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Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2020, 6, 462-472

https://www.scirp.org/journal/jhepgc

ISSN Online: 2380-4335

ISSN Print: 2380-4327

DOI:

10.4236/jhepgc.2020.63036 Jul. 30, 2020 462 Journal of High Energy Physics, G

ravitation and Cosmology

New Theory to Understand

the Mechanism of Gravitation

Nader Butto

Cardiologist, Petah-Tikva, Israel

Abstract

Gravitation is still the least understood interaction among the fundamental

forces of Nature. A new theory that explains the mechanis

m of gravitation

and the origin Newton’s laws of gravitation and general relativity and distin-

guishes between two of the Newton’s laws has been proposed. It is shown that

the vortex formation created during the Big Bang event is the origin of the

gravitational force. The vortex curves the vacuum (space-time) around it, at-

tract and condense energy and dust to its center to form the mass. The gra-

dient pressure in the vortex creates a flow that upon interaction with an ob-

ject transfers a part of its momentum to the object and pushes it toward the

center. The force exercise

d on the object is equivalent to Newton’s second

law. The force of attraction between two vortices is equivalent to Newton’s

third law. The drag force between the energy flow of the vortex and the static

vacuum diminishes the gravitational force and is equivalent to the

G

con-

stant. The proposed theory could provide new interesting insights for a com-

prehensive understanding of gravitation and represents a theoretical starting

point for the engineering of anti-gravitation technology.

Keywords

Vortex Formation

, Vacuum Density, Pressure Gradient, General Relativity,

Newton Laws of Gravitation,

G

Constant

1. Introduction

Gravity is the most mysterious and still an incompletely understood interaction

among the fundamental forces of nature. In fact, the gap in our understanding of

gravity is so great that for nearly a century, it has thwarted the ultimate quest of

unifying all four fundamental forces into one final explanatory Theory of Eve-

rything.

How to cite this paper:

Butto, N. (2020

)

New Theory to Understand the Mechanism

of Gravitation

.

Journal of High Energy

Physics

,

Gravitation and Cosmology

,

6,

462

-472.

https://doi.org/10.4236/jhepgc.2020.63036

Received:

June 1, 2020

Accepted:

June 27, 2020

Published:

June 30, 2020

Copyright © 20

20 by author(s) and

Scientific

Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative

Commons Attribution International

License (CC BY

4.0).

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Open Access

N. Butto

DOI:

10.4236/jhepgc.2020.63036 463 Journal of High Energy Physics, G

ravitation and Cosmology

The universal nature of gravity is demonstrated by the fact that its basic equa-

tions closely resemble the laws of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics [1]. So

far, there has not been a clear explanation for this resemblance.

Gravity dominates at large distances, but is very weak at small scales. In fact,

its basic laws have only been tested up to distances of the order of a millimetre.

Most of the mainstream physics that we are taught are based on Newtonian

and Einstein’s physics; however, in both these theories, the mechanism giving

rise to gravitation is completely unknown. Gravity is also considerably harder to

combine with quantum mechanics than all the other forces. The quest for unifi-

cation of gravity with these other forces of Nature, at a microscopic level, leads

to many problems, paradoxes and puzzles. Some problems of the gravitational

theory could be, in principle, solved in the framework of extended theories of

gravity [2].

Newton’s second law of motion defines the relation between the acceleration,

force, and mass. In an inertial reference frame, the vector sum of the forces

F

on

an object is equal to the mass

m

multiplied by the acceleration

a

of that object:

F

=

ma

.

Newton’s law of motion states that every object in the universe attracts every

other object with a force that for any two bodies is proportional to the mass of

each object and varies as the inverse square of the distance between them. This

statement can be mathematically expressed by the following well-known equa-

tion:

( )

2

12g

F Gm m r= ⋅

, (1)

where

m

1 and

m

2 are the interacting masses,

r

is their relative distance vector,

and

G

is generally assumed to be a universal constant. However, there is no

theoretical or mathematical formulation that explains the origin of this equation.

