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Exploring Authentic Leadership in relation to Followers' Authentic Leadership Development in Public and Private Sector Universities

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The study aims to explore the authentic leadership attributes (ALA) and its impact on the followers' authentic leadership development (FALD). The objectives of the study were to investigate authentic leadership attributes of leaders, find out existing position of followers' authentic leadership development and measure relationship between authentic leadership attributes and followers' authentic leadership development at university level. The population of the study was 6975. The sample of the study was 967. The mixed method approach was used to collect information from the sample through modified form of ALQ developed by Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardener, Wernsing, & Peterson (2008) and in-depth interviews. Analysis was done with Mean, STD deviation, Pearson's rank correlation and thematic analysis. It was found that r value (.513) which was significant at .000 showed significant positive large correlations between authentic leadership attributes and followers' authentic leadership development at university level.
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Research Journal of Social Sciences & Economics Review
Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2020 (Jan March)
ISSN 2707-9023 (online), ISSN 2707-9015(Print)
ISSN 2707-9015 (ISSN-L)
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* Elementary & Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Email: syedsaeed54@gmail.com
** Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan. Email: riasat@awkum.edu.pk
*** Elementary & Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Email: khaliq78@yahoo.com
14
RJSSER
Research Journal of Social
Sciences & Economics Review
Exploring Authentic Leadership in relation to Followers Authentic Leadership
Development in Public and Private Sector Universities
* Dr. Said Saeed, Principal
** Dr. Riasat Ali, Professor
*** Dr. Fazli Khaliq, SST
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Abstract
The study aims to explore the authentic leadership attributes (ALA) and its impact on the
followers authentic leadership development (FALD). The objectives of the study were to
investigate authentic leadership attributes of leaders, find out existing position of followers
authentic leadership development and measure relationship between authentic leadership
attributes and followers authentic leadership development at university level. The population
of the study was 6975. The sample of the study was 967. The mixed method approach was
used to collect information from the sample through modified form of ALQ developed by
Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardener, Wernsing, & Peterson (2008) and in-depth interviews.
Analysis was done with Mean, STD deviation, Pearson’s rank correlation and thematic
analysis. It was found that r value (.513) which was significant at .000 showed significant
positive large correlations between authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic
leadership development at university level.
Keywords: Leadership, Authentic Leadership Attributes, 
Development
Introduction
Authentic leadership is the outcome of the refinement of notions relating to leadership and
appeared as thought-provoking management model. Scholars like Gardner, Avolio and
Walumbwa (2005) were of the opinion that AL is the combining of high intellectual abilities
and administrative commitment which become the means of creating the fundamental
constituents of authentic leadership. Authentic leadership theory (ALT) is in embryonic stage
and needs the due concentration of the researchers to know how to bring the spirit of fair
dealings in all kinds of managerial matters (Zhang, Everett, Elkin, & Cone, 2012).
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Authentic leaders having relational transparency, idealized influence, ethical
perspective, knowledge generation, self-awareness, balanced processing information,
openness and fairness, integrity, objectivity, trust, honesty, leader-followers interaction,
followers-centric in place of leader-centric attitude, collaborative and collective learning,
truthfulness, kind attitude, generosity, and true self will bring development in organization
for the achievement of organizational outcomes through human resources and to help them
lead, and also that they can model its use for others. Authentic leadership will cause
organizations to collect, manipulate, observe, and report innovative and diverse kinds of
organizational achievement and growth data; leaders will have to be adroit and proficient in
doing this (Gardner et al, 2005).  development is the main area of authentic
leadership. There is a significant relationship between authentic leadership and 
development (Emuwa, 2013).
Statement of the Problem
The new millennium in Pakistan is shocking and dismal for many people due to the unethical
practices in all walks of life. The society is feeling thirst for a new brand of leaders who
epitomize an understanding and cognizance of aim and show loyalty to beliefs and ethics
(Ahmed, Shad, Mumtaz, & Tanveer, 2012). Watts (2015) suggested that people require
leaders who are the symbols of principles and straightforwardness; and who are the nice
agents of the heritage left by their forerunners. All around us, the ideas, signals and symbols
are understood that organizational leaders must meet the truth of decreasing optimism, poise,
hopefulness, confidence and self- assurance in themselves and in their members (Tapara,
2011).
The main objective of this study is to investigate the attributes of authentic leadership
and its relationship with  authentic leadership development at university level. The
previous research works have shown that authenticity and authentic leadership have positive
influences on the performance of the human resources, particularly on followers authentic
leadership development. Authentic   
professional development and in making future leaders.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were;
1) To investigate authentic leadership attributes of educational leaders at university level
2) To investigate the existing status of followers authentic leadership development at
university level
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3) To measure relationship between authentic leadership attributes and followers
authentic leadership development in public and private sector universities
Research Questions
1. What are authentic leadership attributes of educational leaders at university level?
2. What is the existing status of  authentic leadership development as
organizational development at university level?
