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Successful marketing and promotion strategies achieve customer development, profitability, and long-term company success. Present markets become more competitive through changing markets, globalization, and innovative technology, which have rapidly changed the business world. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are pushing marketing companies toward a new direction using social media marketing. Social media has penetrated so deeply into millions of people’s lives worldwide that it has also attracted marketers’ attention. This study will help determine how it influences Pakistani consumers’ purchase intentions. This research used a quantitative method based on primary data. The data was collected from Faisalabad, and the sample size was 250 participants. Among the 250 questionnaires, 190 are useable. The results show that trust and social media influence significantly affect consumers’ purchase intentions. Data analysis reveals that social media marketing has a greater influence than trust in purchase intentions through social networking sites. Therefore, improving websites’ quality enhances customers’ trust. Hence, trust plays an important role in e-commerce by directly influencing the purchasing intentions of customers.
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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Research
Online ISSN: 2663-7588. Print ISSN: 2663-757X
Volume. 3, No. 2, 2020, pp 41 - 48
Doi: 10.31580/ijer.v3i2.1386,
Copyright © 2020 Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Impact of Social Media Marketing on Consumer’s Purchase Intentions:
The Mediating role of Customer Trust
Umair Manzoor*1, Sajjad Ahmad Baig2, Muhammad Hashim3, Abdul Sami4
1.2.3Department of Management Sciences, National Textile University, Faisalabad
4Department of Management Sciences, University of Jhang
* Corresponding author:
Submission: 31 May 2020 Revised: 12 June 2020 Published: 21 July 2020
Successful marketing and promotion strategies achieve customer development, profitability, and long-term company success. Present markets
become more competitive through changing markets, globalization, and innovative technology, which have rapidly changed the business world.
Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are pushing marketing companies toward a new direction using social media marketing. Social
media has penetrated so deeply into millions of people’s lives worldwide tha t it has also attracted marketers’ attention. This study will help
determine how it influences Pakistani consumers’ purchase intentions. T his research used a quantitative method based on primary data. The data
was collected from Faisalabad, and the sample size was 250 participants. Among the 250 questionnaires, 190 are useable. The results show that
trust and social media influence significantly affect consumers’ purchase intentions. Data analysis reveals that social media marketing has a greater
influence than trust in purchase intentions through social networking sites. Therefore, improving websites’ quality enhances customers’ trust.
Hence, trust plays an important role in e-commerce by directly influencing the purchasing intentions of customers.
Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Purchase Intention, Trust, Online Advertisement
In this modern era, technology plays a great role in our daily lives (De Mooij, 2019). The technology has brought significant changes and it
has influence every aspect of individuals lives (Sami & Irfan, 2018). The internet is one of the essential parts of technology. The internet is
responsible for giving a place where people, companies and other individuals can communicate, and different companies can advertise their
products or services to increase their market share (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). The internet gives various features that can help to gather
large numbers of loyal and potential customers. Consumers use it for multiple reasons, such as collecting information related to online
purchasing. Purchasing through the internet is said to be safer and quicker. People spend a short time buying things on the internet. However,
analysts predict that it will increase tremendously, because people now feel safe and secure buying online, and they also t hink that their time
savings will also change the way people communicate (Gilchrist, 2016).
The development of social media provides opportunities for firms as an impressive marketing tool. Social media marketing is defined as
marketing that uses social networking websites as a marketing channel (Kujur & Singh, 2017). Social media is an essential tool for economic
growth as its tools include two-way communication and low-cost marketing to obtain information, connect and establish a relationship with its
clients (Irfan et al., 2019). Social media marketing aims to help the companies to increase their market share and purchase intentions of their
customers. In the last 40 years, we have seen that the way people interact has changed. The emergence of the social media network has had a
tremendous impact on business strategies and brings a drastic change in marketing strategies (Irfan et al., 2017). The use of social media
technologies is growing, and, in the future, we should expect it to have the same effect on businesses. With new technologies available,
companies that learn to use them gain considerable advantages. Among the top examples are technologies like Microsoft, eBay, Amazon and
Google. Social media has quickly become one of today‘s most popular youth outlets. The newest marketing trend is social media marketing, and
business owners want to learn how it can create interest in their business. In the decision-making cycle of consumers, social media plays a very
important role. Platforms like Facebook, LinkedIn, Hi5, YouTube and Twitter have made it easy for consumers to post reviews of products and
reach out to other like-minded people in their communities.
Before people make purchases nowadays, they are increasingly reaching out first to their social media communities for opinions (N. Hajli,
2015). Consumers access online groups through social media to understand their views and get a better sense of a product or service (Dedeoğlu
et al., 2020). In the fields of marketing, advertisement and communication, social media is much more relevant, with the number of users
increasing dramatically every year (Appel et al., 2020). Customers who have a close relationship with a firm share their interactions on social
media with other people and suggest the goods or services of the company to their friends through positive word of mouth. The consumers‘
purchase intentions have always been an important marketing topic extensively studied, debated, and discussed in contemporary textbooks.
Social media technology has created radically new ways of connecting retailers and consumers (Iacobucci & Hoeffler, 2016). Social media has
various channels, such as email, internet, and mobile marketing. According to (Appel et al., 2020) Thousands of social networking sites (i.e.,
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Research Vol. 3, No. 2
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distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
forums, chat groups, blogs, wikis, podcasts and videos) are unquestionably accessible online. (Zulqurnain et al., 2016) said, social media
marketing provides a ―connection between brands and consumers while offering a personal channel and currency for user-centered networking
and social interaction‖. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019) said that Consumers already demand 24-hour access to information through web apps
and several other automated means; they are now requesting 24-hour customer support and self-help services from online outlets. Consumers
now want to abandon the conventional information system and use new technologies. The primary and dominant market outlet for goods is now
social media (Wang & Yu, 2017).
