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COVID-19/Sociology

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Abstract

Though the COVID-19 epidemic is a social disaster as much as a medical one, and though some sociological ideas circulate in public discussions, disciplinary sociology has had little influence. Internal discussions have mostly been conventional, and familiar sociological theory and methodology seem inadequate to this situation. Taking the viewpoint of the virus helps to shift perspective on a historical moment where a deadly threat is enabled by megacities, mass air travel, callous and corrupt regimes, and the undermining of public services. In this conjuncture sociology, with other social sciences, is under threat. But we can contribute to responses that mobilize community resources to deal with a social/biological crisis, and prepare for the others that will certainly come.

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This editorial sets the scene for this special issue by unpacking the concept of ‘lockdown leisure’ as closely linked with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic which spread globally in early 2020 and throughout 2021 and 2022. It provides a snapshot of the parameters of lockdown leisure, outlines the separate articles in this special issue, and considers the medium-to-long term implications of the pandemic for leisure studies. By incorporating perspectives from a plethora of academic disciplines, the special issue advances our understanding of the social, spatial and cultural impacts of the various lockdowns on leisure and our lives more broadly.
Article
Purpose The present conceptual paper evinces a new understanding of the present and future of the tourist city in a post-COVID-19 world. The pandemic has wreaked havoc in the tourism industry as well as global trade. The world, at least as we know, is debating the next recovery steps for 2023. Design/methodology/approach In this conceptual paper, the authors explore the substantial shifts faced by the urban areas during and post-COVID-19 pandemic. The disposed [and imposed] restrictive measures have affected negatively not only mobilities but also the urban landscape. The tourist-city, at least as it was imagined by J. Urry, has invariably set the pace to a ghost-city. In this new landscape, citizens are confined to be at home. Findings The tourist city has faced substantial changes. The authors dubbed the term ghost city to give some reflections on the radical changes urban zones are experiencing during 2020 and 2021. Classic notions as “the Other,” “globalization” and the “city” are in motion. The borders of some nations are being re-drawn while some radicalized voices and movements flourish. Research limitations/implications The authors introduce readers to the literature about the tourist city, which offers a perfect landscape for attraction, consumption and protest. The tourist city has been developed by scholars as a sign of a globalizing process that laid the foundations toward a new understanding of urban zones. Practical implications The present paper discusses critically the problem of COVID-19 and its severe restriction of free circulation and the forms in which the city is lived and dwelled. We were pressed to live our proximity through the lens of a screen or using digital media. The basic rights that are historically characterized by the legal architecture of the nation-state – which is based on high mobilities and the right of traveling – were suddenly suspended. Originality/value The authors deal with the problems of sociology to study the ghost city, which include not only the dilemmas revolving around the health passport but also the introduction of technology in formalizing the creation of a surveillance society that scrutinizes and, at the same time, entertains modern citizens, in a new culture where the “Other” becomes an undesired guest.
Article
This paper contributes to understandings of COVID society by offering insights into the lived experience of lockdown. It reveals how larger social and economic impacts of the virus unfold in one suburban town in New Zealand. Employing “smellwalks,” it mobilizes smell as an empirical tool to understand lockdown experience. Drawing from the “sensory turn” this method recognizes smell as a way of knowing social existence and gleaning non-discursive and embodied insights into the global pandemic. This paper endeavors to develop sensory methodology within urban sociology by revealing how smell furthers understandings of place and modes of being during lockdown. It argues changes in suburban smells signal disruption to daily life as a result of the government’s social and economic pandemic-response measures. For instance, the empty cold smell of the mall usually warm and bustling with activity, conveys the isolation and loss of social connectedness produced by lockdown restrictions. Similarly, the dry smell of concrete dust created by the closure and demolition of a high-street bank reflects the slowing of the national economy. Attention to smell enables insight into new modes of being for residents that involve heightened anxiety around viral contagion and a slower, quieter, environmentally cleaner way of life.
Article
This paper features the emotional experiences of a Vietnamese doctoral student mother in New Zealand named Hoa who was stranded when COVID-19 hit the globe. As a temporary migrant and a mother who was separated from her children, she experienced displacement, nostalgia, mother guilt, and a diasporic feeling. When she managed to return to Vietnam, these feelings did not vanish but transformed into different forms of in-betweenness and juggling roles.