3. Is there a relationship between authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic
leadership development in public and private sector universities?
Literature Review
AL appeared as a fruit of the previous leadership notions. It has universality. As
organizations develop, so problems created. The best weapon to handle such type of situation
in academic institutions is AL (Gardner et al., 2005). Leaders in academic circles are the
forefront workforce (Watt, 2015), properly grooming the next generation to face lurking
challenges and intricacies of the time.
Different empirical studies showed the variables of AL i.e. self-awareness (SA),
relational transparency (RT), ethical perspective (EP), balance processing information- BPI
(Walumbwa et al., 2008), positive psychological capital, self-truth and authenticity (Rego et
al, 2013) as well as diverse components of organizational development, org. effectiveness,
communication, behaviour, psychological capital, work engagement, pedagogical
development, followers authentic leadership development, classroom management,
professional development trainings, followers leader interaction, and followers AL
development.
Authentic leadership (ALs) is a gathering of self-information, understanding and
thoughtfulness to the positioning of other people and a methodological cleverness that
proceeds to the interaction of leadership actions (Bento & Ribeiro, 2013). Authentic leader is
always cognizant of his natural abilities, recognizes his/her shortcomings and works hard to
overcome these loopholes. He/she is dedicated to develop himself/herself because he is aware
to become AL, it takes time. He /she is believed by co-workers, true and a man of ethical
attractiveness and ethical purpose. He/she establishes direct relationship with followers for
bringing improvement in organizational structure and its values (Luthans & Youssef, 2007).
ALs is still at its nascent phase of evolution and displays some weaknesses in
connection to validity and reliability of AL constructs and researchers are required to bring
into consideration the positive and non-positive aspects of AL (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber,
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2009). Context or identity, without taking into consideration, is a weakness of AL, therefore,
it is sought to explore through the lived experiences of participants that scrutinize the setting
based on environments affects numerous individualities (Jones, Kim, & Skendall, 2012). In
addition, the ethical aspect and criteria of information, has not been completely illuminated
(Northouse, 2013).
ALs produces significant transformation in the life of individuals; organization,
discernment and principles are reshaped; prospects and ambitions of followers are changed;
            
energized; and goals are faced (Kotlyar & Karakowsky, 2007).
AL theory says that leaders must display the crucial constituents-relational
transparency (RT), self-awareness (SA), ethical perspective (EP), authentic behavior (AB),
positive psychological capital (PPC) and balance processing of information (BPI) of ALs to
lead efficiently and successfully (Walumbwa et al., 2008). Avolio and Gardner (2005)
reported that ALs is the epitome of self-awareness and principles; honesty and transparency
in judgments.
AL is self-identity, self-knowing, followers-knowing, world-knowing and God-
knowing. AL is showing truth and feeling fair in his/her dealing with others (George, 2003).
AL is all-encompassing and inclusive of both transformational and transactional leadership
styles (Avolio & Gardner, 2005).
The authentic leaders have distinguishing qualities of influencing the followers in a
way that enhance the feeling of assurance, devotion, enthusiasm, keenness, perseverance,
allegiance, staunchness and inspiring to progress the responsibilities accomplished in the
organization perpetually (Avolio, et al., 2004). Ethics and morality of the leader are the
crucial components of AL theory (Hester, & Killian, 2011).
ALs is a procedure of adapting self-awareness, self-regulation in constructive
attitudes by both leaders and followers which result an encouraging development of self and
        
coolness, poise, dignity and calmness (Sparrowe, 2005). Furthermore, Ilies et al. (2005)
advocated Kernis (2003) ALs model, mixture of four behaviours- neutral dispensation, self-
consciousness, reliable interactive placement and true conduct. Similarly, Shamir and Eilam
(2005) reported that authentic leader is the mirror of intelligibility of self-concept, self-
agreement aims and goals, and self- expressive behaviour.
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Additionally, ALs notion is at the embryonic phases of paradigm (Walumbwa et al.,
2010). Nevertheless, genuineness concept has it origin in the discipline of psychology
(Kernis, 2003) and philosophy (Harter, 2002). Similarly, in current years, authenticity
construct was polished and illuminated by experiential studies. All-inclusive studies

tremendous scale (Humphreys et al., 2011). AL are broadminded personalities, having
emancipation from self-justifying partialities in contrast to immature individuals. AL are
translucent, crystal-clear and not immature persons. They display intimate interactions which
mirror their genuine attributes, uniformity, philosophies, standards and activities. Moreover,
Ryan and Deci (2003) discussed that those who are the symbols of morality, self-truth in
opposition to briberies, exterior intimidations, prizes and societal hopes, rank or position, are
authentic leaders. Authentic leaders are defined by the stability, uniformity and reliability of
their actions in light of ethical perspective (Hsiung, 2012).
