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Breakfast is most important meal of the day and usually taken after night fast or after a long gap. Various health surveys and cross‐sectional studies reported morning meal positive effect on memory recall, children performance, mood, work performance, cognitive function, women health like irregular mensuration and reduction in obesity and effect on body mass index. Still people skip breakfast throughout the world due to several reasons like lack of time, family environment, single‐parent family, not feeling hunger in morning or having several misconceptions like thinking of being obese. Skipping morning meal have an adverse effect on health. This review focuses on awareness of breakfast and its positive impact on health as the breakfast skipping trend is increasing around the world and also drawing the attention of researchers to develop convenient, nutritious breakfast options and awareness programs for significance of breakfast.
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Importance of not skipping breakfast: a review
Rekha Rani,
*Chetan N. Dharaiya
& Bhopal Singh
1 Department of Dairy Technology, Warner College of Dairy Technology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and
Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, 211007, India
2 Department of Dairy Technology, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agriculture University, Anand Gujarat, 388110, India
3 Department of Dairy Technology, Faculty of sciences, DayalBag Educational Institute (Deemed University), Dayalbagh, Agra
UttarPradesh, 282005, India
(Received 18 May 2020; Accepted in revised form 21 July 2020)
Summary Breakfast is most important meal of the day and usually taken after night fast or after a long gap. Vari-
ous health surveys and cross-sectional studies reported morning meal positive effect on memory recall,
children performance, mood, work performance, cognitive function, women health like irregular mensura-
tion and reduction in obesity and effect on body mass index. Still people skip breakfast throughout the
world due to several reasons like lack of time, family environment, single-parent family, not feeling hun-
ger in morning or having several misconceptions like thinking of being obese. Skipping morning meal has
an adverse effect on health. This review focuses on awareness of breakfast and its positive impact on
health as the breakfast skipping trend is increasing around the world and also drawing the attention of
researchers to develop convenient, nutritious breakfast options and awareness programmes for signifi-
cance of breakfast.
Keywords Breakfast, breakfast meal pattern, breakfast surveys, effect on health, skipping breakfast.
Regular intake of breakfast is one of the key indica-
tors of a healthy way of living (Rampersaud et al.,
2005). Breakfast is one of the significant meal for the
human-beings, and good quality breakfast is indispens-
able for growing people such as children and adoles-
cents, to uphold appropriate fitness. A person without
breakfast will not have enough energy to start a morn-
ing task because it is the first meal taken after dinner
with a long gap. A healthy breakfast should include
three major food groups such as grains, milk and
fruits. As per the United States Department of Agri-
culture (USDA) Food & Nutrition Service (2013), it
should deliver an adequate amount of protein, fibre,
minerals, vitamins and other micronutrients with nom-
inal sugar and fat particularly from processed food
groups (National Institute of Nutrition, 2011). Food
consumption and hunger are regulated by the
hypothalamus, where nucleus arcuatus (ARC) regulate
all processes related to energy balance by interaction
of peripheral hormonal and metabolic signals. Ghrelin
is a peptide produced in stomach, which communicates
modifications in food intake to the central nervous sys-
tem as hunger-provoking hormone (Otto et al., 2005).
The influence of ghrelin is linked to the antagonism of
the inhibitory effect of leptin on hypothalamic neu-
ropeptide Y (NPY) production (Nakazato et al., 2001;
Shintani et al., 2001; Seoane et al., 2004). Breakfast
consumption is linked with an array of benefits, com-
prising superior mental performance in adults and
teenagers (Smith & Rees, 2000; O’Sullivan et al.,
2009); enhanced nourishment (Barton et al., 2005; de
la Hunty & Ashwell, 2007); successful reduction in
weight (Lightowler & Henry, 2009) and noticeable
hunger satisfaction, control of total calorie consump-
tion in a day and healthy routine (Cho et al., 2003; de
la Hunty & Ashwell, 2007; Foster-Schubert et al.,
2008; O’Sullivan et al., 2009; Clegg & Shafat, 2010).
As per Baltar et al. (2018), for breakfast consumption,
time is not the single consideration factor, a minimum
50 Kcal energy intake also required during this time;
however, the general definition of breakfast is any con-
sumption of meal after long gap of eating. Drew-
nowski et al. (2018) also defined for breakfast skippers
as not eaten breakfast or consuming <50 kcal. Family
structure is also one of the factors for consumption
*Correspondent: E-mail:
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021, 56, 28–38
©2020 Institute of Food Science and Technology
and skipping of breakfast (Levin et al., 2012). Children
staying with ‘both parent’s’ families were consuming
more breakfast than from single-parent families, and
mostly among those staying with their father. In recent
times, the ratio of adults living in non-traditional fam-
ily categories has increased and it has a direct impact
on adolescent breakfast consumption by changing the
family unit.
The frequency of missing breakfast was 33.1% in
Brazilian adult study (Baltar et al., 2018), the USA
found 23% higher values for adults (Song et al., 2005),
17.3% (Siega-Riz et al., 2000) and 20% (Kant et al.,
2008), Republic of Korea 17.2% (Yoo et al., 2014)
and Japan 16.6% (Lee et al., 2016). However, Taiwan
survey reported ~8.0% off morning meal skippers (de-
fined as those who eat breakfast on weekly basis, some
of them never had breakfast or others not so often ate
breakfast (Huang et al., 2010).
In developing countries, decreasing trends were
observed for milk consumption by adolescents as well
as children and the probable thought linked with the
decreasing tendency in cereal-based breakfast con-
sumption (Bowman, 2002; Lioret et al., 2010). Keski-
Rahkonen et al. (2003) stated that avoiding breakfast
is related with an increased possibility of having a
smoker or consumer of alcohol, doing less exercise or
having increased body mass index (BMI). The decline
in breakfast consumption on the basis of gender bias
also studied and found that girls skip morning meal
more often than boys (Keski-Rahkonen et al., 2003;
Barr et al., 2013). An age-related decrease in breakfast
intake was also observed and found that generally
older adolescents skip breakfast more (Gibson &
Gunn, 2011). Reasons related to this were lack of
time, loss of hunger in the morning, fatigue or drowsi-
ness or individual habits (Raaijmakers et al., 2010).
