ArticlePDF Available

NEW TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO THE DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE: THE SPECIFIC CASE OF THE TARTESSIAN BUILDINGS OF THE CENTRAL GUADIANA VALLEY (SPAIN)

Authors:

Abstract

Until now, the analysis of earthen architecture, characteristic of the Tartessian culture, has been overlooked by archaeological studies. With the aim of incorporating it into historical research as another social product, the result of the society that thinks and builds it, a research project was initiated with the title "Building Tartessos: constructive, spatial and territorial analysis of an architectural model in the central Guadiana valley." This project has three well-differentiated work phases whose development and applied methodology are described in the following pages. The purpose of this method is to identify the types of construction, to characterize the raw materials used and their catchment areas, the construction techniques employed, the types of analysis carried out for the mineralogical characterization of the materials, and to present the 3D technology applied to the documentation and registration of the buildings, from photogrammetry to the virtual reconstruction of the archaeological sites. The final objective is to streamline the process, the data collection and the documentation obtained from all of them, from both a purely scientific and informative perspective, improving the publication of scientific knowledge and education through the application of new methodologies. In order to carry out this process, the Tartessian buildings hidden beneath burial mounds characteristic of the central basin of the Guadiana, dating from the 5th century BC, have been selected. Specifically, we have the excavations being carried out in the area of Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz), which to date is the best preserved building in the western area of the Mediterranean, and which will undoubtedly lead to a positive result from the project. The aim of the methodology that has been designed is that it can be applied to any architectural model and to any stage of history.
NEW TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO THE DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF
EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE: THE SPECIFIC CASE OF THE TARTESSIAN
BUILDINGS OF THE CENTRAL GUADIANA VALLEY (SPAIN)
E. Rodríguez González 1, *, S. Celestino Pérez 1, C. Lapuente Martín 1
1Instituto de Arqueología (CSIC Junta de Extremadura),
Mérida, España - (esther.rodriguez, scelestino, carlotalapuente)@iam.csic.es
Commission II - WG II/8
KEY WORDS: Tartessos, Guadiana, Landscape Archaeology, Architectural Analysis, Spatial Archaeology, Construction with Earth
ABSTRACT:
Until now, the analysis of earthen architecture, characteristic of the Tartessian culture, has been overlooked by archaeologi cal
studies. With the aim of incorporating it into historical research as another social product, the result of the society that thinks
and builds it, a research project was initiated with the title "Building Tartessos: constructive, spatial and territorial ana lysis of
an architectural model in the central Guadiana valley." This project has three well-differentiated work phases whose
development and applied methodology are described in the following pages. The purpose of this method is to identify the types
of construction, to characterize the raw materials used and their catchment areas, the construction techniques employed, the
types of analysis carried out for the mineralogical characterization of the materials, and to present the 3D technology applied to
the documentation and registration of the buildings, from photogrammetry to the virtual reconstruction of the archaeological
sites. The final objective is to streamline the process, the data collection and the documentation obtained from all of them, from
both a purely scientific and informative perspective, improving the publication of scientific knowledge and education through
the application of new methodologies. In order to carry out this process, the Tartessian buildings hidden beneath burial mounds
characteristic of the central basin of the Guadiana, dating from the 5th century BC, have been selected. Specifically, we have
the excavations being carried out in the area of Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz), which to date is the best preserved
building in the western area of the Mediterranean, and which will undoubtedly lead to a positive result from the project. The
aim of the methodology that has been designed is that it can be applied to any architectural model and to any stage of history.
1. INTRODUCTION
Defining Tartessos is still a complex task. In spite of this, it
is safe to consider it as a result of the hybridization between
the local population and the eastern colonizers who arrived on
the coasts of the south of the Iberian Peninsula in the 9th
century BC (Celestino, López Ruiz, 2016). The mixture
between both substrates resulted in a culture with a strong
personality, which varied in each of the territories where it
prospered, due to the different local roots which were part of
this cultural process.
Although Tartessos has traditionally been considered a
culture whose territorial centre was located in the valley of
the Guadalquivir and Huelva, recent research allows us to
extend this territory to the valley of the Guadiana, where the
best preserved archaeological remains of this culture are
undoubtedly located (Rodríguez González, 2018). The crisis
that affected the centre of Tartessos in the 6th century B.C.,
the causes of which are still unknown, resulted in the
expansion of other peripheral territories, such as the Central
Guadiana Valley. In this area, between the end of the 7th
century and early 6th century BC a characteristic territorial
system was established, dominated by the so-called
Tartessian buildings concealed beneath tumuli (Rodríguez
González, 2018b).
* Corresponding author
Figure 1. Map of Tartessos.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
413
These are large buildings with a four-sided floor plan, which are
built in an oriental pattern both in terms of their structure and
their orientation, which is always towards the east. It has stone
foundations that supported adobe walls. After being repaired and
abandoned, much of this adobes walls were covered with earth
creating some kind of artificial mound that made them unnoticed
in the landscape. The chronology of these constructions extends
from the beginning of the 6th century BC to the end of the 5th
century BC, at which time they all suffered a traumatic
abandonment preceded by a major fire that put an end to the
Tartessian phase of the lands of the interior.
