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Strategic Dialogic Communication Through Digital Media During COVID-19 Crisis



Institutions and organizations are increasingly using the digital media to communicate with stakeholders on a day-to-day basis and during crises situations. Therefore, this chapter presents a bibliographic analysis on digital corporate communication technologies. The grounded theory's inductive approach was used to capture and interpret the findings from Scopus-indexed publications. The articles were scrutinized in their entirety, including their research questions, methodologies and interpretation of the findings. Afterwards, this contribution identifies the opportunities and challenges that emerged during an unprecedented Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. In conclusion, it implies that there is scope for institutions and organizations to incorporate digital and social media in their crises' communications and risk management plans. This will enable them to be in a better position to engage in credible and transparent dialogic communications with different stakeholders.
Strategic dialogic communication through digital media
during COVID-19 crisis
By Mark Anthony Camilleri
This is a pre-publication version.
How to Cite: Camilleri, M.A. (2020). Strategic dialogic communication through digital media during COVID-19
crisis. In Camilleri, M.A. (Ed.) Strategic Corporate Communication in the Digital Age, Emerald, Bingley, UK.
Institutions and organizations are increasingly using the digital media to communicate with
stakeholders on a day-to-day basis and during crises situations. Therefore, this chapter presents
a bibliographic analysis on digital corporate communication technologies. The grounded
theory’s inductive approach was used to capture and interpret the findings from Scopus-
indexed publications. The articles were scrutinized in their entirety, including their research
questions, methodologies and interpretation of the findings. Afterwards, this contribution
identifies the opportunities and challenges that emerged during an unprecedented Coronavirus
(COVID-19) outbreak. In conclusion, it implies that there is scope for institutions and
organizations to incorporate digital and social media in their crises’ communications and risk
management plans. This will enable them to be in a better position to engage in credible and
transparent dialogic communications with different stakeholders.
Keywords: Corporate communication, digital media, digital communication, social media,
crises, COVID-19.
Department of Corporate Communication, Faculty of Media and Knowledge Sciences, University of Malta,
The Business School, University of Edinburgh, SCOTLAND.
1.1 Introduction
Corporate communications practitioners can avail themselves of a wide range of digital media,
to convey commercial information and/or to interact with stakeholders and the general public.
They can use them to create electronic content to inform and educate online users about their
products or services (Köhler & Zerfass, 2019; García García, Carrillo-Durán & Tato Jimenez,
2017; Krishna & Vibber, 2017; Cornellisen, 2008). Alternatively, they may utilise the digital
platforms to communicate about their organizations’ activities, including corporate social
responsibility practices and/or to engage with online users, in real time (Camilleri, 2018a;
2020). Institutions and organizations may usually promote their activities and/or offerings
through websites or other digital media including blogs, vlogs, video clips and social media,
among others (Killian & McManus, 2015; Ruehl & Ingenhoff, 2015; Fraustino & Connolly-
Ahern, 2015). Their websites can have responsive designs and different formats of verbal,
vocal and visual content to appeal to their targeted audiences. Their corporate communications
content can be displayed in web pages; blog posts, social media posts, eBooks, online articles,
review sites, product FAQs, videos and micro-videos; pictures, infographics, and animated
GIFs among other media. Marketers are also expected to create appropriate content and to
ensure that their online sites are presented in an attractive and user-friendly format and
structure. They can optimize it for mobile screens, as this medium has surpassed desktop traffic.
Moreover, their online domains have to be responsive in terms of load time, content length,
voice search, image and video processing.
Institutions and organizations can develop corporate websites or blogs that may be accessed
through organic queries via search engines like Google and Bing, among others (Romenti,
Valentini, Murtarelli & Meggiorin, 2016). These search engines will usually identify quality
content in their search results. Hence, corporate communications practitioners and digital
marketers ought to create fresh, engaging content with a growing number of quality links to
enhance the quality of their websites. They have to make sure that their landing (home) page
features a great design to improve the online users’ experience (Camilleri, 2019a). Moreover,
they may utilize social media networks like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Linkedin, among
others, to disseminate their content to their subscribers and to engage in interactive
conversations with them (Camilleri & Isaias, 2020; García-Orosa, 2019; Champoux, Durgee
& McGlynn, 2012). Corporate communication practitioners can also work with online
influencers who are capable of attracting large audiences. This latest development reaffirms
the link between high quality, corporate communication and the digital media (Camilleri,
2017a). Organizations including corporations as well as small businesses ought to be familiar
with the digital and mobile technologies (Melewar & Navalekar, 2002). They can use them to
on a day-to day basis to forge relationships with different stakeholders including employees,
customers, suppliers, investors, media, regulatory authorities and the community at large
(Bachmann, 2019; Costa-Sánchez & Míguez-González, 2018; Loureiro & Gomes, 2016), or
during crises situations (Krishna & Vibber, 2017; Champoux et al., 2012).
In this light, this chapter appraises previous theoretical underpinnings that were focused on
strategic dialogic corporate communications in the digital age. Afterwards, it synthesizes the
findings from relevant academic literature, and discusses about the latest opportunities and
challenges facing organizations, following the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19)
pandemic. In conclusion, this timely contribution puts forward key implications to practitioners
and identifies future research avenues.
