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Abstract

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb from the Cichorium genus, Asteraceae family, and is worldwide cultivated. So far, chicory has been used mainly in animal feed, but also in several cases in the food industry: as salad, for teas and tea blends, for coffee supplementation, and as a source for the inulin production. Nowadays there is an increasing interest in chicory utilization for food production and supplementation. Some compounds present in chicory, such as polyphenols, inulin, oligofructose and sesquiterpene lactones may be considered as potential carriers of food functionality. This review describes nutritional, mineral and bioactive composition of the chicory plant and summarized the main biological activities associated with the presence of bioactive compounds in the different plant parts. Finally, the review explores possibilities of uses of chicory and its implementation in food products, with intention to design new functional foods.

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... Chicory (lat. Cichorium intybus L.) is a perennial, greatly widespread meadow herb, which is planted all over the world (Perović et al., 2021). Chicory has a rich nutritional composition with many bioactive substances that have a beneficial effect on human health. ...
... Chicory has a rich nutritional composition with many bioactive substances that have a beneficial effect on human health. The most common compound in chicory root is inulin, which makes chicory one of the richest sources of this prebiotic (Perović et al., 2021, Al-Snafi, 2016. It has a significant role in human health based on positive effects on the intestinal flora and the digestive tract, and lowers cholesterol, contributes to the regulation of blood sugar level, etc. (Shoaib et al., 2016). ...
... In the same study, the share of brewer's spent grain will not be statistically significant for the content of RS, which trend is confirmed in our results. This is consistent with the conclusion of Potter et al. (2013) who observed that in extruded products, at different production temperatures, enriched with various fruit powders, the retrograde starch content (types of resistant starch) increases. According to Yoon's model, the greatest influence on resistant starch was by the screw speed as well as the feed moisture, with approximately -35% and 35% relative importance. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of extrusion process variables on the resistant starch content (RS) in a sample of rice snacks with added chicory root (addition: from 20-40%). The effect of different levels of feed moisture (16.3 to 22.5%) and screw speed (500 to 900) rpm, as well as chicory root addition, during extrusion cooking on the resistant starch content of extruded products, was investigated. Results of our experiments have demonstrated a decrease in the resistant starch content after extrusion, which is also observed in some other studies. The resistant starch content was in a range of 0.1302 g/100g to 0.5302 g/100g. According to Yoon's model, the screw speed had the greatest negative influence, while the increased feed moisture had a positive effect on resistant starch content, as well as the share of chicory addition.
... These multiple functions of chicory are deeply related to its rich and complex phytochemical profile including a great number of bioactive substances. Despite being more abundant in the roots, important phytochemicals are reported to be distributed throughout the whole plant including sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, organic acids, inulin, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, steroids, fats, proteins, hydroxycoumarins, terpenoids, oils, glycosides, volatile compounds, vitamins, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, β-sitosterol, tannins, and minerals (Bais and Ravishankar, 2001;Street et al., 2013;Puhlmann and de Vos, 2020;Janda et al., 2021;Perović et al., 2021). This rich profile presents multiple nutritionally important compounds, including among the most important ones: carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, amino acids and proteins, fatty acids, sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients (Perović et al., 2021). ...
... Despite being more abundant in the roots, important phytochemicals are reported to be distributed throughout the whole plant including sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, organic acids, inulin, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, steroids, fats, proteins, hydroxycoumarins, terpenoids, oils, glycosides, volatile compounds, vitamins, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, β-sitosterol, tannins, and minerals (Bais and Ravishankar, 2001;Street et al., 2013;Puhlmann and de Vos, 2020;Janda et al., 2021;Perović et al., 2021). This rich profile presents multiple nutritionally important compounds, including among the most important ones: carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, amino acids and proteins, fatty acids, sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients (Perović et al., 2021). Thanks to its valuable nutritional values and its health-promoting characteristics, chicory is commonly used as a vegetable, coffee substitute, forage, and functional ingredient in commercial food products (Puhlmann and de Vos, 2020;Janda et al., 2021;Perović et al., 2021). ...
... This rich profile presents multiple nutritionally important compounds, including among the most important ones: carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, amino acids and proteins, fatty acids, sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients (Perović et al., 2021). Thanks to its valuable nutritional values and its health-promoting characteristics, chicory is commonly used as a vegetable, coffee substitute, forage, and functional ingredient in commercial food products (Puhlmann and de Vos, 2020;Janda et al., 2021;Perović et al., 2021). A wide range of chicory cultivars, selected on the basis of their suitability for each purpose (e.g., leafy salad, root production, and forage), are currently available (Wang and Cui, 2011). ...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the biostimulant effect of fungal culture filtrates obtained from Chaetomium globosum and Minimedusa polyspora on growth performance and metabolomic traits of chicory (Cichorium intybus) plants. For the first time, we showed that M. polyspora culture filtrate exerts a direct plant growth-promoting effect through an increase of biomass, both in shoots and roots, and of the leaf area. Conversely, no significant effect on morphological traits and biomass yield was observed in C. intybus plants treated with C. globosum culture filtrate. Based on 1H-NMR metabolomics data, differential metabolites and their related metabolic pathways were highlighted. The treatment with C. globosum and M. polyspora culture filtrates stimulated a common response in C. intybus roots involving the synthesis of 3-OH-butyrate through the decrease in the synthesis of fatty acids and sterols, as a mechanism balancing the NADPH/NADP+ ratio. The fungal culture filtrates differently triggered the phenylpropanoid pathway in C. intybus plants: C. globosum culture filtrate increased phenylalanine and chicoric acid in the roots, whereas M. polyspora culture filtrate stimulated an increase of 4-OH-benzoate. Chicoric acid, whose biosynthetic pathway in the chicory plant is putative and still not well known, is a very promising natural compound playing an important role in plant defense. On the contrary, benzoic acids serve as precursors for a wide variety of essential compounds playing crucial roles in plant fitness and defense response activation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the biostimulant effect of C. globosum and M. polyspora culture filtrates on C. intybus growth and metabolome, increasing the knowledge on fungal bioresources for the development of biostimulants.
... The content of inulin varies from 11-20 g on 100 g of fresh roots and around 44% on dry root weight. The amount of inulin can change depending on season and is the lowest during autumn [17]. ...
... Sesquiterpene lactones promote appetite and digestion due to their bitter taste. Chicory roots are a rich source of sesquiterpene lactones like lactucin, 8-deoxylactucin,13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin, lactucopicrin,13-dihydrolactucopicrin, jacquinelin, crepidiaside B, lactuside A [17]. ...
... T. erecta was also found to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa [26]. Chicory also demonstrated antimicrobial effect, due to inhibitory effect on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Aspergillus niger and Sachharomyces cerevisiae [17]. ...
Article
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The Asteraceae family is one of the largest flowering plant families, with over 1600 genera and 2500 species worldwide. Some of its most well-known taxa are lettuce, chicory, artichoke, daisy and dandelion. The members of the Asteraceae have been used in the diet and for medicine for centuries. Despite their wide diversity, most family members share a similar chemical composition: for example, all species are good sources of inulin, a natural polysaccharide with strong prebiotic properties. They also demonstrate strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity, as well as diuretic and wound healing properties. Their pharmacological effects can be attributed to their range of phytochemical compounds, including polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, acetylenes and triterpenes. One such example is arctiin: a ligand with numerous antioxidant, antiproliferative and desmutagenic activities. The family is also a source of sesquiterpene lactones: the secondary metabolites responsible for the bitter taste of many plants. This mini review examines the current state of literature regarding the positive effect of the Asteraceae family on human health.
... These bioactive compounds are described to protect the body not only from bacterial and viral infections but also from degenerative and age-related pathologies [8]. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory, hypolipidemic, gastro-protective, and antidiabetic have been some bioactivities related to this plant [9]. In addition, the bitter compounds present in chicory such as sesquiterpene lactones have proved its antimalarial and anthelmintic activity [10] as well as its antimicrobial potential [11]. ...
... Six substances were detected ( Table 3), and epigallocatechingallate had the highest concentration (23.78 ± 0.49 mg/L) of all the phenols assessed. Catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin-gallate have been previously detected in red chicory (9). On the other hand, the content of chlorogenic acid (75.71 ± 0.73 mg/L) could be related to the presence of this phenolic acid in Chioggia red chicory variety [31], whose concentration in this plant is interesting for human food fortification [9]. ...
... Catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin-gallate have been previously detected in red chicory (9). On the other hand, the content of chlorogenic acid (75.71 ± 0.73 mg/L) could be related to the presence of this phenolic acid in Chioggia red chicory variety [31], whose concentration in this plant is interesting for human food fortification [9]. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic properties in chicory have been previously associated with the content of chlorogenic acid [32], while phenols are related to being suitable as diabetes and obesity modulators [33]. ...
Article
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Background The by-products of red chicory leaves are a valuable source of bioactive compounds that can be exploited in the development of functional foods. Objective This work aimed to combine healthy properties of red chicory by-products with other ingredients in the formulation of a functional jam, which is easy and safe to swallow, especially for people suffering from dysphagia. Methods The physicochemical parameters, as well as the total polyphenols content (TPC), was assessed in the obtained product. Results The TPC (549.44 mg GAE/100 g) was higher than the values reported in other jams, and it remained stable along with the colour during six weeks of storage. Within the carbohydrates, 0.4% of the prebiotic fibre inulin has been detected, suggesting that this jam formulation is a promising delivery system of phenols and fibre. From the sensorial point of view, the functional jam obtained an overall good acceptability judgment. The bitterness of the red chicory is persistent, which helps people with dysphagia swallow more easily. Conclusion The functional jam, based on chicory by-products, could be a good source of bioactive compounds, which are helpful even in the disabled subjects’ diet.
... Many plant materials were incorporated into extrudates, such as yam root flour (Dioscorea sp.) [5] and the flours of Jerusalem artichoke, pumpkin, and amaranth [6], to produce innovative snacks with nutritional added value. One of the promising materials for food fortification is chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root flour, rich in polyphenols, minerals, inulin, oligofructose and sesquiterpene lactones considered as potential carriers of food [7]. Pouille et al. [8] reported potential cancer prevention, antibacterial and antiviral defense, and the prebiotic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of chicory root flour and its water extract. ...
