005), as well as the tumours' proliferative activity (expressed as the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells) (p=0.032), and total vascular area (TVA) (p=0.040). In univariate analysis, COX-2 was associated with shortened survival (p = 0.050). Multivariate survival analysis showed that the interaction model of COX-2 with grade along with age were the only significant prognostic indicators. These results implicate COX-2 in the angiogenesis and biological aggressiveness of diffuse astrocytomas, and suggest that it would be worthwhile to examine how the inhibition of COX-2 expression may influence astrocytoma patients' survival.
Article
The median survival of glioblastoma patients is approximately 12 months. However, 3-5% of the patients survives for more than 3 years and are referred to as long-term survivors. The clinical and molecular factors that contribute to long-term survival are still unknown. To identify specific parameters that might be associated with this phenomenon, we performed a detailed clinical and molecular analysis of 55 primary glioblastoma long-term survivors recruited at the six clinical centres of the German Glioma Network and one associated centre. An evaluation form was developed and used to document demographic, clinical and treatment-associated parameters. In addition, environmental risk factors, associated diseases and occupational risks were assessed. These patients were characterized by young age at diagnosis and a good initial Karnofsky performance score (KPS). None of the evaluated socioeconomic, environmental and occupational factors were associated with long-term survival. Molecular analyses revealed MGMT hypermethylation in 28 of 36 tumours (74%) investigated. TP53 mutations were found in 9 of 31 tumours (29%) and EGFR amplification in 10 of 38 tumours (26%). Only 2 of 32 tumours (6%) carried combined 1p and 19q deletions. Comparison of these data with results from an independent series of 141 consecutive unselected glioblastoma patients registered in the German Glioma Network revealed significantly more frequent MGMT hypermethylation in the long-term survivor group. Taken together, our findings underline the association of glioblastoma long-term survival with prognostically favourable clinical factors, in particular young age and good initial performance score, as well as MGMT promoter hypermethylation.
Article
Although pituitary tumors were well recognized by the end of the 20th century, very few surgeons had attempted to remove such tumors. In 1906, Hermann Schloffer at the Innsbruck University Clinic of Surgery reviewed the subject of pituitary surgery. Very little was known about the function of the pituitary, and no reports had yet been published on attempts to surgically remove pituitary neoplasms. Schloffer pointed out that ophthalmological symptoms evidently reflected mass effect of the tumor and, hence, resection of the tumor would be beneficial. He also proposed a transsphenoidal approach to the sella, although he was well aware of the risk of meningitis associated with this procedure. On March 16, 1907, Schloffer performed the first transsphenoidal operation for a pituitary adenoma. Unfortunately, the patient died 2 months later from a large residual tumor. Within a few years, several patients had undergone operation with procedures similar to the one described by Schloffer, several of whom experienced acromegaly, thus introducing neurosurgery as routine therapy for acromegaly and settling the long debate on the etiology of acromegaly.
IL-6 promotion of glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis in U251 and T98G cell lines
  • Q Liu
  • G Li
  • R Li
  • J Shen
  • Q He
  • L Deng
  • C Zhang
  • J Zhang
Liu Q, Li G, Li R, Shen J, He Q, Deng L, Zhang C and Zhang J: IL-6 promotion of glioblastoma cell invasion and angiogenesis in U251 and T98G cell lines. J Neurooncol 100: 165-176, 2010.
  • S I Grivennikov
  • F R Greten
Grivennikov SI, Greten FR and Karin M: Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell 140: 883-899, 2010.
Polymorphisms in cycloxygenase-2 gene and breast cancer prognosis: Association between PTGS2 haplotypes and histopathological features
  • J S Fest A-Vasconcel Los
  • L M Dn
  • V Indio-Do-Brasil
Fest a-Vasconcel los JS, P i ra nd a DN, A ma ra l LM, Indio-do-Brasil V, Koifman S and Vianna-Jorge R: Polymorphisms in cycloxygenase-2 gene and breast cancer prognosis: Association between PTGS2 haplotypes and histopathological features. Breast Cancer Res Treat 132: 251-258, 2011.