People who wish to lose weight and dieting are also
one of the main cause of not eating morning meal
(Shaw, 1998; Reddan et al., 2002). Some reports
revealed that the effects of breakfast practices on
energy intake and many reports stated that skipping
breakfast causes a compensatory rise in energy intake
in next day (Astbury et al., 2011). Betts et al. (2014)
also described that regular breakfast consumption was
related with the rise in energy spending during the
morning of breakfast. Gibney et al. (2018) compiled
various breakfast research programmes of different
countries and nutrients intake by breakfast consumers
and skippers. The aim of this review is to discuss on
the importance of not skipping breakfast and positive
effects on health and creating awareness among peo-
ple, factors of avoiding morning meal and the negative
health effects due to skipping, misbelief towards break-
fast consumption, several reasons for skipping break-
fast, and among these, family environment is one of
the factor for breakfast intake and skipping.
Cereal-based breakfast
Starting the day with cereals influenced healthy food
choices throughout the whole day. Eating cereals in
breakfast, that is the first meal of the day in the morn-
ing was linked with increased intake of carbohydrates
and fibre and reduced intake of fats during the day
(Cho et al., 2003; Kafatos et al., 2005). Certainly, bet-
ter agility was related to cereal-based breakfast. Eating
of cereals was also related to increased intake of
almost all micronutrients which in turn result in
improved quality of breakfast (van den Boom et al.,
2006). Isaksson et al. (2008) stated that those who ate
whole-grain rye porridge in breakfast had extended
satiety till 8 h. Table 1 gives a glimpse of popular
breakfast used in different states of India and clearly
explains the traditional culture of different states of
India breakfast pattern consists of cereals and grains.
As cereal-based breakfast is superior to other items
like high fat, fried foods and high-calorie items (cold
drinks, full-fat ice cream, etc.).
Breakfast meal pattern
A good breakfast should contain portions from differ-
ent food groups such as milk, fruits or vegetables and
cereals. Generally, a breakfast meal should contain
one cup of milk, half cup of fruit and/or vegetable
juice along with a portion of cereal which may consist
of either a slice of bread or a serving of muffin/biscuit/
roll or a three-quarter cup of cold dry cereal or a half
cup of hot cooked cereal/pasta/noodles/grains etc. The
pieces of bread should be prepared from whole-grain
or enriched flour while the cereals should also be
whole-grain or fortified (USDA, 2019).
As per the Schools meal patterns suggested by
USDA (2017), schools should provide one cup of fruit
in a day and five cups fruits in a week. Minimum two
cups of starchy vegetables should be served in a week
from the under-consumed subgroups (dark green, red/
orange, legumes) and ‘other vegetables’ subgroups,
during that same week. All grains should be whole-
grain-rich. Schools may replace one ounce-equivalent
(oz. eq.) of meat/meat alternate for one oz. eq. of
grains after the minimum daily grains requirement is
met. Calorie content should be 350500 Kcal up to
fifth-grade students, 400550 Kcal for 68th grade stu-
dents and 450600 Kcal for 912th grade students.
Saturated fat should provide <10% of total energy,
and trans-fat should be <0.5 g per meal. Sodium con-
tent should be <540, 600 and 640 mg for up to 5th
grade, 68th grade and 912th grade students, respec-
tively. All liquid milk should be either skim milk or
low fat (1% fat). Milk may be plain or flavoured.
Table 2 comprises different breakfast patterns studied
in different countries.
©2020 Institute of Food Science and Technology International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al. 29
Powers et al. (2016) reported that consumption of
cereals along with milk increases micronutrients like
vitamin B, folate and Iron. This may be due to cereal
may have evacuated fat-rich foods from the diet. Simi-
lar findings by Deshmukh-Taskar et al. (2010) stated
that if children and adolescents consumed readily to
eat breakfast cereals (RTEC) compared with non-con-
sumers had a lower intake of fat and a higher intake
of carbohydrate in their diet. A study with teenagers
in New Zealand found that the person who skip
breakfast had a greater frequency of snacking (Utter
et al., 2007). It is possible that the cereal and milk
involvement in breakfast had direct impact on reduc-
ing the consumption of fat-rich snacks.
People who consumed cereal-based breakfast had
lower body mass index (BMI) than non-consumers
regardless the grains were whole or refined (Bazzano
et al., 2005). Smith et al. (1999) reported that
participants who had taken cereal-based breakfast
showed a more positive attitude while starting of test
session, displayed better performance on a three-di-
mensional memory task and were more composed
after completion of the examination compared to the
participants who did not take breakfast.
Breakfast and health
Effect on memory
Better remembrance was related to improved glucose
tolerance and the intake of food with a lower gly-
caemic index (Nabb & Benton, 2006), demonstrating
that brain performance, particularly memory-related
aspects, may be improved by increase in glucose level
amount (Benton & Sargent, 1992). It has also been
reported that memory is affected negatively by
Table 1 Popular breakfast in different states of India
States Popular varieties Ingredients References
Uttar Pradesh Aloo Puri (Potato curry and oil fried small chapaties) Cereals (Wheat, Barley) and
Vani et al. (2013)
Andhra Pradesh Pesarattu Upma (Whole green lentil Dosa and stuffed with
some Upma)
Cereals and pulses Kannan (2011)
Bihar Sattu Ka Parathe (toasted gram flour stuffed Indian bread) Cereals and pulses Manoharlal et al. (2020)
Gujarat. Khaman Dhokla (Bengal gram fermented food), Khakhra
(crispy type of roti)
Pulses (gram lentil or gram
flour, Bajra) and cereals
Roy et al. (2009), Giridhar (2019)
Maharashtra. Sabudana Khichdi (Sago spicy mix), poha (Rice flakes), Pav
bhaji (Mixed vegetable along with bread)
sago seeds, rice, Cereals
Lahari & Kumar (2019)
Madhya Pradesh Poha and Jalebi (Traditional Indian sweet made up of
refined flour)
Cereals (Sorghum, chickpea,
flattened rice
Pagote & Rao (2012)
Karnataka Neer Dosa (thin, fluffy dosa made using rice batter) Cereals (Finger millet) and
Tamang (2020)
Khura (made roti using kuttu ka atta) Buckwheat pancake, rice Pandey et al. (2017)
Jharkhand Dhuska ( fermented rice lentil product prepared by deep
fried and salty)
Cereals, rice Tamang (2020)
Kerala Puttu (Steamed rice cake), idli, dosa (Fermented rice
rice or buckwheat flour and
Jacob & Pushpanath (2005),
Tamang (2020)
West Bengal Cholar Dal (gram lentil) Cereal s and pulses Joshi & Shinde, (2009), Saha (2014)
Odisha Chura Bhaja (roasted or fried flattened rice flakes and
potao chips)
Deep fried flattened rice Mohanty & Sadual (2019)
Punjab Gobi Paratha, Aloo Paratha and Paneer Paratha, Stuffed
paratha (dough stuffed with potato/Cauliflower/paneer
spiced mixture, rolled and cooked in hot tawa with ghee/
Cereals (Wheat) and
Vani et al. (2013), Bhosale et al.