... Input and output data were normalized (min-max normalization method) prior ANN calculation [28]. The training process of the network (in the form of Multilayer Perceptron-MLP) using 20 data points (every point refers to one sample) was repeated 100,000 times, changing the various ANN topologies, with a different number of neurons in the hidden and the output layers (5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), different activation functions, using random initial values of weight coefficients and biases. The optimization of the ANN structure was performed by minimizing the validation error, and generated ANN predicates 11 output parameters simultaneously. ...
... The CRF-containing samples (particularly Sample 9 and Sample 12) were perceived as significantly darker and more bitter with highly pronounced overall chicory odor and flavor in comparison to the CS. Bitterness perceived in samples containing CRF can be connected with the presence of sesquiterpene lactones [7], which are reported to possess a bitter taste. The most profound and persistent bitter taste was perceived in Sample 12, containing 40% of CRF. ...
Article
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A novel rice-based snack enriched with chicory root flour (CRF) was developed by twin-screw extrusion. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the promising medicinal plants for the development of innovative food and may be considered a functional food ingredient. Central composite design (CCD) was employed to generate snack formulations by varying feed moisture (M, 16.3–22.5%), screw speed (SS, 500–900 rpm) and CRF content (20–40%). The optimization according to artificial neural network modeling and a genetic algorithm was applied to define optimal process conditions (17.6% moisture, 820 rpm and 24.1% of CRF) for obtaining the product with the highest expansion (3.34), crispiness (3.22 × 10−3), volume (2040 m3), degree of gelatinization (69.70%) and good color properties. Bulk density (110.33 g/L), density (250 kg/m3), and hardness (98.74 N) resulted in low values for the optimal sample. The descriptive sensory analysis evaluated low hardness and bitterness, with high crispiness for the optimal extrudate. This study points to the possibility of a novel chicory enriched extrudate production with desirable physicochemical and sensory properties.
... Collected data were compared with previously published ethnobotanical studies from the Eastern Mediterranean region and adjacent countries [18,19,[23][24][25]28,43], in order to determine differences and similarities in WFPs' uses. Data on the nutritional benefits of most reported species were obtained by reviewing the literature available online [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]. The relative importance of the reported plants was obtained by calculating the relative frequency of citation (RFC) for each species by dividing the number of informants mentioning the plant by the total number of informants. ...
... Young aerial part Rich in K, P, and vitamin C. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity [45]. ...
Conference Paper
Wild edible plants have been an important source for human nutrition since ancient times in particular when access to conventional food is limited due to emergency situations such as natural disasters and conflicts. The war in Syria, which started a decade ago, has caused the largest war-related crises since World War II. There are 6.5 million people unable to meet their food needs and a further 2.5 million people at risk of food insecurity. Wild food plants are already culturally important in the region and supplementing local diets during this conflict. Our study aimed to know how conflict affected the use of wild plants and what wild plants are used during the conflict. The fieldwork was carried out between March 2020 and March 2021 in the Tartus governorate located in the coastal region of Syria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 participants distributed in 26 villages along the study area. The results revealed an increase in the reliance on wild plants as a source of food during the conflict comparing to the pre-conflict time as reported by 64% of our informants. We recorded the vernacular names, uses, plant parts used, modes of preparation and consumption and frequency of use. Our study documented 75 wild food plant species used for food and drink. Compositae, Leguminosae and Lamiaceae were the most represented botanical families, whereas Origanum syriacum, Rhus coriaria, and Eryngium creticum were among the most quoted species by informants. Sleeq and Zaatar were the most popular wild plants-based dishes.
... Collected data were compared with previously published ethnobotanical studies from the Eastern Mediterranean region and adjacent countries [18,19,[23][24][25]28,43], in order to determine differences and similarities in WFPs' uses. Data on the nutritional benefits of most reported species were obtained by reviewing the literature available online [44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]. The relative importance of the reported plants was obtained by calculating the relative frequency of citation (RFC) for each species by dividing the number of informants mentioning the plant by the total number of informants. ...
... Cichorium intybus Young aerial part Rich in K, P, and vitamin C. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activity [45]. ...
Article
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Wild food plants (WFPs) have been an important source of human nutrition since ancient times, and it particularly revives when conventional food is not available due to emergency situations , such as natural disasters and conflicts. The war in Syria has entered 10 years since it started in 2011, and it has caused the largest war-related crises since World War II. Nearly 60% of the Syrian population (12.4 million people) are food-insecure. WFPs are already culturally important in the region, and may be supplementing local diets during this conflict. Our study aimed to uncover the conflict's effect on the use of WFPs and to know what species are consumed by local people during the current crisis. The fieldwork was carried out between March 2020 and March 2021 in the Tartus governorate located in the coastal region of Syria. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 participants (26 women and 24 men) distributed in 26 villages along the study area. We recorded the vernacular names, uses, plant parts used, modes of preparation and consumption, change in WFP use before and during the conflict, and informants' perceptions towards WFPs. We documented 75 wild food plant species used for food and drink. Almost two-thirds (64%) of informants reported an increase in their reliance on wild plants as a food source during the conflict. The species of Origanum syriacum, Rhus coriaria, Eryngium creticum, and Cichorium intybus were among the most quoted species by informants. Sleeq (steamed leafy vegetables), Zaatar (breakfast/dinner food), and Louf (soup) were the most popular wild plant-based dishes.
... Moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, ash, fat and nitrogen-free extract were 6.79, 15.02, 16.46, 10.80, 3.90 and 53.82 % (on a dry weight basis), respectively. The results presented in this study were found to be in the range of the value reported by Nwafor et al., (2017) and Perović et al., (2021 ...
... The main phenolic compound found in chicory leave powder was E-vanillic acid (59.89 mg/g) ( Table 6). The result of the total phenolic content of chicory leave powder agree with the result reported by Massoud et al.,(2009) and hence the result of total phenolic compounds ( Table 6) is in agreement with the result reported by Dallar et al., (2014) and Perović et al., (2021). ...
... From the point of food supplementation, the viewpoints of MFH plants conform to today's food requirements of returning to a natural and green healthy life and seem easy to accept [103]. Take some examples, the edible flowers such as chrysanthemum [104], the vegetable such as chicory [105], and wild edible plants such as purslane [106] are all distributed all over the world and have been consumed as food since ancient times. ...
... Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in chicory utilization for food production and supplementation. Some compounds present in chicory, such as kaempferol, inulin, and oligofructose may be considered as potential carriers of food functionality [105]. ...
Article
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Dietary nutraceutical compounds have been evidenced as backbone for bone health in recent years. It is reported that medicine food homology (MFH) plants have multiple nutraceutical compounds. Based on our literature research, 20 MFH plants caught our attention because they contain three popular antiosteoporosis compounds simultaneously: quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), their characteristics including natures, flavors, attributive to meridian tropism, and efficacies were listed. The relationships between TCM efficacies, such as “heat clearing,” “tonic,” and “the interior warming,” and antiosteoporosis pharmacological actions such as antioxidant and immune regulation were discussed. The in vivo antiosteoporosis effects of the 20 MFH plants were summarized. The in vitro antiosteoporosis activities and related mechanisms of the 20 plants and quercetin, rutin, kaempferol were detailed. The TGF-β-Smad signaling, fibroblast growth factor, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling on bone formation and the RANKL signaling, NF-κB signaling, and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor on bone resorption were identified. From food point, these 20 MFH plants could be classified as condiment, vegetable, fruit, tea and related products, beverage, etc. Based on the above discussion, these 20 MFH plants could be used as daily food supplements for the prevention and treatment against osteoporosis.
... In particular, for the amino acids class, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, alanine, glutamine, GABA (γ-amminobutyrate), and asparagine were identified ( Figure 2a). As already known [14,15], chicory leaves are strongly rich in free amino acids. These organic molecules exhibit an important role for human health maintenance being recommended for a balanced and healthy diet. ...
... Important anti-hepatotoxic activity of cichoric acid was already studied [53]. In addition, cichoric acid aqueous extract was described as antihyperglycemic agent [15]. The presence of other metabolites, such as trigonelline, formate, fumarate and nucleosides derivatives such as uridine and deoxyadenosine together with aromatic amino acid as phenylalanine and tyrosine were also identified as reported (Table 1 and Figure 2c). ...
Article
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Background: Plants of genus Cichorium are known for their therapeutic and nutraceutical properties determined by a wealth of phytochemical substances contained in the whole plant. The aim of this paper was to characterize the metabolic profiles of local Salento chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) varieties ("Bianca", "Galatina", "Leccese", and "Otranto") in order to describe their metabolites composition together with possible bioactivity and health beneficial properties. Methods: The investigation was performed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis (MVA), by which the metabolic profiles of the samples were easily obtained and compared. Results: The supervised Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) analysis showed as "Bianca" and "Galatina" samples grouped together separated by "Leccese" and "Otranto" varieties. A different content of free amino acids and organic acids was observed among the varieties. In particular a high content of cichoric and monocaffeoyl tartaric acid was observed for the "Leccese" variety. The presence of secondary metabolites adds significant interest in the investigation of Cichorium inthybus, as this vegetable may benefit human health when incorporated into the diet. Conclusions: The 1H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) based characterization of Salento chicory varieties allowed us to determine the potential usefulness and nutraceutical properties of the product, also providing a method to guarantee its authenticity on a molecular scale.
... Roots, leaves and flowers are the most popular chicory parts for culinary and industrial applications [2,11,79,80]. The usage of chicory root as coffee substitute dates back to the XVIth century and continued through XVIIIth century, the discovery being attributed to the royal gardener Timme of Thuringen. ...
... Such a functional drink has a unique organoleptic profile and diabetic patients can consume it as an aid to their therapy [82]. Thanks to their vivid color, fresh flowers are a perfect addition to salads, fish or as decoration for meat dishes [80]. Anthodia can be preserved in vinegar, and the buds can be marinated and served quite as the capparis are. ...