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I argue that the COVID-19 pandemic presents an opportunity for sociologists and other social scientists to focus their scholarship on this apparently new event, while applying theoretical and methodological traditions that were established during pre-pandemic times. I substantiate this argument by critically reviewing published sociological research on COVID-19, especially as it developed early on during the pandemic, in the light of the historical development and original ambitions of sociology and other social sciences. Evaluating these contributions, I make a case for the value of a collaborative notion of interdisciplinarity to analyze the multi-dimensional dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic from the viewpoint of various disciplines. On the basis of sociological work on celebrity culture during the pandemic, I argue that this task can be accomplished without resorting to all too readily made judgments concerning the unprecedented nature of the pandemic. Studying the multiple dimensions of the pandemic, each of the social sciences can usefully contribute to interdisciplinary research by relying on the proven perspectives of their respective disciplinary orientations and specialty areas.
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This article focuses on the experiences of artistic performers in Turkey from a primarily interactionist theoretical stance and aims to explore how they have been affected by the COVID -19 crisis. The lockdown policies implemented in Turkey have had dire consequences for these performers, exposing them to a new social position of insecurity and uncertainty. They have suffered not only from a lack of economic resources but also of the social interaction that in prior circumstances provided them with the grounds upon which they construct and present their social self. The findings of the study show that the closures of performance spaces fractured the day-to-day routines that would normally provide them with a secure social self since they lacked the ground (the physical stage) through which they have physical interaction with others (their audiences). The narratives in the study demonstrate that not being able to be on-stage endangered the process of the social construction of the self as performers and that they sought new ways of reconstituting the performer-audience interaction in order to ease the negative effects of the pandemic conditions and to secure their selves.
Article
This article examines reflexive practice among young creative workers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, during COVID-19. Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a series of relentless and overlapping crises across the Indonesian archipelago. In urban centres across Indonesia, the arts and creative sectors are among the key economic sectors severely afflicted by the pandemic. COVID-19 implies a lot more than the loss of income and livelihoods. Mobility restrictions, gig cancellations, venue closures, all entail the loss of connections, opportunities, and creative outlets. Yet despite such uncertain conditions, young creative workers remain reflexively creative in order to survive in everyday life. Building upon interviews and focus-group discussions with young creative workers in Yogyakarta, we found three modes of temporality-based reflexive practice: waiting, doing something and re-learning, which represent young creative workers’ active responses manifested in the practical and contradictory relationship to the diverse possibilities within hierarchical and heterogenous cultural fields in a pandemic era characterised by regular ruptures. The analysis of the data below contributes to the literature on reflexivity and habitus among young creative workers in a time of pandemic.
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Scientists increasingly recognise that media visibility allows them to gain influence in public and policy spheres. However, some scientists shy away from publicity and journalists are purposefully selective when they seek out experts to interview. This may result in a skewed representation of scientists in the mass media. In this study, we explored which South African scientific experts at the academic rank of ‘professor’ were quoted in the local mass media during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis of 1164 media articles related to COVID-19 showed that, as far as gender is concerned, men dominated as expert sources, with women accounting for only 30% of quoted professors. In terms of research field, most experts were from the broad field of health and medicine, with an under-representation of social scientists. We reflect on the implications and consequences of a skewed media representation of scientific expertise, as well as some of the options to remedy these imbalances. Significance: • This is the first study to identify the most visible science experts in the mass media in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. • We recommend options for institutions, researchers, media editors and journalists to help diversify expert sources that are featured or quoted in the mass media.
Article
The coronavirus pandemic and climate crisis have highlighted the power of governments in relation to people and the societies in which they live. This article looks at two sociological approaches that together capture the core features of the relationship between sovereignty, society and individual safety. Sociologists of human rights point to the importance of sovereignty for the enforcement of human rights and draw on the work of Arendt, who argues all rights are lost to those who find themselves outside the protection of the state. Wickham’s Hobbesian sociology adds an important social dimension to these ideas. He adopts Hobbes’ argument that sovereignty secures both society and the protection of people. The article recovers additional ideas in Hobbes’ theory of rights that further link these two approaches. For Hobbes, governments hold a responsibility to protect their citizens’ right to survive. The article discusses the relevance of these ideas to the coronavirus pandemic and climate crisis. It argues sociology is well-placed to explore ways in which the continued exercise of sovereign power in relation to society and human survival is shaping humanity’s response to these global crises.