Research Gap
Previous studies have inspected the impact of social media marketing on consumer‘s purchase intentions. This research will address the gap
in how social media marketing influences consumers‘ purchase intentions in Pakistan. There is some literature on the effects of social media
marketing on consumer behavior and perception. Still, there are not enough reviews that provide marketers with information on how social
media marketing affects consumers‘ purchase intentions. The gap that has to be identified is the mediating role of trust between social media
marketing and consumer‘s purchase intentions as well as the direct effects of social media marketing on consumers‘ purchase intentions.
Research Objectives
1. To investigate the relationship between social media marketing and customer trust
2. To study the connection between trust and consumer‘s purchase intention
3. To examine the moderating role of trust between social media marketing and consumer‘s purchase intention
4. To investigate the overall impact of social media marketing on consumer‘s purchase intentions
Social network sites or social network services (SNSs) allow people to establish personal web pages and connect with friends to share
information and communicate (Shen et al., 2016). The links built on social networking sites, like most social media websites, are focused
primarily on the real life of social networks. Users are allowed to supply real personal data as businesses market shares and products are
affected, to a large extent, by the data and user-generated information on the Internet (Kapferer & Bastien, 2012). Social media analytics offers
businesses competitive advantages by providing information on their competitors‘ strategies, suppliers‘ performance, consumers‘ trust, and
consumers‘ purchase intentions (Fan & Gordon, 2014). Social media is an instrument used to raise awareness about goods and services through
organizations, big or small, commercial and non-profit. E-commerce has become more customer-driven by social media (Sin et al., 2012).
Social media proliferation has caused a dramatic shift in interactions. In their integrated marketing strategy, Smart companies implemented
social media platforms to extend their current client base and draw new customers for accelerated growth and increased market shares (Tiago &
Veríssimo, 2014).
Social Media
To make online marketing successful, social networking sites play an important role (Irfan et al., 2018). Social media offer different values
to organizations by enhancing brand popularity (Al-Sheikh & Hasanat, 2020), facilitating word-of-mouth communication (Li & Wu, 2018),
growing sales (Coursaris et al., 2016), Sharing data in a company sense (Wright, 2019), and build customer social support (Naeem, 2019).
Instead, networking Social media shows that values which have a positive impact on consumer trust (M. N. Hajli, 2014). With expanding social
media and networking services, studying consumer trust and purchase intentions on these platforms is a research agenda (Javornik, 2016).
Social media may create strategies for marketing in companies through confidence-building mechanisms, which influence consumer intentions
to buy products online (Usman & Okafor, 2019).
A new field of content creation has grown with the growth of social networks, where anyone can quickly exchange knowledge and
experience with other people (Chen et al., 2011). Online communities provide an incentive and forum for a stronger customer service
management framework for both businesses and organizations (Ang, 2011), Bringing in a new era where businesses can boost efficiency. In
addition, members can get connected on sites that provide a possible source of trust and social experiences. (Y. Lu et al., 2010). Social media
offers businesses new ways to become more universally attractive (Aksoy et al., 2013). This can significantly influence consumer purchase
intentions (Prendergast et al., 2010). Social networking, such as online forums, groups, ratings, feedback and recommendations, which create
social support online, enabled such social interactions. This could increase the trust of e-commerce dealers and buyers. Moreover, studies on
social media allow us to see how people shape their online social interactions (Kuss & Griffiths, 2011).
Customer’s Trust
Trust in the e-seller is important in a business-to - consumer partnership when evaluating risk in all transactions (Harris & Goode, 2004). In
e-commerce, trust is an essential (Kwortnik Jr & Han, 2011). Trust is represented differently, but all are based on different dimensions of
honesty, capacity, competence and recognition (Pirson et al., 2017). Even then, the risk and ambiguity in the online world are both concepts and
dimensions. The two key dimensions of trust that this work draws on are compassion and integrity (Ceglarz et al., 2017). Trust based on
credibility relies on reputation and refers to the assumption that the other party in a transaction is trustworthy, whereas benevolence relates to
consistent relationships between seller and buyer (Joshi & Sharma, 2019). In this study, trust is perceived across online communities in the
sense of transactions over the internet.
Trust in peers on social networking services will also be considered. When it comes to online communities, trust can help in the interactions
of individuals and encourage them to attach others to their current network. Moreover, trust plays a significant part in defining both a
consumer‘s purchase intention and actual behavior (Chiu et al., 2012; Keh & Xie, 2009).
Consumers Purchase Intentions
The company dictionary‘s basic meaning of purchasing intentions is a decision to buy a specific product or service. Nevertheless, purchase
intentions come from behavioral science and change from the term intention (Oosthuizen et al., 2015). Consumer‘s purchase intentions are
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distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
defined as a combination of their interest and the possibility of buying a product. Consumers‘ purchase intentions are an attitudinal variable for
measuring their future contributions to buying products. Since forecasting consumers‘ future behavior is a critical issue for organizations; hence,
it should be estimated more clearly (Baabdullah et al., 2019) .The formation of consumer‘s purchase intentions depends on their general
attitudes towards a particular product (Cheruiyot & Maru, 2013). The better these attitudes are, the better the purchasing intentions (Gremler et
al., 2001). A similar definition was also proposed (Beneke et al., 2013; Faryabi et al., 2015; Wu, 2015) all of whom focused on the consumers‘
willingness to buy a specific product. Instead of suggesting a high risk of actually making a purchase, positive purchasing intentions often
reflect the positive engagement or loyalty of the customer toward products (Hong & Cho, 2011). According to (Farah, 2017), Intention indicates
the subjective likelihood that a specific action will be performed. The idea has been stretched to consumers‘ purchase intentions, which
describes the probability that consumers will execute the buying action (Kahraman & Kazançoğlu, 2019). (N. Hajli et al., 2017) stated that
consumers‘ purchase intentions indicate predictable behavior, which means that purchase intentions can be used to forecast what items
customers should buy when they go shopping next time.