This paper aims to provide a new and unique approach by presenting a satis-

fying theory to explain the mechanism of gravity. Based on the basic assumption

that the universe is immersed in a vacuum with a well-defined density that be-

haves as a fluid, rotating bodies in liquid generate a drag force and creates vor-

tices that attract other liquid to the center of the vortex. By applying the hydro-

dynamic laws to calculate the attractive force between two vortices, gives origin

to Newton’s third law of motion, the interaction between the flow of the vortex

and non-rotating body gives origin Newton’s second and third laws of motion to

the Newton’s second law of motion. Therefore, for the physical and mathemati-

cal basis for the origin of Newton’s second and third laws of motion are de-

scribed. In addition, the mechanism of vortex formation and the essence of the

universal constant

G

are briefly described, with further details discussed in other

papers.

2. Density of the Vacuum

By definition, a vacuum has no mass since it has no factor that produces a mass.

According to the superfluid theory of the vacuum, the physical vacuum is de-

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ravitation and Cosmology

scribed as a quantum superfluid which behaves like a fluid with minimal viscos-

ity and with extremely high thermal conductivity. It is a perfect fluid in the sense

that it is non-particulate and has no structural memory. If perturbed, it has no

tendency to revert to its former physical state.

Furthermore, the first postulate of general relativity states that the source of a

gravitational field is the stress-energy tensor of a perfect fluid [3].

This “stress-energy tensor” contains four non-zero components

i.e.

, the den-

sity of the perfect fluid and the pressure of the perfect fluid in each of the three

physical axes. According to general relativity, a perfect fluid is defined as a fluid

with no viscosity or heat conduction.

However, the quantum theory requires the empty space to be filled with parti-

cles and anti-particles being continually created and annihilated. This could lead

to a net density of the vacuum, which if present, would behave as a cosmological

constant. Although there is no consensus about the value of the vacuum density,

its value mainly relies on general relativity. The energy density of the vacuum

can be measured through astronomical observations that determine the space-time

curvature and the expansion of the universe.

It is important to note that the study of the expansion rate of the universe has

shown that the universe is close to critical density. Critical density is the value at

which the Universe is balanced and expansion is halted.

The density is typically expressed as a fraction of the density required for the

critical condition to be fulfilled through the use of a parameter known as omega

(Ω) where Ω =

ρ

/

ρ

critical.

For a value of omega less than 1 (known as an “open universe”), the final fate

of the universe is a “cold death”. In this case the universe expands forever, albeit

at an ever-decreasing rate. For omega greater than 1, the universe is “closed” and

will at some point collapse in on itself and end in a “big crunch”. For omega

equal to 1, the universe is called “flat”; this universe has a critical density and

expansion in halted only after an infinite time. Currently, the estimated sum of

the contributions to the total density parameter, Ω0, is Ω0 = 1.02 ± 0.02 which

indicates that the universe is close to critical density.

The expansion of the universe has been tested using a number of methods,

where three of them are mentioned here:

The first one is the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission

completed in 2003, representing a major advance in the precision of determining

the expansion of the universe, the Hubble constant, and the calculation of the

vacuum density [4].

The second one is using the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)

[5]. Studying more than 140,000 extremely bright galaxies known as quasars,

which serve as a “standard ruler”, scientists can map density variations in the

universe. By nearly tripling the number of quasars previously studied, as well as

implementing a new technique, the scientists were able to calculate the expan-

sion rate to 42 miles (68 kilometers) per second per 1 million light-years with

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ravitation and Cosmology

greater precision, while looking farther back in time.

The third method is using the infrared camera installed in 2009 on the Hubble

Telescope, the astronomical measurements used to calculate the Hubble con-

stant obtained a slightly higher value with narrow error bars. A recent study [6]

indicates that

H

0 = 73.24 km/s/Mpc and the cosmological density remains with a

small uncertainty calculated as follows:

( )

2 27 3

0

3 8 11.11 1.05 10 kg m

c

HG

ρ

−

= = ±×π

,

where

ρcr

represents the critical density,

H

represents the current value of the

Hubble constant, and

G

represents the gravitational constant.