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This article explores the short-term and (potential) long-term influences of COVID-19 on urban China and its governance, which was characterised by increasing mobilities and delocalised societies before the outbreak. Through the analysis of 18 observation reports in 16 cities, it is revealed that the outbreak enables the government to (re-)build a location-based urban management system with the participation of residents facing the pandemic as an external threat. A paradoxical combination of low physical mobility and high information mobility occurs. The location-based lifestyle and governance pattern has been “normalised” rather than just being a temporary response to the pandemic. The re-localisation in urban China differs from the localism in western societies as it results from the combination of the state-power-based governmental action and citizens’ participation aimed at regaining location-based ontological security. The normalisation of the re-localisation tendency may bring about fundamental changes to urban China, even “after” the pandemic.
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The UK response to Covid-19 has been unusually complex in its ever-shifting classifications of clinical vulnerability. By May 2020, 2.2 million people had been identified as ‘clinically extremely vulnerable’ (CEV) and were asked to ‘shield’ at home for over four months. To adhere to this strict guidance, they were enfolded within the patchy infrastructure of the ‘shielding programme’. However, membership of the ‘shielded list’ has changed—often without warning or explanation—through time and across space. Drawing on policy and evidentiary documents, government speeches, reports, press conferences and media analysis of Covid-19 coverage between March 2020 and April 1, 2021, this paper traces the shifting delineations of clinical vulnerability in the UK response across three lockdowns. It argues that the complexities and confusions generated by the transience of the CEV category have fed into forms of biosociality that have been as much about making practical sense of government guidance as a form of mutual support amid crisis. This uncertainty has not eased as restrictions have been relaxed and vaccines rolled out. Instead, tracing individual immune response has become a burgeoning industry as ‘the shielded’ navigate the uneasy demands of taking ‘personal responsibility’ rather than being protected by ‘the rules’.
Article
Historically and now, the rural is frequently relegated to the periphery of broader public and policy debates, and within the discipline of sociology. At this moment in time, where the world needs radical re-imagining for the future, rural perspectives and realities must be visible and addressed. This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Sociology which seeks to articulate how rural sociology is a crucial field of study for (re)imaging rural futures. In this article, we provide an overview of the research included in the collection, which draws much needed attention to some of the specific contemporary challenges encountered in rural places and some of the possibilities for transforming rural futures, and rural sociology. We argue that rural places are a key site where transformative change can, and does occur, and that rural sociologists are ideally positioned to work with and for rural communities in effecting desired change.
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Responses to the Covid-19 pandemic include the generation of new norms and shifting expectations about everyday, ordinary behaviour, management of the self, and social interaction. Central to the amalgam of new norms is the way information and instructions are communicated, often in the form of simple images and icons in posters and signs that are widespread in public settings. This article combines two sociological concerns – social control and visual research – to investigate the ways social interaction is being recalibrated during the pandemic. It focuses on some of the imagery relied on in public information about the coronavirus and investigates the form and content of various signs, instructions, and notices for their normative underpinnings, their advice and directives which attempt to modify and regulate diverse activities.
Article
The paper studies how COVID-19 influenced the processes, related to the modernization of the social development. It presents the results of the domestic and foreign social studies, related to the conceptual consideration of the global and local social changes, caused by pandemics consequences. The study demonstrates how modernization processes are associated with the growing trends of deglobalization, strengthening of social inequality, weakening of the international relations, and also with the transformation of the former social structure and conventional forms of social interaction. The paper notes the contradictory nature of the influence of the post-COVID changes on the modernizing trends. On the one hand, new vectors to modernize a number of spheres of social life (systems of health care, education, government management, trade) were indicated, wide possibilities for digitalization and development of IT appeared, on the other hand – the isolationist and conformist intentions are intensified. An increased focus is put on individual and personal estimation of social modernization. The author, relying on empiric data of her own studies, analyzes the concept of “modern personality” by the American sociologist А. Inkeles, showing its efficiency under the circumstances of the quickly changing realities of the post-COVID society. The qualities of the “modern personality” (openness to changes, social responsibility) allow giving an adequate response to the new challenges and risks. It is assumed that the representatives of the generation of millennials and generation Z, who have a significant modernizing potential and have been formed under the circumstances of the specific “conditions of growing-up”, are one of the most adapted to consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic social groups in Russia and foreign countries.