Model Development and Hypothesis
The research model proposes to examine the relationships between the constructs of social media, customer trust, and consumer purchase
Fig 1. Research Model of the Impact of Social Media on Consumer Purchase Intentions
Social media marketing is a modern marketing technique that is practiced by almost every company in virtual networks to reach out to
customers. When you have an idea and want millions to be reached quickly with minimal costs, the best option is social media. The first
businesses to use social media as a promotional platform were entertainment companies. (Karimi & Naghibi, 2015) defined social media
marketing as a mechanism that allows anyone to advertise their blogs, goods or services online to reach a wider audience that is not accessible
via traditional channels. Therefore, if we keep it clear, social media marketing is the mechanism by which businesses use social media platforms
to concentrate on their official websites. It does not end there, as it is possible for organizations, by social media use, to remind potential clients
of activities in the company, to introduce a new concept or product, and to relate news about the company. (Kyriakopoulou & Kitsios, 2017)
have linked social media marketing to marketing relationships, suggesting that companies will switch from the ‗seek to sell‘ model to the ‗make
ties‘ with customers model. The social media marketing theory brings us to the other side of the marketing field, where relationship building
with potential customers is the secret to repeated transactions and increased brand loyalty. Social networking is a new method that companies
use to create good public relations with consumers on wireless servers (He et al., 2017). Public relations via social media have become easier to
manage since a vast number of potential customers are on virtual networks, and social networking is just a few steps away. Customers today are
more powerful than ever, as customers have been named king; businesses should be available and open on every social media platform,
including Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and internet forums (Wigmo & Wikström, 2010). Social media communication channels provide essential
opportunities for every organization. Social support develops through social media interactions; therefore, it affects trust (N. Hajli, 2015). More
positive reviews, feedback and ratings also contribute to greater trust (Utz et al., 2009). The social relationship of consumers developed through
social media significantly affects the consumer‘s trust (Chahal & Rani, 2017). Previous studies found that customer reviews‘ consistency and
quantity of information affect consumer purchasing decisions by increasing consumer trust (Lien et al., 2015).
H1: Social media marketing positively affects consumer purchase intentions.
H2: Social media marketing positively affects customer trust.
One of the major requirements for strong customer purchase intention in an online environment and social media is customer trust (B. Lu et
al., 2016). In marketing, the customer‘s trust is generally defined as the willingness of a customer to revisit a brand (Ramanathan et al., 2017).
Trust is two-directional; one direction is a belief, and the other is intent (Lim, 2015). Customer trust is a positive expectation and willingness to
purchase (Chinomona, 2015). Consumers perceive social media as more trustworthy than the traditional elements of the promotion mix
(Schivinski & Dabrowski, 2016). This may be due to the fact that social media provides direct networking, instant feedback and more real
content created by customers. A consumer‘s trust in the transaction and the network influences the online buyers (Pappas, 2016) and enhances
purchase intentions (N. Hajli et al., 2017). Therefore, the customer‘s trust plays a vital and significant role in the proposed model of this
research (Saleem et al., 2017). Trust is an important determinant when considering a consumer‘s purchase intentions (Basha & Lal, 2019). More
trust by consumers correlates with an increased intention to purchase (Hasbullah et al., 2016). Therefore, the customer‘s trust is likely to affect
intentions to transact (Ofori et al., 2017).
H3: Customer‘s trust has a positive effect on consumer‘s purchase intentions.
H4: Customer‘s Trust mediates the relationship between social media marketing and consumer‘s purchase Intentions.
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This research surveyed people to test the proposed model. This research was conducted through paper questionnaires. The participants were
mostly residents of Faisalabad, Pakistan, and this study focuses on users of social media websites who have some information about social
media marketing on those websites.
Research Design
This research used a quantitative method that was based on primary data. According to the research requirements, this study needed data to
analyze the behavior of Pakistani consumers. For this purpose of the study, we used social media users.
Research Population
Data was collected from Faisalabad, which is a major city in Pakistan. The consumers in Faisalabad are an urban population, are very aware
of social media websites, and are relevant to this research. The target audience was social media users. The questionnaire was distributed in
Faisalabad, Pakistan. The target individuals were members of social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, hi5, LinkedIn, etc.
Sample Size
The sample size for this study was 250. A total of 250 questionnaires were offered in Faisalabad; 210 questionnaires were received, but 20
out of 210 were rejected, so only 190 questionnaires were usable.
Statistical tool/ Analysis
SPSS software is used in this study to analyze the results.
Data collection method
This study used the ―5-Point Likert scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree‖. To increase the validity of the study,
the measures in the questionnaire were adapted from previous research of (M. N. Hajli, 2014). Trust, one of the essential variables included in
the model, was investigated in a number of previous research studies. The dependent variable of this study is the purchase intention. This
construct measures the user‘s willingness and intention to purchase on social network services. Survey questionnaires were distributed among
users of social media sites.