Article
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Natural products are gaining more interest recently, much of which focuses on those derived from medicinal plants. The common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), of the Astraceae family, is a prime example of this trend. It has been proven to be a feasible source of biologically relevant elements (K, Fe, Ca), vitamins (A, B1, B2, C) as well as bioactive compounds (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarin derivatives, cichoric acid, phenolic acids), which exert potent pro-health effects on the human organism. It displays choleretic and digestion-promoting, as well as appetite-increasing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action, all owing to its varied phytochemical composition. Hence, chicory is used most often to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Chicory was among the plants with potential against SARS-CoV-2, too. To this and other ends, roots, herb, flowers and leaves are used. Apart from its phytochemical applications, chicory is also used in gastronomy as a coffee substitute, food or drink additive. The aim of this paper is to present, in the light of the recent literature, the chemical composition and properties of chicory.
... Hepatoprotective action of Cichorium intybus extract could be due to flavonoids or polyphenolic compounds, which have potent antioxidant activity, and protect the liver against free radical injury [28]. Cichoric acid present in leaf water extract, Flavonoids present in leaf ethanolic extract and also phytoconstituents from seed alcoholic extract such as flavonoids, saponins and their glycosides may be responsible for hepatoprotective role of chicory [29]. In this study 3 days after paracetamol injection 4 chicks (20%) died in group II whereas only 1 chick (5%) died in group III received paracetamol plus Cynara Scolymus extract and there was no mortality in control group. ...
Article
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THIS study focused on the effects of Cichorium intybus (Chicory), and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) in reducing the hepatotoxicity effects of paracetamol in broiler chickens. Eighty four 21-d-old male commercial broilers were randomly allotted to 4 groups (n=21) and treated as follows for 2 weeks: Control group: basal diet alone, paracetamol group: similar to control group, in addition to intraperitoneal (IP) administration of paracetamol as 0.5 mg/kg of BW on 4th day. Cichorium intybus group: similar to paracetamol group and also daily oral administration of Cichorium intybus as 0.1 % ethanolic extract in drinking water, for 2 weeks. Cynara scolymus group: similar to paracetamol group and oral administration of Cynara scolymus as 0.1 % ethanolic extract in drinking water, for 2 weeks. The SGOT, SGPT, CPK, LDH, Uric acid, Creatinine and GGT serum levels were analyzed on 25th, 27th and 34th days of study. The mortality rates and body weight changes were measured in the end of study. Ethanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus and Cynara scolymu were found to decrease both the mortality rate and body weight loss. Also ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus exhibited protective lowering effects of the serum enzyme levels, SGOT, GGT and CPK to a significant extent (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results showed the protective activity of Cichorium intybus and Cynara scolymus on paracetamol induced toxicity in broiler chickens. Based on the results in the present study, the ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus showed significant better hepatoprotective effect as compare to Cynara scolymus.
... Excessive or insufficient intake of minerals, which are important in daily recommended amounts, causes disruptions in body functions and diseases (Nosratpour and Jafari, 2019). The mineral content of fruits and vegetables varies according to different cultures and environmental conditions (Perović et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was determined the suitability of Cucurbita pepo L. (pumpkin) seed flour (PSF) supplement, which is limited for use in the food industry, to increase some chemical and functional properties of crackers. PSFs were used to replace wheat flour in cracker formulation at the levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30%. Particularly, the total dietary fiber, protein and ash content of crackers with PSF increased. The highest increase in mineral contents of crackers were determined in P> K> Mg> Ca> Zn> Fe> Cu. The predominant organic acid of crackers was tartaric acid and the dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid. Crackers prepared with Nevşehir variety PSF yielded better results than other crackers due to their nutritious properties. As a result, with the addition of PSF, a functional food product with health benefits was obtained and a contribution was made to the product range.
... Several bioactivities have been previously associated with SLs, for instance, those that are antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic [3,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. The most relevant SLs previously identified in chicory roots [13][14][15] include lactucin, lactucopicrin, 11β-13-dihydrolactucin, 11β-13-dihydrolactucopicrin, and 8deoxylactucin [16]. ...
Article
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Cichorium intybus L. or chicory plants are a natural source of health-promoting compounds in the form of supplements such as inulin, as well as other bioactive compounds such as sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). After inulin extraction, chicory roots are considered waste, with most SLs not being harnessed. We developed and optimized a new strategy for SL extraction that can contribute to the conversion of chicory root waste into valuable products to be used in human health-promoting applications. In our work, rich fractions of SLs were recovered from chicory roots using supercritical CO2. A response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters (pressure, temperature, flow rate, and co-solvent percentage) for the extraction performance. The best operating conditions were achieved at 350 bar, 40 °C, and 10% EtOH as a co-solvent in a 15 g/min flow rate for 120 min. The extraction with supercritical CO2 revealed to be more selective for the SLs than the conventional solid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. In our work, 1.68% mass and a 0.09% sesquiterpenes yield extraction were obtained, including the recovery of two sesquiterpene lactones (8-deoxylactucin and 11β,13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin), which, to the best of our knowledge, are not commercially available. A mixture of the abovementioned compounds were tested at different concentrations for their toxic profile and anti-inflammatory potential towards a human calcineurin/NFAT orthologue pathway in a yeast model, the calcineurin/Crz1 pathway. The SFE extract obtained, rich in SLs, yielded results of inhibition of 61.74 ± 6.87% with 50 µg/mL, and the purified fraction containing 8-deoxylactucin and 11β,13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin inhibited the activation of the reporter gene up to 53.38 ± 3.9% at 10 µg/mL. The potential activity of the purified fraction was also validated by the ability to inhibit Crz1 nuclear translocation and accumulation. These results reveal a possible exploitable green technology to recover potential anti-inflammatory compounds from chicory roots waste after inulin extraction.
... These fibers generally provide several advantages to consumers by selectively stimulating the growth of useful colonic bacteria within a human's colon (Gibson et al., 2017). Inulin is currently a principal prebiotic driving the prebiotic industry that has been obtained by extraction from limited sources of inulin-rich plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, and garlic (Perović et al., 2021;Rubel et al., 2018;Singha et al., 2021). To serve the increase of functional food fiber demand, quantity and variety of prebiotic fibers are needed. ...
Article
Cellulose is a kind of dietary fiber that resists digestion and absorption in the human body. In addition to health benefits of cellulose ingestion with regard to body weight management, this fiber may also provide prebiotic activity if its solubility can be enhanced. In this study, cellulose extracted from banana peels was modified by enzymatic and diluted-acid hydrolysis in order to obtain the partially hydrolyzed cellulose, which is a water-soluble fiber, and prebiotic activity involving Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, and Escherichia coli was evaluated. The results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis by Celluclast® provided higher contents of water-soluble cellulose and cellodextrins than did diluted-acid hydrolysis. The sugar pattern by thin layer chromatography also indicated that cellobiose and cellotriose significantly supported the growth and lactic acid production of probiotic strains. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the water-soluble cellulose was kept in 2 forms; 1) solution, and 2) dried powder. However, the dried powder could not be utilized as a sole carbon source by those bacteria since the lyophilization technique dramatically reduced the solubility of the sample. Interestingly, cellulose solution could promote the growth of L. plantarum TISTR2075, but it did not support the growth of E. coli TISTR073. This finding provides a positive prebiotic index value, which is higher than those from inulin, a commercially well-known prebiotic fiber. Therefore, this study presents a novel perspective on consumption of cellulose as a prebiotic fiber.
... A substantial amount of clinical evidence depicts chicory to be anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and prebiotic. In addition, chicory has been shown to promote good digestion, to regulate appetite, and to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal diseases [1]. ...
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Industrial chicory has been the subject of numerous studies, most of which provide clinical observations on its health effects. Whether it is the roasted root, the flour obtained from the roots or the different classes of molecules that enter into the composition of this plant, understanding the molecular mechanisms of action on the human organism remains incomplete. In this study, we were interested in three molecules or classes of molecules present in chicory root: fructose, chlorogenic acids, and sesquiterpene lactones. We conducted experiments on the murine model and performed a nutrigenomic analysis, a metabolic hormone assay and a gut microbiota analysis, associated with in vitro observations for different responses. We have highlighted a large number of effects of all these classes of molecules that suggest a pro-apoptotic activity, an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect and also an important role in appetite regulation. A significant prebiotic activity was also identified. Fructose seems to be the most involved in these activities, contributing to approximately 83% of recorded responses, but the other classes of tested molecules have shown a specific role for these different effects, with an estimated contribution of 23–24%.
... Taking the aforesaid results into consideration, our study recommended MAFBD as a promising technique with minimum changes in antioxidant and phytochemical content of chicory. KEYWORDS total phenolics, antioxidant activity, chicory, phytochemical properties, optimization Introduction Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is an under-utilized, nontraditional perennial herb belonging to the genus Cichorium of Asteraceae family and is cultivated across the globe (Perovic et al., 2021). It is native to temperate regions of the world and is also cultivated in regions such as Europe, North America, and Asia. ...
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This research investigated the influence of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying (MAFBD) on the antioxidant and phytochemical characteristics of Chicory. Microwave power, temperature, and air velocity were used as process variables varied between 180–540 W, 50–70 °C, and 15–20 m/s, respectively. The responses determined for deciding the optimal criteria were total phenolics content, ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total chlorophyll, carotene content, total flavonoid content, tannin content, and saponin content of the dried chicory. Statistical analyses were done by using the response surface methodology, which showed that independent variables affected the responses to a varied extent. The design expert predicted 462.30 W microwave power, 70°C temperature, and 15 m/s air velocity as optimum conditions to obtain highest desirability for the dried chicory. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify the predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of ascorbic acid content was 38.32 mg/100g DW, total phenolic content 216.42 mg/100g DW, total flavonoid content mg/100g DW, DPPH scavenging activity 36.10 μg/ml, total chlorophyll content 311.79 mg/100g, carotene content 7.30 mg/100g, tannin content 2.72 mg/100g, and saponin content 0.46 mg/100g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried chicory. Taking the aforesaid results into consideration, our study recommended MAFBD as a promising technique with minimum changes in antioxidant and phytochemical content of chicory.