Rajasthan Pyaz kachori (fried pastry filled with a spicy onion filling)
and dal kachori (round compressed ball prepared using
refined flour and filled with mixture of moong and urad
dal, spices stuffing and oil fried)
Cereals (Wheat, barley,
Bajra) and pulses
Agrawal & Sengupta (2014)
Tamil Nadu Idli (steamed fermented product made using rice, rava),
dosa, vada (rice batter with a hole in the middle and fried)
Cereals (Rice, Gram) and
Koh & Singh (2009), Shyam &
Acharya (2019)
Sikkim Momos (Wheat flour with meat or vegetable and steamed
Cereals and pulses Tamang & Thapa (2014), Pandey
et al. (2017)
Goa Rice Bhakri (Round roti prepared using wheat, sorghum
and coarser than wheat chapatti)
Rice and other cereals Badgujar et al. (2017)
©2020 Institute of Food Science and TechnologyInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al.30
skipping breakfast (Benton & Parker, 1998; Smith
et al., 1999; Korol, 2002). Eating of breakfast is linked
with improved spatial memory (Benton & Sargent,
1992), free recollection and late recognition memory
(Smith et al., 1994), but had very less impact on tasks
related to attention. Benton et al. (2001) found that
intake of breakfast was related to improved motiva-
tion. In their study, they did a survey on 150 young
female adults both fasted and consumed breakfasts of
10 or 50 g corn flakes. They found that those who ate
breakfast, and/or a snack, were feeling fuller. They
reported that those who had consumed breakfast, as
compared to fasting, spend longer trying to recall the
words. It was interpreted that consumption of break-
fast was related with better motivation. Others also
reported that better glucose tolerance was linked with
better memory.
Effect on obesity
Breakfast consumption has numerous positive impacts
among youth including improved dietary competence,
reduced risk of obesity and improvement in mental abil-
ity (Pearson et al., 2009). As per Swinburn et al. (2004)
obesity (defined as body mass index (BMI) >30 kg m
daily consumption of breakfast is linked with diets of
better nutritional quality and better self-reported health
ratings in adults (Nicklas et al., 1998; Williams, 2005)
and also linked with a reduced risk of obesity among
teenagers (Szajewska & Ruszczynski, 2010). Americans
Table 2 Survey on breakfast pattern in different countries
Study parameter Breakfast Patterns References
371 Korean adults (Three breakfast
‘Rice, vegetables and kimchi (fermented cabbage, typical of Korean cuisine)’,
‘Potatoes, fruits and nuts’ and ‘Eggs, bread and processed meat’
Min et al. (2012)
A nationally representative survey
in Korea (Two breakfast Pattern)
‘Traditional Korean pattern’ (composed by vegetables, seasonings and condiments,
sugar, salt, fish, grains, potatoes and kimchi)
‘Dairy-cereal pattern’, (containing dairy items, cereals, breads, jellies and fruits)
Yoo et al. (2014)
Brazilian breakfast pattern (Two
Brazilian macro-region: (Brazilian Northern) Meats, making with corn, eggs, milk-
based items, tubers/roots/potatoes, savoury snacks/crackers, fruit juices/fruit drinks/
South eastern Brazilian region milk, Coffee, tea, cheese, bread and cold cut meats
Baltar et al.
Adolescents food choices at
breakfast, Goteborg, Sweden
Sweet baked goods (i.e. cinnamon and danish, buns), ice cream, cakes, cookies, c
and desserts, nuts, sweets, jam and sugar, popcorn, potato crisps, cheese doodles
and soft drinks
Sjoberg et al.
Breakfast consumption in Spanish
children and young people (3534
people aged 224 years),
Barcelona, Spain
A distinctive morning meal contained milk with cocoa powder/soluble chocolate and
sugar, a choice of either breakfast cereals around 34%, biscuits ~40%, bread (15%)
or sponge, buns, croissants, etc. (10%). Among them 10% of the group usually took
orange juice at morning time and ~5% different type of fruit or fruit salad
Aranceta et al.
France (2016): A study of 529
children aged 911 years in the
city of Rennes
Four breakfast patterns were identified: Sweets breakfast ~40%, traditional French
morning meal ~27%, ready-to-eat cereal with milk ~18% and dairy and juice at
morning time (10%)
Lepicard et al.
(2017), Gibney
et al. (2018)
Mexican National Food
Consumption Survey (3760
children), Mexico
Found six dietary patterns: cereal and milk ~6%, milk and sweetened breads ~38%,
sweetened beverages ~10%, tortillas and beans ~12%, sandwiches and
quesadillas ~9%, eggs ~8%, breakfast skippers (17%)
Afeiche et al.
United States: The 19941996
Continuing Survey of about
23 700 people among which
15 641 adults (aged 1865 year),
Cereal, toast, Eggs, fruit, fruit juices, tea, coffee and soft drinks Siega-Riz et al.
Survey from Chile among young
(1929 years), Chileans, Santiago,
Four different breakfast patterns: ‘Dairy and cereals’, ‘healthy’, ‘traditional salty’ and
‘traditional sweet’.
Breakfast comprises of fruits nearly 54%, cereals (40.0%) and lower intake of dairy-
based items (23.0%)
Ministry of Health
of Chille (2010
2011), D
Torrente &
Scarpelli (2020)
Nationally representative sample
surveyed in the 1995 National
Nutrition Survey of 13 858
Australians, Australia
Milk, cereals and bread were the most popular breakfast and <10% of Australians
ate a cooked breakfast
Williams (2002),
Gibney et al.
Breakfast in the United States Food consumed at morning time by US children and adults, the usually eaten foods
were baked goods, sweets, whole-grain RTEC and milk, juice and whole fruit
Drewnowski et al.