1.2 Corporate communication through digital media
The disruptive technologies are supporting institutions as well as organizations in their
corporate communications. They allow them to improve their interactive engagement with
stakeholders, whilst enhancing their legitimacy in society (Mohd-Sulaiman & Hingun, 2020;
See, Sunar, Kusnayat, Aziz, 2018; Hoffmann & Aeschlimann, 2017). The latest digital
communications are synchronous and dynamic as they enable online users to exchange
information in real time (Romenti et al., 2016; Turner, Wilkie & Rosen, 2004). They have
facilitated the corporate communications practitioners’ content marketing and increased their
two-way interactions with different audiences (Abratt & Cullinan, 2017; Järvinen & Taiminen,
2016; Holliman & Rowley, 2014; Rowley, 2008).
1.2.1 Social Media
Social media platforms enable symmetric, dialogic communications in an online environment
where there is limited gatekeeping (Camilleri & Costa, 2018; Overton-de Klerk & Verwey,
2013). Individuals and organizations can use them to establish their authority and trust among
stakeholders by consistently creating high quality content that is relevant to them. They are
encouraged to create engaging content to communicate with targeted audiences. Their online
content can turn “viral” as online users may be intrigued to re-post it again through the social
media. Such electronic wordofmouth publicity and user generated content are usually
perceived as highly trustworthy sources for prospective customers (Manfredi-Sánchez, 2019;
Chu & Kim, 2011; Ye, Law, Gu & Chen, 2011). Thus, corporate communications practitioners
are increasingly subscribing to different social media networks, including Facebook, YouTube,
Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn, among others, to increase the reach of their content (Navarro-
Beltrá, Medina, Correia, 2020; Costa-Sánchez, amd Míguez-González, 2018; Champoux et al.,
Currently, Facebook has 2.45 billion users. Other popular social media networks include
Instagram (1 billion users), Reddit (430 million users), Snapchat (360 million users), Twitter
(330 million users), Pinterest (322 million users) and LinkedIn (310 million users) (SEJ, 2020).
These networks have become very popular communication outlets as they promote online
content and allow synchronous interactions, in real time. In addition, some of them, including
Facebook, provide messenger systems, including Facebook Messenger or WhatsApp. They
also offer live video functions to enhance virtual communications.
Twitter is a platform that is based on topical content. Generally, its users are encouraged to use
keywords and hashtags on certain topics, in particular locations. Twitter posts have a 280-
character limit. Therefore, its subscribers have to articulate short, focused messages (Siano,
Vollero, Della Volpe, Confetto, Foroudi & Palazzo, 2018). Its subscribers are expected to
dedicate time to look after their account as they need to respond to their followers to avoid
negative criticism (Camilleri, 2018b). Like Facebook, Twitter enables direct, two-way
communications among subscribers (Caerols-Mateo, Viñarás-Abad & Gonzálvez-Valles,
2017). Hence, it can be used to engage in interactive conversations with other users.
LinkedIn is another effective tool, particularly for personal branding. This social network helps
its users to identify and engage with influencers who share similar interests. Companies and
individuals can also use this site to create online articles like a blog. Pinterest and Instagram
enable their users to share images and ideas with others in their networks. They are focused on
the dissemination of visual content. Instagram and Snapchat can feature videos and user-
generated content. They may include influencer marketing material (Rios Marques, Casais &
Camilleri, 2020; Hajarian, Camilleri, Diaz & Aedo, 2020). Moreover, practitioners are
increasingly uploading short, fun videos which often turn viral on YouTube. This site offers an
excellent way to humanise or animate corporate communications content through video
The usage of social media has radically influenced the style of personal and corporate
communications as well as the dissemination of knowledge and information. Platforms can be
personalized, self-managed and interconnected. They can blend written content with images,
videos and hyperlinks (Brennan & Merkl-Davies, 2018). This disruptive innovation has led
individuals from different demographic segments in society to refine their digital and
communication skills, as social media has impacted their way of thinking, talking and even
their social lives (Dyuzhev & Boichenko, 2019).
In a similar vein, social media platforms may be used by businesses and other organizations to
illustrate their communication to stakeholders through verbal, visual and vocal content. For
example, non-governmental organizations can raise awareness about political, social and
environmental issues. Businesses can use social media to communicate about their corporate
social (and environmental) responsibility (CSR), corporate governance, responsible
procurement, philanthropic and stewardship practices, et cetera, in different markets (Troise &
Camilleri, 2020; Weder, Einwiller & Eberwein, 2019; Camilleri, 2019b, 2017b, 2016a; 2015;
Mendes-da-Silva, Christensen & Richardson, 2008; Fombrun, 2005). These online networks
are also effective monitoring tools. They feature the most trending topics and contemporary
issues (Lestari, Suryana, Mulyana & Hidayat, 2019). Social media users can utilize the hashtag
(#) to enhance the visibility when they share content. For example, some of the most popular
hashtags for corporate communication practitioners include #communication, #marketing,
#digital, #CSR, #sustainable, #EcoFriendly, #sustainability, #ZeroWaste #CircularEconomy,
#CSRcomm, et cetera. Hashtags may be used to raise awareness on charities, philanthropic
institutions as well as on non-governmental organizations and trusts (Camilleri, 2016b, 2016c).
The social media have transformed the communicative dynamics within and between
corporations and their external environment (Capriotti, Zeler & Camilleri, 2020; Bruce &
Solomon, 2013). These platforms have potential to empower their subscribers to engage with
others, on a wide array of topics. Individuals, groups, organizations and institutions can use
them to promote their content online and through ubiquitous mobile technologies.