3. Hydrodynamics of Vacuum Vortices

According to the hot Big Bang theory, the observable universe was an “emerg-

ing” of space-time from infinitesimal dimensions approximately 13.7 billion

years ago. When the Big Bang event occurred, there was nothing except an

empty space, a false vacuum, a fluid-like zero-point energy field in a high-energy

fluctuation state. Vacuum energy fluctuations are special as the virtual quanta

are emitted from and absorbed by the vacuum itself without the presence of real

quanta or any other known phenomenon in a state of symmetry. The intrinsic

physical feature was “preserved” until the Big Bang that caused a symmetry

breaking, primordial-field perturbation, and dynamic flow in the field. Despite a

range of different models for the early universe that widely vary in their predic-

tions of the size of these perturbations, all these models predict the creation of

black holes with masses ranging from a Planck mass to hundreds of thousands of

solar masses [7].

The diversity of temperature and density after the Big Bang resulted in dy-

namic flow and manifestation of physical effects, such as black holes and stars

formation.

Since the Big Bang, the universe has continued to expand, as demonstrated by

the gradually increasing distance between our galaxy and external galaxies.

While the universe is expanding, a different region was contracting such that

the total energy was preserved; therefore, the expansion of the total universe is

accompanied by contraction in some part of it.

This could explain the conflicting observation results of the relative motions

of stars and whether they display systematic expansion or contraction [8] [9]

[10].

The local area contraction is a type of gravitational force due to vortex forma-

tion that condenses the vacuum and causes matter accumulation.

The primordial-field condensation and matter formation is explained by the

density wave theory. The density wave theory proposed by Lin and Shu in 1964 ex-

plains the spiral-arm structure formation of spiral galaxies. According to this theory,

the arms do not comprise matter but are made of regions of greater density with

longitudinal compression waves and density fluctuation due to self-gravitation [11].

Vacuum vortices are characterized by power and volume, which may be of

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ravitation and Cosmology

any magnitude. Each vortex originates from the rotation orbits of another larger

vortex.

The energy flow along the galaxy spiral arms creates a turbulent flow and

smaller vortices. The field and the gases are drawn down a plug hole that has a

point of suction at its center. A cloud of gas, mainly hydrogen, is trapped at the

point of suction. It begins to collapse into itself because of its self-gravitational

pull and forms the mass of a planetary star.

Gravitation as a push pressure is the origin of Newton’s second law.

The pressure gradient in the vortex attracts energy from the vacuum to its

core. The flux in such a vortex comprises massless photons. Although photons

are zero-rest mass particles, they have the properties of energy and momentum

and thus exhibit the property of mass because they travel at the speed of light.

Upon colliding with a mass, the photons transfer a fraction of their momentum

to that mass and push it toward the center of the vortex with a force propor-

tional to the extension or the volume and density (the mass) of the considered

molecule.

In hydrodynamics, the dynamic pressure in the vortex is directly correlated

with the medium density. It can be expressed as follows:

2

1

2

d

Pv

ρ

=

, (2)

where

Pd

is the gradient pressure,

ρ

is the vacuum density, and

v

is the velocity of

the flow, which in our case is the speed of light.

Consider a sphere immersed in the arm of the vortex with an area that faces

the flow. Such a sphere will be pushed to the center of the vortex with a force

that is directly proportional to the pressure gradient multiplied by the area of the

sphere. Therefore, the force on the sphere can be expressed as follows:

d

F PA=

, (3)

where

P

is the gradient pressure and

A

is the contact area. The flow will face only

half of the area of the sphere, so when the area of the sphere is 4π

r

2, the pressure

will be applied on the area of 2π

r

2.

Substituting the dynamic pressure

Pd

in equation 3 by 1/2

ρv

2, the push force

on the sphere is obtained as follows:

2 2 22

12

2

d

PF PA v r v rI PI

ρρ

= = =

. (4)

We then multiply and divide equation 4 by

t

(time) to obtain

2

F r vt v t

ρ

π=

. (5)

Now, the speed

v

multiplied by time

t

is equal to space

L

(length) and the ve-

locity divided by

t

is equivalent to acceleration a. Therefore, the area π

r

2 times

space

L

is equal to volume

Q

.

2

F r La Qa

ρρ

π= =

. (6)

Note that density multiplied volume is equal to mass, and therefore, we obtain

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ravitation and Cosmology

F ma=

, (7)

which corresponds to Newton’s second law of gravitation.