(2018), Gibney
et al. (2018)
©2020 Institute of Food Science and Technology International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al. 31
who avoided breakfast or consumed a fat-rich, low-fibre
breakfast showed higher BMI compared to those who
consumed whole-grain foods after a long gap (Cho
et al., 2003). By regular eating of breakfast, a decrease
in BMI of adolescent girls was observed (Albertson
et al., 2007). In Canada, a cross-sectional study (popula-
tion-based and nationally representative) was conducted
by taking >18 years women (non-pregnant and non-lac-
tating) and data were collected and observed that BMI
was lower among those consumed ready-to-eat cereal
(RTEC)-breakfast than other types of morning meal
eaters (Barr et al., 2016). Women who consumed RTEC
in breakfast were less obese (BMI 25 kg m
) as com-
pared to non-consumers. RTEC breakfast consumption
was interrelated with desired macronutrient availability
for reducing obesity and predicted weight status for
females but not for males. Still, there is no relationship
between total and RTEC breakfast consumption on
weight gain and health-related behaviours (Song et al.,
2005). The glycaemic index of cereal-based breakfast is
low which results in the slow release of glucose in the
bloodstream. An inverse relationship between the size of
breakfast and BMI of male respondents was noticed but
the same was not true for female respondents (Kent &
Worsley, 2010). The BMI of male vegetarian respon-
dents was less than that of non-vegetarians. Baltar et al.
(2018) also studied the relationship between breakfast
type and BMI and reported that those ate ready-to-eat
cereal, cooked cereal or slices of bread for breakfast had
lower BMI as compared to breakfast skippers and meat
and eggs eaters. The probable reason for this is with a
good sources of protein and lower level of fat and sugar
and calcium, nutrients currently related with a lower
weight gain (Pasiakos et al., 2015; Pannu et al., 2016).
Effect on cognitive function
Breakfast consumption improves mental performance
in a teenage population as compared to breakfast exclu-
sion (Cooper et al., 2011). Smith et al. (2002) reported
that stress was linked with increased cortisol levels while
regular consumption of cereal-based breakfast was
linked with reduced cortisol levels. Youngsters, who reg-
ularly consume breakfast, have reported better exercise
patterns (Keski-Rahkonen et al., 2003) and reasoning or
intellectual performance (Hoyland et al., 2009). Break-
fast intake is reported to help in improving mental per-
formance related to memory, performance in
examinations and school attendance (Rampersaud
et al., 2005). A better-quality breakfast can impact posi-
tively on youngsters’ mental health (O’sullivan et al.,
2009) and improve whole diet quality (Matthys et al.,
2007; Raaijmakers et al., 2010). Eating a larger break-
fast was also concomitant with better presentation on a
test of speaking fluency (Wyon et al., 1997). There were
numerous encouraging impacts on mood after breakfast
consumption, viz. increase in self-report awareness.
Breakfast consumption showed no impact on attention
and had a favourable effect on the accuracy of visual
and three-dimensional memory (Widenhorn-M
et al., 2009). Breakfast, as a determining factor of body
image satisfaction and its eating, had an acute impres-
sion on temperament (Lloyd et al., 1996).
Effect on performance of children
Breakfast consumption is believed to be linked with
nutritional fulfilment, optimum body weight and edu-
cational performance in teenagers as well as children
(Albertson et al., 2009; Szajewska & Ruszczynski,
2010). Several other reports also stated that breakfast
influenced the output presentation of school-children
(Owens et al., 1997; Wyon et al., 1997). Variations in
physical activity were also observed for those who had
cereal-based breakfast or as an evening meal and
found better performance. If breakfast is provided at
school, it has a positive effect on nutritional status of
the children as well as the effect on children’s weight
and height gain, positive effect on attendance, school
performance like the interaction between programmes
(Cueto, 2001). The relationship between the aptitude
of children towards their school work and the size of
breakfast as well as the need for mid-morning snacks
has been evaluated. The students who has a smaller
breakfast of around 61 kcal significantly worked for
less time than the students who had consumed higher
calorie meals. The contrary effect of a low-calorie
breakfast was overturned by the consumption of a
mid-morning snack (Benton & Jarvis, 2007).
In Sweden, 9- to 12-year-old schoolgoing children
who consumed high-calorie breakfasts and exercised
for a longer time in a morning physical exercise class
and also scored better in speaking fluency test (Wyon
et al., 1997). In 9- to 12-year-old children, breakfast
instead of fasting improved mental performance
(Mahoney et al., 2005). The academic performance of
9- to 12-year-old well-nourished American students
was improved when they consumed breakfast (Pollitt
et al., 1981, 1982). Breakfast considerably enhanced
academic performance and lowered non-attendance
and sluggishness (Benton et al., 2001). In 12- to 13-
year-old children, consumption of breakfast cereals
reduced the drop in attention and recall which tran-
spired after 3 h when children fasted or had a glucose
drink (Wesnes et al., 2003).
Effect on women health
Fujiwara (2003) observed that young women who gen-
erally tend to miss breakfast have a considerably more
occurrence of indications of dysmenorrhoea compared
to young women who regularly consume breakfast,
©2020 Institute of Food Science and TechnologyInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al.32
which suggests a positive association between skipping
breakfast and menstrual syndromes. Generally, irregu-
lar menstruation and dysmenorrhoeal and premen-
strual syndrome are measured as representative
menstrual disorders (Deligeoroglou, 2000). Fujiwara &
Nakata (2010) reported the relationship between
breakfast skipping and reproductive function. They
surveyed among 18- to 21-year-old female college-go-
ing students. The five surveys on annual basis showed
that the incidence of dysmenorrhoea was considerably
higher among the students who skipped breakfast. The
outcome of the survey suggested that breakfast skip-
ping is linked with menstrual disorders and influences
the physical state of college-going female students who
were undergoing post-adolescent maturation. These
menstrual ailments may impact the quality of life of
young women in the present as well as in the future.
Breakfast habits and family environment
The identification of the effects of regular consumption
of breakfast is essential for developing the interven-
tions intended at encouraging healthier food beha-
viours among the young population. Habits affecting
health are developed in the family, by the attitudes
and beliefs of parents, behaviours significantly affect-
ing the health behaviours of children (Tinsley, 2003).
Moreover, observations suggest that food preferences
as well as food behaviours developed at a young age
may strengthen with increasing age (Mikkila et al.,
2004). Latest reviews have noticed that parental food
consumption patterns are persistently and positively
linked with both healthy (Pearson et al., 2009) and
unhealthy (Horst et al., 2007) food choices of children
as well as teenagers. Moreover, there is substantial
indication that family background is a key parameter
for influencing the food preferences of children as well
as teenagers (Crockett & Sims, 1995; Story et al.,
2002; Patrick & Nicklas, 2005; Shepherd et al., 2006).