Social Media Marketing measures: (Smith, 2014)
1. ―Do you think that social media makes your life easier?‖
2. ―I am very enthusiastic to find the description of products on electronics platform like internet, email or web.‖
3. ―Do you think social media provide accurate and proper knowledge of products and services?‖
4. ―Social Media innovates the ways of advertising products or services in an efficient manner.‖
5. ―Do you like to adopt the way of buying and selling of products or services using social media?‖
6. ―Do you think social media marketing inspire you to make a buying decision?‖
7. ―I like to spend more time on social media because I like to see what the latest fashion is?‖
8. ―By using advertising messages via the mobile phone I can demonstrate my innovativeness to my friends.‖
Measures for Customer‘s trust: (Naylor et al., 2012)
1. ―I will probably buy a product on the internet (Soon).‖
2. ―I feel capable of finding shopping verity and information on the social media websites.‖
3. ―Social Media marketing keeps me up to date about new products and Services.‖
4. ―In general, I am satisfied with the service provided by the internet
5. ―I am satisfied on social media services about marketing.‖
Measures for Consumer ‗purchase Intentions: (McKnight et al., 2002)
1. ―I think shopping on the internet saves my time.‖
2. ―It is a great advantage for me to buy product at any time of the day on the internet.‖
3. ―It is more difficult to shop on the internet.‖
4. ―I will prefer online shopping only if online prices are lower than Actual price.‖
5. ―A long time is required for the delivery of products and services on the internet.‖
6. ―Online shopping is as secure as traditional shopping.‖
7. ―The information given about the products and services on the internet is sufficient.‖
This study used different databases such as Science Direct, Webley, Elsevier, Wikipedia, University Library, and other official databases,
books, newspapers, and published articles, etc. to encourage and support the study in order to complete this research.
Questionnaire Development
This study includes eight items of social media marketing, five items of trust, and seven items of consumer‘s purchase intentions. In the
previous study of (M. N. Hajli, 2014), the reliability of eight items of social media marketing was α=0.8711, customer‘s trust was α=0.8137, and
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distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
consumer‘s purchase intentions was α=0.7593. All were conducted with a ―5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 =
strongly agree‖.
Results and Data Analysis
The model‘s reliability and validity have been considered. They are discussed separately in the following sections.
Composite reliability should exceed 0.70, and it has been applied to test the survey‘s reliability (Wasko & Faraj, 2005). The rate is above
0.70, which indicates ―internal consistency‖. The ―internal consistency‖ is also measured by ―Cronbach‘s alpha‖ and is above 0.70. These
results confirm the research‘s reliability (Naylor et al., 2012).
Table 1. Cronbach’s Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha
No of Items
Social Media Marketing
Purchase Intention
Table 2. Correlation
Model Elements
SM Mean
T mean
PI mean
Social Media Marketing
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Customer’s trust
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Customer’s Purchase
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 3. Model summary (H1: Social media marketing positively affects consumer purchase intentions)
R Square
Adjusted R
Beta Coefficient
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
Sig. F Change
Table 3 shows the value of R, R2, and the beta coefficient. R2 is .484, which means social media marketing accounts for almost 48% of the
variance in purchase intentions.
Table 4. Model summary (H2: Social media marketing positively affects customer trust)
R Square
Adjusted R
Beta Coefficient
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
Sig. F Change
a. Predictors: (Constant), Social Media Marketing mean
In Table 4, R2 is .432, which means social media marketing accounts for almost 43% of the variance in the trust, whereas R2 in the effect of
social media marketing on consumer‘s purchase intentions is more than the R2 in the effect of social media marketing on customer trust.
Table 5. Model Summary (Customer’s trust has a positive effect on consumer’s purchase intentions)
R Square
Adjusted R
Beta Coefficient
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
Sig. F Change
Predictors: (Constant), Customer’s Trust mean
Table 5 shows that R2 is .49, which means customer trust accounts for 49% of the variance in the consumer‘s purchase intentions. This
value of R2 is greater than in Table 3. It shows that customer trust creates more variance in consumer‘s purchase intentions than social media
Table 6. Model Summary (H4: Customer’s Trust mediates the relationship between social media marketing and consumer’s purchase Intentio ns)
R Square
Adjusted R
Beta Coefficient
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
Sig. F Change
a. Predictors: (Constant), Customer’s Trust mean
b. Predictors: (Constant), Customer’s Trust mean, Social Media Marketing mean
In Table 6, the values of R2 are .487 and .583. This indicates that customer trust accounts for 49% to 58% of the variance in the mediating
role between social media marketing and consumer‘s purchase intention.
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In Table 3, the significance level is 0 and beta is .696, which means that hypothesis number 1 is accepted. Therefore, social media marketing
has a significant 69.6% effect on consumer‘s purchase intentions. In Table 4, the significance level is also 0; hence, hypothesis number 2 is
accepted. The beta of the second hypothesis is .658, so social media marketing affects customer trust by 65.8%. In Table 5, the significance
level is 0, signifying the acceptability of hypothesis number 3. The beta of the third hypothesis is .7, which denotes that customer trust affects
consumer‘s purchase intention by about 70%. Furthermore, it shows that customer trust has a strong mediating role between social media
marketing and consumer‘s purchase intention. Customer trust‘s effect on consumer‘s purchase intention is more than social media marketing. In
Table 6, the significance level is 0; thus, hypothesis number 4 is accepted. This manifests customer trust‘s significant medi ating role between
social media marketing and consumer‘s purchase intentions.
Social media creates innovative change in the lives of individuals; they use social media for various purposes, including communication, e-
business, buying, and selling. Recent innovations and advancements on the internet and developments in social media have made individuals‘
lives easier. These developments have introduced a new method of e-commerce. Present research integrates trust and social media concepts and
proposes a model to examine the role social media plays in e-business and social adoption.
The results show that trust and social media‘s influence significantly affect consumers‘ purchase intentions. This confirms t he relevant
hypothesis and answers to the research question. Participants are more likely to buy through social networking sites when experiencing high-
quality systems or information. Review of data reveals social media marketing has more influence than customer trust on their purchase
intentions through social networking sites. The enhancement of the website efficiency therefore enhances customer trust. Other analyzed data
confirms that customer trust has a positive and significant effect on their purchase intentions. Once participants accepted the trust, they had more
than intent to purchase. This underlines the mediating role of trust in social trade adoption. Trust therefore plays a major part in e-commerce
through the direct effect of the buying intention of a consumer.
This research contributes by highlighting the role and impact of social media in e-commerce confidence building. The analysis reveals how
social media marketing and social media factors influence a customer‘s trust and purchase intentions through social media sites.