... Minerals are essential for multiple metabolic functions and growth of plant material. 42 Table 4 shows the mineral content that has been reported by some authors. Black sapote is an important source of calcium, 17 compared to the content in tropical fruits such as banana, coconut, kiwi, and papaya. ...
Article
Diospyros digyna (black sapote) is a fruit of the Ebenaceae family. Its cultivation is centered in different regions of America, particularly in Mexico, where it originated. The main use of this fruit is for direct consumption or as an ingredient for making desserts. In spite of its nutritional characteristics, its rate of consumption is very low, providing an opportunity to make novel ready-to-eat or processed products. Some compounds found in the fruit, such as phenolic compounds and carotenoids, give it its characteristic dark brown color. Due to the content of vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, among other nutrients, black sapote could be considered a functional food. This review describes different aspects of the fruit: its origin, changes in its physicochemical characteristics during the growth and ripening of the fruit, pigments, and sensory, bioactive, and nutritional characteristics. It also summarizes different studies that mention its use for treating some ailments and its use as an antimicrobial.
... Therefore, balanced oxidative stress parameters (MDA and GSH levels and GPx and GST activities) were re-established in the testicles after administration of PEE and CWE, resulting from all these factors working together. Harmonious with these findings, previous studies illustrated the antioxidant and health-improving activities of Purslane [122][123][124]129] and Chicory extracts [130][131][132]. Thus, administration of PEE and CWE along with Dexa-enhanced antioxidative enzyme activities, suppressing lipid peroxidation and thus rescuing testes from Dexa-induced oxidative load. ...
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Long-term glucocorticoids can alter sperm motility, vitality, or morphology, disrupting male reproductive function. This study scrutinized the synergistic benefits of two Egyptian plants against dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced testicular and autophagy dysfunction in male rats. Phytochemical ingredients and the combination index were estimated for Purslane ethanolic extract (PEE) and Chicory water extract (CWE). Four control groups received saline and 100 mg/kg of each PEE, CWE, and PEE/CWE, daily for 8 weeks. Dexa (1 mg/kg daily for 6 weeks) induced infertility where PEE, CWE, and PEE/CWE were given. Seminal analysis, male hormones, glycemic and oxidative stress markers, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (Sigma 1R and GRP78), and autophagy regulators (Phospho-mTOR, LC3I/II, PI3KC3, and Beclin-1, P62, ATG5, and ATG7) were measured. The in vitro study illustrated the synergistic (CI < 1) antioxidant capacity of the PEE/CWE combination. Dexa exerts testicular damage by inducing oxidative reactions, a marked reduction in serum testosterone, TSH and LH levels, insulin resistance, ER stress, and autophagy. In contrast, the PEE and CWE extracts improve fertility hormones, sperm motility, and testicular histological alterations through attenuating oxidative stress and autophagy, with a synergistic effect upon combination. In conclusion, the administration of PEE/CWE has promised ameliorative impacts on male infertility and can delay disease progression.
... Кроме инулина, корни цикория содержат белковые вещества и сахара: левулозу (10-20 %), фруктозу (4,5-9,5 %), пектин, холин, гликозид интибина (0,2 %), придающий горький вкус, яблочную, лимонную и другие органические кислоты. В состав цикория входят около 33 минеральных элементов, витамины А, Е, В 1 , В 2 , В 12 , РР, дубильные вещества, минеральные соли и микроэлементы [15][16][17]. ...
Article
Pâté are very comfortable for consumption, which makes them very popular. Pâté also has a good functional potential. The research objective was to assess the composition and sensory properties of new functional pâtés with chicory powder. The study featured beef liver pâté and chicken liver pâté with hydrated inulin-containing chicory powder. The tests relied on standard methods. The new pâté had 3% of hydrated inulin-containing chicory powder. The sensory assessment proved that the appearance, taste, and texture complied with the normative documentation. The function product had a high content of carbohydrates, including inulin. 100 g of ready-made pâté provide 13% of the daily intake of prebiotics.
... Chicory, as an Uyghur customary herb in China, is also known as "kasni" and "kashenna" (12). It is the dried aboveground parts or roots of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. ...
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As a miraculous Xinjiang Uyghur customary traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chicory (Cichorium glandulosum Boiss.et Huet and Cichorium intybus L.) has been found to have therapeutic potential for metabolic diseases in recent years. Although it is widely used as an ethnic medicine, there is still a lack of targeted quality control indicators in quality standards. Hence, this study was conducted to further develop a strategy to reveal bioactive-chemical quality markers based on the existing foundation. First, through the comparative screening of fingerprint profiles of a large amount of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss.et Huet and Cichorium intybus L., superiority components were found to be potential indicators of chemical quantitative properties for the roots and above-ground parts. The results of content determination showed that their contents differed among different species and parts. Second, the potential dominant components were further confirmed using network pharmacology and molecular docking techniques. Again, the results of RAW264.7 cells and L02 cells experiments showed that chicory acid and lactucin were the main components that could reflect the anti-inflammatory and uric acid-lowering potential of chicory. Finally, under this strategy, this study reveals that cichoric acid and lactucin have the properties of quality markers and quality control of chicory. In a word, this work contributes to the quality control, standard improvement, and rational clinical use of chicory.
... These findings demonstrate that lipidomic approaches can be used to elucidate the complex mechanisms of action of specific drugs and are new tools for exploring the mechanisms of NAFLD progression. Chicory is a medicinal and edible herb (Perović et al., 2021). The polysaccharide in chicory accounts for about one-fifth. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease around the world, and it often coexists with insulin resistance-related diseases including obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, which seriously threatens human health. Better prevention and treatment strategies are required to improve the impact of NAFLD. Although needle biopsy is an effective tool for diagnosing NAFLD, this method is invasive and difficult to perform. Therefore, it is very important to develop more efficient approaches for the early diagnosis of NAFLD. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can play a certain role in improving symptoms and protecting target organs, and its mechanism of action needs to be further studied. Metabolomics, the study of all metabolites that is thought to be most closely associated with the patients’ characters, can provide useful clinically biomarkers that can be applied to NAFLD and may open up new methods for diagnosis. Metabolomics technology is consistent with the overall concept of TCM, and it can also be used as a potential mechanism to explain the effects of TCM by measuring biomarkers by metabolomics. Based on PubMed/MEDLINE and other databases, this paper retrieved relevant literature NAFLD and TCM intervention in NAFLD using metabolomics technology in the past 5 years were searched, and the specific metabolites associated with the development of NAFLD and the potential mechanism of Chinese medicine on improving symptoms were summarized.
... Nowadays many in vivo and in vitro pharmacology experiments on C. intybus have confirmed a variety of potential health benefits like anti-hyperuricemia (Huang et al., 2015), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, hepatoprotective (Joseph et al., 1985), immunoregulatory, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial (Petrovic et al., 2004) and others (Al-Snafi, 2016;Bahmani et al., 2015). Additionally, many phytochemical studies have revealed the various constituents of C. intybus, such as polysaccharides (inulins), flavonoids, caffeic acid derivatives, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenoids and phytosterols (Perović et al., 2021;RA et al., 2013). Of them, sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), mainly lactucin-like guaianolides with a bitter taste, are considered to be one kind of the most characteristic metabolites and the main active components of C. intybus (Kisiel and Zielińska, 2001). ...
Article
Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), belonging to the tribe Cichorieae of the family Asteraceae, has a long history as an edible and medicinal food. Sesquiterpene lactones are commonly considered as its major active constituents. In the current study, five unreported sesquiterpene lactones, including one 12,8-guaianolide and four 12,6-guaianolides were isolated from C. intybus roots, as well as 16 known analogues. The planar structures and relative configurations of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations were determined by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)-based electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation method. Bioassay results showed that seven of the isolates exhibited remarkable NO production inhibitory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values ranging from 1.83 to 38.81 μM. Some of them can significantly decrease the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that intybusins B, as well as four known compounds, displayed obvious inhibitory activities against four human tumor cells, with IC50 values ranging from 9.01 to 27.07 μM.
... Cichorium intybus is known to synthesize several natural bioactive metabolites with associated health benefits, such as sesquiterpene lactones (SL), polyphenols and fatty acids, which are detectable in leaves and roots (Bogdanović et al., 2019;Peña-Espinoza et al., 2020;Janda et al., 2021). A growing scientific interest has focused on the study of C. intybus compounds and their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic effects (Bischoff et al., 2004;Peña-Espinoza et al., 2018;Baixinho et al., 2021;Perović et al., 2021). During the past 20 years, C. intybus has been intensively investigated for its activity against parasitic helminths in animals, which has been linked to its content of SL (Peña-Espinoza et al., 2018). ...
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Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, is a potentially life-threatening parasitic zoonosis infecting 6–7 million people worldwide, mainly in Latin America. Due to the limited numbers of drugs available against this neglected disease and their frequent adverse effects, novel anti-chagasic agents are urgently needed. Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) is a bioactive plant with potent activity against parasitic nematodes, but its effects on protozoans are poorly known and no studies have explored its trypanocidal potential. Here, we investigated the activity of C. intybus against extracellular and intracellular stages of T. cruzi, including the prediction of trypanocidal compounds by metabolomic analyses and bioactivity-based molecular networking. Purified C. intybus extracts were prepared from leaves and roots of five C. intybus cultivars (cv. ‘Benulite’, ‘Goldine’, ‘Larigot’, ‘Maestoso’ and ‘Spadona’). All C. intybus extracts induced concentration-dependent effects against T. cruzi trypomastigotes. C. intybus leaf extracts had higher trypanocidal selectivity and lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells than root extracts. The leaf extract of C. intybus cv. Goldine also significantly reduced the number of mammalian cells infected with T. cruzi amastigotes. Metabolomic and bioactivity-based molecular networking analyses revealed 11 compounds in C. intybus leaves strongly linked with activity against trypomastigotes, including the sesquiterpene lactone lactucin, and flavonoid- and fatty acid-derivatives. Furthermore, seven distinct C. intybus molecules (including two sesquiterpene lactone-derivatives) were predicted to be involved in reducing the number of mammalian cells infected with amastigotes. This is the first report of the anti-protozoal activity of C. intybus against trypanosomatid parasites and expands our understanding of the anti-parasitic effects of this plant and its bioactive metabolites. Further studies to elucidate the anti-protozoal compound(s) in C. intybus and their mode(s) of action will improve our knowledge of using this bioactive plant as a promising source of novel broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds with associated health benefits and biomedical potential.
