Emerging Parenting Coordination Practices Around the Globe: What We Have Learned

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Parenting coordination is emerging in numerous countries around the globe as a response to the need to protect children in families whose parents experience high conflict following their separation or divorce. This article describes the different trends in the implementation of parenting coordination programs in Canada, Spain, and Italy and the socio‐legal contexts in which they have evolved. An analysis will also be presented of the unique challenges faced by these countries and the ensuing debates on issues related to the referral process, legal procedures, decision‐making authority, judicial immunity, confidentiality, and professional requirements and training for the appointment of parenting coordinators. The authors will present what has been learned from their respective experiences and make recommendations to promote continued development.

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... El C-JUDIFA, que será descrito con mayor detalle en la sección de Método, medirá el riesgo de judicialización a través de las características de tipo psicológico y relacional que van a predecir la tendencia a judicializar conflictos entre exparejas. Estas características, algunas de las cuales han sido ya propuestas y estudiadas en trabajos previos, se agrupan en tres grandes áreas: 1) aspectos relacionados con la gestión de la ruptura -"adaptación al divorcio" y "duelo ante la separación" (Alonso-Grijalba, 2015) -; 2) características implicadas en la coparentalidad después de la ruptura-"coparentalidad positiva" (Cipric et al., 2020;Fariña et al., 2017), "conflicto con la expareja" (Symoens et al., 2014), "odio enquistado hacia la expareja" (Demby, 2009) y "perdón a la expareja" (Yárnoz-Yaben, 2017)-; 3) aspectos sistémicos relacionados con el entorno -"dinámicas trianguladoras" (Linares, 2015), "implicación excesiva de familias de origen" (Bolaños, 2008) e "influencia del sistema judicial" (Capdevila-Brophy et al., 2020;Cirillo, 1994). ...
... For the reasons previously stated, and given the absence of validated instruments related to this topic, this paper suggests the elaboration of a questionnaire that allows predicting the risk of judicialization of family relationships. This instrument will also prevent emotional complications this type of conflict causes among family members and problems to the judicial system which is overused and sometimes collapsed with unnecessary claims (Capdevila-Brophy et al., 2020). ...
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For the sake of prevention in high conflict families in process of separation or divorce who resolve situations by only attending court, and since there is no instrument to identify this trend, this paper aims to create a questionnaire for measuring characteristics predicting judicialization. This paper focuses on C-JUDIFA questionnaire’s content and internal validity, confirming that the items used accurately describe the characteristics to be measured while obtaining a good representativeness of the proposed scales. Factor analysis supports the three-factor structure theoretically proposed, while finding a strong correlation between all 9 suggested constructs. Likewise, further research is needed in order to analyze the relationship of all these factors in the judicialization tendency through the research of external validity.
For all of the time, effort, and money invested in child custody evaluation (CCE) and for all of evaluators' emphases on collecting empirically sound data, CCE is not itself an empirically robust process. The reliability, validity, efficacy, and efficiency of CCE has never yet been adequately demonstrated. The science has yet even to define and measure the variables that constitute a healthy family, much less how one is to measure and recommend changes for conflicted systems in the midst of tectonic transitions. This article proposes five ways in which family law professionals and the culture at large should work to better serve the needs of our children: (1) the establishment of proactive parenting and co‐parenting education intended to diminish the frequency and magnitude of family conflict and improve the quality of child and family functioning; (2) the introduction of organized incentives that motivate healthy parenting and co‐parenting practices as opposed to negative consequences that do too‐little, too‐late; (3) a greater emphasis on social equity, cultural humility, and universal professional training; (4) the creation of ethical guidelines that disconnect continuing conflict from professional income; and (5) outcome research that feeds back into the evolution of these and related processes.
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Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is an important means of resolving disputes outside of traditional legal frameworks. It is usually adopted because of its flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to preserve relationships that a contentious court battle might damage. This study aims to evaluate the scientific publication related to ADR. To do so, we used metadata of ADR-related articles from 1981 to 2022 collected in the Web of Science Core Collection and carried out a bibliometric, network , and latent Dirichlet allocation analysis. Our results indicate that ADR research is concentrated in North America, with research organizations from the United States accounting for most publications. At the same time, recent years have seen a shift to a more diverse group of countries, with the Chinese City University of Hong Kong and the Australian Victoria University leading in the last five years. The five main topics in ADR research include online dispute resolution for consumer protection, mediation for family law, arbitration in medical malpractice cases, ADR in construction projects, and ADR in employment law.