1.2.2 Mobile
The mobile devices have become a part of our daily lives. We use them while we are out and
about (Butler, Camilleri, Creed & Zutshi, 2020). Individuals can access the Internet through
their laptop, smart phone or tablet from different places. They can read their emails and posts
on social media networks. Alternatively, they can share pictures, listen to podcasts and watch
videos or live streams. Therefore, organizations and their content marketers are encouraged to
create responsive and scalable mobile-friendly applications (apps) to improve their users’
browsing experience through different technologies and applications (apps). For example,
search engines like Google and Apple’s Safari are two of the most popular apps that are found
in mobile devices. Their search engines serve their online or mobile users in their search
queries, as they list and rank websites for them.
1.2.3 Search Engines
The search engines’ algorithms identify pertinent information from corporate websites and
present snippets and links to them, in their search results. The items that appear in the first page
of the search results are placed in a better position than others which are featured in the latter
pages of the same search query.
The search engine optimization term (or simply SEO) is the process of getting traffic from
"free" "organic", editorial" or "natural" listings on search engines. The search engines are
supposed to feature and signal the most relevant and highest quality content to their users. As
a result, top-ranking search results tend to have lots of social shares, while those ranked lower
have fewer. Several organizations are striving in their endeavors to improve their placement in
search engine results.
There are opportunities for them to leverage their content through search results. They may
create high quality, online content that can be captured through search engines, including blogs,
if they use appropriate keywords and present relevant material.
1.2.4 Blogging
Blogging, guest blogging and the curation of websites are a great way to disseminate corporate
communications. These digital media outlets may be used to raise awareness about social and
environmental issues. The regular contributions on blogs allow their users to connect with other
individuals and organizations who share similar values, ideas and opinions (Brennan & Merkl-
Davies, 2018; Kristina & Payal, 2013). Notwithstanding, blogs and websites possess analytical
tools that can reveal which content had the biggest impact on their audiences.
1.3 Data capture and analysis
This research relied on the grounded theory’s methodological approach to capture and interpret
the findings (Eisenhardt, Graebner & Sonenshein, 2016). An inductive approach was used to
collect the data from Scopus-indexed publications. The search results from the systematic
review was focused on those publications that featured the words ‘corporate communication’
and ‘digital’ in article titles, abstracts and keywords. The researcher scrutinized the journal
articles’ content in their entirety, including their research questions, methodologies and
interpretation of the findings.
There were 91 contributions that were listed in Scopus’ repository. These articles were
published between January 2000 to June 2020. Thirty-nine (39) of them were journal articles
that were in English. Their top 3 subject areas were related to: business, management and
accounting (27), social sciences (22) and computer science (3). Table 1.1 presents a complete
list of these contributions. It endorses their authors, describes their research approaches, and
features the keywords of their articles. This research has excluded 2 out of 39 as they did not
have identifiable authors.
For the record, there were just 8 journal articles that were captured when the search query
included “corporate communication” and “digital media”. Moreover, there was only one article
that included “corporate communication” and “COVID-19” in the search results (i.e. Xifra,
Insert Table 1.1 here.
1.4 Strategic communication during Coronavirus pandemic: Opportunities and
1.4.1 Dialogic communication during the crisis
The Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) has had an impact on political and socio-economic
structures and on their communication processes (Xifra, 2020). It has affected the institutions
and organizations’ stakeholder engagement. As a result, their communications and public
relations departments had to respond to an unprecedented Covid-19 situation. The information
they received about health, safety, and continuity was not always consistent and trustworthy
(WHO, 2020). Yet, they had to engage with stakeholders, including employees as well as
customers, to restore their faith and trust, thereby providing a sense of stability to them
(McKinsey, 2020). They were expected to communicate in a clear and straightforward manner
and as frequently as possible about their preventative social and fiscal measures in order to
restore confidence in their organization.
In many cases, governments, institutions, and organizations including businesses and media
have provided useful information on social distancing and hygienic practices to the general
public. They encouraged citizens to remain calm and stay safe. This was the moment of truth
for them to engage in dialogic communications with their publics (Wang & Yang, 2020; Yang,
Kang & Cha, 2015; Capriotti & Kuklinski, 2012; Yang, Kang & Johnson, 2010; Bortree &
Seltzer, 2009; Seltzer & Mitrook, 2007; Taylor, Kent & White, 2001; Kent & Taylor, 1998).
The governments had to communicate with organizations and their citizens to instill trust in
their preventative measures. Very often, they were following the recommendations of local and
international health authorities (WHO, 2020). This is in stark contrast to previous crises
situations, where institutions or organizations were not always responding to their stakeholder
messages in a timely manner (Camilleri, 2017b; Roshan, Warren & Carr, 2016).
The organizations’ openness and willingness to engage in dialogic communication with
stakeholders is usually evidenced during times of crises (Yang, Kang & Johnson, 2010;
Coombs, 2007). Crises are a source of reputational threat as organizations as well as institutions
will usually react in different ways. For example, during COVID-19 various businesses have
informed their employees about operational changes and new working conditions, revised their
policies on leave of absence, working times, time-off, overtime, et cetera. Moreover, they
established baseline safety requirements and adjusted to the new normal (McKinsey, 2020).
Employees were instructed to maintain safe physical distances from each other, to adhere to
cleaning and sanitizing procedures, and to ensure that they stay away from public activity, if
they had temperature.