... Focusing on chicory (Cichorium intybus), it is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is cultivated worldwide, and its main use is in animal feed and the food industry, for example, as a supplement (if declared) in coffee and tea beverages or as a source for the production of inulin, a starch-like polysaccharide [19]. Several authors have reported the presence of chicory as adulterant in coffee and tea extracts [17]. ...
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Tea is a broadly consumed beverage worldwide that is susceptible to fraudulent practices, in-cluding its adulteration with other plants such as chicory extracts. In the present work, a non-targeted high-throughput flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) fingerprint-ing methodology was employed to characterize and classify different varieties of tea (black, green, red, oolong, and white) and chicory extracts by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Detection and quantitation of frauds in black and green tea extracts adulterated with chicory were also evaluated as proofs of concept using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Overall, PLS-DA showed that FIA-MS fingerprints in both negative and positive ionization modes were excellent sample chemical descriptors to dis-criminate tea samples from chicory independently of the tea product variety, as well as to clas-sify and discriminate among some of the analyzed tea groups. The classification rate was 100% in all the paired cases —i.e., each tea product variety versus chicory— by PLS-DA calibration and prediction models showing their capability to assess tea authentication. The results obtained for chicory adulteration detection and quantitation using PLS were satisfactory in the two adultera-tion cases evaluated (green and black teas adulterated with chicory), with calibration, cross-validation, and prediction errors bellow 5.8%, 8.5%, and 16.4%, respectively. Thus, the non-targeted FIA-MS fingerprinting methodology demonstrated to be a high-throughput, cost-effective, simple, and reliable approach to assess tea authentication issues.
... Proteína: alguns autores relatam 14 a 14,7% de PB na MS (PEROVIĆ et al., 2021), e outros, 21,7% (BEZERRA; STANKIEVICZ; UCZAY, 2017); Foi utilizada a média destes valores para exibição na carta: 16,8% de proteína na MS. ...
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Em um planeta onde existem dezenas de milhares de espécies alimentícias, a dieta da população humana hoje baseia-se em poucas dezenas de vegetais convencionais. Plantas alimentícias não convencionais tem se popularizado nos últimos tempo, seja entre os consumidores e chefs, que encontram nelas novos sabores e experiências, ou seja para os próprios produtores e agricultores tradicionais, familiares, comerciais ou afetivos. A busca por conhecimento sobre PANCs está em alta e interessa a todos. Foi desenvolvido o projeto e jogo “Batalha das PANCs: Hortaliças Folhosas Não convencionais”, altamente informativo, indicado para todos os públicos: desde crianças com 8 anos de idade até pesquisadores e estudantes do nível superior. Para a produção deste jogo, o projeto também contou com uma ampla e atualizada Revisão Bibliográfica, que contemplou vários aspectos de 32 hortaliças folhosas não convencionais relevantes para o Brasil. Todas as plantas receberam resultados para as seguintes informações: teor proteico (% proteína na MS das folhas); altura; tempo para colheita (dias); produção estimada (toneladas por hectare por ano); temperatura mínima e máxima (ºC).
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Introduction: This randomized controlled trial study aimed to find the benefits and possible side effects of brewed chicory leaf consumption in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Methods Sixty NAFLD patients were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups and consumed brewed chicory leaf made from 15 g chicory leaf along with usual treatment or only the usual treatment, respectively. This study was planned for 12 weeks, but it was stopped in the sixth week due to unexpected side effects. Results After 6 weeks, total bilirubin, ALT and AST in the intervention group were significantly reduced compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In the intervention group compared to the control group we observed a significant increase in number of red blood cells (0.16 ± 0.33 vs. −0.01 ± 0.27, p = 0.026), platelets (34.00 ± 45.55 vs. 7.96 ± 25.30, p = 0.014), hemoglobin (0.37 ± 0.84 vs. −0.09 ± 0.59, p = 0.018), fasting blood sugar (5.85 ± 8.47 vs. 0.29 ± 6.67, p = 0.017), total cholesterol (14.08 ± 20.80 vs. −1.30 ± 4.42, p = 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (15.36 ± 20.02 vs. −0.17 ± 6.70, p < 0.0001), and a significant decrease in the mean platelet volume (−3.03 ± 1.79 vs. 0.01 ± 0.62, p < 0.0001). Discussion Consumption of brewed chicory leaf could have unexpected side effects on people with NAFLD. (IRCT20190819044565N2)
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This work proved antioxidant and antimicrobial effects and chemical content of Cichorium intybus L. Methanol extract of C. intybus L. aerial parts were tested for antimicrobial activity, and for antioxidant effect. The results showed that the extract has a significant antimicrobial activity, it inhibited the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria and Fungi (has registered against various). The extract has a good antioxidant activity reported to Vitamin C (IC50=61.57±0.75 µg/mL; Vitamin C=5.78±0.08 µg/mL). Phytochemical evaluation has shown that the plant has flavonoids, triterpenes and others, and further phytochemical proved the identification of βsitosterol, apigenin, kaempferol, apigenin 7-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-βglucoside). In conclusion, C. intybus can be a new promising antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
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SARS-CoV-2 is a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus causing a respiratory disease that emerged in 2019, leading to a public health emergency situation which continues to date. The treatment options are still very limited and vaccines available are less effective against new variants. SARS-CoV-2 enzymes, namely main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro), play a pivotal role in the viral life cycle, making them a putative drug target. Here, we described for the first time the potential inhibitory activity of chicory extract against both proteases. Besides, we have identified that the four most abundant sesquiterpene lactones in chicory inhibited these proteases, showing an effective binding in the active sites of Mpro and PLpro. This paper provides new insight for further drug development or food-based strategies for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 by targeting viral proteases.
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Energy security and pollution are becoming critical issues in the context of climate change and the circular economy, calling for sustainable resources. Asteraceae species, commonly referred as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family, are among the largest flowering plants with 23,000 species belonging to 1600 genera, and are a major source of biomass. Here we review botanical characteristics and applications of Asteraceae for bioenergy, remediation, nanotechnology, medicine, food and agriculture. Sunflower is the most used to produce bio-oils with a yearly production of 47 million tons. Sunflower is also used for phytoremediation of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, uranium, and chromium. Artichoke, chicory, purple coneflower, and wormwood display medicinal potential with 27–103 bioactive compounds. Artemisia, calendula, and sunflower oil are precursors for cosmetic and perfume production. Asteraceae species exhibited high efficiencies of 90−96% for removal of remazol red, and reactive blue dyes. Asteraceae species are used for fabrication of nanoparticles, biochar, activated carbon and biocomposites.
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Thermal processing methods such as pasteurization and sterilization are the most common practices to ensure the microbial safety of food. At the same time, these methods can cause significant changes in food related to both quality deterioration and reduced nutritional value. The increasing demand of consumers for foods free from microbiological load, and with high nutritional value has turned the interest of the scientific community and the food industry to the adoption of non-thermal techniques. Ozone and plasma treatments are among the non-thermal ones and they are emerging and promising techniques as they offer high microbial safety and extended self-life. Many studies have also been conducted in recent years with the effect of these methods on food bioactives with very encouraging results. It has been found that in most cases, these techniques can increase the content of many food bioactives in various foods, both raw and processed and mainly in foods of plant origin. The effect of these techniques on food bioactives can be different for each food and it depends on many factors with the most important being the food matrix, the time of application, the ozone concentration and plasma characteristics. This chapter evaluates the impact of ozone and plasma application on food bioactives.
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In this study, chicory essential oil (CEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation-based ex- traction method and it was rich in camphor (31.3%) and phenolic compounds with outstanding antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The CEO was then incorpo- rated into Lepidium perfoliatum seed mucilage (LPSM) based aqueous solution to pre- pare an active CEO-loaded LPSM edible coating. The effect of the edible coating was then investigated on the quality and shelf life of beef slices during 7 days storage at 4°C. The results revealed that beef slice coated with CEO-loaded LPSM edible coat- ing had a significant inhibitory effect on its lipid oxidation and microbial growth. The CEO-LPSM coating also inhibited the weight and texture losses of beef slices dur- ing display more efficiently compared with the control and CEO-free LPSM coating. Besides, the beef slices coated with CEO-LPSM were the preferred samples in terms of sensory scores throughout the storage. Thus, using CEO-rich LPSM edible coating might inhibit decay and significantly improve the shelf life of fresh beef
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The aim of the study was to explain the effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extracts as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the molecular level and to determine the inhibition of AChE activity by specific SLs (lactucin and lactucopicrin) and different chicory extracts. The obtained SLs-rich extracts were purified by the countercurrent partition chromatography (CPC) technique. AChE inhibitors were analyzed using two models: isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and docking simulation. The results of ITC analysis of the enzyme and the ligands’ complexation showed strong interactions of SLs as well as extracts from chicory with AChE. In a test of enzyme activity inhibition after introducing acetylcholine into the model system with SL, a stronger ability to inhibit the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter was observed for lactucopicrin, which is one of the dominant SLs in chicory. The inhibition of enzyme activity was more efficient in the case of extracts, containing different enzyme ligands, exhibiting complementary patterns of binding the AChE active site. The study showed the high potential of using chicory to decrease the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
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BACKGROUND: Research on changes in the content of monomeric and dimeric phenolic compounds and their amount during freezing and storage of semi-finished products is relevant because the varieties of endive Cichorium endivia, which have many useful elements, are applicable for medical and dietary nutrition. AIM: This article aimed to analyze the kinetics of the oxidation and hydrolysis reactions of phenolic compounds of three varieties of endive during freezing and storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The total content of phenolic compounds and the amount of phenolcarboxylic acids and flavonoids in fresh vegetables and semi-finished products from Russian varieties Kruzhevo and Elvira endive, as well as the Italian variety Kornetto K-56, were determined by spectrophotometry in fresh endive after harvesting, then after homogenization, freezing, and periodically in the process of low-temperature storage. RESULTS: Kinetic dependencies of changes in the content of phenolic compounds on the duration of storage of semi-finished products from endive varieties Kruzhevo, Elvira, and Kornetto K-56 in a frozen state were revealed. The constants of the reaction rate (pseudo-first order) of the change in the content of the studied substances during storage of endive semi-finished products were calculated. To reduce the loss of cell sap during defrosting to maintain the amount of phenolic compounds during storage of endive semi-finished products, adding pectin in the homogenization stage at an amount of 3.0% by weight of the homogenized endive of the varieties under study is recommended. CONCLUSIONS: During storage of endive, phenolic compounds are preserved to the maximum, and cell sap losses are reduced within 180 days in the Elvira and Kruzhevo varieties, and within 150 days in the Kornetto K-56 variety. The frozen semi-finished product from homogenized endive of the studied varieties is recommended for use in healthy nutrition technologies, particularly in the production of low-calorie drinks and bakery and confectionery products.