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This article describes the current state and range of information protection in the growing number of states and Canadian provinces that employ parenting coordination in an effort to reduce repeat custody litigation. The predominant approach—in which what is revealed during the process is not confidential—is analyzed in terms of its compatibility with the parenting coordinator's multiple tasks of educating parents, seeking to facilitate agreements, and, if necessary, providing the court with a report, a recommended decision, or an arbitrated result. Using a case scenario with multiple parts, the article then examines such confidentiality schemes in practice by providing an action‐oriented series of questions that illustrate how much of this topic must be resolved through a parenting coordinator's exercise of discretion in the absence of rule clarity. The article then raises a number of policy questions about whether current parenting coordination confidentiality norms strike the optimal or even the correct balance on information protection and concludes by identifying several policy options that might address these questions. Parenting coordination is practiced in an increasing number of states and Canadian provinces, but the role, functions, and governing authority across jurisdictions lack uniformity. In the great majority of the states that have adopted statutes or rules to govern parenting coordination, the process is a nonconfidential one. While a few states cloak the process in confidentiality in order to encourage (or require) the adoption of a facilitative approach to the role, such schemes differ in coverage and typically include numerous exceptions. Differing models of parenting coordination and lack of consensus regarding underlying theoretical concepts have led to confusion for practitioners and raise important questions for future researchers in establishing the efficacy of the process.
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La nueva figura de los/as Coordinadores/as de Parentalidad
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A parenting coordinator (PC) is a professional who intervenes in judicial contexts involving high conflict parental litigation in order to safeguard the child’s best interest, as well as dealing with issues concerning coparenting. This new role has been the object of specific directives from international professional associations such as the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts (AFCC, 2006), and the American Psychological Association (APA, 2012), who have established guidelines for professional practice. The figure of the PC has been introduced only recently in Spain, with Catalonia being the first autonomous communities to do so. Bearing these circumstances in mind, this study aims to assess the impact of this new figure on judicial judgements by examining both the legal reasoning, and the judges’ rationale guiding the professional practice of this figure. Judicial judgements from the CENDOJ database involving the figure of the Parenting coordinator were analysed. The results obtained shed light on the legal reasoning cited by judicial decision-makers in their judgements and the criteria employed to justify this new figure and its correspondence with international guidelines. Judgements were found to be grounded on legal reasoning and the criteria was essentially in accordance with guidelines proposed by international associations. Nevertheless, legal decisionmakers must further their understanding concerning the role of the CP in order to assist families with high conflict parents to ensure positive coparenting.
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The current study uses a survey instrument to examine parenting coordination through the lens of Bronfenbrenner's Person, Process, Context, Time (PPCT) model. The survey focused on contextual factors such as statutes, local rules, interpersonal characteristics, dynamics of the clients, and background characteristics of parenting coordinators. Responses from a sample of PCs were obtained using list serves and a snowball sampling procedure. Results included the extent to which the parenting coordination process occurs through email and other technology rather than in‐person sessions. Mental health disorders and inability to pay were primary barriers to the PC process. Key Points for the Family Court Community There are many potential factors, both inside and outside a PC case, that influence the decisions that practitioners make when working with clients and, ultimately, on the results of the process. The most salient contextual factors that influence the PC process were formal rules (statutes and/or local rules), interpersonal characteristics of the participants (personality disorders, socio‐economic factors), and background characteristics of the PC (education, experience).
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Parenting Coordination (PC) is a well-established ADR process that involves court-appointed roles for family law experts across mental health and legal professions. PC involves a legal psychological hybrid case management role for practitioners that is effective precisely because of greater access and availability for families, unique knowledge base of the family law professional concerning dynamics of divorcing families, and the court-granted authority to help families resolve common post-divorce disputes. This paper compares the growth of the PC role across crucial areas of practice in different jurisdictions.