Very often, the businesses’ corporate communications were positively framed as they
highlighted best practices (Cheung & Thadani, 2012; O’Keefe & Jensen, 2008). Such
communications could have been repeated and reinforced, as repetitive messages can have a
persuasive effect on the individuals’ perceived statement credibility (Kock & Zerback, 2013;
Segars & Kohut, 2001). Conversely, there may be indirect and negative effects if repetition is
taken too far, as individuals may not trust the source of the message (Rotfeld, 2006). The
information service providers’ legitimacy is a positive attribute that should be factored in, as
reputable businesses can enhance public approvals, reinforce credibility and trust during crises
(Lin, Spence, Sellnow & Lachlan, 2016; Coombs, 2007; Fombrun, 2005). However, Yang et
al. (2010) posited that source credibility as well as the salience of certain crises have minimal
effects on postcrises outcomes. They argued that when it comes to crisis communication, the
effective use of invitational rhetoric in openness to dialogic communication, may result in
greater concerns and sympathy toward stakeholders. Crisis situations and extreme events with
high threats and uncertainties will inevitably create challenges to detect credible and
trustworthy information (Lin et al., 2016; Edwards, Spence, Gentile, Edwards & Edwards,
1.4.2 The use of the digital media for crisis communications
Organizations can enhance their dialogic communications and relationships with stakeholders
if they use digital media tools, including corporate websites, emails, blogs, social media, et
cetera, on a consistent basis (Eriksson & Olsson, 2016; Ngai & Singh, 2014; Caron, Hwang,
Brummans & Caronia, 2013; Kristina & Payal, 2013; Rybalko & Seltzer, 2010). Relevant
literature review suggests that social media have provided an interactive platform that fostered
dialogic relationships between organizations and their publics (Wang & Yang, 2020; Capriotti
& Kuklinski, 2012). Organizations can post status updates through social media (Killian &
McManus, 2015; Freberg, 2012) or may reply to their stakeholders’ messages in real time
(Men, Tsai, Chen & Ji 2018; Grafström & Falkman, 2017; Ott & Theunissen, 2015). Several
businesses can share links to websites and images through social media and disseminate news,
information about products, events, announcements, et cetera, to capture the attention of their
subscribers (Harlow, Salaverría, Kilgo & García-Perdomo, 2017; Rybalko & Seltzer, 2010).
The organizations that post regularly updates on Twitter are experiencing more retweets and
likes from the part of their followers (Wang & Yang, 2020; Caerols-Mateo et al., 2017).
Therefore, institutions and organisations are encouraged to use this medium or other social
media, to engage in two-way communications with stakeholders and other publics. If they do
so, their social media followers would feel valued, recognized and cared for. They would
probably reinforce their sense of belonging when they interact with them (Wang & Zhou,
However, during crises, institutions and organizations are not always utilizing these
technologies in an appropriate manner (Jones, 2005). Perhaps, they did not allocate scarce
resources to build up crisis communication capacities on social media platforms, or were not
perceiving the benefits of using these interactive platforms with their audiences (Eriksson &
Olsson, 2016; Helsloot & Groenendaal, 2013; Kavanaugh, Fox, Scheetz, Yang, Tzy,
Shoemaker, Natsev & Xie, 2012). Alternatively, they were not replying to their stakeholders
in a timely manner, or they were not showing their ‘humanness’ (Roshan, Warren & Carr,
Organizations need to be humane and responsive in their stakeholder engagement through the
digital media. They should ensure that they address their followers’ queries and concerns,
particularly during times of crises. They will inevitably have to share distressing news on the
state of their organization or about changes in their policies and practices, that can have
devastating effects on stakeholders and other publics. For example, during COVID-19,
organizations were not always in a position to communicate with certainty on when they will
lift their social distancing measures. However, they were expected to be as credible and
transparent as possible in their communications in order to instil trust and restore confidence
(Colbran, 2020). Their effective communication of crisis narratives can reduce negative
emotions and may even enhance positive post-crisis outcomes (Yang et al., 2010; Coombs,
2007). In this light, institutions and organizations can utilize social media to disseminate online
content, including images, videos, live streams, et cetera, to engage with stakeholders. For
example, they can use them to thank their employees’ commitment or express their gratitude
to frontline employees who faced threats to their health and safety during COVID-19.
Alternatively, they may interact with them in one-on-one conversations via social media or
messengers, to boost their morale and sense of belonging. Such dialogical communications can
impart positive attitudes, improve the organizational culture and enhance stakeholder
1.5 Conclusions
The latest advances in the digital technologies have created significant challenges to identify
truthful and trustworthy information, especially during times of crises. Institutions and
organizations ought to be credible in their dialogical communications if they want to reinforce
their legitimacy in society. There is scope for them to use the digital media, including corporate
websites, emails, blogs, social media, et cetera, to reach diverse audiences. The social media is
an important tool for crisis communications as it enables organizations to share their latest
verbal, vocal and visual content including videos and live streams. Hence, corporate
communications departments should incorporate digital and social media into their crisis and
risk management plans. Social media enable subscribers to disseminate content in a viral
manner and/or to actively engage in online conversations with individuals and organizations in
real time. This implies that organizations are expected to monitor misinformation or fake news
and to interact with their social media followers.