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With the improvement of people's living standards and changes in the environment, the incidence of diabetes has increased rapidly. It has gradually become one of the main diseases threatening the health and life of modern people, bringing a great burden to the society. Although the existing treatment methods can effectively control the symptoms of diabetes and delay its progression, they have not brought satisfactory improvement in the quality of life and treatment of patients. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines and their extracts combine thousands of years of experience and the scientific basis provided by modern experimental research, which is expected to bring a qualitative leap in the clinical management of diabetes. Therefore, this article systematically reviews studies on the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and its extracts on diabetes and its complications, and aims to bring new ideas and options for the clinical treatment of diabetes.
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Nutraceuticals are an ever-expanding market worldwide, facing the unstoppable transition towards a green economy. Developing economically feasible and sustainable alternatives to current raw materials for the extraction of nutraceuticals is, therefore, essential to reach these goals and, at the same time, achieve social and economic competitiveness. This paper intends to propose an economical and environmentally sustainable feedstock for chlorogenic acid (CGA) and inulin, whose current extraction from green coffee and chicory, respectively, is unsustainable. Our approach is based on the multi-criteria decision-making approach (MCDA), supported by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), ranking the performance of competitor biomasses according to economic, social, and technological criteria. The results of this study highlight cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) as a promising raw material for the extraction of CGA and inulin in virtue of the high concentration, low-input growth regime, and the possibility of being grown on marginal lands. Nevertheless, cardoon biomass availability is currently scarce, extraction methods are underdeveloped, and consequently, the obtained product’s price is higher than the benchmark competitors. Policies and investments favoring sustainable cultivations could stimulate cardoon employment, linking economic advantages and land requalification while limiting phenomena such as desertification and food competition in the Mediterranean basin.
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Background: Cichorium intybus is a rich source of terpenoids and phenolic compounds, one of the effective methods in managing and reducing the complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence obtained from animal and human studies on the effects of chicory on metabolic indicators (such as inflammation, oxidative stress, blood sugar, and dyslipidemia) of diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: This systematic search was performed in ProQuest, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and Science Direct databases and on articles published until August 2021. All of the animal studies and clinical trials included in this systematic review that assessed the effect of chicory on metabolic risk markers in diabetes and were published in English-language journals. Results: Finally, Among 686 articles, only 23 articles met the needed criteria for further analysis. Out of 23 articles, 3 studies on humans and 20 studies on animals have been carrying out. Fifteen of the 19 studies that evaluated the effect of chicory on the glycemic index showed that cichorium intybus improved blood glucose index (it had no effect in two human studies and three animal studies). Ten of the 13 studies evaluating the effect of cichorium intybus on lipid profiles showed that it improved dyslipidemia. Also, all 12 studies showed that chicory significantly reduces oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion: According to the available evidence, cichorium intybus might improve the glycemic status, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, further studies are recommended for a comprehensive conclusion about the exact mechanism of chicory in diabetic patients.
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Humans used plants for thousand of years as food, drugs, or fuel to keep homes warm. People commonly used fruits and roots, and other parts of the plant were often wasted. This review aims to discuss the potential of rational stem-to-stern use of three highly versatile and valuable plants with hepatoprotective properties. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus ), and chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) have well-characterized hepatoprotective properties. These plants have been chosen since liver diseases are significant diseases of concern worldwide, and all parts of plants can be potentially utilized. Artichoke and chicory are commonly used as food or dietary supplements and less often as phytodrugs. Various dietary supplements and phytodrugs prepared from milk thistle (MT) fruits/seeds are well-known to consumers as remedies supporting liver functions. However, using these plants as functional food, farm animal feed, is not well-described in the literature. We also discuss bioactive constituents present in various parts of these plants, their pharmacological properties. Distinct parts of MT, artichoke, and chicory can be used to prepare remedies and food for humans and animals. Unused plant parts are potentially wasted. To achieve waste-free use of these and many other plants, the scientific community needs to analyze the complex use of plants and propose strategies for waste-free technologies. The government must stimulate companies to utilize by-products. Another problem associated with plant use as a food or source of phytodrug is the overharvesting of wild plants. Consequently, there is a need to use more active cultivation techniques for plants.
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Background Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may protect against atherosclerosis in part by reducing intestinal permeability and gut microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production. Brussels chicory, a typical Mediterranean vegetable, has been shown to inhibit the formation of early-stage atherosclerosis in mice. Objective We evaluated whether Brussels chicory affects advanced atherosclerosis progression, intestinal permeability, and gut microbial LPS production. Methods Thirty-wk-old male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with unstable atherosclerotic plaques in the brachiocephalic artery were fed the AIN-93G diet alone (control) or supplemented with 0.5% freeze-dried Brussels chicory for 20 wk. Plaque volume and features of plaque stability, plaque macrophage polarization, fecal and serum LPS concentrations, serum lipid profiles and inflammation-related cytokines, and gut microbial profiles were measured. Results Compared with the control treatment, Brussels chicory consumption did not significantly change plaque volume and serum lipid profiles. However, it increased plaque stability (P < 0.05), as evidenced by reduced necrotic core size (42.3%), and increased fibrous cap thickness (55.0%) and collagen content (68.4%). Moreover, Brussels chicory consumption reduced intestinal permeability (56.3%), fecal and serum LPS concentrations (52.2% and 39.4%), serum IL1B and TNFA (52.0% and 33.8%), promoted plaque macrophage polarization towards the M2-like phenotype, and altered gut microbial compositions, the latter indicated by increasing the relative abundance of certain genus members of the Ruminococcaceae family, such as Ruminiclostridium_9, Ruminiclostridium_5 and Intestinimonas (P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analyses further showed that these genus bacteria were significantly correlated with intestinal permeability, fecal and serum LPS, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and several features of plaque stability. Conclusions Brussels chicory may help stabilize atherosclerotic plaques in mice by reducing intestinal permeability and gut microbial LPS production. This study provides a promising approach to slow down the progression of atherosclerosis.
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Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae), known as “Brazilian ginseng”, is traditionally used in folk medicine to promote health benefits. Recent studies have demonstrated that P. glomerata roots are a promising source of compounds, including fructan-type carbohydrates and β-ecdysone, which have interesting pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and evaluate the prebiotic and antioxidant potential of fructans from P. glomerata ex vitro roots and adventitious roots cultivated in vitro in a roller bottle system. The chemical characterization of the samples by NMR and ESI-HRMS showed that it was possible to obtain inulin molecules in the ex vitro precipitated fraction with degree of polymerization (DP) of 15.33, while molecules of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with a DP of 7.77 were characterized in the supernatant fraction. The in vitro supernatant fraction (DP = 2.89) was evaluated by the DPPH (558.61 μmoL Trolox/mg), ABTS (492.67 μmoL Trolox/mg) and FRAP (1132.19 μmoL Trolox/mg) methods, which together suggested high antioxidant potential. The prebiotic evaluation of these molecules demonstrated fermentation capacity of Lactobacillus and Bacillus. The data obtained indicate that roots of P. glomerata ex vitro and cultured in vitro in a roller bottle system represent promising sources for the sustainable production of FOS and inulin, which can have different industrial applications.
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Introduction: Millions all over the world live with epilepsy, and they may require long-term drug treatment. The use and interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have grown over the previous years. Coadministration of herbal products with medicines may result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and/or unfavorable interactions. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of CAM use among patients with epilepsy, to compare the results to those of the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), to reveal factors that may drive the use of CAM, and to measure outcomes and adherence. It was also our intent to have state-of-the-art information on CAM use in our region among patients with the two diseases above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a non-interventional study using a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed among adult patients with either epilepsy or DM who also suffered from cardiovascular consequences. A database was compiled from the anonymous questionnaires filled in voluntarily by the patients. Basic statistics were used to analyze this database. Results: A total of 227 questionnaires were filled in by 127 patients (55.9%) with epilepsy and 100 patients (44.1%) with DM. Mean age was 54.54 ± 17.33 years. Of the patients, 50.2% were male. Average body weight was 80.3 ± 17.3 kg. Of the patients, 22 (9.7%) used CAM because they believed in CAM. Two of them reported ADRs. Among the patients with epilepsy, the ratio was only 7.9% compared to 12% among those with DM. While the number of CAM users was higher among younger patients with epilepsy, it was the elderly patients with DM who tended to use CAM. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to reliance on CAM during the follow-up. Our finding that health-conscious patients tend to use CAM more often (than the general population) may indicate it is necessary to discuss CAM usage sincerely. CAMs modulating cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were the most common, leading to interactions with medication used and resulting in ADRs. This shows the importance of educating patients and treating team including clinical pharmacists in this field.