Huang and Luthans (2013) posit that ALs is the product of the aftermath of
industrialized management theory, signifying that it is cooperative, interpersonal, and not
concentrated on specific spearhead. Answers to organizational challenges and opportunities
have been provided by authentic practices and AL theory, for institutional transformation, by
admitting how their different and crisscrossing social individualities influence them.
Narrative, reflection and other modes focus leaders to examine the roots of their morals, and
activities; and to encourage followers (Chávez & Sanlo, 2013).
The dominant notion behind ALs is SA that help in the improvement of authentic
followers. They also focus on the good fortune of the followers (Avolio & Gardner, 2005).
Self-awareness is flexible, flowing, emerging attribute and background shapes individuality
and individuality shapes background of a person, and this is the self-truth (Jones, Kim &
Skendall, 2012). Flexibility is the strong point of ALs that can be used independently and
jointly with other theories of leadership (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Relational model is
another strength which focus on the FALD, and that is not leader-centric (Helstad, & Moller,
2013). Trustworthiness is another strong point of AL means to fill an stated shared necessity
for truthful headship at an undefined period, and its progressive method means that anybody
(leader or followers) can learn to exercise it, and thus, block up that vacuum (Northouse,
2014).
Balanced processing, internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, and self-
awareness are the conceptual basis, have been branded by research studies for AL behavior
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(Gardner et al., 2005; Ilies et al., 2005; Walumbwa et al., 2008). Balanced processing is the
objective analysis of all related information prior to final decision-making. Internalized moral
perspective is characterized by the intrinsic ethical values and criteria of the attitude of
leaders rather than by extrinsic influence of society, same age people as well as by
organizational atmosphere (Gardner et al., 2005). Relational transparency is the name of
individual openness        
and frame of mind is communicated with the group members (Walumbwa et al., 2010). As a
final point, self-awareness is getting information that how the followers think about his
leadership as well as to know the drives and purposes and to weigh his strong and weak
points for the heightening of their authenticity and genuineness and efficiency, using both
self-learning and replicated self-perception (Walumbwa, Peterson, Avolio, & Hartnell, 2010).
These paradigms have been advocated scientifically and are considered as the foundation for
the validation and measurement of AL (Walumbwa et al., 2008; Walumbwa et al., 2010).
Teaching atmosphere of the current time has driven both intellectuals and researchers
equally to admit the need for a more unpretentious practice of management (Avolio &
Gardner, 2005). The ways of manifestation of AL are countless, though, the concept is
founded on self-truth and practice professed by followers as actual and unaffected (Shamir &
Eilam, 2005). ALs is a innovative notion and is an evolving sort in present time investigation
(Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Bass and Bass (2008) posit that ALs was branded by theoreticians
investigating TL.
Shamir and Eilam (2005) offer a finer explanation of AL. Authentic leaders- follow
their own actions, beliefs, and they self-motivated and do not depend on the expectations of
others and do not cry for position or status. Additionally, their behavior is not the imitation of
others, but honorably driven by their own ethics and principles. In this respect, ALs can be
seen as an interpersonal progression, shaped both by leaders and followers.
Since the inception of sophisticated technology, fiscal pressures, transnational
competition, organizational initiatives, and an ever-growing financial and ethical climate,
leaders in both private and public sector universities are meeting a high degree of difficulty in
the environment (Guerrero, Lapalme, & Séguin, 2015; Pirannejad, 2013). There is struggle
for skills across organizations; upholding worker engagement is challenging; leaders can no
longer depend on their authority to attain their targets (Francisco, Gonzales, & Vargas, 2015;
Lelchook, 2012). Their workforce also expects to be esteemed, appreciated and supported,
and to see their leaders as models of truth. At the same time, leaders have to make hard
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decisions which sometimes go against the outlooks and principles of their followers (Rich,
Lepine, & Crawford, 2010). The atmosphere in organizations is progressively multifaceted
and challenging, and some leaders are not succeeding to cope with it, as apparent by the
number of organizations that continue to experience failings. Many leaders are struggling to
develop organizations that can operate successfully within multifarious settings, while
ensuring that their followers behave ethically (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 2011). Leaders are as

fondness and manners, leaves an influence on those they lead (Padilla, Hogan & Kaiser,
2007).
Followers are empowered by such attributes for the true assessment of the proficiency
 et al., 2010).