Despite the promise that digital media improves the efficiency and effectiveness of corporate
communication, the practitioners’ engagement with these technologies is neither automatic nor
easy. The dialogic features that are enabled by them may (or may not) always result in
improved stakeholder relationships.
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... Their CSR reports enable interested parties to make informed judgments on the businesses' non-financial performance, in terms of their corporate governance, social impact and environmentally friendly initiatives (Camilleri, 2019). Hence, CSR or sustainability disclosures are more important than ever (Camilleri, 2021a). Recently, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had a dramatic effect on society and on the economy at large. ...
... low elaboration issues). For instance, many individuals are continuously exposed to corporate communications from businesses who have excellent credentials among their followers (Camilleri, 2021a;Li, 2013;Schultz & Seele, 2020). ...
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Large organizations, including listed businesses, financial service providers as well as public services entities are increasingly disclosing information on their environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues through corporate websites or via social media. Therefore, this research uses valid measures from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to explore the individuals' attitudes toward online corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications. The data was gathered from a structured questionnaire among three hundred ninety-two respondents (n=392). A structural equations modeling partial least squares (SEM-PLS 3) approach was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that the timeliness, relevance and accuracy of information as well as the source expertise were highly significant antecedents that were affecting the research participants' attitudes toward CSR communications. This contribution implies that there is scope for content curators to publish quality online information on their business activities to improve their trustworthiness and positive credentials among stakeholders.
... En coincidencia con estudios previos (Roig y Pineda, 2020; Pons, 2021), aspectos como recomendar a la plantilla separar el tiempo de teletrabajo del tiempo personal para facilitar la conciliación y la desconexión digital o fomentar la comunicación y la confianza resultan esenciales. Mantener una estrategia de comunicación dialógica creíble con los públicos a través de medios digitales ha resultado fundamental durante la pandemia aunque, en la línea de otras investigaciones (Camilleri, 2021), el margen de mejora para las organizaciones aún es grande. ...
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Entre los cambios que ha traído consigo la crisis de la COVID-19 muchos afectan a la gestión de las organizaciones. Es el caso de la repentina implantación de las políticas de teletrabajo, que con las medidas de distanciamiento social y los periodos de confinamiento se generalizaron en el periodo más crudo de la pandemia. Esta investigación estudia el papel de la comunicación interna en la gestión del teletrabajo durante la crisis de la Covid-19 a través de la revisión documental y de entrevistas a expertos. Los resultados indican que la comunicación interna es un elemento de gran importancia para estas políticas y que durante la pandemia se ha puesto de manifiesto su relevancia para mantener alineados a los trabajadores con los intereses de las marcas. Para ejecutarlas, las organizaciones han desarrollado nuevos canales, potenciado la cohesión de los equipos y fomentado la empatía de los líderes y la separación del tiempo laboral y la vida personal. La comunicación con los empleados resulta la piedra angular de estas políticas de teletrabajo, que requieren de la implementación de estrategias y herramientas para facilitar el bienestar y la felicidad de las plantillas que trabajan en remoto. Este trabajo también incorpora recomendaciones para la gestión de la comunicación interna en relación a las nuevas necesidades organizativas surgidas durante este periodo.
... Tarih boyunca hastalık salgınları ve pandemiler siyaseti şekillendirmiş, toplumları değiştirmiş, kişisel ilişkileri etkilemiş ve dünya paradigmalarını değiştirmiştir (Snowden, 2019). Pandeminin önleyici tedbirleri, bireyleri sosyal mesafe prosedürlerini izlemeye ve diğer kişilerle fiziksel etkileşimlerini sınırlamaya (Camilleri, 2021), kalabalık mağazalardan kaçınmaya ve günlük ürünleri satın almak için interneti kullanmaya teşvik etmiştir (OECD, 2020). Pandemi sürecinde küçük işletmeler de dahil olmak üzere birçok işletme, ürünlerini internet üzerinden satma potansiyelinin farkına varmış (Sheth, 2020), pandemi lüks mal ve hizmetlerden günlük ihtiyaçlara kadar uzanan e-ticaret işlemlerinin genişlemesine yol açmıştır. ...
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Diabetes mellitus geriatrik popülasyonda sık görülen ve giderek artan bir hastalıktır. Yaşlılarda ve genç erişkinlerde diyabet bakımının hedefleri aynıdır, ancak yaşlılarda diyabetin yönetimi bireyselleştirilmiş bir yaklaşımı gerektirir. Yaşlı bireylerde diyabetin mikrovasküler ve makrovasküler komplikasyonlarının değerlendirilerek tedavisinin bireyselleştirilmesi gerekir. Sağlık hizmet sunucularından biri olarak hemşire, yeterli eğitimin verilmesinde aktif rol almalıdır. Yaşlılarda diyabet yönetimi, geriatrik sendromların, hipogliseminin ve nörobilişsel işlev bozukluğunun önlenmesi ve sınırlandırılmasına odaklanmalıdır. Hemşirelik model ve kuramları, hemşirelere bakım verme sürecine rehberlik ederek, bireyselleştirilmiş ve kaliteli bakım sunmalarına yardımcı olur. Bu olgu sunumunda, oral antidiyebetik ilaç kullanan, aynı zamanda da KOAH (Kronik Obstriktüf Akciğer Hastalığı) ve hipertansiyon hastalığı bulunan 74 yaşında bir kadın hastada Henderson hemşirelik modeli kullanılarak hemşirelik bakım planı oluşturulmuştur. Virginia Henderson Hemşirelik Modeli’nin oral antidiyabetik ilaç kullanan yaşlı bireylerde bakımı planlama ve uygulamada kullanılarak komplikasyonlarını azaltma, tedavide eksik yanların tespit edilerek yeni bakış açısı geliştirmeye yardımcı olma ve yaşam şekli değişikliğine uyum sağlamada etkili olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Aynı zamanda diyabet hastalarının bakımının kalitesinin arttırılması ve bakımın hemşireler tarafından daha iyi anlaşılması ve pratik yaklaşımlar geliştirebilmesi açısından katkı sağlayabileceği ön görülmektedir.