A consumer‘s purchase intentions are the most reliable indicators that establish a connection between the interest of the customer and the
purchase itself. This finding highlights and integrates important factors in the context of the social media marketing that i nfluences purchase
intention. In Pakistan, more companies are investing in social media marketing to grow their businesses and increase income. The following
suggestions based on empirical results are suggested in the hope of providing insights with which companies can become more effective in
marketing through social media and gain returns from investment:
Companies should choose social media platforms with high sociability and create groups themselves.
Choose social media platforms on which people rely and spend more time.
The analytical results indicate that the sociability of social media has a positive impact on the trust of the consumer, which then affects
buying intentions positively. Empirical results of this research indicate that reliance on social media has a positive effect on customer trust and
on the purchasing intentions of both consumers. The theory of media dependence explains that the more people rely on the media to meet their
needs, the more important it will be for media to be in the life of a person and have more impact on them. In short, two steps in the marketing of
social media advise an organization to establish long-term relationships with consumers and instructing a company to create dependency among
consumers. The likelihood of purchasing from that company is high when consumers have needs and trust the company.
Future Research
By considering the results of the empirical analysis, some suggestions for future research are described as follows. The study of social media
marketing is influenced to some extent by referencing theories and empirical results from other fields. In future research, it would be more
reasonable to develop alternative models and strategies to see which model demonstrates the best fit. Finally, since this study focuses on the
factors influencing the general buying preferences of consumers in the social media marketing sense, future research should investigate the
discrepancies in population samples. Examples of this could be the effects of gender or age differences on the influence social media has on
consumers‘ purchase intentions. The use of different social media platforms could be another influence on consumers‘ purchase intentions. This
study ignored external variables such as product-related factors. Future research could include these factors with the influence of social media
marketing on consumer‘s purchase intentions.
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... Digital marketing positively affects sales performance and provides access to foreign markets (Rafiq and Javeid, 2018;Islami et al., 2020;Jamil et al., 2020;Nuseira and Aljumahb, 2020). Social media as a digital marketing tool has a positive impact on purchase intention (Balakrishnan et al., 2014;Laksamana, 2018;Lim et al., 2017;Manzoor et al., 2020;Oghazi et al., 2021), brand loyalty and awareness (Huang et al., 2018;Nisar and Whitehead, 2016;Pentina et al., 2013;Zeqiri et al., 2020). ...
... Perceived usefulness has been adapted as a variable independent of the TAM model for online purchasing intention in the context of COVID-19 Ishfaq and Mengxing (2021). In this line, studies by Balakrishnan et al. (2014), Laksamana (2018), Lim et al. (2017) and Manzoor et al. (2020) confirm that the perceived usefulness of social media has a positive impact on online purchase intention. The perceived risk of delivery in time from online shopping is considered a subjective factor and is confirmed by researchers that it impacts the online purchase intention (Ashoer and Said, 2016;Sulaiman et al., 2017). ...
... Through social media, companies develop eWom (Barreda et al., 2015); eWom promotes purchase intention (Xie et al., 2016). Studies argue that social media promotes purchase intention as consumers see perceived benefits from these online tools (Balakrishnan et al., 2014;Laksamana, 2018;Lim et al., 2017;Manzoor et al., 2020). Studies also argue that older consumers are loyal to social media based on the perceived benefits (Hruska and Maresova, 2020). ...
Purpose This study aims to investigate the online purchase intention of an older-aged group in Kosovo. Very few studies have analyzed the online purchase intention of these age groups in emerging countries including Kosovo, during the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to an increased usage of online shopping among older adults. Design/methodology/approach The study used a quantitative methodology and a structured questionnaire was used for collecting the data. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze 262 responses from an older-aged group of consumers from Kosovo. Findings The findings of this study showed that COVID-19 as a perceived risk affected online purchase intention. In addition, panic from perceived risk, perceived usefulness of social media and delivery in time also positively impacted the online purchase intention of this group of generations. Originality/value The study provides theoretical implications to consumer behavior literature during pandemics and how certain age groups behave during their purchase intention. The study also provides insight into other studies in emerging countries to see similarities and differences in online purchase behavior.
... Media in all its forms (print, audio, visual, digital) are indispensable. Technology plays a significant role and has made changes and has impacted every aspect of our daily lives (Manzoor et al., 2020). Media marketing includes many different media, including image ads, content marketing, and media promotion. ...
... Lin & Chen 2019 Is media marketing events or processes that use different media in an attempt to influence customer purchasing behavior positively. 9 Manzoor et al. 2020 Is promoting brands (lugo), selling products, providing services, disseminating media ideas through different media, and harnessing these media to engage present and potential customers. 10 Ebrahim 2020 ...
The current study aims to diagnose the role of media marketing in reducing political deception. The study sample was selected, which consists of four media channels in Najaf province, namely (Al-Iraqiya Media Channel, Euphrates Media Channel, Karbala Media Channel, Local Wafa Channel). As the number of members of these channels amounts to (150) associates, the required sample size was calculated according to the sample calculation equations. It turns out that the required sample size is (108), and accordingly, the researcher distributed (140) forms of Estebe Inn as the retriever (117) forms. (8) have been excluded from forms that are not suitable for statistical analysis. Accordingly, the final sample size (109), after the statistical analysis was carried out by adopting the program (SPSS V23 and SMART PLS) to find appropriate solutions to the problem of study, which is to determine the relationship between the study variables. The study reached a set of conclusions from its concerns, which showed media marketing in dimensions (media innovation, media integration, media investment, media ideas, media participation, media interaction). It is a competitive weapon for organizations to help them cope with changes in the internal environment and make the necessary decisions, and know competitors that help them achieve a competitive advantage. It turns out that there is an increase in the value of media because it is a source of information. The news is interested in political affairs depends on the follow-up of the press, which is similar to the interest, economy, health, culture, entrepreneurship, and many areas that derive its information and the latest news from the media. I reached the need to focus on media marketing in its dimensions and make it a general culture among all customers in different departments and people. The need to look for the appropriate methodology that achieves a state of integration between media organizations and customer orientations.