Followers
Oke, 2011). Followers are advanced and strengthened by their authentic leaders by
revitalizing and energizing them with noble actions psychologically, ethically and morally
that are contributing to their performance. The perspective of complementary congruity
produces the question that whether the followers     
affected or taking influence in different context and further elucidate that to what extent it is
same and to what extent it is different as influenced by AL (Grant, Gino, & Hofmann, 2011).
The complementary congruity theory further suggests that the performance of the followers is
influenced efficiently by the positive effect of the authentic leader. Particularly, the qualities
and attributes of authentic leaders back and balance the required abilities and skills, for good
performance of the followers (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007). ALs! Thy name is a
relational process (Dasborough & Ashkanasy, 2005). Previous studies show that the
continuous connections and exchange of views of the leaders and followers with one another
enhance the performance for the better achievement of organizational goals (Huang &
Luthans, 2013).
Avolio et al. (2004) examine that the performance of the followers is positively
influenced by AL. Gardner et al. (2005) and Kernis (2003) studied that for the achievement
of frankness and candidness; candor and straightforwardness in their associations with their
followers, authentic leaders adopts their inner values and true principles in their attitude.
Avolio and Gardner (2005) argue that crystal clear decision-making and role model
presentation are the universal qualities of authentic leaders, and provide guidance to the
followers. Moral attitude of authentic leaders makes the availability of showing straight ways
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to the companions due to their desirability and believability as starring role representatives
(Wang et al., 2014).
Authentic Leaders upkeep the welfare of their followers, ensure availability of advice,
shelter, positive response and information that they would otherwise have deficiency (Hsieh
& Dan-Shang Wang, 2015).
Methodology
The study was mixed method research in nature. It is the blend of numerical and non-
numerical methodologies in one study (Creswell, 2015). Concurrent triangulation design
(Convergent Parallel design) was used.
Population of the Study
The population was all VCs/ Deans, HEC approved supervisors, heads of departments
(HODs), and teaching faculty of public and private sector universities of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. Gay and Mills (2011) posit about the dimensions and proportion of the
population that may either target or accessible.
The human resources population of the study is presented. HEC website was visited
for the identification of the available population in twenty nine (29) public and private sector
universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Twnenty nine (29) vice chancellors / (58) Deans, four
hundred and theirty two (432) HODs, seven hundred and seventy two (772) HEC approved
supervisors; and five thousand, seven hundred and forty two (5742) assistant professors and
lecturers comprised the population of the study.
Sample of the Study
Probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used for selection of sample.
Simple random sampling techniques were adapted for selection of sample to get quantitative
data. Purposive sampling techniques were adopted for selection of leaders and teachers for
interviews to gain qualitative data. All the leaders, and teachers in Abdul Wali Khan
University, University of Swat, University of Swabi, University of Malakand, Shaheed
Benazir Bhutto university Dir, Bacha Khan university, Islamia College university, First
Woman university (Shaheed Benazir Bhutto university Peshawar, University of Haripur,
Abasyn University, Preston University, Qurtaba University and Northern University Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan constituted the sample of the study.
Human resources sample comprised twelve (12 with 40%) Vice Chancellors/ Deans,
one hundred and ninety five (195 with 45%) HODs, three hundred and fifty (350 with 45%)
HEC supervisors and four hundred and ten (410 with 8%) assistant professors and lecturers;
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total sample of the study was nine hundred and fifty seven (967) from nine (9) public and
four (04) private sector universities (45%) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Gay & Mills, 2011).
Data Collection Tools
Questionnaires and in-depth interview were used as research instruments to collect data from
the concerned participants and informants.
Data Analysis
R.Q.1:- What are authentic leadership attributes of educational leaders at university
level?
Table 1
Self-Awareness among university leaders
Std D
M
Statements
.669
4.57
I can list my three greatest weak points.
.649
4.87
I can list my three greatest strong points.
.666
4.66
I seek feedback as a way of understanding who I really am as a person.
.465
4.76
I accept the feelings I have about myself.
.810
4.77
I consider myself answerable to all.
.667
4.56
I remain I am aware of my own loopholes and openly discuss with
followers.
0.65
4.59
Overall
Table 1 shows that respondents revealed    statements of
self-awareness construct having mean scores 4.57, 4.87, 4.76, 4.77, 4.66 and 4.56 which
come in the (Range from 4.51 to 5.00) among leaders. The overall mean score 4.59 comes in
the range (4.51 - 5.00), and it shows that all the respondents strongly agreed with the
construct of self-awareness of authentic leadership. The mean scores further show that the
most of the leaders at university level are self-aware and have the attribute of self-awareness,
which is the prime component of authentic leadership.
However, all the STD deviation scores reflect that all the respondents have
convergence in their opinions about the statements of self-awareness
Table 2
Relational Transparency among university leaders
Std D
M
Statements
S. No
.419
4.81
I openly share my feelings with others.