To date, 13 of these buildings beneath the tumulus have been
located, but only two of them have been excavated to any extent:
these are Cancho Roano (Zalamea de la Serena, Badajoz)
(Celestino, 2001, with bibliography) and La Mata (Campanario,
Badajoz) (Rodríguez Díaz (ed.), 2004); while a third, the site of
Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz), is currently being
excavated and studied. These examples are in addition to
interesting sites located in the Guadalquivir valley and the
Atlantic coast of Portugal with which they share many cultural
similarities, such as El Carambolo (Camas, Seville), Coria del
Río (Seville) or Abul (Setubal, Portugal) (Celestino, Rodríguez
González, 2016).
Until a few years ago, interest in these enclaves was focused on
the study and analysis of the materials they contain, which is why
our knowledge of Tartessos remained biased, based exclusively
on its reflection within ancient sources and the study of its
material culture. The importance of objects such as the treasures
of Carambolo (Seville) or Aliseda (Cáceres), as well as the
sumptuous ceramic tableware, metalwork or pieces of ivory,
eclipsed other aspects of this culture. Architecture is one of the
aspects whose characterization has gone practically unnoticed
within archaeological and historical studies, barely defined by the
similarities between Tartessian buildings and those located in the
eastern Mediterranean.
The start of excavation work at the Casas del Turuñuelo site in
2014 marked a turning point in the development of research into
Tartessos in the interior of the peninsula. The documentation of
a well-conserved building constructed in land, which still
preserves two floors, led us to propose a new working
methodology for analysing Tartessos; a method based around its
architecture understood as a social product, as a cultural
expression of the society that thinks and executes it. This new
line has been included in the Research Project: Building
Tartessos: constructive, spatial and territorial analysis of an
architectural model in the Central Guadiana Valley, whose main
objective is the study of earthen architecture, characteristic of the
Tartessian culture, in order to be able to define patterns, traditions
and techniques, with the ultimate aim of determining which
construction elements were inherited from the East, those that
originated in the local tradition and, finally, those that resulted
from the connection between local and external elements, in this
case from the Eastern Mediterranean.
As a case study, we selected the aforementioned Tartessian
buildings hidden under tumuli, characteristic of the settlement
system that prevailed in the Central Guadiana Valley during the
First Iron Age, for two fundamental reasons: firstly, they are sites
that are in the process of being excavated or have been excavated
in their entirety, and secondly, their state of preservation is
exceptional if we compare it with the rest of the documented
buildings in the southwest of the peninsula. For these reasons it is
logical to assume that the volume of information that the buildings
inside them contain is much greater.
To carry out this research work, the traditional architectural
analysis that includes the study of construction techniques and
materials used for this purpose is now joined by the
application of new technologies that will allow us to improve
the quality of the data acquired, increasing the amount of
information derived from the study of the constructions. This
is something that is essential within a destructive discipline
such as archaeology, where field work is often irreversible,
which, as we will see later on, is why it is essential to multiply
the number of documentation methods used. Finally, in order
to approach this process from the research team, we have
designed a working protocol that we present below with the
aim of applying it and progressively correcting it, so that it
can become a basic methodological model that can be applied
to the social study of the constructions from the past.
As a result, for the first time, the Building Tartessos research
project integrates purely archaeological study and architectural
analysis, a combination that already has antecedents within the
study of other protohistoric cultures from the peninsula, such as
the Iberian culture (Pastor, 2017), where the analysis of its
architecture has a strong historiographic tradition and solid
bibliographic support, to which we now also want to add the
example of Tartessos.
2. BUILDING TARTESSSOS
The Building Tartessos research project was created in 2015 with
the aim of incorporating architecture into the archaeological
analysis of Tartessos, as a further tool to address its historical
knowledge, to overcome the image we had of this culture until
just a few years ago.
The project involves, on the one hand, a multidisciplinary
team that brings together researchers from various disciplines
and specialties, from archaeology, architecture, geology,
engineering and chemistry, a structure without which carrying
out a project of this nature would be virtually impossible.
On the other hand, a working strategy has been designed in
which three complementary phases are integrated:
constructive analysis (analytical phase), spatial analysis
(comparative phase) and territorial analysis (interpretative
phase). Within each of these, various methods and new
working technologies applied to the study of earthen
architecture, the resources used in the manufacture of building
materials and the environments in which these constructions
are located are incorporated. The purpose of these analyses is
to prepare construction patterns that make it possible to
compare the different buildings, with a methodology that can
be adapted to any historical stage and geographical region.