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This article theorizes some of the ways that the COVID-19 health crisis was publicly narrated and morally regulated in Canada. Beginning with Valverde’s theory of moral capital, public health crisis communication is conceptualized as dialectical claims-making activities aimed at maximizing the individual moral capital of citizens and the aggregate moral capital of nations. Valverde’s historical sociology explains how moral capital operated in relation to economic capital accumulation in the context of 19th-century moral regulation of the urban poor. This article applies aspects of Valverde’s historical framework about mixed economies of regulation to contemporary biopolitical moralization in the midst of a pandemic. It does so by arguing that responsibilizing citizens to flatten the epidemic curve of the disease contributed to the social construction of a normative pandemic subject. In this way, the analysis provides insights into how public health crisis communication explicitly intended to mitigate COVID-19 infection rates both reflected and reinforced the conjunctural norms associated with neoliberal governmentality.
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Abstrakt: Text se zabývá zkušeností českých nemocničních kaplanů a kaplanek v roce 2020, konkrétně během jarní a podzimní vlny pandemie způsobených šířením viru SARS-CoV-2 způsobujícím virové onemocnění známé jako covid-19. Článek staví na datech získaných pomocí on-line dotazníku a následných deseti rozhovorů s nemocničními kaplany. Výsledky výzkumu jsou prezentovány v rámci čtyř tematických bloků: kaplan a instituce, kaplan a personál, kaplan a pacient a kaplan sám se sebou. Na základě kvalitativní analýzy dat docházíme k závěru, že pandemie ovlivnila sebepojetí mnohých kaplanů především v závislosti na možnostech, jak se během pandemie mohli v nemocnici uplatnit. Pandemická krize tak v mnoha případech urychlila vývoj vztahů s institucí i personálem, ať už k lepšímu či horšímu. Jako klíčové se uká-zalo především postavení kaplana v nemocnici před vypuknutím pandemie. Samotná práce s pacienty většinou neprošla zásadní proměnou, kaplani zde fungovali často jako náhrada za-kázaných návštěv. V závěru článku uvádíme některá praktická doporučení vyplývající z našich dat. Klíčová slova: nemocniční kaplan, duchovní péče, nemocnice, pandemie, covid-19 Úvod Článek je první snahou o zachycení zkušeností českých nemocničních kaplanů v roce 2020, který byl zásadně poznamenán novou situací spojenou s pandemií virového onemocnění covid-19. 1 Naším cílem je popsat a interpretovat subjektivně vnímané změny (pokud nastaly) kaplanské role během jarní a podzimní vlny pandemie. Zabýváme se také vlivem pandemie na práci kaplana s pacienty a snažíme se identifi kovat případná problematická místa či naopak zdroje podpory pro kaplanskou roli. Ačkoli duchovní péče v nemocnicích se pod různými názvy a v různém po-jetí začala v České republice rozvíjet od druhé poloviny 90. let a systematičtěji po roce 2000, 2 teprve v posledních letech dochází k jejímu jasnějšímu strukturálnímu ukotvování. 3 Současná 1 V zájmu čitelnosti budeme v textu používat generická maskulina jako "kaplan" či "pacient", přestože pojednáváme o mužích i ženách. Výrazem "český" rozumíme kaplany na celém území České republiky. V textu dále hovoříme o "pandemii" a "covidu" (slovo covid skloňujeme), čímž se vždy vztahujeme k masovému šíření virového onemocnění známého jako covid-19 v průběhu roku 2020. 2 Srov. Jana MARYŠKOVÁ, Nemocniční kaplanství v poločase, Caritas et veritas 5/2015, s. 12-15. 3 Srov. Jiří Rajmund TRETERA, Vážná potřeba institucionalizované duchovní péče v lůžkových zdravotnických zařízeních. Úvaha na
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The text deals with the experience of Czech hospital chaplains in 2020. Specifi cally, it concerns the period during the spring and autumn waves of the pandemic caused by the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus which leads to a viral disease known as covid-19. The article builds on data obtained through an online questionnaire and subsequent ten interviews with hospital chaplains. The results of the research are presented in four thematic blocks: chaplain and institutions , chaplain and staff , chaplain and patient, and the chaplain himself. Based on a qualitative analysis of the data, we conclude that the pandemic aff ected the self-concept of many chaplains. It mainly depended on their eff ectiveness, that is, the possibility of applying their skills, in the hospital during the pandemic. In many cases, the pandemic crisis has accelerated the development of relations with the institution and staff , for better or worse. The position of the chaplain in the hospital before the outbreak of the pandemic proved to be crucial. The work with patients themselves did not usually undergo a fundamental change; the chaplains often functioned here as a substitute for forbidden visits. At the end of the article, we present some practical recommendations resulting from our data.