... Tarih boyunca hastalık salgınları ve pandemiler siyaseti şekillendirmiş, toplumları değiştirmiş, kişisel ilişkileri etkilemiş ve dünya paradigmalarını değiştirmiştir (Snowden, 2019). Pandeminin önleyici tedbirleri, bireyleri sosyal mesafe prosedürlerini izlemeye ve diğer kişilerle fiziksel etkileşimlerini sınırlamaya (Camilleri, 2021), kalabalık mağazalardan kaçınmaya ve günlük ürünleri satın almak için interneti kullanmaya teşvik etmiştir (OECD, 2020). Pandemi sürecinde küçük işletmeler de dahil olmak üzere birçok işletme, ürünlerini internet üzerinden satma potansiyelinin farkına varmış (Sheth, 2020), pandemi lüks mal ve hizmetlerden günlük ihtiyaçlara kadar uzanan e-ticaret işlemlerinin genişlemesine yol açmıştır. ...
... Tarih boyunca hastalık salgınları ve pandemiler siyaseti şekillendirmiş, toplumları değiştirmiş, kişisel ilişkileri etkilemiş ve dünya paradigmalarını değiştirmiştir (Snowden, 2019). Pandeminin önleyici tedbirleri, bireyleri sosyal mesafe prosedürlerini izlemeye ve diğer kişilerle fiziksel etkileşimlerini sınırlamaya (Camilleri, 2021), kalabalık mağazalardan kaçınmaya ve günlük ürünleri satın almak için interneti kullanmaya teşvik etmiştir (OECD, 2020). Pandemi sürecinde küçük işletmeler de dahil olmak üzere birçok işletme, ürünlerini internet üzerinden satma potansiyelinin farkına varmış (Sheth, 2020), pandemi lüks mal ve hizmetlerden günlük ihtiyaçlara kadar uzanan e-ticaret işlemlerinin genişlemesine yol açmıştır. ...
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Günümüzde modern teknolojiyi kullanma ve internete erişim tüm bireyler için önemli bir ihtiyaç haline gelmiş durumdadır. COVID-19 pandemisi ile teknoloji kullanımı hemen hemen her yaştaki bireyin yaşamının ayrılmaz bir parçası haline gelmiştir. Pandemi süreci ile özellikle yaşlı bireylerin teknoloji kullanım durumlarının etkilendiği ifade edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda bu çalışma yaşlı bireylerde COVID-19 salgınında teknoloji kullanımını belirlemek amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak planlanmıştır. Çalışma evrenini Bayburt ilinde faaliyet yürüten Memnuse Evsen Huzurevi Yaşlı Bakım ve Rehabilitasyon Merkezi’nde yaşayan yaşlı bireyler oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada örneklem seçimine gidilmeyip tüm evrene ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmaya gönüllü olan, iletişim kurmaya engeli olmayan, genel durumu stabil olan 28 yaşlı birey dahil edilmiştir. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacı tarafından literatür doğrultusunda hazırlanan veri toplama formu kullanılmıştır. Veriler IBM SPSS 22 paket programında analiz edilmiştir. İstatistiksel anlamlılık düzeyi p<0,05 olarak kabul edilmiştir. Çalışmada ki-kare kullanılarak istatistiksel analiz yapılmıştır. Tanımlayıcı istatistikler sayı ve % olarak verilmiştir. Yaşlı bireylerin %39,3’ünün 60-74 yaş arası, %60,7’sinin erkek, %46,4’ünün bekar, %53,6’sının ilköğretim mezunu ve üstü olduğu bulunmuştur. COVID-19 dönemi öncesinde yaşlı bireylerin %32,1’i akıllı olmayan cep telefonu kullanırken COVID-19 döneminde akıllı olmayan cep telefonu kullanan yaşlı bireylerin artış gösterdiği (%53,6) belirlenmiştir. COVID-19 dönemi öncesinde yaşlı bireylerin %7,1’i akıllı cep telefonu kullanırken COVID-19 döneminde akıllı cep telefonu kullanan yaşlı bireylerin de artış gösterdiği (%10,7) saptanmıştır. Ayrıca COVID-19 dönemi öncesinde yaşlı bireylerin %7,1’i sosyal medya (Whatsapp, facebook) kullanırken COVID-19 döneminde sosyal medya kullanan yaşlı bireylerde artış olduğu (%10,7) belirlenmiştir. Yaşlı bireylerde eğitim durumu ile teknoloji kullanımı arasında COVID-19 döneminde ve öncesinde ilişki yok iken (p>0,05), bireylerin yaşları ile teknoloji kullanımları arasında hem COVID-19 öncesinde (χ2=23,647 p=0,001) hem de COVID-19 döneminde (χ2=14,450 p=0,025) ilişki olduğu saptanmıştır. Aynı zamanda cinsiyet ile teknoloji kullanımları arasında hem COVID-19 döneminde (χ2=6,898 p=0,032) hem de COVID-19 öncesinde (χ2=11,723 p=0,025) ilişki olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlı bireylerin COVID-19 döneminde teknoloji kullanım durumlarının öncesine göre arttığı belirlenmiştir.