2.1 Constructive analysis, or analytical phase:
This first phase encompasses the architectural analysis of the
different buildings and begins with the study of the walls. This
process allows us to record the connections between the
different architectural elements, using the methodology of the
Archaeology of Architecture (Pizzo, 2009), and to
individualise the construction techniques and materials used,
the finish of the buildings, the measurement patterns used, the
construction solutions and, whenever possible, the
accompanying furnishings. Individualising the construction
techniques will allow us to determine which are common to
Tartessian sites, and which others constitute a novelty within
the architectural design.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
414
In this sense, it is interesting to note how the good state of
conservation of the site of Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz)
has allowed us to document construction techniques and building
materials unknown until now in prehistoric and protohistoric times
in the Iberian Peninsula, as the appearance of some of them was
attributed to the Roman domination of Iberia.
The archaeological analysis is fundamental within this phase of
work, which includes the excavation of the building under study.
Archaeology is a destructive science, everything excavated
cannot be returned to its original state. For this reason, graphic
documentation of the field work and the results obtained from the
excavation is fundamental in order to ensure a correct historical
interpretation. In the specific case of the study and excavation of
a building made of earth, the difficulty of the archaeological work
is further complicated as the building is filled with the same
material with which it is constructed, earth and clay. This means
we cannot use non-destructive analysis systems such as
geophysics or geomagnetism as guides when determining the
areas under study, because they are unable to differentiate the
constructive elements from the filling material, since they are
materials of the same type and conductivity.
The information extracted from the stratigraphic sequence, where the
information from the archaeological record is combined both
horizontally (sedimentary stratigraphic sequence) and vertically
(construction sequence or wall reading), is documented by
photogrammetry, a tool that allows us to obtain a high quality image
from a combination of a large number of photograms, which later
allows us to work at a high level of detail, take measurements,
document textures, or design archaeological drawings.
Figure 3. Image of the digital processing of the Tartessian building
of La Mata (Campanario). The level of detail achieved in the data
acquisition process means it is possible to make measurements and
metrological studies, as well as to analyse the presence of
construction techniques that are imperceptible in field analysis.
To achieve a greater degree of detail, in addition to the
planimetric documentation, all spaces and structures are scanned
in 3-D using a phase-shift laser scanner that provides us with a
cloud of high-density points that gives us valuable information
about the size of the individual elements, absolute distances and
locations of an element or relative distances between several,
visualisation of the work, colour information associated with
different elements, etc.
Figure 4. Image of the 3-D scan of a fragment of the courtyard
of the Casas del Turuñuelo site (Guareña, Badajoz) where it was
possible to document part of the northern wall, the staircase, and
the animal sacrifice documented on the ground.
The use of this new technology in the study of heritage elements
is relatively recent; however, it is very useful, as it makes it
possible to obtain a real image of the areas to be excavated and
of the spaces once they have been excavated, as well as to
integrate the new excavation areas as the field work progresses.
One of the most valued uses of this new documentation
methodology is its ability to restore objects or complete
architectures based on mathematical calculation, allowing
fragments or pieces to be returned to their original position with
great precision (Pérez Hernández et al., 2012).
All of the graphic documentation work is complemented by the
archaeological analysis of the construction materials used,
which is fundamental in determining the mineralogical
characterization of the raw materials used in the production of
adobes, bricks, mortars and plasters. The analytical protocol
for each sample includes its macroscopic characterization, the
taking of microphotographs, X-ray diffraction and X-ray
fluorescence, in addition to new analytical methods that are
applied depending on the nature of the sample, as is the case
with the Scanning Electronic Microscope for the definition of
microstructures, or FT-IR and MicroRam technologies for
studying pigments.
The destructive nature of many of these analyses has made it
necessary to establish a method of working intended to examine
mortars and plasters, as well as clays and adobes, without taking
a sample from them, directly on the site itself, something that
undoubtedly favours the state of conservation of the site. This is
done by means of non-intrusive, high-resolution macroscopy and
chromatographic analysis, the data from which is subsequently
analysed by means of spectroscopy and colourimetry. These tools
even make it possible to obtain a 3-D perspective of the samples,
together with quantitative results such as granulometries or
spectral, gradient, thermal or infrared images.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
415
Another innovation incorporated in the study of earth buildings
is the use of microstratigraphy or the study of sediments
through geoarchaeology, defined as the application of methods
and techniques of the earth sciences in the study of the
archaeological record, and the investigation of soils and
sediments formed in the past. The methodology used is based
on the petrographic analysis of thin layers of archaeological
soils and sediments, to help us understand the surfaces of
occupation of the site and the waste produced by the different
activities of cleaning and maintaining these spaces.
2.2 Spatial analysis or comparative phase
Building Tartessos includes for the first time within the
archaeological discipline the use of Spatial Archaeology to
understand the architectural and social facets of the buildings.