... Positive suggestions from peers will improve customer commitment and buying intentions, as Frontiers in Psychology | Manzoor et al. (2020) emphasized. Moreover, it can be a source of positive feedback to provide enhanced informative content about fashion products, appealing product style, and product availability. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of customers’ motivations (specifically young consumers) on online purchase intentions as mediated by commitment toward online fashion retailers. The survey method was used to collect data from Chinese respondents using a questionnaire. The convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 275 respondents. Collected data were analyzed on smart-PLS using the structural equation modeling technique. Results of the study show a significant and positive impact of social empowerment and remuneration motivations on consumer commitment online purchase intention. Further results show that consumer commitment partially mediates the relationship between social empowerment, remuneration, and online purchase intention. This study contributes to the literature in the domain of consumer commitment by focusing on the underlying needs and motivations of consumers. The researchers have demonstrated a strong need to understand the dynamics of commitment due to its importance in affecting purchase intention. This study also has several implications that guide online retailers how to motivate consumers with social, remuneration and empowerment incentives to develop their intention to purchase online. Fashion retailers are suggested to gratify certain consumer motives to increase commitment. Specifically, among the three motives, empowerment motivation emerged as the strongest predictor of consumer commitment in social media environment. This study will help to the online brands to attract more customers by providing the motivation such financial, empowerment and socialization.
... The positive relationship between customer satisfaction and RI is a generalization of the matter (Meng & Sego, 2020). Customer satisfaction is the only variable that has a sound impact on the customers' RI (Manzoor, Baig, Hashim, et al., 2020). Customer satisfaction makes the customers loyal, and loyalty tends to manifest itself in RI in retail banking in Pakistan (Chinomona & Dubihlela, 2014). ...
This study proposed and tested a design model that integrates brand experience (BE), service quality (SQ), the perceived value (PV) on repurchase intentions (RI), and word-of-mouth (WOM) recommendations from retail-banking customers in an emerging market. The primary objective was to examine empirically the linkage between these concepts, which resulted in 12 hypotheses being postulated. The study also examines the mediating effect of loyalty on WOM and repurchase intention, with respect to the above-mentioned antecedents. A questionnaire was created using a structured survey of 180 retail-banking customers in Pakistan, and data was collected from those customers. The appropriate tests were employed to ensure the study constructs' validity and reliability. Hypotheses were tested using SmartPLS 3.0. The study findings support the proposed conceptual model, showing that BE, SQ, and PV have a significant effect on the RI and WOM recommendations of retail banking customers. Furthermore, loyalty mediates the relationships between the aforementioned antecedents, WOM, and RI.
... He developed a model in which role ambiguity serves as a moderating variable between job stress and job satisfaction. If the role of the job is not clarified and the job description is not defined, employees face stress in the organization because they are involved in coworker issues, which has a negative impact on employee performance (Manzoor, Baig, Hashim, et al., 2020). According to CahayaSanthi & Piartrini, (2020), the primary source of stress in the workplace is a lack of clarity in job descriptions, which negatively impacts employee performance and reduces employee job satisfaction. ...
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Everyone has to deal with stress in some way or another. For many individuals, working in banks is a stressful job due to the various factors that contribute to various health issues. Aside from these, stress also affects the productivity of the employees. Currently, Bankers are under tremendous stress due to various factors such as role doubt, disagreement, work overload, work-family conflict, lack of feedback, and rapid technological change. This study aims to analyze the link between job stress and various other factors. The study examines the purpose model in relation to role ambiguity, work overload, work-family conflict, and job rewards on job stress by using a sample of 163 participants. The data collected was gathered from various graduate and senior employees of well-known banks in Pakistan. The data were obtained through a close-ended questionnaire. A statistical test of regression, correlation, and reliability were also confirmed. The study identifies different types of employment pressures for employees working in the banking sector. The result shows that job stress is significantly and positively related to independent variable: role ambiguity, work overload, work-family conflict, and job rewards. The study revealed that employees in the banking industry in Pakistan are experiencing job stress due to the heavy workload and conflict at work. This study suggests that the employees can reduce the stress and improve their performance by motivating them.
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يسعى المختصون في مجال التسويق الإعلامي في التركيز على الاستراتيجيات التي تؤدي إلى زيادة وعي الزبون , من خلال السعي نحو ادخال طرق عمل محددة تساعد المنظمات على تحسين جودة خدماتها الإعلامية والحصول على موقع تنافسي يضمن لها البقاء. لذا تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى تشخيص دور استراتيجيات التسويق الإعلامي في تعزيز وعي الزبون الرقمي , واعتمد الباحثان في دراستهما على المنهج الوصفي ,وتمثلت أداة الدراسة في استبانة تم توزيعها على عينة مكونة من (109) موظف بالقنوات الاعلامية في النجف الأشرف, وقد تم التحليل الاحصائي باستخدام البرنامج (SPSS V23) لإيجاد الحلول المناسبة لمشكلة الدراسة المتمثلة بتحديد العلاقة بين متغيرات الدراسة. وتوصلت الدراسة إلى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات من أهمها: اتضح أن استراتيجيات التسويق الإعلامي تعد بمثابة سلاح تنافسي للمنظمات يساعدها على مواجهة متغيرات البيئة الداخلية والخارجية واتخاذ القرارات التي من شأنها أن تسهم في زيادة وعي الزبون الرقمي, وتوصلت الدراسة إلى جملة من التوصيات لعل أهمها: التركيز على استراتيجيات التسويق الإعلامي وجعلها ثقافة عامة لدى جميع الزبائن في مختلف الاقسام والشعب, والعمل على ابتكار كافة السبل والوسائل الكفيلة بتوعية الزبائن الرقميين وتجنب أية ممارسات سلبية, وكذلك البحث عن المنهجية المناسبة التي تحقق حالة من التكامل بين المنظمات الإعلامية وتوجهات الزبائن الرقميين. المصطلحات الرئيسة: استراتيجيات التسويق الإعلامي، وعي الزبون الرقمي, القنوات الاعلامية في محافظة النجف الاشرف.