Parents should be inspired to become a positive exam-
ples for their child by improving their food behaviours
and the whole family as a single unit should be consid-
ered while designing programmes to encourage healthy
breakfast patterns (Pearson et al., 2009). Family struc-
ture was certainly linked with the breakfast consump-
tion behaviour of girls above 10 years (Franko et al.,
2008). A German study carried out in children and
teenagers observed that RTEC is preferred over bread
(Alexy et al., 2010). A study conducted in Scotland
from 1994 to 2010 explains alterations in daily break-
fast consumption patterns among teenagers. They
observed that the habit of daily breakfast consumption
in teenagers improved between these years but the
teenagers who are aged more than 14.5 years shown a
reduction in breakfast consumption and the increased
tendency was found in teenage girls than boys. The
habit of daily breakfast consumption was more pre-
dominant among teenagers who were living with both
the parents, while the lowest prevalence among those
who were living with a single parent. Scotland sur-
veyed in Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged
Children (HBSC) having an age of girls and boys
between 11 and 15 years by taking data of the year
1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 and found that daily
breakfast consumption increased among adolescents
between 1994 and 2010, but variances were observed
based on age and sex. Children above 14.5 years
observed decreases in morning meal intake and girls
were skipping more than boys. Daily breakfast con-
sumption patterns from 1994 to 2010 also influenced
by family structure. The largest section of the people
and frequency of regular breakfast consumption were
greater than before among those living with both par-
ents, and frequency decreased with time among teen-
agers of single-parent families, and particularly among
those teenagers who were living with their father (levin
et al., 2012). A French study reported that approxi-
mately 35% of French children preferred RTEC, while
around 40% preferred bread (Bellisle & Rolland-
Cachera, 2007). European multicentre Healthy Life-
style in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence
(HELENA) Study with two 24 h dietary recalls of
3137 teenagers were offered food items such as RTEC/
bread, milk/yogurt and fruit and macro- as well as
micro-nutrient intakes at breakfast and observed that
compared to bread breakfasts (39%), RTEC breakfast
(19.5%) and all other breakfasts (41.5%) were linked
with the enhanced nutrient intake (less sucrose as well
as fat; more fibre, more protein and micronutrients
like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin B)
at the breakfast among European teenagers, RTEC
consumers exhibited a more favourable nutrient intake
than those who consumed bread or other breakfasts,
except for simple sugars (Michels et al., 2016).
Effects of skipping breakfast
Breakfast is always considered as the most essential
meal of the day; however, the young population is more
likely to skip breakfast (Dwyer et al., 2001) with
approximately 50% of young persons aged between 6
and 11 regularly consume breakfast (Mahoney et al.,
2005). Missing breakfast is very common among many
teenagers in developed countries with the incidence of
skipping breakfast ranging from 3% (Dialektakou &
Vranas, 2008) to 34% (Rampersaud et al., 2005). Fur-
thermore, the frequency of missing breakfast in children
and teenagers is increasing (Siega-Riz et al., 1998). The
various studies conducted by different countries related
to skipping breakfast are given in Table 3.
Consumption of carbohydrate, fibre, calcium, iron,
folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamins A, C and
©2020 Institute of Food Science and Technology International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al. 33
E was higher in people consuming regular breakfast
than breakfast skippers. Fibre, calcium, iron and folate
intake was about 33%, 37%, 47% and 68% higher
respectively for regular breakfast consumers. The aver-
age folate intake for breakfast consumers was 68%
higher than that of the skippers. Farshchi et al. (2005)
reported that skipping breakfast weakens fasting lipids
and postprandial insulin sensitivity and could result in
an increase in weight if the higher energy intake was
Approximately 25% of the total Australian adults
and children and several other countries skip breakfast
(Williams, 2002; Keski-Rahkonen et al., 2003). Such
breakfast consumption behaviours may pose a major
public health problem. Moreover, a nutritious break-
fast is consumed among just 10% or fewer of adoles-
cents from Belgium (Matthys et al., 2007) and the
Netherlands (Raaijmakers et al., 2010).
In Brazil (2005), a study was conducted to illustrate
the nutritional quality of Brazilian teenagers focusing
on their breakfast habits. In this cross-sectional study,
1133 schoolgoing children (1014 years old) were
selected, in Niter
oi, Brazil, and information about
breakfast consumption was collected using 24 h diet-
ary recall. From this study, it was found that 16% had
not consumed breakfast on the day of survey while
omitting breakfast was more common among obese
than among non-obese children and among those
students studying in the morning shift than those
studying in the afternoon shift. The average daily
energy, macronutrient, calcium as well as vitamin A
consumptions were considerably more among individu-
als who regularly consumed breakfast than those who
skipped breakfast frequently. They also observed that
breakfast contribution was around 18% to the daily
energy intake. The food profile analysis revealed that
breakfast can be categorised by the type of beverage
consumed in the meal, and five different consumption
patterns were recognised: tea or coffee, milk or milk-
based beverages, sweetened beverages, no beverage
consumption and two or more type of beverages. The
study discovered that the dietary breakfast varieties of
Brazilian adolescents were associated with the daily
energy and nutrient intake and the type of beverage
consumed during breakfast. Sugar-based beverages
increased obesity and considered low-quality diet while
milk and milk-based beverages resulted in increased
intake of calcium and vitamin A throughout the day.
Such outcomes can encourage healthy eating beha-
viour and reduce the consumption of sugar-based
drinks, as they increase obesity and other related dis-
eases across the globe (dos Santos Correa et al., 2016).
The school breakfast program (SBP)
The School Breakfast Program (SBP) is a centrally
assisted meal programme operating in public and non-
profit private schools and residential child care institu-
tions. The SBP started in the year of 1966 as a pilot
project and was made a permanent entitlement pro-
gramme by Congress in 1975. The Food and Nutrition
Service (FNS) of the United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) governs the Program at the cen-
tral level.
Involvement in the SBP has increased steadily over
the years from 0.5 million children in 1970 to 3.6
Table 3 Breakfast skipping and its study parameter
Country Study parameter Breakfast skipping References
United States (20012008) NHANES data (Children 4057) 19% O’Neil et al. (2014)
United States (20012008) NHANES data (adults 10 431) 19.7% O’Neil et al . (2014)
Mexico (2017) National Food Consumption Survey
(Children 3760)
17% Afeiche et al. (2017)
Australia (2017): National Nutrition and
Physical Activity Survey (20112012) by
24-h recall method
Breakfast patterns with children and
young people (aged 218 years) =total
9% Fayet-Moore et al.