1
.440
4.73
I let others know who I truly am as a person.
2
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.720
3.54
I rarely present a "false" front to others.
3
.681
4.53
I confess to others for my mistakes.
4
.388
4.83
I almost always consult with my team before decision-making.
5
.440
4.26
I keep positive relations with followers.
6
.514
4.45
Overall
Table 2 indicates that respondents showed      
I rarely present a "false" front to others.I
keep positive relations with followers.        
demonstrate that the respondents agreed with two statements. The overall mean score 4.45
follows the range (3.51 - 4.50) shows that all the respondents agreed with all the statements.
The mean scores further show that the leaders at university level have transparency in their
relationship with followers and have the attribute of relational transparency, which is the key
component of authentic leadership. However, most of the STD scores reflect that all the
respondents are unanimous in their opinions about the statements.
Table 3
Balance Processing of Information among university leaders and followers
Std D
M
Statements
S. No
.685
4.56
I seek others' opinions before making up my own mind.
1
.539
4.74
I listen closely to the ideas of those who disagree with me.
2
.677
4.55
I do not emphasize my own point of view at the expense of others.
3
.751
3.51
I listen carefully to the ideas of others before making decisions.
4
.847
3.71
My followers feel I am genuinely interested in serving them.
5
.575
4.15
I share my information with followers.
6
.679
4.20
Overall
Table 3 points that respondents show       
that    
(Ranged from 3.51 to 4.15) which come in the range (3.50 to 4.50). The overall mean score
4.20 move toward the range (3.51 - 4.50) shows that all the respondents agreed with all the
statements. The mean scores further show that the leaders at university level have the balance
processing of information within the outskirts of the university and have the quality of
balance processing of information, which is an important component of authentic leadership.
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However, the standard deviation scores reflect that all the respondents are undivided in their
opinions about the statements of balance processing.
Table 4
Ethical perspective among university leaders
Std D
M
Statements
S. No
.668
4.66
My actions reflect my core values.
1
.660
4.67
I do not allow group pressure to control me.
2
.638
4.70
Other people know where I stand on controversial issues.
3
.638
4.70
My moral standards guide me what I see to do as a leader.
4
.662
4.59
I deal ethically with my followers.
5
.662
4.59
I look forward to creating genuine relationship through my
association at work.
6
0.65
4.65
Overall
            
with the all six statements. The overall mean score 4.65 follows the range (4.51 - 5.00)
displays that all the respondents strongly agreed with all the statements. The mean scores
further show that the leaders at university level are ethically strong and have the attribute of
ethical perspective, which is a major component of authentic leadership. However, most of
the standard deviation scores reflect that all the respondents are exclusive in their opinions
about the statements ethical perspective.
Table 5
Positive psychological capital among university leaders
Std D
M
Statements
S. No
.662
4.59
I am optimistic in my performance as role model for my followers.
1
.809
4.49
I share common vision with my associates.
2
.809
4.49
I encourage my co-workers when facing difficulties.
3
.809
4.48
I try to become a model of authentic leadership attributes.
4
.809
4.49
The actions I take are always linked with my values.
5
.646
4.68

6
0.75
4.53
Overall
Table 5 refers to that respondents show       to the
             
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followers              
            
statements . The overall mean score 4.53 emanates in the range (4.51 - 5.00) shows that all
the respondents strongly agreed to all the statements. The mean scores further show that the
leaders at university level are hopeful, self-efficacious, resilient and optimistic; and have the
attribute of positive psychological capital, which is a most important component of authentic
leadership. However, the standard deviation scores reflect that all the respondents have the
similar opinions about the statements of positive psychological capita
Table 6
Followers’ authentic leadership development among university teachers
Std D
M
Statements
S. No
0.72
4.13
I receive recognition from the leader for doing good work.
1
0.73
4.16
I feel that my fellow workers are committed to doing good quality
work because of authentic leader.
2
0.66
4.37
The leader makes me feel that my job is important for the well-
being of others.
3
0.67
4.55
I am satisfied what I am doing for the others,
4
0.87
3.94
I am contented what I am receiving for my job.
5
0.62
4.24
I receive recognition from the leader for doing good work.
6
0.71
4.23
Overall
   

- 5.00) expresses that the respondents
showed strongly agreed. The overall mean score 4.23 emanates in the range (3.51 - 4.50)
illustrates that all the respondents agreed to all the statements of followers authentic
leadership development. The mean scores further show that the leaders at university level
have the abilities to engage followers in the best of their activities for the development of the
organization and well-being of the human resources, and they believe that followers
authentic leadership development is the best construct for the organizational development and
is a necessary element for the professional development of the teachers and other followers.