Este artículo revisa la evolución legislativa sobre los instrumentos a disposición del juez de familia para ayudar a las familias en situación de ruptura de pareja a reducir la conflictividad, desde la creación de los primeros juzgados de familia y los primeros equipos psicosociales hasta los puntos de encuentro familiar, la implementación de la mediación familiar y la coordinación de parentalidad. A continuación, presenta la justificación para la aparición de la figura del coordinador de parentalidad en el ordenamiento jurídico catalán y estatal y en el marco internacional. En tercer lugar, revisa la designación y las funciones otorgadas al coordinador de parentalidad en algunas sentencias. Los jueces aprecian la complejidad de los conflictos familiares cuya solución es más emocional que judicial y buscan nuevos instrumentos, menos legales y más psicosociales
Families facing separation or divorce in Spain encounter a number of obstacles, including a primarily adversarial and slow justice system, nonspecialized courts and judges, and a lack of resources to help them through the process. Recent legislation at the regional level (autonomous communities) is moving toward emphasizing shared parental responsibility and introducing parenting plans, while at the national level, legislation advances slowly. One of the main challenges professionals are facing in high‐conflict couple separation is protecting children from the effects of being in the middle of their parents’ conflict. Traditional psychological, legal, and social services are insufficient to support parents and protect their children from interparental hostile conflict—which can be exacerbated by litigation, professional intervention, domestic violence, or addiction. This article illustrates, through a case study, the implementation of parenting coordination in Spain. Different jurisdictions in Spain are slowly implementing (co‐)parenting coordination, an in‐depth intervention designed to support these families. The objective is to help families focus on children's needs and follow the court‐approved parenting plans or court orders, reduce relitigation, and improve parental communication and conflict resolution skills. This article analyzes different aspects and challenges relating to the implementation of parenting coordination in Spain. Recommendations are then made to address them.
Parenting coordination is a dispute resolution process generally occurring after a parenting plan has been established, to assist parents in chronic high conflict coparenting. Mental health professionals and family law professionals provide parenting coordination to assist coparents to implement their previously agreed to or court-ordered parenting plan in a child-focused and expeditious manner to minimize parental conflict, thereby reducing risk to children. This chapter summarizes the parenting coordinator’s mandate (education, conflict resolution, case management, decision-making), identifies risks and benefits, and addresses considerations when intimate partner violence (IPV) is a factor. The parenting coordination process from start to finish is discussed—managing referrals, screening for IPV, risk factors, and suitability; conducting the informed consent process; intake and information gathering; consensus-building phase (conflict management, resolution, and negotiation) and decision-making (arbitration). Parenting coordination is not a panacea for all high conflict coparenting situations. Inappropriate cases are identified and guidelines, professional standards, and training requirements are summarized.
Sixty high-conflict separated/divorced co-parents completed surveys investigating characteristics and dynamics (narcissism, empathy, conflict) that were examined in relation to co-parenting style and parents' experiences of parenting coordination, legal, and mental health interventions. Study findings for this sample did not support common notions found in the literatures on parenting coordination and high-conflict divorce that suggest these parents are often narcissistic or low in empathy. Findings pertaining to all high-conflict participant experiences revealed the presence of common elements across aspects of practitioners and interventions with which they were both satisfied and dissatisfied.
Recently, courts have seen an increase in cases where a parent has an alleged or documented mental illness. Understanding whether there is a mental illness and what the symptoms are and determining the meaning of this information for parenting and child functioning present a host of challenges for judges, custody evaluators, and attorneys. We offer an example of a custody evaluator's inquiry and present a functional‐contextual model for considering the significant parental capacities and vulnerabilities that impact child functioning, in order to better make decisions about parent access and treatment. Practitioner Keypoints Understand how to effectively integrate mental health information into matters of custody Identify parenting and co‐parenting tasks and behaviors that may be affected by mental illness Identify parenting capacities that are linked to child outcomes Review a step‐by‐step decision‐making process to effectively examine allegations of mental illness during a custody evaluation or dispute
This Bench Book summarizes theory, research, and a forensic assessment model of parental gatekeeping relevant for understanding and resolving child custody disputes. This concise format is geared primarily as a resource for judges, though it may be equally valuable to evaluators, parenting coordinators, and others. Gatekeeping encompasses a common statutory factor of support for the other parent–child relationship. The gatekeeping model includes a continuum ranging from facilitative to restrictive gatekeeping. Behavioral examples are presented. Implications of a gatekeeping analysis for crafting parenting plans are described, including in relocation cases and when there has been a history of intimate partner violence.
The increasingly widespread use of parenting coordination to provide ongoing, intensive case management of higher conflict child custody cases recognizes the many advantages of this alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process in the family courts. The essential functions of the parenting coordination process are to create appropriate parenting plans; to build functional, enduring coparenting relationships; and to resolve ongoing coparenting disputes. In this article, an experienced multidisciplinary group from different jurisdictions across the United States examines a few of the most challenging issues that currently confront the field of parenting coordination. These include legal issues, such as the quasi-judicial authority of the parenting coordinator (PC) derived from statutory and legislative means, continuing jurisdiction of cases, and constitutional challenges. A description of cases that can benefit from the appointment of a PC is provided, as well as a judicial view of the pros and cons of the role. Essential aspects of the practice are discussed, including the importance of structure and boundaries, challenges to the use of the role, liability issues, and the PC's role in creating and managing collaborative teams to work on these cases. The article concludes with a vision of the future that highlights the need for research and training to responsibly advance this promising, emerging role.