Brazil (2017): National Dietary Survey
(20082009) using two 24-h recalls
Sample size =34 003 (among that children
7276 and youngsters aged 1019 years)
7% Pereiraa et al. (2017)
Canada (2004): Nationally representative
Canadian Community Health Survey
Children (aged 418 year) =12 281 and
youngsters above 19 year =19 913
Children =10% and
adults =11% skippers
Barr et al. (2013), Barr
et al. (2014)
Korea (2009): National Health and
Nutrition Survey (2001) using 24-h recall
Children =1600 teenagers aged between 7
and 18 years
<10% Yeoh et al. (2009)
UK (2017): National Diet and Nutrition
Survey Rolling Programme using a 4-day
breakfast consumption and nutrient
patterns of children (1686) and teenagers
aged between 11 and 18 years
17% Coulthard et al. (2017)
United States (19941996): Survey of food
consumption by people
About 23 700 persons among that 15 641
adults (aged from 18 to 65)
23.0% Siega-Riz et al. (2000)
©2020 Institute of Food Science and TechnologyInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology 2021
Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al.34
million children in 1980; 4.0 million children in 1990;
7.5 million children in 2000; 11.67 million children in
2010; and 14.57 million children in 2016 (USDA,
YEAR). Under this programme, schools having a
higher share of low-income students (a minimum of
40% children receive free or low-price lunch) are con-
sidered severe need schools and are eligible for a higher
reimbursement rate. Under this programme, a conven-
tional, cafeteria-based breakfast model, schools may
also consider or an alternative breakfast model. For
example, Breakfast in the Classroom involves serving
the breakfast to children during a morning class, often
while the teacher is taking attendance or giving class-
room announcements. Schools operating Grab & Go
Breakfast serve children a breakfast to go, often in a
plastic or paper bag, before school or during a morn-
ing break (USDA, 2017;
Breakfast has a positive effect on health such as
improved daily routine activity, cognitive function,
memory recall, improve children’s performance and
women’s health. However, skipping breakfast increases
obesity, body mass index and reduces activity and per-
formance during a day. A healthy breakfast should
contain more fibre and protein, less sugar and fat and
rich in vitamin A, vitamin B, minerals (Calcium, iron,
magnesium) for the positive effect on health, cereal-
based breakfast increase glycaemic load and glycaemic
index. By knowing significance of breakfast, breakfast
was included in various school programmes. Among
the family environment patterns, the breakfast skip-
ping pattern was found more in single parent-child.
More awareness is required to focus on breakfast con-
sumption and more research required for the develop-
ment of convenient, ‘grab and go’ breakfast options so
people can consume those have problems like lack of
time in the morning, single parent, nuclear family.
Ready-to-eat cereal-based breakfast (RTEC) can be
considered as a decent breakfast choice due to a
diverse and stable diet.
The authors are highly acknowledged to Dr Shalini
Arya for review of this manuscript before submission
Author contribution
Rekha Rani: Conceptualization (equal); Data curation
(equal); Writing-original draft (lead); Writing-review &
editing (equal). Chetan N Dharaiya: Conceptualization
(equal); Writing-review & editing (equal). Bhopal
Singh: Conceptualization (equal); Data curation
(equal); Resources (equal); Writing-review & editing
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest among authors.
Ethical approval
Ethics approval was not required for this research.
Peer review
The peer review history for this article is available at
Data availability statement
The breakfast skipping data of different countries cov-
ered related to title. The authors are encouraged for
data sharing, mandates for data sharing and peer
review of data.
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Health benefits of breakfast: A review R. Rani et al.38
... The regular consumption of an inappropriate breakfast, or even its omission, is associated with many diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes and reduces overall performance during the day. A complete breakfast contains a blend of macronutrients, is rich in protein and fiber, low in sugar and fat, and includes vitamin A, vitamin B, and minerals to minimize fluctuations in insulin and not to predispose to obesity [1][2][3][4]. ...
... Children's advertisements were those that used any lexical unit from the "childhood" semantic field (e.g., school, kids, break, children, cartoon or animated characters, etc.). 3,4 In these categories, there is only one ad targeted to children, so the sugar content is related to that specific food. 5 No ads for these categories were found. ...
... Mean = 10.25; 2 Mean = 36.20; 3 ((Sugar % in children's products − Sugar % in Adults products)/Sugar % in children's products) × 100; Mean= 71.7%;4,5 In these categories, there is only one ad targeted to children, so the sugar content is related to that specific food.6 ...
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Although Spain was considered to be the healthiest country in the world in 2019, some studies reported that Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence, especially for breakfast, is low among children in Mediterranean countries, where child obesity is increasing alarmingly. This study correlated longitudinally the sugar content of breakfast products with advertising strategies. The research design applied quantitative analysis to compile the advertising data from 2015 to 2019 for all media, qualitative analysis of the content, and the use of popular characters to promote the food purchase. Additionally, a nutritional analysis was used to determine the products’ sugar content. The results were analyzed according to the target they were aimed at (adults or children). Results showed that the Spanish food industry promoted unhealthy products for breakfast, especially those targeted to children, with very high sugar content. To improve the childhood obesity rate in Spain, greater involvement from the food industry is needed. The reformulation of breakfast products must be a priority along with additional sugar reduction strategies so as not to lose adherence to MD in younger generations. More nutrition education is necessary among children, especially on balanced breakfast consumption, a basic meal that helps children to concentrate better in class during the morning.
... Breakfast habits have gained attention among researchers and in the public health area, as one of several factors that may impact academic performance (Adolphus et al., 2013;Cohen, Hecht, McLoughlin, Turner, & Schwartz, 2021;Lundqvist, Vogel, & Levin, 2019;Rani, Dharaiya, & Singh, 2020). The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study showed that while the rate of daily consumption of breakfast remained stable among students in Denmark, Finland and Sweden from 2002 to 2010, a decrease was observed among Norwegian students (Lazzeri et al., 2016). ...