Article
The arts and creative industries are among those most affected by government measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic. This article discusses a qualitative survey study, open between August and October 2020, with creative arts workers living in Victoria, Australia. The study explored experiences of disruptions to work and broader impacts on daily lives during the pandemic. In this article, we examine how participants discuss their work and circulate pre-existing and create new intensified social imaginaries of a devalued and ignored arts sector in Australia. Our analysis points to how people understand their lives, work and communities amidst a global pandemic in relation to and entangled with particular social imaginaries of the creative arts.
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This article exposes skateboarding as a meaningful social practice within neoliberal public space. Through a qualitative inquiry of the street, it chronicles the significance of moving bodies on skateboards that disrupt neoliberalism and foment the possibility of inclusive cities. The article takes on an invitation for researchers to practice qualitative inquiry in the streets as part of its living ecology through the corporeal knowledge produced while skateboarding in Worcester, MA, USA. Furthermore, it builds on an embodied inquiry of street art and spatial justice set on challenging deep social inequalities exacerbated during the current neoliberal order. The article forwards a street inquiry of everyday life centered on skateboarding, public space and the crafting of cities for all.
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How can dreams for just futures take flight in universities with colonial legacies that celebrate diversity but silence academics of colour who seek to be more than “institutional ornaments” and “quiet achievers?” Emerging research on decolonising the university focuses on the struggle that hypervisible Black, Indigenous, Asian, Latinx, and minority ethnic/ethno‐religious academics of colour engage in to negotiate the subtleties of institutional racism. In Australia, academics of colour who struggle to gain entry feel less vulnerable when they retreat to a place of quiet achievement and focus on advancing their careers. But such “quiet” places, which open up through White recognition and White responsibility, fail to unsettle brutal practices and a bitter politics of survival. This article therefore argues for geographies of fearlessness and generosity from sites of vulnerability in the Anglophone/Western university. It is inspired by feminist, Indigenous, and Black politics; personal experiences in Australian universities; and ethnographic research with ethnic/ethno‐religious minority migrants, refugees, asylum seekers, and Indigenous peoples in Paris and Detroit, among other locations. The findings are significant in showing how the multiply situated “we” in the university learn how to “stay with the trouble” and see the shimmer of decolonial horizons of possibility.
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Unpacking our experiences as trainee researchers navigating a global pandemic; in this research four researchers identify and interpret otherwise individual experiences through a collective lens. These shared responses are collated and understood through the multivocal method of what we term a “feminst collaborative auto-ethnography.” Relational ethics using a praxis of care, in line with feminist epistemology underpin the systematic analysis of our shared experiences to enhance intersubjectivity and the co-construction of knowledge. Individual reflections and collaborative sessions were utilized to immerse ourselves both situationally and critically into the pool of data. Concurrently creating and analyzing our collaborative inquiry. We utilized mind maps, probing, and reflexivity to engage with our individual and shared social, emotional, and structural challenges. Through analysis of the collaborative data we identified that we had all developed safety seeking strategies, and that a focused research method not only provided direction, but provided a support network. The researchers found that collaborative autoethnography is a useful and holistic method of understanding and navigating adversities in the PhD process, allowing for us to interpret multiple levels of adversity and support-strategies during Covid-19 times.
