We review psychological research on global human identification and citizenship, Thomas Paine’s belief that “The world is my country, and all mankind are my brethren.” In turn, we review the theoretical foundations that guided our work, research with measures that preceded our own, and our own work with our correlated scales. We review its foundations, its effects upon attitudes and behaviors, and how it might be enlarged. Global human identification and citizenship is related negatively to ethnocentrism, authoritarianism, the social dominance orientation, and self‐centeredness, but positively to dispositional empathy and the values of universalism, care, and justice. It is expressed in attitudes and behaviors that support human rights and work to reduce global suffering and inequalities. It is associated with greater global knowledge and with efforts to acquire that knowledge. Childrearing that emphasizes cross‐cultural exposure and awareness of others’ suffering may promote global human identification and citizenship, as does education that encourages global mindedness. Environments that support global human identification also induce it, as does envisioning it as a moral ideal.
Feedback interventions have proven to be effective at promoting energy conservation behaviour, and digital technologies have the potential to make interventions more powerful and scalable. In particular, real-time feedback on a specific, energy-intensive activity may induce considerable behaviour change and savings. Yet, the majority of feedback studies that report large effects are conducted with opt-in samples of individuals who volunteer to participate. Here we show that real-time feedback on resource consumption during showering induces substantial energy conservation in an uninformed sample of guests at six hotels (265 rooms, N = 19,602 observations). The treatment effects are large (11.4%), indicating that the real-time feedback induced substantial energy conservation among participants who did not opt-in, and in a context where participants were not financially responsible for energy costs. We thus provide empirical evidence for real-time feedback as a scalable and cost-efficient policy instrument for fostering resource conservation among the broader public. ----
NOTE: --- We are allowed to publicly share the view-only version of the article, which is available at: https://rdcu.be/bbKNx
The advancing digitization of the healthcare system requires that in the future digital skills should be communicated to students much more. In addition, digital teaching and learning technologies should be used wherever they offer real benefits over other training scenarios. To meet these challenges, it needs a national initiative “Medical Education in the Digital Age”, which should be led by the Society for Medical Education and the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology.
»Human Enhancement«, die technologische und pharmakologische Steigerung menschlicher Fähigkeiten, ist aktuell Gegenstand vielschichtiger ethischer und politischer Debatten. In diesem Buch werden häufig ausgeblendete geschichtliche Hintergründe und philosophische Aspekte der Thematik behandelt, so zum Beispiel die Utopiekritik Dostojewskis, die Zukunftsprognosen von H.G. Wells und J.B.S. Haldane sowie gegenwärtige »transhumanistische« Visionen im Blick auf die Romane von Michel Houellebecq. Auch andere literarische Auseinandersetzungen mit einer »Verbesserung des Menschen«, wie die von D.H. Lawrence, und verschiedene Ansätze einer ethischen Bewertung werden diskutiert.
When implemented in the field, smart-meter-based feedback interventions typically lag behind the presumed energy-saving potential of the technology. As we and others argue, part of the problem is that such interventions do not work equally well for everyone. The significance of a feedback intervention for actual energy savings depends on the rigor with which people make use of smart-meter-based information. In a quasi-experiment (N = 186), we expectedly found that registering for a web portal that provided smart-meter-based feedback led to moderate energy savings conditional on a person's environmental attitude level. Apparently, a person's attitude discloses itself in the rigor with which this person makes use of an energy-saving opportunity. Hence, to effectively restrain consumption and save energy, environmental attitude is essential because, not only must people make appropriate behavioral choices, but they must also rigorously implement these choices.
Declining natural resources or climate change are examples of global challenges that characterize our globalized world. A sustainable human cohabitation depends on global intergroup cooperation and joint efforts to solve these crises. Intergroup contact tends to reduce intergroup prejudice and can facilitate such intergroup cooperation. Another line of research indicates that these improved attitudes may reduce the motivation to collective action among members of disadvantaged groups in situations of intergroup conflict, indicating that intergroup contact and collective action are antagonistic processes. In this article, we argue instead that intergroup contact may facilitate collective action intentions against global crises (e.g., climate change or global economic inequalities) that require international cooperation. Specifically, we propose international contact to foster recategorization on the level of all humanity, and in turn intentions of globally responsible actions. We first review evidence of the effects of contact with regard to intergroup cooperation. It is followed by a discussion of the unique nature of collective action concerning a common global challenge. We then integrate both lines of research within the Common Ingroup Identity approach. In two empirical studies (N1 = 104, N2 = 259), we show first evidence that international contact increases identification and solidarity with humanity which then (according to Study 2) is also positively related to intentions of global responsible behavior. Our analysis thus suggests that intergroup contact, beyond the improvement of attitudes, may serve as an effective initiator of social change.
While various approaches are shown to be effective in reducing electricity use of end consumers during an intervention, few studies continue to track participants to evaluate whether these effects last and whether the same factors are still impactful in the long term. The present paper describes results one year after a behavior change intervention, called Social Power, aimed at reducing household electricity consumption using a gamified mobile application connected to a household’s smart meter. Between February and May 2016, forty-two households in two Swiss cities were actively involved and monitored along with corresponding control group of forty households. The intervention engaged app users in a neighborhood challenge to complete electricity saving activities and realize their progress through electricity use visualization. One year after the intervention, electricity consumption was measured, and follow-up online surveys measured reported behavior and perceived injunctive norms of the participants. During the intervention, participants significantly reduced their electricity use, with respect to both historical consumption and the control groups. However, after one year it was found that the electricity savings achieved during the intervention were not maintained. In contrast, the participants reported their behavior as more efficient compared to before the intervention and still perceived the impact of the intervention in their community. This counter intuitive relation between the three measured variables is discussed, along with possible strategies to maintain the positive effects achieved in the short-term.
Urban population is predicted to increase rapidly and massively in the next decades, by producing also the exacerbation of urban scale climate change imputable to anthropogenic actions, such as urban heat island. In this view, urban pedestrians assume a key role in determining city livability in dense built environments, typically much more polluted than suburban or rural areas. Despite that, urban heat island experimental studies are pretty focused on data collected by means of permanent microclimate stations for environmental monitoring, also coupled with satellite measurements or mobile stations equipped over transportation media. This work deals with the development, experimental startup with field test and critical data analysis of a brand new wearable system for microclimate and air quality investigation, just developed with the purpose to characterize livability environmental conditions which affect urban population wellbeing. To this aim, the experimental tool definition and the first field test are carried out in a historical city centre in Italy, where cluster analysis is performed in order to also identify the role of urban design in affecting key microclimate parameters such as air temperature, solar radiation, daylight, air pollution and pedestrian thermal comfort in general. The analysis showed that very site-specific environmental conditions may be detected while several environmental spheres are investigated by the novel wearable system in summer conditions.