This is done by analysing the ability of an individual to move
through the building, and how the spaces created by the
architecture condition the functional qualities of the building. To
do so, a syntactic analysis of space is applied, integrating
circulation analysis, spatial segregation analysis and visibility
analysis. In this way, we will be able to evaluate the degree of
intentionality of the location of certain secondary architectural
elements, such as pillars, benches or altars, elements which
together with the location of the archaeological objects, condition
the functionality of the space.
- Gamma analysis: this study consists of the creation of
accessibility graphics, which are aimed at identifying the
spatial configuration of the interior of the building, how it
connects with the exterior, and the schematic projection of the
levels of privacy. The analysis of the internal segmentation of
a building involves a detailed study of the thresholds, a
graphic design of the permeability levels of its different
rooms, and a system for measuring spatial relationships
through weighted measures, called a numerical value index
(Bermejo, 2009).
- Circulation analysis: this consists of the study and the
graphic presentation of how the architecture enables or
restricts a person's movement through the different rooms of
a building. Circulation is the nexus between the spaces, whose
purpose is to allow interrelation, as well as the mobility and
flow of people and materials. This is a very important point,
since the configuration of a route influences the organisational
scheme of the spaces it connects. By doing this we can
identify the perceptive thread of walking, as well as its
direction and purpose. The phases that make up this study are:
how to approach the building, the access mode, the
configuration of the internal route, and the shape of the spatial
route (Mañana et al., 2002).
- Visibility analysis: This section aims to identify the visual
domain in a built space and its graphic expression. This study
provides information on the degree of privacy of the various
rooms, as well as the typification of the order and perceptive
organization of the built space and the other elements it
contains. This analysis consists of three parts: a study of the
visual domain, considering the viewing subject both in a static
and in a moving state, in relation to the possible circulation
routes established at the precious level; the visibility and
visualisation of the materials associated with the rooms, in
order to distinguish the elements that are positioned with the
intention of being viewed, those that are partially visible and
those that are hidden; and the relationship of degrees of
privacy by carrying out cumulative visibility analysis.
Figure 5. Comparative diagram in which two floors with a very
similar formal appearance are presented. From an architectural
view they would be interpreted in the same way, given their
dimensions and their square floor plan; however, in producing
its spatial analysis, it is possible to see the different results that
highlight the importance of this type of analysis in the
architectural studies of historical buildings.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
416
The results obtained in the previous architectural analyses will
serve as a starting point for a systematic search for similarities
or deviations between the different buildings analysed, as well
as the presence or absence of particular elements that have been
extracted from the results of the previous analytical phase.
This comparative route branches off into two large hierarchical
geographical groups: the regional level, and the general level.
In the first, a comparison is made between sites at a local or
regional level, in which the connections or divergent elements
of the analytical results are compared, generating constructive
and organisational typologies. On a second level of
comparison, the typological system created at a more global
level of all the Tartessian buildings studied is compared in
order to determine the degrees of influence and the areas from
where these influences originate. This makes it possible to
create not only constructive and functional typologies, but also
the genealogy of the constructive and organisational
characteristics of the buildings included in the study.
Therefore, a map of architectural clusters or building groups is
created in which we can detect the chronological and spatial
evolution of the different components that generate and are
generated by the architecture.
2.3 Territorial analysis, or interpretive phase:
In carrying out both detailed morphological and
paleoenvironmental analysis by using interdisciplinary methods
and techniques, we approach the study of the societies that
inhabited, anthropized, and built the territory. In this sense, one
of the most significant material expressions of a society is its
architecture. This architecture is conditioned by the territory in
which it is located, the reason why we consider that a first level
of analysis is necessarily focused on the study of the physical
environment. In this way, an analysis of the areas where
resources are obtained will allow us to determine how the
individual adapts to the environment and to the resources they
have at their disposal in order to design and complete the
architectural work (Celestino et al., 2018).
This type of study makes it possible to analyze the reason for the
particular location of settlements, and opens the way to studying
the relationship between the physical element (the territory) and
the social element, and how both are related to each other (the
landscape). As a result, we perceive the landscape as the space of
interconnection between the natural element and the anthropic
element, in which their contacts and forms of relationship take
physical shape. Geographic Information Systems are the main
tool of this set of analyses, the most important of which are:
accessibility analyses to quantify the degree of permeability in a
deposit from its different angles; analysis of optimal routes that
allow us to determine the most favourable routes for transit
between deposits or between these and the areas where raw
materials are extracted; analysis of catchment areas, to define
natural road links and to identify hypothetical routes for the
extraction of resources; or visibility analyses, to study the sensory
accessibility of natural and anthropic items at different degrees
of distance, topography and atmospheric conditions, as well as
the study of relationships of intervisibility.
3. THE SITE OF CASAS DEL TURUÑUELO AS A
STUDY CASE
The site of Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz), is located in
the area of Vegas Altas del Guadiana, precisely at the point where
the River Guadiana joints the rivers Búrdalo and Guadamez,
giving it an outstanding position in the landscape.