Purpose Prior research studies have discussed the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) during crisis situations in increasing the resilience and sustainability of the companies. There are two basic models of crisis management – reactive and proactive. When a crisis occurs, suddenly firms tend to act reactively and progressively take proactive steps to manage the crisis. CSR can also be reactive and proactive during crisis situations. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to explore whether CSR during the COVID-19 pandemic moved from a reactive to a proactive stance, with specific focus on CSR legislation, corporate CSR response and corporate thinking about CSR. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a mixed methods approach, using both qualitative and quantitative research designs. This study draws upon both primary and secondary data. Findings The results highlighted the change in the CSR approach from being reactive to being proactive as the pandemic progressed. This was observed through the increase in frequency of CSR legislation, and the shift in the intent of CSR legislation from “prompting to donate” to “prompting to volunteer.” Similarly, the shift in reactive to proactive CSR corporate response was observed through the increased spending on CSR and improved COVID-related CSR reporting. Practical implications This study recommends companies to manage crises by becoming more proactive. CSR activities need to be closely aligned with national developmental objectives, and collaborate with various stakeholders to achieve the intended outcomes of the activities. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research paper is one of the few to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on CSR in India at a time when India went through three waves of the pandemic. This study corroborates with other studies in terms of managing crisis.
Effective social data governance rests on a bedrock of social support. Without securing trust from the populace whose information is being collected, analyzed, and deployed, policies on which such data are based will be undermined by a lack of public confidence. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digitalization and datafication by governments for the purposes of contact tracing and epidemiological investigation. However, concerns about surveillance and data privacy have stunted the adoption of such contact-tracing initiatives. This commentary analyzes Singapore's contact-tracing initiative to uncover the reasons for public resistance and efforts by the state to address them. The government's contact-tracing program encompassing its proprietary TraceTogether app and physical token initially triggered vociferous public criticisms of Big Brother style surveillance. Using a dialogic communication framework, we analyze the TraceTogether initiative to interrogate the communicative strategies that were used to overcome public resistance. We argue that these strategies reflect a top-down approach that prioritizes transactional dissemination of information, in line with Singapore's technocratic stance toward governance. We further assert that such communicative tactics represent missed opportunities to foster public confidence in social data governance through greater trust building. We propose solutions for more dialogic communicative forms that build trust, so that officials can develop a sound understanding of the public concerns, increase the level of public engagement, and incorporate public feedback into policies that govern data use.
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In the era of digital media, there is rapid spread of information. During coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic situation, the government and other administrative bodies were highly dependent on media outlets, as direct contact was not feasible. Visual communication tools are used to spread awareness and encourage people towards vaccination. The circulation of wrong information may lead to confusion, which may cause denying the vaccine. There was a need to know the extent for contribution of visual communication tools for spreading correct information and motivating the society towards vaccination in post COVID times. In the present study, survey questionnaires were framed specific to which media (print or digital) was more effective to deliver the correct information to the targeted audience. The present study objectives to answer the questions through a survey of 312 people of different age groups, and the data was collected about their families. The obtained data was tested through hypothesis, and fact-checked was performed adopting analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results from the study highlighted that different age groups prefer different mediums of communication. The reach and adoption of digital media have tremendously increased, and it helped to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by efficient green supply chain management (GSCM) of daily plastic and paper wastage during post-pandemic.
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The latest advances in digital technologies have changed the way companies communicate with their stakeholders. This chapter explores the businesses' usage of digital communication channels. It focuses on their utilization of social media for marketing and promotion of products, corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and stakeholder engagement with financial stakeholders. An exploratory study was carried out on a sample of 167 Italian businesses. It investigated the companies' websites and their social media accounts. The findings suggest that the Italian businesses are using various social media networks for corporate communication purposes. This descriptive research shows that they are utilizing Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube, among others, to communicate commercial information and to promote their business. Moreover, they are using Instagram and Twitter to raise awareness about their CSR initiatives. In conclusion, this chapter implies that marketers need to carefully coordinate the use of different digital tools to ensure that they reach their target audiences in an effective manner.
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Several brands are striving in their endeavors to find new ways to improve their consumer engagement through social media. They are using different tools including influencer marketing through social networking sites (SNSs). Therefore, this chapter addresses a gap in the academic literature as it distinguishes between two types of online influencers. The researchers investigate the effects of celebrity endorsers' and of micro influencers' posts on a brand's page in Instagram. They examine the number of followers, clicks, comments and likes that are generated following their influencer marketing. The results suggest that both influencers have generated varying levels and types of interactions. In sum, this exploratory study revealed that the chosen celebrity's posts attracted more followers to the brand's Instagram page, when compared to the micro influencer's publications. However, the latter has garnered more clicks, comments and likes, thereby increasing the consumer-brand engagement through social media. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to influencer marketing.