4. Attraction Force between Two Vortices

In hydrodynamics, the field reaching the center of the vortex is oriented at an

angle of 90˚ or perpendicular to the vortex plane. In this vortex, the free surface

sharply dips near the axis line, with the depth inversely proportional to

r

2. The

shape formed by the free surface is referred to as a hyperboloid or “Gabriel’s

Horn” and is shown in Figure 1.

In an irrotational vortex flow with a constant fluid density and cylindrical

symmetry, the dynamic pressure varies as

P

∞-

K

/

r

2, where

P

∞ is the limiting

pressure that is infinitely far from the axis.

Furthermore, the vacuum with a density of approximately 10 × 10−27 kg/m3

has viscosity and stiffness and experiences a drag force. Influid dynamics, the

drag equation is used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due

to movement through a fully enclosing medium. In our case, the drag force is

related to the dynamic (shear) viscosity of a vacuum that expresses its resistance

against shearing flows, where the adjacent layers move parallel to each other at

different speeds.

The drag force equation can be expressed as follows:

2

1

2

dD

F v AC

ρ

=

, (8)

where

Fd

is the drag force, which by definition is the force component in the di-

rection of the flow velocity,

ρ

is the mass density of the vacuum,

v

=

c

is the rela-

tive velocity relative to the vacuum,

A

is the contact area, and

CD

is the drag co-

efficient.

As stated above,

Fd

represents the resistance of the adjacent layers moving pa-

rallel to each other at different speeds. The drag force calculated according to the

above equation yields a value that is equivalent to that of constant

G

.

Figure 1. An image illustrating the vortex on a free surface.

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ravitation and Cosmology

The force of attraction to the center of the vortex is directly related to the

pressure gradient, which is equal to the centripetal force:

22

1

2v mv r

ρ

=

(9)

Then,

1

2mr

ρ

=

, (10)

where

m

/

r

is the linear mass density, which is the amount of mass per unit

length.

The interaction between two vortices creates tension that attracts one vortex

to the other.

The tension on a body can be numerically expressed as follows:

T mg ma= +

, (11)

where

T

indicates tension (Newton),

m

indicates mass (kg),

g

indicates gravita-

tional force (9.8 m/s2), and

a

indicates acceleration (m/s2).

In our case, there is no external gravitation force; however, the mass changes

according to its distance from the core of the vortex. Therefore, it expressed as

linear mass density (

m

/

r

).

The tension in the vortex would be the sum of linear mass density and the

force of attraction of the vortex. Therefore, the tension in the vortex can be ex-

pressed as follows:

22

T mr v Ir

P

ρ

= +

Since

22

mPIvr F a

ρ

= =

.

Thus, the tension on the first vortex is:

11

T m r ma= +

(12)

In addition, the tension in the second vortex can be expressed as follows:

22

m r ma+

(13)

Furthermore, the tension between both vortices can be expressed as follows:

2

12 1 2

T mm r ma m a= +−

(14)

In the point of interaction between the two vortices, the linear mass density is

cancelled and the acceleration is zero.

Therefore,

2

12

T mm r=

. (15)

The linear force between the two vortices will be diminished by a force equiv-

alent to the drag force in the vacuum which is, as demonstrated above, equiva-

lent to the value of constant

G

.

Therefore, the attractive force between the two vortices can be expressed as

follows:

2

12

F Gm m r=

. (16)

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ravitation and Cosmology

The above equation represents the Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

5. Discussion

Although even Newton was concerned with the unknown nature of the gravita-

tional force, his basic framework was extremely successful in describing the mo-

tion of the planets.

The mechanical theories or explanations of gravitation are attempts to explain

the law of gravity with the aid of basic mechanical processes, such as pushes, and

without the use of any action at a distance. These theories were developed

16th-19th century in connection with the aether theories [12].

However, those theories were overthrown because most of them led to an un-

acceptable amount of drag, which has not yet been observed. Several other mod-

els have violated the energy conservation law and are incompatible with modern

thermodynamics [13].

In general relativity, the effects of gravitation are ascribed to space-time cur-

vature instead of being attributed to the force and the free-falling objects move

along the locally straight paths in curved space-time.

General relativity has experienced considerably successful because of its way

of predicting phenomena such as precession of Mercury’s perihelion and binary

pulsars, warping space-time, gravitational red-shifting of light, the relativistic

delay of light, the equivalence principle, the geodetic and frame-dragging effects

that have been regularly confirmed. However, general relativity absolutely offers

no description of the causation of space-time curvature and there is no mecha-

nism to describe why gravity works the way it does.