Although only 20% of the total area covered by the tumulus that
conceals the building has been excavated, the remains recovered
to date allow us to consider it as the best case study to
individually identify the construction systems and architectural
techniques used during the First Iron Age in the southwest of the
Iberian Peninsula, as it is the only model from the western
Mediterranean that still has its two floors intact, at a height of
up to 5 metres.
The excellent state of preservation of the building makes it an
exceptional laboratory to study materials and techniques whose
appearance in the Iberian Peninsula was previously attributed
to the arrival of the Romans. The construction materials that
have been recovered so far include several ashlars made from
lime mortar, which is the oldest documented man-made mortar
in the Iberian Peninsula. These mortar ashlars were used to
build the six lower steps of the monumental staircase
connecting the two floors of the building (Celestino, Rodríguez
González, 2019).
Figure 6. Photogrammetric reconstruction of the site of Casas
del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz) on completion of work on the
third campaign of archaeological excavations.
The staircase in the courtyard of Turuñuelo is also a unique
example of protohistoric peninsular architecture, due both for the
quality of its workmanship and for its outstanding dimensions, as
it stands almost 3 metres high. Next to the staircase, another of
the construction techniques that stand out on this site is the
presence of a Nubian-type brick vault which serves as a roof to
cover room 100 or the main room of the building, measuring 60
m2 (Rodríguez González, Celestino, 2017).
This is the first brick vault documented in the Iberian Peninsula
from such an early date, a finding that has encouraged us to
undertake the search for architectural structures of this type
from similar chronologies that are not in such a good state of
preservation.
It is at this point in the project that 3-D reconstruction comes
into play as a working tool and new technology applied to the
study of archaeology and architecture. By processing the data
from the study of the site, such as orthographies, planimetry,
cross-sections and photogrammetry models, it is possible to
create a full-scale architectural model with the necessary
precision in each phase of the study, from simple volumetrics
to define spaces and architectural structures, through to the
detailed lighting of specific scenes that took place during the
life of the building.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
417
However, the 3-D reconstruction of the architecture of a building
has a double purpose, as in addition to the exclusively scientific
objective, it has an informative capacity, helping to explain it and
the different lines of research to the general public, something
that was unheard of until a few years ago. Therefore, the
divulgation of heritage, both material and built, is the final stop
in our methodological model, as we believe that the society that
lives alongside the archaeological sites should be the first to
support their protection and conservation, to ensure they persist
in our memory and within the cultural heritage of our
contemporary societies.
Figure 7. 3-D reconstruction of the vault of room 100 of the
Casas del Turuñuelo site (Guareña, Badajoz).
4. CONCLUSIONS
The aim of the methodological scheme described in the
previous pages is to generate a single model that precludes the
application of tools independently and without any connection,
a model that has been used up until now, in which connecting
archaeology and architecture was a hard work. It is therefore
necessary to divide up the component parts of a building: its
origin, its construction, and its purpose, not only to understand
it but also to comprehend it.
Building Tartessos has opened up a new line of work to help
understand the earthen architecture that is typical of Tartessian
culture: a line that this project explores for the first time, as to
date no working teams had focused on the importance that
architecture has as a representative of a social model of thought.
In this sense, the very nature of Tartessian culture, a result of the
combination of local populations and groups from the Eastern
Mediterranean, enriches the objectives of the study, due to the
interest in identifying which materials or techniques were
legacies of a peninsular tradition, and which were adopted and
adapted from other Mediterranean cultures. In this respect, the
analysis of each of the structures identified will allow us to
distinguish construction models for each of the geographical
areas that comprise the Tartessian territory, including with other
parts of the Mediterranean and with other cultures that
subsequently appeared in the peninsula.
Furthermore, this project addresses for the first time the
relationship between the environment and architecture. We
conceive the environment as crucial for the development of
structures since these depend to a great extent on the place where
they are located and on the resources available in their
surroundings. In this way, the connection between the
paleoenvironment and the architecture will help us to determine
the intentionality behind the location of the buildings.
Figure 8. Flow diagram of work on the Building Tartessos
project: a constructive, spatial, and territorial analysis of an
architectural model in the central Guadiana Valley.
But without a doubt, the greatest strength of this project lies in its
innovative methodology and the application of new technologies
for the study of architecture and its subsequent historical
translation. The adoption of tools from other sciences that are will
not only be practical for the study and understanding of
Tartessian culture, but their application will be perfectly
compatible with any stage of history, making the model presented
here all the more versatile.
REFERENCES
Bermejo, J., 2009. Leyendo los espacios: una aproximación
crítica a la sintaxis espacial como herramienta de análisis
arqueológico. Arqueología de la Arquitectura, 6, 47-62.
Celestino, S., 2001. Los santuarios de Cancho Roano. Del
indigenismo al Orientalismo Arquitectónico, Arquitectura
Oriental y Orientalizante en la Península Ibérica, 17-56.