However, the standard deviation scores reflect that all the respondents have the alike opinions
about the statements of  authentic leadership development.
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Table 7
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between self-awareness and followers authentic
leadership development
Table 7 illustrates that the self-awareness which is the first construct of authentic
leadership has the average correlation for  authentic leadership development (r
value .388) which is significant at .000
Table 8
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between relational transparency and followers’
authentic leadership development
Correlations
RT
JS
Relational
Transparency
Pearson Correlation
-
.115**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
classroom
management
Pearson Correlation
-
.912**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 8 illustrates that the relational transparency which is the most important
construct of authentic leadership has the highest correlation for  authentic
leadership development (r value .115) which is significant at .000
Correlations
SA
JS
Self-
awareness
Pearson Correlation
-
.388**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
Followers
authentic
leadership
development
Pearson Correlation
-
.912*
*
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Table 9
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between balance processing and followers authentic
leadership development
Table 9 illustrates that the balance processing, which is the third construct of authentic
leadership, has the highest correlation for  authentic leadership development (r
value .129) which is significant at .000
Table 10
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between ethical perspective and followers’ authentic
leadership development
Correlations
EP
JS
Ethical
Perspective
Pearson Correlation
-
.177**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
Followers authentic
leadership
development
Pearson Correlation
-
.912**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The above table illustrates that the ethical perspective, the fourth construct of
authentic leadership, has the highest correlation for  authentic leadership
development (r value .177) which is significant at .000
Table 11
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between positive psychological capital and 
authentic leadership development
Correlations
BP
JS
Balance
Processing
Pearson Correlation
-
.129**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
Followers authentic
leadership development
Pearson Correlation
-
.912**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Correlations
PPC
JS
Positive
Psychological
Capital
Pearson Correlation
-
.255*
*
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
Followers authentic
leadership
development
Pearson Correlation
-
.912**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The above table illustrates that the ethical perspective, the construct of authentic
leadership, has the highest correlation for  authentic leadership development (r
value .255) which is significant at .000
Table 12
Pearson Product Moment Correlations between authentic leadership attributes and followers
authentic leadership development
Correlations
Authentic leadership
attributes
Followers authentic
leadership
development
Authentic
leadership
Attributes
Pearson
Correlation
-
.513**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
967
Followers
authentic
leadership
development
Pearson
Correlation
-
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
967
967
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Medium positive correlation between the two variables, r = .426, n = 967, P < .000,
not as much of .05 indicating the statistical significance of the results. Cohen (1988) suggests
the following guidelines: small correlation (r=.10 to .29) medium correlation (r=.30 to .49)
large correlation (r=.50 to 1.0) (pp.79-81). In the light of this suggestion, there is medium
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correlation (r=.426) between authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic
leadership development.
Table 13
Sector-wise correlation between authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic
leadership development in public and private sectors
Correlations
Type of
organization
(binned)
N
Mean
Std D
r value
Sig.
level
Authentic
leadership attributes
Public
483
140.817
7.526
.455
.000
Followers authentic
leadership
development
Authentic
leadership attributes
Private
484
134.042
14.960
.519
.000
Followers authentic
leadership
development
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 13 illustrates the mean, STD deviation, Pearson correlations and significance of
the authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic leadership development from
sector-wise perspective. The mean score of the authentic leadership attributes and 
authentic leadership development in public and private sector universities was 140.8170 and
134.0424 with standard deviation of 7.52612 and 14.96052. The r value between authentic
leadership attributes and followers authentic leadership development in public sector
universities is (r = .355) showing medium relationship which is highly significant as shown
by the significant level (.000). The r value between authentic leadership attributes and
followers authentic leadership development in private sector universities is (r = .519) which
is indicative of large correlations as suggested by Cohen (1988) that small correlation ranges
from (.10 to .29) medium correlation (.30 to .49) and large correlation (.50 to 1.0) which is
highly significant as shown by the significant level (.000).These values show that relationship
between authentic leadership attributes and followers authentic leadership development in
private sector universities is higher than public sector universities.
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Findings
Major findings of the study were;
Major findings of the study were;
1. The overall mean scores (4.57, 4.45, 4.20, 4.65 and 5.53) showed authentic leadership
attributes of university leaders (Table 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5).
2. The cumulative mean score (4.38) reflected followers authentic leadership development of
teachers (table 4.6).
3. The r values (.398, .125, .139, .187 and .265) which were significant at .000 showed
significant positive correlations of authentic leadership attributes with followers authentic
leadership development (table 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11).