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Underutilized wild plants are important sources of nutrition and medicine since ancient times and have contributed to food security, enriching diet diversity and preventing malnutrition. These plants have been used in ancient Chinese and Indian medicine such as Ayurvedic, Unani and Sidhi to treat various ailments. Ladakh, the cold-desert of India, is home to many such wild underutilized plants which have played a crucial role in supplementing diet to the indigenous people. Phytochemical investigation of these plants have revealed the presence of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds like vitamins, minerals, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, capparisine, caftaric acid, chicoric acid, salidrosides, rosavins, emodin and anthraquinones that are responsible for their pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive response, antiageing, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective. Moreover, fortification of staple food with these plants have ability to improve the micronutrients and bioactive constituents. Identification of these compounds using a metabolomic approach could enable development of safer and affordable novel drugs. These underutilized plants, though having tremendous potential for commercial exploitation, still remain largely ignored. The paper highlights some of the underutilized plants of Ladakh and their potentials as food and nutraceuticals and future commercial exploitation for nutritional security and good health.
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Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb cultivated worldwide that has a wide range of industrial uses, produces large yields, and also has strong cadmium (Cd) accumulation ability. In field experiments in two farmlands with acidic soils, chicory potential to remove Cd from contaminated soils was evaluated at different planting densities and with repeated harvesting. To determine whether Cd-contaminated biomass could be used as a feed ingredient, efficacy of detoxification was measured with successive extractions using different concentrations of HCl. Biomass per plant decreased with an increase in planting density, and maximum biomass per plant in the two experimental fields was 17.11 and 13.89 g·plant⁻¹. However, the increase in plant numbers at high planting density increased total biomass per hectare, and maximum accumulated biomass at the highest planting density in the two experimental fields was 14,226 and 22,020 kg·ha⁻¹. The highest Cd concentrations were at the first harvest and were 27.68 and 19.27 mg·kg⁻¹ Cd in the two fields, resulting in bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 24.94 and 24.39, respectively. With the increase in number of harvests, aboveground Cd concentrations and BCFs decreased. Planting density had no consistent effect on aboveground Cd concentrations at the first two harvests, whereas Cd concentration decreased gradually with the increase in density at the last three harvests. Collectively, after five repeated harvests, total Cd uptake was highest at the highest planting density, reaching 237.55 g·ha⁻¹ (field 2), and the corresponding phytoextraction efficiency was 11.57%. Two consecutive extractions with 0.5% HCl removed 96.30% of Cd in leaf meal, which reduced Cd concentration below the threshold for feed safety while retaining most of the crude protein, there remained a substantial crude protein content with 173.1 g·kg⁻¹. Thus, biomass of forage crops used for phytoremediation may also provide economic gain.
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Background/Aims : Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been promising vehicles for drug delivery. Cichorium Pumilum (CP), a natural photosensitizer (PS), has been reported to have many useful effects in cancer treatment. However, the poor water solubility and its low bioavailability have confined its use as a suitable photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. Therefore, a subtle approach is required to overcome these drawbacks. Materials and Methods : We have synthesized a silica nanoparticles loaded with Cichorium Pumilum. The nanoparticles structural morphologies have been charectrized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity for different concentrations of naked and encapsulated CP was evaluated. Moreover, the optimal concentration of naked and encapsulated CP with exposure time to a light (Maximum intensity at 350nm ∼0.27mW/cm²) required to eliminate the used cells (Osteosarcoma cells) were also measured. Results : The results showed that encapsulated CP in SiNPs exhibited relatively higher efficacy than the naked CP by + 157.14 % of exposure time efficacy and + 49.45% of concentration efficacy, and encapsulated CP was also confirmed to be effective in eradicating osteosarcoma cells. Conclusion : The engineered silica nanoparticles loaded with CP enhanced the photodynamic therapy by increasing the CP bioavailability.
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In this study, a novel composite film based on potato starch (PS)/lactucin (LT)/nano-TiO2 was prepared using the casting method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the structure and morphology of the composite films. An ideal coordinated elastic and plastic mechanical behavior was obtained for this composite film at a 2 wt% LT content. The PS/2LT/3TiO2 composite films showed the lowest water vapor permeability at 1.42 ± 0.02 (10⁻¹²·g·m/s·m²·Pa) and exhibited good optical and antibacterial properties. Meanwhile, the transmittance values of all other PS/LT/TiO2 ternary composite films were approximately 0% at 220–360 nm. The highest inhibitory rate against both microorganisms was exhibited by the PS/4LT/5TiO2 film (92.67% ± 2.78%). Finally, the anti-mealworm study for of PS/4LT/3TiO2 revealed that 80% effective repellent activity was achieved against insects at 60 h. Collectively, these findings suggest that the PS/LT/TiO2 composite has potential for food anti-insect packaging and could serve to inform the design of alternative food packaging materials.
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Carbohydrates such as fructans are naturally derived molecules that can be implemented in priming or defence stimulation, providing new strategies for crop protection against biotic stress. Chicory is a model plant for fructan research and a crop with many known health benefits. Using the chicory-Botrytis cinerea pathosystem, we tested the effectiveness of fructan-induced immunity, focussing on different plant and microbial fructans. Sugar dynamics were followed after priming and subsequent pathogen infection. Our data indicate that many higher plants may detect extracellular levan oligosaccharides (LOS) from microbial origin, while chicory also detects extracellular fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from endogenous origin, thus differing from previous fructan priming studies. No clear positive effects were observed for inulin or mixed-type fructans. An elicitor-specific ROS burst was observed for sulfated LOS, while FOS and LOS behaved as a real priming agent. In addition, a direct antifungal effect was observed for sulfated LOS. Intriguingly, LOS priming led to a temporary increase in apoplastic sugar levels, mainly glucose, which can trigger downstream responses. Total sugar and starch content in total extracts of LOS-primed leaves were higher after leaf detachment, indicating these leaves can maintain their metabolic activity. Our results indicate the importance of balancing intra- and extracellular sugar levels (osmotic balance) in light of sweet immunity pathways.
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Chicoric acid (CA), a phenolic acid from chicory, is regarded as a powerful ingredient against oxidative stress and obesity. It's believed to be a promising drug candidate as its healing features prevent memory loss. However, existent methods for CA detection limit its practical applications in purification and further pharmacological study due to lack of accuracy. Therefore, it is crucial to find a forceful approach to precisely analyze cichoric acid for anti-AD research. In this work, we reported a facile method to synthesize Setaria-like trimetallic nanodendrites (G-PP NDs) in a non-compacted core-shell shape with high electrocatalytic activity. In addition, a sensitive biosensor to detect cichoric acid rapidly and accurately has been developed based on G-PP NDs and aminated reduced graphene oxide flakes (NH 2 -RGO@G-PP NDs). Owing to the great conductivity of NH 2 -RGO and significant electrochemical performance of G-PP NDs, the obtained sensor exhibited admirable capacities with a low LOD of 0.038 μM. It displayed a high sensitivity, rapid response, and excellent long-term stability, which made it accomplish the measurements CA in chicory samples. The proposed sensor is an auspicious tool for quality control and analysis of metabolism to investigate the beneficial impacts of CA as a functional ingredient to combat AD.
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Hyperuricemia is an abnormal purine metabolic disease that occurs when there is an excess of uric acid in the blood, associated with cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, gout, and renal disease. Dietary intervention is one of the most promising strategies for preventing hyperuricemia and controlling uric acid concentrations. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as one of the most common beverages and the source of dietary polyphenols. However, the effect of tea on hyperuricemia is unclear. Recent evidence shows that a lower risk of hyperuricemia is associated with tea intake. To better understand the anti-hyperuricemia effect of tea, this review first briefly describes the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and the processing techniques of different types of tea. Next, the epidemiological and experimental studies of tea and its bioactive compounds on hyperuricemia in recent years were reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the anti-hyperuricemia mechanisms targeting the hepatic uric acid synthase, renal uric acid transporters, and intestinal microbiota. Additionally, the desirable intake of tea for preventing hyperuricemia is provided. Understanding the anti-hyperuricemia effect and mechanisms of tea can better utilize it as a preventive dietary strategy.HighlightsHigh purine diet, excessive alcohol/fructose consumption, and less exercise/sleep are the induction factors of hyperuricemia.Tea and tea compounds showed alleviated effects for hyperuricemia, especially polyphenols.Tea (containing caffeine or not) is not associated with a higher risk of hyperuricemia.Xanthine oxidase inhibition (reduce uric acid production), Nrf2 activation, and urate transporters regulation (increase uric acid excretion) are the potential molecular targets of anti-hyperuricemic effect of tea.About 5 g tea intake per day may be beneficial for hyperuricemia prevention.
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Dried chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extract (2-6%) and buttermilk (10-50%) were used to prepare yoghurt-ice cream using stabilizer (0.5-0.25%) and emulsifier (0.5-0.25%). For the purpose of high nutritional yoghurt-ice cream, samples were analyzed for the sensory and physical properties. An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of dried chicory root extract and buttermilk on the quality of yoghurt-ice cream. Results suggested that increasing the amount of dried chicory root extract in yoghurt-ice cream increased the colour, flavour, texture, sweetness, hardness, overrun, and OAA score while melting rate was decreased. Similarly, the effects of adding buttermilk, stabilizer and emulsifier on the aforesaid parameters were also evaluated. The optimum conditions generated from the analysis were 0.25% stabilizer, 0.25% emulsifier, 26.43% buttermilk and 4% dried chicory root extract. The predicted response in terms of colour, flavour, texture, sweetness, hardness, melting rate, overrun and OAA score were 7.218, 7.151, 7.422, 6.693, 40.161, 27.927, 40.090 and 7.200, respectively. The desirability of the optimum conditions was 0.833
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Background: Cichorium intybus has a wide range of therapeutic applications in Indian traditional systems of medicine, especially in metabolic disorders. Objective: To evaluate the toxicity profile and to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative efficacy of C. intybus seeds in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of seeds was prepared by decoction, and its quality control analysis was carried out by thin-layer chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) fingerprinting. Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet for 5 weeks followed by a single dose of streptozotocin intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. The protective group of rats was given aqueous extract during and after the induction of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further, repeated dose 28-day (subacute) and repeated dose 90-day (chronic) toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines. Results: A total of 18 metabolites have been tentatively identified by UPLC-MS profiling in aqueous extract of C. intybus seeds. No significant changes in mortality and biochemical parameters have been observed during toxicity studies. Moreover, administration of the extract to a protective group of diabetic rats attenuated serum glucose and triglyceride levels by 52.7% and 65.3%, respectively, supported by similar results for parameters related to insulin resistance and oxidative stress. The beneficial effect of extract has also been confirmed through in silico screening. Conclusion: C. intybus can be used as a natural dietary supplement for the prevention and management of diabetes and can be explored to develop a potent phytopharmaceutical for diabetes. © 2018 Pharmacognosy Magazine | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
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The ethanolic and methanolic (50%) extracts of γ-irradiated chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves and roots (at dose levels of 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy) were prepared to be used as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were determined in leaves and roots extracts followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds using HPLC. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and FRAP methods. The antimicrobial activity was verified by agar well diffusion assay against B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa,K. pneumonia, A. niger and P. expansum. The obtained results showed that 4 and 12 KGy doses significantly increased the TPC, TFC and enhanced the antioxidant activity of roots and leaves, respectively. Twenty-three phenolic components were identified in leaves and roots extracts. The antimicrobial assay of all extracts exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains with slight differences between plant part extract and had no effects against tested fungal strains. Therefore, the extracts of chicory under study would be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial and offers lots of opportunities for future application in the food industry to produce healthy food and can be used in pharmaceutical industry.