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This paper defines the mediator performanceof the online brand community (OBC) over social media (SM) and customers' purchase intention. Tocomprehend the relationships between the variables, a survey was conducted to quota the clash of online brand community and purchase intention of individuals through social media using Instagram for a makeup community in Nigeria and to explore the ramification of online brand community toconsumers purchase intention. 384 people responded to the questionnaire distributed in a Nigerian online brand community. To comprehend the liaison between social mediaalong with purchase intention, and mediator roles of online brand community, an analysis called mediationwere conducted by applying PROCESS macro for IBM SPSS refined by Hayes.The indication of this probe was to aid brand owners to understand the usefulness of a brand community and social media platforms to increase sales.
The widespread use of social media has created a huge market for digital marketing platforms. However, as people spend more time on social media daily, concerns about its impact on mental health have grown. Although several studies on the effects of social media on mental health have been conducted, the number of studies focusing on this issue, particularly in Malaysia, is still limited. As a result, little is known about the link between social media and purchasing behavior, as well as mental health. In order to fill this gap, the current study examines the relationships between social media use and purchase behavior, social media use and mental health, and purchase behavior and mental health. The data were collected using a quantitative method by distributing a questionnaire to social media users, particularly the X, Y, and Z generations. Data from 195 social media users were analyzed using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). There are significant associations between social media use and purchase behavior, as well as the impact of social media use on users’ mental health. There is no evidence, however, to support the significant association between purchase behavior and users’ mental health. The findings can help relevant agencies to better understand the impact of social media use on purchase behavior and mental health, and the impact of purchase behavior on mental health.
Across the globe, Social Media continues to be an integral part of our daily lives. This presence has resulted in an ability to influence human behavior in our society and to guide interpersonal interactions on a scale from the individual to the nation. This influence, combined with mounting evidence of manipulation and mistrust indicates an increasing issue for the community. This research study has interviewed a cross-section of leadership from the three domains of Government, Private Industry, and Academia in both technical and non-technical roles. The purpose of the interviews was to gain insights into how leadership approaches the key tenets of Social Media-related influence, trust, and armed conflict and how they intend to handle them. The insights obtained from the interviews are discussed and evidence is provided to guide the community in navigating these issues.
Since the 1980s, numerous transformations in higher education were experienced in Latin America, and especially in Chile, a country that allowed private entities to enter the education systems and develop a market. The opportunity triggered an increase of coverage and competition to capture and retain students, followed by marketing strategies delivering student satisfaction and pursuing student loyalty. Moreover, since 2012, higher education institutions in Chile have been allowed to adopt a policy of gratuity, giving families the co-responsibility of dealing with the cost of education. So, some institutions adopted gratuity and continued receiving funds from the state, but others did not, relying instead on family income. The split in the financial responsibility of higher education seems to have generated varied reactions from the students and their families, including their satisfaction with and loyalty to the institution. Despite the abundant literature on higher education, however, a few studies attempt to explain and compare student satisfaction and loyalty across types of institutions, such as those that opted for gratuity versus those that did not. This study examines a set of relevant attributes for understanding that phenomenon; attributes such as quality of service, satisfaction, trust, commitment, and loyalty. The results reveal a prevalence of trust and familiarity among the students attending an institution with gratuity. In contrast, the results demonstrate a preponderance of commitment and satisfaction among the students attending a non-gratuity institution that relies on family, private, and personal funds to support their education.
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Social media allows people to freely interact with others and offers multiple ways for marketers to reach and engage with consumers. Considering the numerous ways social media affects individuals and businesses alike, in this article, the authors focus on where they believe the future of social media lies when considering marketing-related topics and issues. Drawing on academic research, discussions with industry leaders, and popular discourse, the authors identify nine themes, organized by predicted imminence (i.e., the immediate, near, and far futures), that they believe will meaningfully shape the future of social media through three lenses: consumer, industry, and public policy. Within each theme, the authors describe the digital landscape, present and discuss their predictions, and identify relevant future research directions for academics and practitioners.
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Declining levels of stakeholder trust in business are of concern to business executives and scholars for legitimacy- and performance-related effects. Research in the area of stakeholder trust in business is nascent; therefore, the trust formation process has been rarely examined at the stakeholder level. Furthermore, the role of personal values as one significant influence in trust formation has been under-researched. In this paper, we develop a contingency model for stakeholder trust formation based on the effects of stakeholder-specific vulnerability and personal values of the trustor. Using a factorial vignette methodology, we find that Schwartz’s (J Soc Issues 50:19–45, 1994) value set interacts with stakeholder roles so that trustworthiness signals of competence and character play differing roles during trust formation. These results inform stakeholder trust research, organizational trust research, and research in personal values. The research also informs managers tasked with rebuilding stakeholder trust in business.
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Social Media is accepted and recognized as the most effective medium in the field of marketing, higher education, customer’s relationship management, electronic word of mouth and in public administration. Social media is an important tool for economic development as its tools provide two-way communication and low-cost marketing, to gain information and communicate and build a relationship with its customers. While public value is used to check the influence of government actions to create values for its citizens. The main objective of this research is to systematically study the literature on social media and public value relationship. By reviewing the 36 articles, out of which 29 articles published in Scopus Index Journal from the year 2011 to 2018 and 7 articles published in Web of Science Index Journal from the year 2014 to 2018, this paper provides the data about these articles. The systematic literature review shows that most work has been done in developed countries. In this review, the main objective of these papers is also discussed.