4. The r value (.513) which was significant at .000 showed significant large correlations between
         
(Table 12)
5. The r value (.455) which was significant at .000 showed a significant average correlation in
public sector universities between authentic leadership and organizational development at
university level. (Table 13)
6. The r value (.519) which was significant at .000 showed a significant large correlation in
private sector universities between authentic leadership and organizational development at
university level. (Table 13)
7. From qualitative data, the process and attributes which transform followers into
authentic leaders that how a followers becomes authentic leader was also drawn. The
major themes of authentic leadership were those attributes which guarantee
transforming followers into authentic leaders that self-awareness, relational
transparency, ethical perspective, balance processing of information and positive
psychological capital.
Discussions
This study adds to the authentic leadership literature by documenting empirical support of
relations between authentic leadership and organizational development, and particularly,
teacher professional development- work engagement,  authentic leadership
development, professional development trainings, and leader  interaction and
 authentic leadership development. All hypothesized relations were supported by
the data. As expected, authentic leadership attributes self-awareness (Walumbwa et al.,
2008), relational transparency (Walumbwa et al. , 2008; ClappSmith et al., 2009), ethical
perspective (Walumbwa et al., 2008; Spillane, 2005; Branson, 2010) and balance processing
information were significantly positively related to work engagement. Banks, McCauley,
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Gardner, & Guler, (2016); Miralles, Navarro & Unger (2015);Rana (2015), followers
authentic leadership development (Lee & Sabharwal, 2016), professional development
trainings, and leader followers interaction (Qu, Janssen & Shi, 2015; Baker, Anthony &
Stites-Doe, 2015) and followers authentic leadership development (Walumbwa et al., 2008).
This finding was consistent with Walumbwa et al. (2008), who found self-awareness,
relational transparency, ethical perspective and balance processing of information as the
constructs of authentic leadership.
Positive psychological capital attribute of authentic leadership was found to be
significantly positively related to work engagement work engagement,  authentic
leadership development, professional development trainings, and leader  interaction
and  authentic leadership development. This finding is in line with previous
research of Rego et al. (2013).
This study suggests that authentic leadership (AL) is significantly related to
organizational development which is in line with the studies of Hwang and Lee (2015),
Gardner et al. (2011) and Walumbwa et al. (2008) who coined self-knowledge and self-
awareness as integral components of AL in accord with Hamachek (2000) and Lux (2012)
who emphasized that followers improve more self-awareness as their authentic leadership
attributes progress. High authentic leaders are, therefore, able to appropriately transform their
behaviors for attaining the desired organizational goals.
Earlier empirical studies have related AL to both attitudinal (Laschinger, Wong, &
Grau, 2013; Leroy, Palanski, & Simons, 2012) and behavioral outcomes (Hannah,
Walumbwa, & Fry, 2011a; Leroy, Anseel, Gardner, & Sels, 2015). Empirical studies suggest
that when leaders are aware of their moral standards and act upon such principles, they are
more likely to gain higher levels of performance and assist others to get done the same (Ryan
& Deci, 2001). Followers tend to express greater satisfaction with their leader when the
leader involves in authentic actions, and this satisfaction is likely to link to a growth in
 authentic leadership development (Jensen & Luthans, 2006).
Leaders who are professed to be more moral and make righteous decisions will be
professed as caring more about their followers (Brown & Treviño, 2006). Furthermore, AL
has got a strong relation to enhanced task performance (Leroy et al., 2015) and performance
at both the group and organizational levels (Hannah et al., 2011a), in part, because persons,
who are authentic, are able to efficiently use balanced processing of information and establish
consistency between their sayings and actions (Walumbwa et al., 2008). Gardner et al. (2005)
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 , in which
the development of followership is the result of Authentic Leadership.
“a pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and promotes both positive
psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-
awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information,
and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering
positive self-development” (Rego, Vitória, Magalhães, Ribeiro, & Cunha, 2013, p.
62).
Harter (2005) presents a catalogue of psychological paybacks for being authentic,
namely; higher self-esteem, more positive effect and more futuristic optimism. Mostly,
authentic leaders are more salient due to their inherent features and they influence their
followers by their authentic deeds and positive relation and by this strong constructive
relation with followers, authentic leaders surpass authenticity (Gardner et al., 2005).
Liborius (2014) found that truth, meekness, mercy, concern, awareness and
gratefulness towards followers positively correlated with followers   
with their leader, and positively correlated with organizational development which favors
the findings of this study.
Leader confidence or effectiveness is recognized in the AL model as a positive
psychological capacity possessed by authentic leaders and being helpful for goal attainment
(Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007). Authentic leadership is reciprocal (Begley, 2006).
These empirical works supports the finding of this study.
Authentic leadership is a process in which leaders and followers assist each other to
make progress to a higher level of morale and motivation. It produces significant
transformation in the life of individuals and organization, discernment and principles are
reshaped, prospects and ambitions of followers 
role model is made for ethical development, vision is energized and goals are faced (Kotlyar
& Karakowsky, 2007).