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This chapter presents a thorough review on the mobile learning concept. It also explores how businesses are using mobile learning (m-learning) technologies for the training and development of their human resources. The research involved semi-structured interviews and an online survey. The research participants were expected to share their opinions about the costs and benefits of using m-learning applications (apps). The findings reported that the younger course participants were more likely to embrace the m-learning technologies than their older counterparts. They were using different mobile devices, including laptops, hybrids as well as smartphones and tablets to engage with m-learning applications at work, at home and when they are out and about. This contribution has identified the contextual factors like the usefulness and the ease of use of m-learning applications (apps), individual learning styles and their motivations, time, spatial issues, integration with other learning approaches, as well as the cost and accessibility of the m learning technology. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to the use of m-learning technologies among businesses and training organisations.
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This chapter presents a systematic review of over thirty (30) types of online marketing methods. It describes different methods like email marketing, social network marketing, in-game marketing and augmented reality marketing, among other approaches. The researchers discuss that the rationale for using these online marketing strategies is to increase brand awareness, customer centric marketing and consumer loyalty. They shed light on various personalization methods including recommendation systems and user generated content in their taxonomy of online marketing terms. Hence, they explain how these online marketing methods are related to each other. The researchers contend that the boundaries between online marketing methods have not been clarified enough within the academic literature. Therefore, this chapter provides a better understanding of different online marketing methods. A review of the literature suggests that the 'oldest' online marketing methods including the email and the websites are still very relevant for today's corporate communication. In conclusion, the researchers put forward their recommendations for future research about contemporary online marketing methods.
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Web 2.0 and the social networks have changed how organizations interact with their publics. They enable organizations to engage in symmetric dialogic communications with individuals. Various organizations are increasingly using different social media to enhance their visibility and relationships with their publics. They allow them to disseminate information, to participate, listen and actively engage in online conversations with different stakeholders. Some social networks have become a key instrument for corporate communication. Therefore, this chapter presents a critical review on the organizations' dialogic communications with the publics via social networks. It puts forward a conceptual framework that comprises five key dimensions including 'active presence', 'interactive attitude', 'interactive resources', 'responsiveness' and 'conversation'. This contribution examines each dimension and explains their effect on the organizations' dialogic communication with the publics. Hence, this contribution has resulted in important implications for corporate communication practitioners as well as for academia. Moreover, it opens future research avenues to academia.
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The main goal of this study is to examine the communication that fashion brands make through Facebook. It is intended to ascertain if the fashion brands use a communication strategy based on dialogue with their followers. In order to reach the objectives indicated above, a content analysis has been carried out (quantitative methodology) of 326 publications made through Facebook by H&M, Zara and Ralph Lauren between January 1st and June 30th of 2017. The main results of this work show that, although Facebook has a wide dialogical potential, fashion brands do not use it to a great extent. Although we consider appropriate to have analyzed only the social network Facebook given its importance, this situation could be considered as the main limitation of the present study, since the fashion brands could, or not, be taking advantage of the dialogical potential of other social networks, such as Twitter or Instagram. It could be considered that this research stands out for studying a series of variables that allows organizations to know if they are using the dialogical potential offered by digital communication.
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Purpose This study aims to explain how socially responsible investing (SRI) has evolved in the past few decades and sheds light on its latest developments. It describes different forms of SRI in the financial markets, and deliberates on the rationale for the utilization of positive and negative screenings of listed businesses and public organizations. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive literature review suggests that the providers of financial capital are increasingly allocating funds toward positive impact and sustainable investments. Therefore, this descriptive paper provides a factual summary of the proliferation of SRI products in financial markets. Afterwards, it presents the opportunities and challenges facing the stakeholders of SRI. Findings This research presents a historic overview on the growth of SRI products in the financial services industry. It clarifies that the market for responsible investing has recently led to an increase in a number of stakeholders, including contractors, non-governmental organizations and research firms who are involved in the scrutinization of the businesses’ environmental, social and governance (ESG) behaviors. Originality/value This discursive contribution raises awareness on the screenings of positive impact and sustainable investments. The researcher contends that today’s socially responsible investors are increasingly analyzing the businesses’ non-financial performance, including their ESG credentials. In conclusion, this paper puts forward future research avenues in this promising field of study.
Purpose This paper aims to examine the potential liability of companies and their board members arising from the use of digital technology and social media as communication and engagement tools with investors and shareholders. Design/methodology/approach The research relies on a qualitative study using legal analysis of corporate and capital market laws as well as the outcome of legal proceedings and regulatory actions to ascertain conduct that could expose companies and boards to liability risks. Findings Social media characteristics expose unwary directors and companies to potential liability for oppressive conduct, selective disclosure or misleading statements. Research limitations/implications This paper informs boards and companies of the types of conduct that could expose companies and boards to liability when social media is relied on to communicate with shareholders and investors. Originality/value The paper contributes to the literature on social media, capital market and corporate communication by presenting the legal perspective concerning reliance on social media as shareholders’ engagement and corporate communication tool.
This study examined how both nonprofit and for-profit organizations use Twitter, a social media platform, to establish a dialogic relationship with their publics. Specifically, the study performed a content analysis of 6678 tweets, identifying the dialogic principles in organizations' Twitter pages and examining public engagement with these organizations. The study found that organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, most closely followed the usefulness of information principle. Nonprofit organizations focused more on the principles of usefulness of information and the conservation of visitors, while for-profit organizations emphasized the dialogic loop principle. Organizations’ dialogic communication significantly influenced their public engagement, a conclusion that helps expand dialogic theory. The theoretical and practical implications of the study were also discussed.