Celestino, S., López-Ruiz, C., 2016. Tartessos and the
Phoenicians in Iberia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, E., 2016. Il riflesso
dell´architecttura fenicia in Tartesso. Santuari Mediterranei tra
Oriente y Occidente. Interazioni e contatti culturali, 321-328.
Scienze & Lettere, Roma.
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, 2019. Un espacio para el
sacrificio: el patio del yacimiento tartésico de Casas del
Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz). Complutum, 30(2), 343-366.
doi.org/10.5209/cmpl.66337.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
418
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, E., Bashore, C., Dorado, A.,
Lapuente, C., 2018. La arquitectura como actividad productiva:
tres casos de estudio de época tartésica en el valle medio del
Guadiana. Trabajo Sagrado. Producción y representación en el
Mediterráneo Occidental durante el I Mileno a.C., SPAL
Monografías, XXV, 231-249. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla.
Mañana, P., Blanco, R., Ayán, X., 2002. Arqueotectura 1: bases
teórico-metodológicas para una arqueología de la Arquitectura.
Traballos de Arqueoloxía e Patrimonio (TAPA), 2, Santiago de
Compostela.
Pastor, M., 2017. La construcción con tierra en arqueología.
Teoría, método, técnicas y aplicación. Servicio de Publicaciones
de la Universidad de Alicante, Alicante.
Pérez Hernández, E., Salamanca, S., Cerrada, C., Merchán, P.,
Adán, A., 2012. “Relleno de huecos en mallas 3D completas
mediante algoritmos de restauración de imagen”, Revista
Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática industrial, 9, 429-
440. doi. org/10.1016/j.riai.2012.09.010.
Pizzo, A., 2009. La Arqueología de la Construcción. Un
laboratorio para el análisis de la arquitectura de época romana.
Arqueología de la Arquitectura, 6, 31-45.
Rodríguez Díaz, A. (ed.), 2004. El Edificio Protohistórico de la
Mata (Campanario, Badajoz) y su estudio territorial.
Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres.
Rodríguez González, E., 2018. El poblamiento del valle medio
del Guadiana durante la I Edad del Hierro. Biblioteca
Praehistorica Hispana, XXXIV. CSIC, Madrid.
Rodríguez González, E., 2018b. The Tartessian Tumuli of the
Guadiana. Rivista di Studi Fenici, 46, 117-136.
Rodríguez González, E., Celestino, S., 2017. Las estancias de los
dioses: la habitación 100 del yacimiento de Casas del Turuñuelo
(Guareña, Badajoz). Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología de
la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 43, 179-194.
doi.org/10.15366/cupauam2017.43.006
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLIV-M-1-2020, 2020
HERITAGE2020 (3DPast | RISK-Terra) International Conference, 9–12 September 2020, Valencia, Spain
This contribution has been peer-reviewed.
https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIV-M-1-2020-413-2020 | © Authors 2020. CC BY 4.0 License.
419
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a new approach towards the territorial model in the central Guadiana valley during the Early Iron Age. The main focus is an analysis of the so-called Tartessian buildings hidden under tumuli. These buildings are large constructions which bear a certain resemblance to the Phoenician architecture of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. A settlement pattern can be discussed which is unique to the period, and which gives personality to the geographical sphere in which it is found.
Book
Full-text available
Preface, or Why Tartessos Matters Tartessos is, and has been since the early twentieth century, an important topic in Spanish academia, even a key piece for the reconstruction of the pre-Roman history of Iberia, including areas of Portugal. Its appearance in classical sources (e.g., Herodotos, Strabo, Pliny, and many others) makes it a problem of ancient history, but our lack of internal written sources other than the still-undeciphered inscriptions means the weight of the internal evidence lies in archaeological investigation, and any new pieces of the puzzle (including epigraphical) are likely to come from the trenches. Thus, the field falls between the disciplines of history and prehistory, and has been a favorite for ancient historians, archaeologists, linguists, and epigraphists. Outside academic circles, Tartessos is a popular point of southern pride, a signpost of southern identity. Hotels and residential communities in Seville, Cádiz, and Huelva proudly wear its name, even a mining company operating in Río Tinto. It is not rare to find T-shirts and souvenirs in the streets of Andalusia’s most touristic quarters (even in the rest of Spain) that also propagate the symbols of the oldest known far-western civilization. On the international stage, however, Tartessos, if at all known, resonates as no more than a semi-legendary classical name or a footnote for the Phoenician and Carthaginian western enterprises. While a lot would have to change for it to gain the international prestige and popular recognition of other contemporary civilizations, such as the Etruscans, Tartessos is still under-used in discussions of the cultural transformations in the Mediterranean west of Greece; one could say it is the missing piece in an orientalizing horizon that involved European peoples from Portugal and Spain to Etruria, Sardinia, and North Africa. Like these other cases, Tartessos is “good to think with” for anyone interested in colonization, cultural contact, and ethnicity, and how to deal with cultures where we do not have the luxury of self-generated written historical narratives. In this context there is a need to better understand the dynamics