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Having breakfast is associated with improved diet quality, cognitive- and academic performance and can therefore positively impact learning and health, although the impact on reading literacy is unknown in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to assess the association between having breakfast often versus rarely and reading literacy achievement based on Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) from 2016. The sample consisted of Danish (N = 3508), Finnish (N = 4896), Norwegian (N = 4232) and Swedish (N = 4525) students, 10–11 years old. Students self-reported their frequency of having breakfast. Linear regression analysis (adjusted for socio-economic status and gender) showed that those who often vs. rarely had breakfast achieved a higher reading literacy score. The results suggest that having breakfast may be important for reading literacy achievement even after adjusting for socioeconomic status. This potential relationship between breakfast intake and students’ academic achievement should be given priority for further research and practice as breakfast is a modifiable factor that can be both improved and be intervened on.
Aim: The objective was to determine the frequency pattern and nutritional quality of breakfast and snacks in Iranian adolescents and to investigate these dietary habits in relation to tooth decay and tooth erosion. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling method was adopted to recruit 600 adolescents with equal sex distribution in the city of Kerman/southeast of Iran. Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Tooth Wear Index (TWI) were recorded for each subject. Snacking and breakfast quality, frequency of snacking and regular/irregular use of main meals were also recorded. Poisson regression and Firth's bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: DMFT score of adolescents who consumed low-quality snacks were 1.13 times more than those who consumed high-quality snacks. Regular use of all three main meals was associated with a lower DMFT score. DMFT score of adolescents who did not have regular use of breakfast was 1.19 times more than those who consumed breakfast on a regular basis. Also, regarding adolescents who had an irregular use of lunch, the DMFT score was 1.3 times more than those who had a regular lunch schedule. In addition, participants with irregular dinner consumption had 1.24 times more DMFT scores compared to those with a regular dinner schedule. Conclusions: Regular breakfast consumption, decreased snacking occasions, use of higher nutritional quality snacks, and increased nutritional education are important in order to prevent a higher chance of dental caries and promote dental health status.
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Soccer is the most practiced team sport in the world. Due to the importance of nutrition in soccer performance, controlling the body composition and dietary guidelines of players takes place starting from lower categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate body composition and adherence to the Mediterranean diet of U12 players from a professional soccer team and to identify their dietary weak points. Seventy-one U12 male soccer players participated in the study. Weight, height, percentiles, skinfolds, and body fat were measured by a certified anthropometrist following the procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The Mediterranean diet adherence test (KIDMED) was the questionnaire used to evaluate eating habits. In addition, a comparison was made among field positions. The results showed percentiles and body fat percentages appropriate for their age. Furthermore, the average score on the KIDMED test showed that the players generally adhered well to the Mediterranean diet, although they should improve their consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as avoid skipping breakfast. Moreover, goalkeepers and defenders had a higher percentile BMI and percentage of fat than midfielders and forwards. In addition, these players had lower KIDMED values than midfielders and forwards. Although U12 soccer players have an appropriate body composition and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, there are differences between the different field positions that should be assessed by coaches, doctors, and nutritionists/dietitians.
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Calcium is a dynamic mineral. Recent discoveries designate that low intake of calcium generates deficiencies and path to other diseases. Food fortification could play a key role to overcome this problem. To cope with this deficiency problem, jellies were formulated with food-grade calcium salts and chicken eggshell powder. In the present study, three different concentrations of calcium salts, as well as eggshell powder were used to formulate jellies. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that the two jelly products (A&D) in the current study were suitable for consumers. Results of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer revealed Jelly A and jelly D had 151±0.05 ppm and 133±0.06 ppm calcium concentration, respectively. Proximate analysis of Jelly A showed that it has 6.0±0.01% ash, 9.2±0.1% moisture, 0.4±0.01 g crude protein, 82.79±0.001 g crude fiber, and 0.61±0.001 g crude fat, while the jelly D that was made with chicken eggshell powder exhibited 6.0±0.01% ash, 10.1±0.1% moisture, 0.5±0.01 g protein, 84.54±0.01 g crude fiber and 1.61±0.01 g crude fat. Therefore, these two jelly A & D were greatly appreciated among other attributes. In spite of naturally available calcium-rich sources, calcium-fortified jellies can be consumed by individuals who are incapable to take sufficient calcium from their diet.
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In this study, investigation of fourteen most common and traditionally used Indian staple grain flours: wheat, white rice, kutki rice, maize, maida, besan, sattu, little millet, quinoa, soybean, jowar, bajra, sooji and ragi was undertaken for the assessment of mono- (namely glucose, fructose and galactose) and di- (namely sucrose) and oligo-saccharides (namely raffinose, stachyose and verbascose), with a special interest on the indigestible flatulence producing Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides (RFOs). The soluble saccharides were extracted with ethanol and evaluated by calorimetric and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. The results showed that among the investigated flours, total RFOs content on dry matter (DM) basis ranges from 0.07 (maize) to 12.61 mmol/100 g DM (chickpea). Within RFOs, raffinose was the major sugar (0.1 to 8.04 mmol/100 g DM), followed by stachyose (negligible to 6.3 mmol/100 g DM) and verbascose (negligible to 0.14 mmol/100 g DM), except for soybean wherein the major RFO was stachyose. The observed sucrose content ranges from 0.05 (maize) to 6.32 mmol/100 g DM (quinoa). Within mono-saccharides: glucose content ranges from negligible (chickpea, little millet, quinoa, pearl millet and sooji) to 3.64 mmol/100 g DM (soybean), galactose content ranges from negligible (white rice, maize, sattu, quinoa, white millet, sooji and finger millet) to 1.72 mmol/100 g DM (chickpea) and fructose content ranges from negligible (chickpea, sattu, little millet, quinoa, soybean, sooji and finger millet) to 0.99 mmol/100 g DM (white rice). From the obtained results, the investigated grains can be classified as per the content of water soluble saccharides and accordingly a glycemic index and anti-flatulence chart can be prepared as a ready reference for dietary guidelines.