Parenting Coordination is an emerging alternative dispute resolution option for chronically conflicted separated and divorced families, involving a hybrid of legal and mental health roles. With an emphasis on Parenting Coordination in Canada, this article delineates the parenting coordinator's specific roles and functions. The legislation relevant to the arbitration component is summarized. The process for both the non-decision-making and decision-making components of the Parenting Coordination are outlined and a sample Agreement is appended. Three key ethical and practice issues are discussed: the dual roles of mediator-arbitrator, the parenting coordinator as witness, and preserving the confidentiality of children and collateral sources.
Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial dispute resolution process that is court ordered or agreed on by divorced and separated parents who have an ongoing pattern of high conflict and/or litigation about their children. These guidelines are designed to address the developing area of practice known as parenting coordination. In response to the recognition by family courts and substantial evidence in the empirical and clinical literature that divorce does not end patterns of high parental conflict for some families, parenting coordination interventions began to be developed more than two decades ago. In the past decade, parenting coordination work has expanded across states and jurisdictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The domestic violence advocacy and family court communities have each grown dramatically over the last three decades. Although these professional communities share many values in common, they often find themselves at odds with one another on a host of issues. This article examines the practical, political, definitional, and ideological differences between the two communities and calls for them to join forces and collaborate on behalf of children and families.
This research project examined roles and functions of parenting coordinators (PCs) identified by AFCC's Guidelines for Parenting Coordination and other literature. The researcher used a semi-structured interview schedule that included information about practices, procedures, and a series of five case-based vignettes that contained commonly occurring ethical and legal dilemmas in PC practice. The results found that PCs generally saw their role as enforcers of existing orders and primarily used skills in conflict management, parent education, and information coordination with other professionals. PCs would use arbitration powers to make minor decisions or refer to court as a last resort.
The ability of parents to forge harmonious coparenting relationships following divorce is an important predictor of their children's long-term well-being. However, there is no convincing evidence that this relationship can be modified through intervention. A pre-ventive intervention that we developed, Dads for Life (DFL), which targeted noncustodial parents as participants, has previously been shown in a randomized field trial to favorably impact child well-being. We explore here whether it also has an impact on mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting and interparental conflict in the 2 years following di-vorce. Results of the latent growth curve models we evaluated showed that both mothers and fathers reported less conflict when the father participated in DFL as compared with con-trols. For the fathers, perceptions of coparenting did not change over time in either the DFL or control conditions. Alternatively, mothers' perceptions of support declined over time in the control group, whereas those whose ex-husbands participated in the DFL program re-ported significant positive growth change toward healthier coparenting. The positive findings for mothers' reports are particularly compelling because mothers were not the participants, and thus common alternative explanations are ruled out. The DFL interven-tion, then, offers courts a promising program to improve families' functioning after divorce.
Research has shown that living away from one's biological father is associated with a greater risk of adverse child and adolescent outcomes; yet, the role of the father-child relationship in understanding this association has not been directly investigated. This study uses data on biological fathers’ relationships with their children from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,733) to assess whether father involvement mediates the relationship between family structure (i.e., father absence) and four measures of adolescent behavior. Differences in father involvement are shown to account for a sizeable fraction of the variance in outcomes by family structure. Father involvement does not affect boys and girls differently but is more beneficial when the father lives with the adolescent.
Substance use is rampant in contemporary society, but little attention has been paid to it in the context of child custody evaluations (CCEs). This article provides concrete suggestions for integrating issues about substance abuse into a more overarching CCE and discusses specific assessment strategies.
A growing body of empirical research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence is not a unitary phenomenon and that types of domestic violence can be differentiated with respect to partner dynamics, context, and consequences. Four patterns of violence are described: Coercive Controlling Violence, Violent Resistance, Situational Couple Violence, and Separation-Instigated Violence. The controversial matter of gender symmetry and asymmetry in intimate partner violence is discussed in terms of sampling differences and methodological limitations. Implications of differentiation among types of domestic violence include the need for improved screening measures and procedures in civil, family, and criminal court and the possibility of better decision making, appropriate sanctions, and more effective treatment programs tailored to the characteristics of different types of partner violence. In family court, reliable differentiation should provide the basis for determining what safeguards are necessary and what types of parenting plans are appropriate to ensure healthy outcomes for children and parent–child relationships.
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