between these local populations that in the eighth century onwards entered international circuits and embraced their own versions of the new forms of art, technology, and urbanization. Among those in the west, OUP UNCORRECTED PROOF – REVISES, 29/6/2016, SPi Comp. by: Jaganathan Stage : Revises3 ChapterID: 0002660737 Date:29/6/16 Time:10:51:52 Filepath:d:/womat-filecopy/0002660737.3D Dictionary : OUP_UKdictionary 8 Tartessos in ancient Iberia truly stands out for the importance it seemed to have had in the Greek imagination, but also as one of earliest literate indigenous cultures in the west. In other words, Tartessos is a fertile laboratory for the collaboration between archaeologists, historians, and philologists, and we want to highlight in this volume the importance of both types of sources (material and written) if we want to advance in our interpretations. Tartessos, furthermore, developed in a space that defies modern boundaries, as it crosses regions (Andalusia, Extremadura) and countries (Spain and Portugal). The study of Phoenician presence in the Tagus Valley and the Algarve has in fact been one of the most exciting areas of expansion of Iberian proto-history (cf. Map 7). Tartessos is, therefore, a welcome addition to the study of the Mediterranean as a conduit for the interweaving of cultures across historical periodizations and disciplinary boundaries, a trend that has been promoted by the longe durée approach in the last decade. This book is the result of the collaboration between two scholars with very different backgrounds and a common interest in Tartessos, the Phoenicians, and the orientalizing and archaic Mediterranean. Sebastián Celestino comes to this project as one of the foremost archaeologists in Spain, a most active scholar both in the field and in scholarly debates about the period. With an intimate knowledge of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age archaeological landscapes of Iberia, Sebastián stands out for his realistic and sound vision of the challenges and limitations of reconstructing the culture we call Tartessic. Carolina López-Ruiz, on the other hand, is a classicist who came to Tartessos through her interest in Greek and Phoenician colonization in the west and in the question of cultural exchange in the Mediterranean, with a background in philology and cultural history. These two angles had already converged in a previous collaboration between us, and we hope to bring the same combination of perspectives and skills to this book, highlighting the importance of drawing from both archaeology and written sources, as well as from the current debates in cultural studies. We embarked on this project as a result of the conviction that two factors made it necessary: one, the absence of a synthesis about this topic in English, and two, the impasse that Tartessic studies seem to have reached in Spain itself. As if reaching a plateau following many decades of intermittent advancements, we feel that archaeologists and historians are generally trapped in their internal debates on old viii Preface, or Why Tartessos Matters OUP UNCORRECTED PROOF – REVISES, 29/6/2016, SPi Comp. by: Jaganathan Stage : Revises3 ChapterID: 0002660737 Date:29/6/16 Time:10:51:52 Filepath:d:/womat-filecopy/0002660737.3D Dictionary : OUP_UKdictionary 9 conceptual and methodological differences, while not enough is being done to integrate Tartessos into the broader international debate on cultural exchange and colonization in the Mediterranean. We hope our coordinated effort will contribute to bringing in new perspectives and stimulating internal dialogue. At the same time, we wanted to bring this culture of ancient Iberia to the attention of the Anglophone public. Some works in English in the last decade have brought the world of the Phoenicians in the West and in Iberia closer to a greater public. The main point of reference in English-speaking circles became Maria Eugenia Aubet’s The Phoenicians in the West (1993), with a more recent English edition in 2001; this was a translation of her monograph Tiro y las colonias fenicias de occidente (1987, reedited in 1994 and 2009), a landmark monograph in Spain itself. In the last fifteen years, scholarship on the topic in English has exponentially increased, if just by three other new volumes. In 2002, Marilyn Bierling and Seymour Gitin presented a selection of translated articles by Spanish scholars on the archaeology of the Phoenicians in Spain. Two other volumes have since then appeared: a monograph by Ann Neville (2007) and a volume edited by Michael Dietler and Carolina López-Ruiz (2009). Although inevitably interaction between colonial and local cultures is treated in these volumes (and the occasional piece on Iberia has appeared in other volumes about colonization), no English monograph has been devoted to Tartessos by itself, in stark contrast with the over thirty monographs and edited volumes in Spanish. Tartessos has, therefore, remained a stranger among other, better known, archaic cultures of the Mediterranean countries, a satellite of the Phoenicians, as it were. We hope that this monograph will serve as introduction to a broader readership, both academic and non-academic, providing a springboard from where some might then pursue their own research in the field and contribute to its growth outside the Iberian shores. Because of its intentionally synthetic nature, this monograph avoids the technical detail of the specialized archaeological publications, aiming for a thorough but quicker overview of the material evidence. We have aimed to provide an holistic view of what we know about the Tartessic culture and the main