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The use of herbs in different indication fields is well known. The beneficial properties of plants may due to their organic agents and inorganic mineral elements. Measurement of trace element content in plant drugs may be relevant in view of e.g. human health, animal health and environmental relations. This fact has a great significance since about half of the plant drugs available in the trade originate from natural habitat. The element content of herbs may refer to soil pollution, soil type on which the plant grow up or air pollution.
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Chicory is a perennial plant grown in different parts of the world, used as forage for livestock, as folklore remedies, or as a vegetable addition in human diets. There are several varieties of the chicory plant, known differently globally due to its numerous medicinal, culinary, and nutritional qualities. Most parts of the plant contain a potpourri of nutrients ranging within carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, soluble fiber, trace elements, and bioactive phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the various nutritive, prophylactic, and therapeutic qualities of chicory. Inulin, coumarins, tannins, monomeric flavonoids, and sesquiterpene lactones are some of the major phytocompounds mostly found in chicory plants. The health-promoting activities attributed to chicory comprise, among others, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antimutagenic, antifungal, anthelmintic, immune-stimulating, and antihepatotoxic and its antioxidative qualities. As a versatile plant, chicory’s chemical composition and use as a suitable livestock feed supplement or as an alternative feed ingredient (AFI) are thus reviewed.
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Introduction: Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) is a leaf chicory and is grown as a leaf vegetable which usually has white-veined red or purple leaves and it belongs to the Asteraceae family. In several countries is consumed mainly as salad, but no studies on their elemental composition has been done, principally in Brazil. Objective: The aim of present work was to measure the macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and P) and microelements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Al, Cd, Ni, Co and Si) in the leaf Chicory used as human nourishment in the Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Method: Chemical digests of samples were prepared using HNO3 and H2O2 and then placed in the microwave digestion system. After digestion, the concentrations of the elements in Leaf Chicory were determined by the technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP–OES, Thermo Scientific - iCAP 6000 Series). Results obtained of the concentrations of leaf chicory were compared with the dietary reference intakes. Results: Detected concentration of macroelements in leaf Chicory decreases in the order: K > P > Ca > Mg > Na. As well as the concentration of microelements decreases in the order: Fe > Al > Si > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > Mo > Co. Leaf Chicory is excellent source of K, Ca, Mg, P, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn for children and adults. On the other hand, leaf chicory is not considered a source of sodium for children and adults. Concentration of K, Cr, Fe, and Al are above the limit recommended limit by FAO/WHO (1984) and others countries. Conclusions: Leaf Chicory has macro and microelements in ample amount; it can be used as an important part of people's diets. Since it not exceed allowable limits set by WHO and FAO, RDA/AI and UL. Competent organs have not evaluated concentrations of elements as Al, Cd, Ni, Co and Si in order to establish a tolerable upper intake level or RDA/AI for human. The lack of studies of adverse effects following excess intake of a nutrient does not mean that adverse effects do not occur. Keywords: Leaf Chicory; Radicchio; Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-OES).
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Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.
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PurposeInulin-type fructans are recognized as prebiotic dietary fibres and classified as non-digestible carbohydrates that do not contribute to glycaemia. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the glycaemic response (GR) and insulinaemic response (IR) to foods in which sucrose was partially replaced by inulin or oligofructose from chicory. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over design, 40–42 healthy adults consumed a yogurt drink containing oligofructose or fruit jelly containing inulin and the respective full-sugar variants. Capillary blood glucose and insulin were measured in fasted participants and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after starting to drink/eat. For each test food, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose and insulin was calculated and the GR and IR determined. ResultsConsumption of a yogurt drink with oligofructose which was 20% reduced in sugars significantly lowered the glycaemic response compared to the full-sugar reference (iAUC120min 31.9 and 37.3 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). A fruit jelly made with inulin and containing 30% less sugars than the full-sugar variant likewise resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose response (iAUC120min 53.7 and 63.7 mmol/L/min, respectively; p < 0.05). In both studies, the postprandial insulin response was lowered in parallel (p < 0.05). The reduction of postprandial glycaemia was positively correlated to the proportion of sugars replaced by inulin-type fructans (p < 0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, the studies confirmed that substitution of glycaemic sugars by inulin or oligofructose from chicory may be an effective strategy to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response to foods.
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Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a perennial herbal plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely pink or white. Several varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons, or roots which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and supplement. It is also grown as a forage plant for poultry and animal. In addition, chicory herb plays a key role as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, immunological, productive and reproductive enhancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-protozoal, gastro-protective, antidiabetic, analgesic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, wound healing and bitter tonic without inducing therapeutic adverse effect. Regarding the hepatoprotective activity, chicory extract reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).Also, chicory plant is a good and very important protective source for hepatocytes and other liver cells as well as it is used as prebiotic against some species of pathogenic bacteria for both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it enhances immunity and feed efficiency by decreasing pathogenic microorganisms of gastrointestinal tract. Cichorium intybus roots also were used for the relief of mild digestive disorders, such as feeling of flatulence, abdominal fullness, temporary loss of appetite and slow digestion. The present review highlights the importance of chicory as a feed additive used to improve growth and productive performance of poultry as well as salient beneficial applications in animals and humans. Furthermore, it explains the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of chicory and to find the effective level in poultry that would act as liver tonic.
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Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second cause of death among women around the world. In many cancers, including breast cancer, Fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene expression is increased significantly. In breast cancer cell lines, expression of FASN is higher in HER2 positive cell line like SKBR3 than the others. FASN is the key enzyme for fatty acid synthesis de novo pathway and it is producing palmitate which is necessary for cell membrane formation. Cichorium intybus is a medicinal plant that effectively leads to inhibition of fatty acid synthase and thus reduces the percentage of survival of cancer cell lines. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Chicorium intybus root on percentage of survival in SKBR3 cell line. Methods Human breast cancer SKBR3 cell line was cultured in DMEM medium. Methanol extract of Cichorium intybus root was extracted and different dilutions (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600µg/mL) were added to cell culture. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Results Cichorium intybus could decrease cell viability. The effects of extract on cell viability were observed after 24, 48 and 72 hours on SKBR3 cell line and IC50 was 800, 400 and 300 after 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Conclusions Our study shows that methanol extract of Cichorium intybus has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. This is a pilot work for further evaluation in the future.
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Phytochemical analysis showed that the different parts Cichorium intybus contained sesquiterpene lactones (especially lactucin, lactucopicrin, 8-desoxy lactucin,, wound healing and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and medical importance of Cichorium intybus.
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Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.var. sativum L., Asteraceae) is a multipurpose plant cultivated as vegetable and coffee substitute in Europe and North America, also as folk medicine in China. The extracts from chicory roots showed significant effect on inhibition against α-glucosidase. By a bioassay-guided approach, the chemical fraction with high α-glucosidase inhibition was found and its chemical profile was tentatively described by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS to include 28 compounds. Further chemical isolation yielded six compounds, their chemical structures were elucidated as 11β-13-dihydrolactucin (1), lactucin (2), 8-deoxylactucin (3), jacquinelin (4), 11β,13-dihydrolactucopicrin (5) and lactucopicrin (6), and among them, the compound 4 showed the strongest inhibitory activity against yeast α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 4.180 μM. The present results suggest that chicory roots can eventually exhibit anti-diabetic effect and the sesquiterpenes may be responsible for the activity.
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In this study, the nutrient levels and chlorophyll contents of roots, leaves, seeds and seeds (market) of Cichorium intybus were determined. The nutritional analysis revealed that C. intybus is to be rich in crude proteins, fats and carbohydrates (indicating its suitability as a fodder crop). There was significant difference in the crude protein, fats, crude fiber in all parts and seeds both wild and market. The elemental analysis for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn and Mn were analyzed in roots, leaves and seeds, which showed that substantial amount of these elements, were present with slight variation specific to each plant parts. Amount of chlorophyll although statistically insignificant was sensitive to the altitudenal and chronological variation numerically. Generally, present findings revealed that the seeds contained more nutritional qualities than other parts.
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The biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant composition of root, stem, leaves and seeds of Cichorium intybus L was determined. A statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among different parts of Cichorium intybus regarding the biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant composition. The leaves were found to possess comparatively higher values of total sugars non-reducing sugars water soluble proteins total flavonoids, total phenolic acids and total antioxidants. On the other hand, seeds were found to possess comparatively higher contents of reducing sugars, salt soluble proteins and saponins. The phytochmical screening confirmed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and anthocyanins in each part of the plant. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of different parts was evaluated in terms of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and reducing power. The leaf extract was found to show comparatively low value of IC50 for DPPH inhibition and high reducing power. Due to good biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant composition, Cichorium intybus leaves would be valuable candidate in pharmaceutical formulations and play an important role in improving the human, livestock and poultry health by participating in the antioxidant defence system against endogenous free radicals.