Narrative, reflection and other modes focus leaders to investigate the origins of their
values, actions, and assumptions, and thus be better positioned to encourage and empower
the leadership of followers (Chávez & Sanlo, 2013).
Relational model is another strength which focus on the development of leaders and
followers and that is not leader-centric, but giving followers their share of the power and
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responsibility in the leadership of a particular organization and the development of its
members rather than just being resources to a production end (Dugan & Komives, 2010).
Recommendations
In the light of findings and conclusions of the study, following recommendations were made.
Authentic Leadership must be the theoretical lens through which all educational
leadership development is perceived and developed. Since Begley (2006, p. 570) defines that
Authentic Leadership “is a metaphor for professionally effective, ethically sound, and
consciously reflective practices in educational administration”, therefore, it is time for
universities to encourage, motivate, progress and develop authentic leaders. Organizations in
our country desires educational leaders who, while at the forward-facing line of defense, are
grooming and educating a new generation through authentic leadership, as it is considered the
architect of morality which are not guaranteed by position and prestige, but who lead by the
attributes of Authentic Leadership. In reality, what these researchers actually learned from the
study is that followers wish for Authentic Leadership in their universities.
Great shortage of research is found on Authentic Leadership and its relationships to
any factor in the educational system of our country, therefore, the field is ready for
ploughing. With Authentic Leadership as a theoretical framework for research, it is the
           
purpose to restoring confidence, hope, optimism, resiliency, and meaningfulness” in
leadership practices (Avolio et al., 2004, p. 3) can and should start now. Since the results of
this study support the idea that Authentic Leadership is a desirable leadership construct in this
country, then further empirical research may be conducted in the field of education aiming at
growing and developing authentic leaders, preparing them to meet the challenges of leading
universities. Authentic leadership is still in the early stages of development, and much
empirical research is looked-for to advocate the rich theoretical foundations of this theory.
The range of this study concentrated largely on self-awareness as the first component of
Authentic Leadership and the current research on enhancing current leadership practices. On
the other hand, more tools are required to be exposed or advanced to meet the other aspects of
an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, positive psychological
capital and relational transparency.
In terms of organizational development, Authentic Leadership, when demonstrated,
has been shown to make available a firm underpinning for proper and viable organizational
development (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). Begley (2006) tackled the matter as it concerns to
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educational leaders, who, he said, must engage the university community regarding all
relevant problems. This notion was further confirmed by the teachers in this study, who
communicated their pleasure and yearning to work in an environment where Authentic
Leadership is demonstrated. Since educational leadership is thought to present values and an
ethical attempt, and further, since Mehmood, Nawab, and Hamstra (2016) highlighted that
leadership can be advanced through formal training, further research must face this
requirement for training. And lastly, there has been a recent move in Authentic Leadership
research toward the development of followers (Avolio & Walumbwa, 2014). Additionally,
study on  development could shed light on how teachers might be trained in
Authentic Leadership attributes in order to improve organizational development (Harvey,
Martinko, & Gardner, 2006).
In the near future, methodological correctness will likely maintain its salience. It
would be expected that humanistic and aesthetic values will be highlighted /neglected in
research in the face of issues of social justice and pragmatism. Capitalistic elements related to
the costs of education and the ways in which the education system provides a suitable labor
             
neglected, research must refresh intellect.
It is suggested that more leadership opportunities be provided for teachers, with the
intention also to provide greater incentives to the professional.
It may be well to conduct research study on the authentic leadership at primary level,
secondary level and college level both at private and public sectors as these areas are in great
need of authentic leadership because these sectors suffered a lot due to unethical attitude of
the leaders.
It becomes incumbent upon each and every researcher, leader and followers, who
seeks the dignity and bliss of authentic leadership, to regulate his /her life according to the
valuable constructs (attributes) of authentic leadership; as not accumulated wealth ( by hook
or crook) but righteousness (authentic leadership attributes) attains the happy end; the gift of
Nature and the solace of mind and soul come from adopting authentic leadership attributes; as
authentic leadership creates purity, harmony, balance and transparency; and evil is doomed to
perish. Authentic leadership is a guide and a mercy to men and teaches them wisdom- the
path of Golden Mean-pure life.
It is concluded from the interviews that theoretically leaders are very strong but in
practice they are lagging behind. One interviewee remarked “(HAM GUFTAAR K HERO
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HAN LAKEN KIRDAAR K ZERO). It means that speech-wise we are heroes but character-
wise we are zeroes.” Therefore it is recommended that all leaders and teachers must work in
disciplined ranks to repel evil. They must choose between Good and evil, with their
consequences in the coming life. If they did well, they did well for themselves; if they did
evil, they did it against themselves.
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