problems of its interpretation, pointing also to further avenues of research. We point to the main updated bibliography for more information and details on each area, and we include and gloss some technical terms in Spanish (e.g., “toréutica” for the study of bronze, “retícula bruñida” for a specific Preface, or Why Tartessos Matters ix OUP UNCORRECTED PROOF – REVISES, 29/6/2016, SPi Comp. by: Jaganathan Stage : Revises3 ChapterID: 0002660737 Date:29/6/16 Time:10:51:52 Filepath:d:/womat-filecopy/0002660737.3D Dictionary : OUP_UKdictionary 10 type of pottery) to help the reader navigate the abundant archaeological Spanish bibliography. In turn, we take a humble stance in face of the existing challenges that this field still faces. Our approach has been not to force a rigid theoretical model onto the material presented below, but to provide the reader with basic interpretive tools to contextualize what is still a limited and often ambiguous set of data. At the end of the study we will revisit the issue of cultural contact as we recapitulate the evidence presented, offering our own
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the results recently obtained within the studies of roman architecture and, mainly, within the analysis of building, management and organization processes. A summary of the contents and primary results presented to the Seminary of Archaeology of Construction organized by the Instituto de Arqueología of Mérida, the Università of Siena and the Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris is here exposed. Some issues and aims are obtained from these seminaries, showing the peculiarity of some themes related to the knowledge of building dynamics. Among the mains aspects, material elements linked with building project, different building phases, building techniques and technological solutions are highlighted.El articulo trata de los alcances obtenidos recientemente en los estudios de arquitectura romana y, concretamente, en el análisis de los procesos de construcción, gestión y organización de una obra. Se presenta un resumen de los contenidos y los primeros resultados conseguidos en los Seminarios de Arqueología de la Construcción organizados por el Instituto de Arqueología-Mérida, la Università di Siena y la École Normale Superieure de Paris. A raíz de estos seminarios se extraen una serie de problemáticas y de objetivos específicos que evidencian la peculiaridad de las temáticas relativas al reconocimiento de las dinámicas constructivas. Entre los principales aspectos tratados se documentan los elementos materiales relativos al proyecto arquitectónico, a las distintas etapas de la construcción, a las distintas técnicas constructivas y soluciones tecnológicas empleadas.
Article
Full-text available
This work intends to explain in detail the different theoretical and methodological elements which belong to space syntax. A genealogy of its theoretical bases as preliminary step before the explanation of the different analytical instruments is firstly shown. A comparative study with other archaeological and architectural analysis is also offered, showing a group of methodological problems. The interpretative possibilities of space syntax analysis are settled in question and some final notes aimed to offer new perspectives are introduced.Este trabajo pretende explicar de forma detallada los distintos elementos teóricos y metodológicos que conforman la sintaxis espacial. Se realiza una genealogía de sus bases teóricas como paso previo a la explicación de diversas herramientas analíticas. Éstas se ilustran con una serie de ejemplos históricos concretos. Se plantea un estudio comparativo con otras formas de análisis arquitectónico y arqueológico, del que se deduce una serie de problemas metodológicos. Por último se realiza una reflexión acerca de sus posibilidades interpretativas y se introducen algunas notas destinadas a plantear nuevas perspectivas de uso.
Il riflesso dell´architecttura fenicia in Tartesso. Santuari Mediterranei tra Oriente y Occidente
  • S Celestino
  • E Rodríguez González
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, E., 2016. Il riflesso dell´architecttura fenicia in Tartesso. Santuari Mediterranei tra Oriente y Occidente. Interazioni e contatti culturali, 321-328. Scienze & Lettere, Roma.
Un espacio para el sacrificio: el patio del yacimiento tartésico de Casas del Turuñuelo
  • S Celestino
  • Rodríguez González
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, 2019. Un espacio para el sacrificio: el patio del yacimiento tartésico de Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz). Complutum, 30(2), 343-366. doi.org/10.5209/cmpl.66337.
La arquitectura como actividad productiva: tres casos de estudio de época tartésica en el valle medio del Guadiana. Trabajo Sagrado. Producción y representación en el Mediterráneo Occidental durante el I Mileno a.C
  • S Celestino
  • E Rodríguez González
  • C Bashore
  • A Dorado
  • C Lapuente
Celestino, S., Rodríguez González, E., Bashore, C., Dorado, A., Lapuente, C., 2018. La arquitectura como actividad productiva: tres casos de estudio de época tartésica en el valle medio del Guadiana. Trabajo Sagrado. Producción y representación en el Mediterráneo Occidental durante el I Mileno a.C., SPAL Monografías, XXV, 231-249. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla.
Arqueotectura 1: bases teórico-metodológicas para una arqueología de la Arquitectura
  • P Mañana
  • R Blanco
  • X Ayán
Mañana, P., Blanco, R., Ayán, X., 2002. Arqueotectura 1: bases teórico-metodológicas para una arqueología de la Arquitectura. Traballos de Arqueoloxía e Patrimonio (TAPA), 2, Santiago de Compostela.