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Breakfast is one of the most important meals of the day. A good quality breakfast must include dairy products, cereals, and fruits. The aim of this study is to determine breakfast dietary patterns and their nutritional quality among Chilean university students. A cross-sectional non-probabilistic study was conducted in 200 university students between 18 and 27 years in Santiago, Chile. To identify dietary patterns and breakfast quality, a breakfast food survey was conducted. Patterns were identified by factor analysis. Most of the subjects (53%) ate breakfast daily, with a higher prevalence among females (60.2% vs. 43.7%, p < 0.05); 68% did not consume fruits and 17.5% had good breakfast quality, with no differences by sex. Four breakfast dietary patterns were identified: “dairy & cereals”, “healthy”, “traditional salty” and “traditional sweet” that together explained 35.6% of the total variance. There was no sex difference in predominant dietary patterns. The “dairy & cereals” and “traditional sweet” patterns were associated with regularly eating breakfast (β: −0.47, p = 0.001; β: −0.32, p = 0.020) and the “healthy” pattern with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (β: 0.35, p = 0.024). In conclusion, breakfast quality was inadequate due to low fruit consumption and energy intake. The four identified patterns included cereals, bread, dairy, fats and sugars. Results may be usual in the planning of future interventions aimed at improving breakfast consumption and quality in university students.
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CASE DESCRIPTION The market for Ready-to-Cook (RTC) food products in India has witnessed an unprecedented growth over the last few years on account of busier lifestyles and rising income levels of consumers. The attractive profits and potential growth opportunities in this sector has triggered the entry of multiple players, making the RTC sector extremely competitive and a red ocean. Therefore to set itself apart from competitors in this sector, any new entrant has to offer a unique value innovation. Branded idli/dosa batter in India had no competition as existing products available in this category were unbranded with no assurance of quality. By offering branded batter, focusing on research and development leading to innovations like the Vada maker and positioning itself as a personal assistant to t he Indian home maker, iD has attempted not to compete in the Red ocean and instead explore the Blue Ocean by discovering a new uncontested space in the food sector. In this context the present study attempts to explore the growth strategy of iD Fresh Food based on the principles of Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) evolved by Chan and Renée. Since its inception in 2005 iD Fresh Food, the Bengaluru-based company has experienced remarkable success in a very short span of time despite aggressive competition from both domestic and international brands in the convenience food sector. This study uses the case analysis approach which is aimed at tracing the company's attempt to make competition irrelevant by creating an uncontested market space using Four Actions Framework. The results indicate that iD has become a game changer in the batter segment by pursuing both differentiation and low cost simultaneously thereby adopting innovation and securing competitive advantage.
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Khakhra is a crispy version of roti, it is usually a cracker that is handmade and roasted to provide crunchiness. It is also a healthy snack which is a common recipe in the Rajasthani and Gujarati cuisines. Khakhra when prepared by using finger millet as a major ingredient provides a much more nutrition in terms of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and dietary fibers in comparison with the traditional khakhra that is made of wheat flour. Since over consumption of wheat or its products are known for improper health condition such as celiac disorder may overcome by substituting it with ragi or finger millet which is rich in several minerals such as calcium and iron. Finally obtained product is kept for sensory evaluation by using nine point hedonic scale
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Objective To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. Method A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10–19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008–9, a population‐based cross‐sectional study. Individuals’ information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59 am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi‐squared test or F‐test of regression analysis. Results Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17–32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8–12%) and energy intake (16%). Conclusions Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient‐dense food choices.
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The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfast nutrition in relation to overall DQ, using dietary data from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014 (n = 14,488). Relative DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index (NRF9.3) and the USDA Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015). The sample was stratified by NRF9.3 tertiles and by age and socioeconomic groups. Four out of 5 NHANES participants had breakfast on the day of the interview. Breakfast provided 19–22% of dietary energy depending on age. Breakfast intakes of complex carbohydrates and total sugars were proportionately higher and intakes of protein and fats were lower relative to breakfast energy intakes. Breakfast provided more that 20% of daily intakes of B vitamins, vitamins A and D, folate, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Eating breakfast was associated with higher NRF9.3 DQ scores. Breakfasts associated with the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores had less added sugars and fats than those associated with the bottom tertile. Such breakfasts had more fruit and juices, more whole grain products, more milk and yogurt and less meat and eggs. Breakfast patterns and food choices that favored fruit, whole grains and dairy were associated with healthiest diets.
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The objective was to investigate the relationships between body mass index (BMI), skipping breakfast, and breakfast patterns in Brazilian adults. We analyzed data of 21,003 individuals aged between 20 to 59 from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-2009. Breakfast was defined as the eating occasion between 5 and 10a.m. with the highest usual food consumption (exceeding 50Kcal/209.2kJ). Dietary patterns were derived by the factor analysis of 18 food groups (usual intake). Controlling for confounders linear regressions of BMI were used to verify the associations considering the survey design. Skipping breakfast was not associated with BMI. Three breakfast patterns were observed (48% variability): Brazilian Northern (positive loading for meats, preparations with corn, eggs, tubers/roots/potatoes, dairy products, savory snacks/crackers, fruit juices/fruit drinks/soy-based drinks); Western (positive for fruit juices/fruit drinks/soy-based drinks, sandwiches/ pizza, baked/deep-fried snacks, chocolate/desserts, cakes/cookies) and Brazilian Southeastern (cold cut meat, milk, cheese, coffee/tea, bread). The Brazilian Southeastern pattern was inversely associated with BMI, while the Brazilian Northern pattern was directly associated with it. Therefore, the results suggest a role for breakfast quality in the association with BMI. Thus, a Brazilian Southeastern breakfast usual intake may be inversely associated with BMI
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Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast.
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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. Method: A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Results: Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (up to 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Conclusions: Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices.
This book provides detailed information on the various ethnic fermented foods and beverages of India. India is home to a diverse food culture comprising fermented and non-fermented ethnic foods and alcoholic beverages. More than 350 different types of familiar, less-familiar and rare ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages are traditionally prepared by the country’s diverse ethnic groups, and include alcoholic, milk, vegetable, bamboo, legume, meat, fish, and cereal based beverages. Most of the Indian ethnic fermented foods are naturally fermented, whereas the majority of the alcoholic beverages have been prepared using dry starter culture and the ‘back-sloping’ method for the past 6,000 years. A broad range of culturable and unculturable microbiomes and mycobiomes are associated with the fermentation and production of ethnic foods and alcoholic drinks in India. The book begins with detailed chapters on various aspects including food habits, dietary culture, and the history, microbiology and health benefits of fermented Indian food and beverages. Subsequent chapters describe unique and region-specific ethnic fermented foods and beverages from all 28 states and 9 union territories. In turn the classification of various ethnic fermented foods and beverages, their traditional methods of preparation, culinary practices and mode of consumption, socio-economy, ethnic values, microbiology, food safety, nutritional value, and process optimization in some foods are discussed in details with original pictures. In closing, the book addresses the medicinal properties of the fermented food products and their health benefits, together with corresponding safety regulations.