Chapter
The extraordinary times during the pandemic turn the lives of vulnerable members at home—the children, older people, the disabled, those from disjointed families, all upside down as schools, offices and businesses close, health systems collapse, borders restricts movements, pressure on curtailing outside contacts builds up, social interactions break down and social economic crisis rises. All the categories of people in the households are affected by the pandemic but the most vulnerable are disproportionately affected. They need support, attention and mechanisms to improve their quality of life and above all focus on how to adjust to the pandemic as well as protect themselves against abuse, which is on the rise and keep physical distance from caregivers without whom it may be difficult to cope. The impact on their overall health based on socioeconomic societal forces in the broad sense of affecting their lives is tremendous. Life around them has changed so suddenly and dramatically, that issues of why children and older people cannot go out, why they cannot attend educational institutions and participate in social activities, why disable who may need constant care and companionship cannot be provided with this, why single parent is hassled with day-to-day management of the house and family cannot be provided relief—are all concerns requiring immediate attention and remedies to have a ‘normal’ life. The lockdown situation creates unusual circumstances which make things difficult and challenging for the vulnerable for whom the societal response to ‘normalize’ things is limited. The chapter reflects on how to avoid creating a sense of doom that undermines the vulnerable individual’s motivations for normalizing life. What kind of connotation the question of quality time with family means becomes significant as relationships undergo change both inside and outside the home. Is the change for betterment or is it buckling up as isolation becomes the norm to safeguard the vulnerable whose experience of a different reality is pivotal and pertinent to supporting them and building family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic. The shared experience of the different groups of the vulnerable is the essence of the chapter as the ‘new normal’ prevails until the virus is under control.
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Covid-19 has been a disrupting event in contemporary social life but is far from being a great equaliser. Preliminary studies have put in evidence how different social groups faced a differentiated risk of contagion and coped differently with the various consequences of the emergency. Evidence shows how minorities and migrants face disproportionally higher risks of contagion than the white upper and middle class, and how vulnerable communities are more exposed to deaths and the rapid spread of the virus. At the same time, societies are coping with social distancing measures and their disruptive social and economic consequences, which have a more significant impact on the most vulnerable segments of societies: women, children, low-income classes and ethnic minorities. This article argues that an intersectional framework allows an understanding of what is occurring in the current pandemic, both in terms of its social determinants and social consequences. To open the black box of inequality, intersectional scholars analyze the intersections of multiple structures of inequalities (such as gender, age, class, ethnicity), which have a multiplying effect when disadvantaged positions intersect in the same individual. Covid-19 is a clear example of an intersectional phenomenon: the impact of individual and community exposure to Covid-19 is the results of multiple and interrelating structures of inequality. Up to now, research in social sciences has underestimated the role of intersectionality in analyzing the social and economic consequences of this pandemic.
Article
Social scientists working on race and ethnicity are facing up to the challenge of how the Covid-19 pandemic is impacting on their research agendas. In this introduction, we discuss the emerging evidence about the impact of Covid-19 in terms of race and ethnicity, on migrants and refugees, and on research agendas. By focusing on the discussion that has developed about these issues during 2020 we aim to provide some of the broader background to the specific concerns to be found in the rest of this themed issue. We move on from this overview of key developments to a discussion of the key themes that are explored by the fourteen papers that follow.
Article
In this essay, I reflect on my experiences of undertaking housing research during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has had vast global impacts beyond the massive loss of life; disrupting economies, environments and social systems and creating a global housing crisis. Due to these extreme circumstances, conducting research at this time can have unforeseen challenges. I discuss these challenges, and their impacts (1) on research participants and (2) on researchers, as well as (3) on the quality of research outputs that can be produced. These challenges are situated within narratives of my own personal experiences as an early-career researcher and mother, conducting housing research on COVID-related topics. I offer advice on whether research should be conducted under the difficult circumstances created by the pandemic, and future priorities for the housing research community.
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Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.
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‘Global Air Traffic – Number of Flights 2004–2021’
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Global Air Traffic -Number of Flights
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What a Lockdown Means when Home is Hundreds of Miles Away
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