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Social Media is not just for photo sharing and status update, it can also be used by students for university selection. In the current era of high competition among higher educational institutes, many universities are focusing on online marketing. Most of the students are using social media sites to select their university which shows the importance of online presence for the universities. It is very much important for the universities to decide their marketing strategy to attract more and more international students. Good promotional marketing activi-ties through social media, social networking sites by universities is associated with the ranking of the university. In this article we review the importance of social media marketing through social networking sites like Facebook and the capability of Malaysian universities to use social networking sites and its impact on university ranking and its Facebook engagement rank.
In response to the increasing ubiquity of social media platforms, improved consumer choice, and technological progress, the importance of consumer-generated content (CGC) continues to grow for organizations marketing their destinations, products, and services to tourists. Yet, despite the importance tourists place on CGC and information shared via social media, there remains a lack of academic focus in this area. To address this gap, we use a rigorous multi-step scale development procedure to create a scale centered on understanding the importance consumers attach to social media sharing (ISMS) from a tourists' perspective. Studies conducted across different contexts (Turkey and Scotland), comprising 1183 participants, were used to validate the newly developed ISMS scale. The scale indicates internal consistency and reliability, alongside construct and predictive validity. Directions for future research and the practical implications of the newly developed ISMS scale are discussed by way of conclusion.
Businesses seek to analyse their customer feedback to compare their brand's popularity with the popularity of competing brands. The increasing use of social media in recent years is producing large amounts of textual content, which has become rich source of data for brand popularity analysis. In this article, a novel hybrid approach of classification and lexicon based methods is proposed to assess brand popularity based on the sentiments expressed in social media posts. Two different classification models using Naïve Bayes (NB) and SVM are built based on Twitter messages for 9 different brands of 3 cosmetic products. In addition, sentiment quantification have been performed using a lexicon-based approach. Based on the overall comparison of the proposed models, the SVM classifier has the highest performance with 78.85% accuracy and 94.60% AUC, compared to 73.57% and 63.63% accuracy, 80.63% and 69.38% AUC of the NB classifier and the sentiment quantification approach respectively. Specific indices based on classification and lexicon approaches are proposed to assess the brand popularity.
Purpose Customers are increasingly focused to find reviews, discussions and feedbacks on social media related to particular services in which they are interested. This paper aims to find which social networking platforms are more frequently used to provide reviews related to services, and based on these reviews, how service providing organizations can enhance the level of service quality and purchase intention of customers. Design/methodology/approach The research approach for this study is based on interpretivism assumptions and qualitative research design. The semi-structured and non-directive interviews were conducted to collect data from customers and marketing team of internet service provider and banking organization. These selected organizations have major shares in markets and a large number of customers. The participants were selected based on purposive sampling technique and their contribution in services-related discussion on social networking platforms. Findings Findings of this research highlighted that social networking platforms such as official Facebook page of selected service providing organizations, closed public discussion groups on Facebook, WhatsApp groups of family and friends and YouTube videos comment section are more frequently used to create service reviews and purchase intention of customers. Above all, results also reveal that customers are more frequently used Facebook discussion groups (public or private) for generating services reviews for selected bank and internet service provider. Research limitations/implications The effective and efficient use of these social networking platforms can enhance interactive communication, services reviews, feedbacks, intention to purchase, social influence, social trust and services quality. Furthermore, social media platforms required lower level of advertisement cost and offered huge amount of enquires, discussions, transactions, word of mouth, services stories and interactions of consumers. Originality/value There is rare research available on how and which social networking applications can enhance the level of service quality of services sector organizations especially in the context of Islamic countries. Most of the available literature has been investigated the link of social media and traditional marketing related constructs. This research is exploratory in nature because it investigates under-researched issue regarding the use of social networking applications to enhance the level of service quality and purchase intention of customers.
Mobile banking is one of the most promising technologies that has emerged in recent years and could prove to have considerable value to both banks and customers. Thus, this study recognises the need to test the main factors that could predict the use of mobile banking as well as how using such a system could contribute to both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The conceptual model of this study combines two models (i.e. UTAUT2 and the D&M IS Success Model). A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the required data from convenience sampling of Saudi bank customers. The main factors – performance expectancy, price value, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, habit, system quality and service quality – were found to have a significant impact on actual use behaviour. This study was cross-sectional, therefore future studies should implement longitudinal studies in order to re-collect the findings. Further, this study adopted convenience sampling of Saudi M-Banking users. This may adversely impact the issue of generalisability to the whole population. The gap in the M-Banking literature in Saudi Arabia would be bridged by proposing a comprehensive conceptual model that scrupulously clarifies the use of M-Banking from the perspective of Saudi users. Furthermore, this study would consider the adoption of numeric data in order to inferentially analyse them using SEM. This in turn would assist in generalising the findings to the whole Saudi population.
The primary aim of this research identifies nine important determinants influencing the purchasing intentions for organically produced foods from extant research, with a view to understanding relational significance between these key determinants and those buyers from the cities of Bengaluru and Chennai in India. Data was gathered from 1300 questionnaires (with primarily closed questions) being distributed randomly to customers of large supermarkets in these cities. Multiple regression analysis was used on the key determinants, of which: environmental concerns, health and life style, product quality, support towards local farmers, convenience and price, safety and trust, and subjective norms, had a significant influence on consumer purchase intentions. Furthermore, the lack of consumer accessibility to organically produced products was a major problem for industry development and this requires further investigation. Results also alluded to a distinct need for marketing professionals to focus more attention on highlighting the consumer benefits of organically produced foods - to rapidly grow this important market. Study implications suggest the need for policy makers to educate and positively promote organically produced foods to consumers. Further, an immediate concern for the Indian government – is to consider developing appropriate strategies towards stimulating market growth and motivating consumer purchase intentions towards increasing sustainable production and consumption of organically produced products across India.