Furthermore, it cannot be considered as a complete theory of gravity due to its

incompatibility with quantum mechanics.

Besides, there is nothing in Newton Theory or General relativity that explains

the origin of energy that produces the gravitational forces. In fact, there is no

known energy source to support tremendous energy expenditure that attracts all

objects on the surface of our planet for over 4.5 billion years.

Herein, a new gravitation mechanism that explains the essence of gravitation,

the origin of Newton laws of gravitation, and the space-time warp of general

relativity has been presented.

The proposed theory is based on the fact that the vacuum has a specific den-

sity associated with it, making it behave as a superfluid. General relativity also

imposes superfluid equations onto gravitational relationships. The imposition of

superfluid equations has a considerably significant effect: the speed of the

propagation of gravity is thereby made finite, because it propagates at speed of

light. The finite transmission speed (and related superfluid properties) repre-

sents a significant difference between Newtonian gravity and general relativity.

The mechanism of gravitation relies on the vortices created in the superfluid

vacuum. The vortices were created after the Big Bang by the symmetry breaking

of the fluctuating vacuum. A superfluid vortex would “warp” space-time, con-

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dense the vacuum density, and create the mass, drag the planet, and maintains

its rotation.

According to general relativity, planet rotation is dragged by an unknown

force. Such a drag implies that there exists friction in the space-time motion with

respect to a mass where inertial dragging occurs. The vortex model explains the

mechanism of rotation of the planet as a result of imparting spin on the planet

drags the planet mass and causes its rotation. The general relativistic formula-

tions show the requirement of tangential motion when the continuum is as-

sumed to be a superfluid.

The second law of Newton is an expression of the force produced by a vortex

pressure gradient that collides with an object and pushes it toward the center of

the vortex. The superfluid flow creates a radiation pressure identical to the mag-

netic radiation pressure that exerts a positive force due to the momentum trans-

ferred during the interaction of the waves with the matter (de Broglie standing

waves). It acts in a direction same as that of the wave propagation. This is same

as the concept of quantum mechanics, by which the attractive force of gravity

arises due to exchange of virtual gravitons in the same way as the electromag-

netic force arises from exchange of virtual photons [14] [15].

In contrast, Newton’s law of motion expresses the tension between two oppo-

site forces created by the vortices. Thus, the gravitational force between two ce-

lestial bodies is not caused by their mass but by the tension between the vortices

that created the mass and warped space-time.

Finally, since the first formulation of Newton’s law of gravitation, there is an

open question about the nature of gravitation and the origin of the universal

constant of gravitation

G

. This constant is experimentally determined, and it

unknown whether there exists an analytical formula for determining the Newto-

nian constant of gravitation

G

. We found that

G

is an expression of resistance

against the gravitational force in the vacuum due to the drag force of the gravita-

tional flow in the vacuum.

6. Conclusions

In this study, we described a new mechanism of gravitation that explains New-

ton’s laws of gravity with Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The mass was

created after the Big Bang by the gravitational force of the vortices that led to the

space-time curvature and condensed the vacuum superfluid to create the mass.

Therefore, the mass is rather the effect of the gravitation and not the cause.

The gradient pressure in the vortex creates a flow that applies a force equiva-

lent to the electromagnetic radiation pressure, delivers a fraction of the vortex

momentum to that mass, and pushes it toward the center of the vortex. Upon

colliding with the mass, this pressure creates the force expressed by Newton’s

second law.

The calculation of the tension between two vortices leads to the same New-

ton’s law of motion. Therefore, Newton’s second law is an expression of push

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radiation force, while Newton’s law of motion is the expression of attraction

between two vortices.

Finally, the gravitational constant

G

is an expression of the diminished gravi-

tational value due to the drag force of the superfluid flowing in the vortex (ra-

diation pressure) with an adjacent static vacuum. The calculation of the dimin-

ished momentum of the radiation pressure yields a value same as that of the

gravitational constant

G

and was reported in a separate study.

Further research and astronomical observations are needed to confirm the

proposed vortex model of gravitation.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Enago (https://www.enago.com/) for the English

language review.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the

public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this pa-

per.

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