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An Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Gadget on Children’s Language and Social Development

Authors:
An Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Gadget on
Children’s Language and Social Development
Dewi Nilam Sari
Early Childhood Department, Padang State University, Padang, Indonesia, dewinilamsari1985@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
As the development of technologically very rapidly with the development of a variety of functions and features,
making gadgets are not only used by adults, but also by younger children. With many interesting features that
they can use to make children an early age to be one of consumer gadgets. The gadget is seen to have a negative
impact on the development of children, the gadget can inhibit the language and social developments. When
children take advantage of the gadgets that they have to play games, watch videos and so will take time for the
children to play and socialize with their peers and also prevents children in developing language, but on the
other hand gadget could also provide a positive appears on the child's development. With so many interesting
features on offer and often make children familiar with it quickly. Many of the impacts and benefits of the
gadgets among others, to facilitate a child in a child's creativity and intelligence. As the application of coloring,
learning to read and write letters certainly a positive impact on brain development of children. Children do not
require much time and effort to learn to read and write in a book or paper. Children also will be more eager to
learn because such applications are usually complemented by interesting pictures. and writing letters is certainly
a positive impact on brain development of children.
Keywords: Gadget, Children’s language children’s development
I. INTRODUCTION
Along with the times, technology development is also
experiencing rapid growth. Various types of emerging
technologies and new features are always from day to day.
The needs on technology is one important requirement at
this time. This is because the technology is needed for
various purposes. One technology that is indispensable to
human life is a gadget. In the gadget, there are various
features that can be utilized by humans in a variety of ways,
one of the main features of the smartphone is the internet.
Internet invention changed the world becomes more dynamic
and fast paced. Internet advancement has touched many
facets of human life.
A few years ago the gadget is only used by the
businessmen of the middle down. The reason they use the
gadgets is to facilitate their business. But today, gadgets are
not only used by businessmen alone, but must-have for
everyone from adults, teenagers and even children who
should not have been feasible to use it, this is caused gadget
has a variety of features and applications that are interesting,
varied, interactive, flexible so that adds to the appeal.
(Mayenti & Sunita, 2018)
At present, the gadget cannot only be harnessed and
used by adults, but also by younger children. We can see in
public places virtually all young children holding the gadget.
With so many interesting features on offer and often make
children familiar with it quickly. Many of the impacts and
benefits of the gadgets among others, to facilitate a child in a
child's creativity and intelligence. As the application of
coloring, learning to read and write letters certainly a
positive impact on brain development of children. Children
do not require much time and effort to learn to read and
write in a book or paper. Children also will be more eager to
learn because such applications are usually complemented
by interesting pictures. Other than that, the ability to imagine
children as well honed. This is in line with the views
expressed by psychologists Hadiwidjodjo (2014, in Al-
Ayouby, 2017), namely:
Simplify Communication. Gadget is one tool
which has advanced technology. So everyone
can easily communicate. Building a child's
creativity (Gadget provides a variety of
information that can also encourage children
to be more creative). Children will be easier
to find all the necessary information and news
to him, especially in terms of learning while
playing, or playing while learning. In this age,
the child was still in the future exciting to
play. But not escape from a learning process
that must be done.
One interesting feature that is very popular with
children is the Internet, with the Internet they can access
their favorite video, play online games and so on. Of the
various applications on the gadget and can be accessed
through the internet, youtube be number one among early
childhood. From youtube they could watch cartoons or
animations on their favorite, in addition to video cartoon
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
Proceedings of the International Conference of Early Childhood Education (ICECE 2019)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 201
and animation, there are also many videos instructive that
can be accessed by children, such as video learn to
recognize numbers and letters, recognize colors, shapes,
until a video featuring health in the form of animation. As
parents are smart, we should be able to assist children and
choose which things to leave a positive impact and negative
for children.
II. DISCUSSION
Early childhood has unique characteristics because
they are at a very rapid growth process and fundamental to
the next life. In psychology early childhood have different
characteristics and with children over the age of 8 years
(children end).
According to Suryana (2013) characteristic of early
childhood are:
a. Egocentric child is to see the world from the
standpoint of curiosity and his own interests.
b. The child has a high curiosity, the daughter of the
view that the world is filled with things that are
interesting and amazing.
c. Child is unique that is has its own uniqueness as
learning styles, interests and family background.
d. Son of a rich imagination and fantasy that children
are interested in things that is imaginative so they
are rich in fantasy.
e. Kids have a short concentration power that children
are always quickly turned his attention to other
activities, unless the activity is indeed an
interesting and varied activities.
With the characteristics of such children, make
children curious and try new things. For early childhood, or
so-called "age kid now" gadgets is that they use. Various
features offered by the gadget make the children spend a lot
of time in play. The gadget has a positive impact how
related to the characteristics and early childhood
development. Based on research conducted by (Kiftiyah,
Sagita, and Asr) comparison subjects research results
explain that the children of the three subjects showed a
growth area in the cognitive areas of imagination, language,
curiosity and concentration. The most prominent and
rapidly growing in the stimulation of YouTube videos for
the three children are in terms of language and imagination.
This is certainly not independent of the age of the child who
was present in the environment mimic stage, so that
stimulation of the video-based English language, songs and
prayers can be recorded well in their memory. Besides the
subject between one and two show trends of development in
the introduction of color.
In line with the findings Kurniawati (2013) in Kiftiyah
(stimulation audio-visual of the video is able to deliver
optimized development of knowledge the colors are more
effective in early childhood. While the findings in the area
of the child's imagination, the interesting thing is the way
children interpret their environment in accordance
imagination of what contained in a given video content. The
concept is the same as the development of egocentrism in
children characterized by perceiving the outside world at
will. Active behave children here can be said to constitute a
potential kinesthetic intelligence that will develop in the
child.
But like a blade, the gadget is not only a positive
impact on the child, but also has a negative effect.
Psychological terms, childhood is a golden age where
children learn to know what is not yet known. If childhood
is already addicted and negatively affected by the gadget,
then the childrens development will be hampered, due to
childhood experiences have a powerful influence on
subsequent developments. Moreover, unwitting children
often apply the "What You See is what you Get". This
implementation has the meaning of what is seen by children
is a lesson, what if no focused and integrated guidance of
parents and families, child development will lead to the
negative side. At an early age is the stage of development of
motor intelligence, the intelligence of thinking, emotional
intelligence, language and communication shows that early
childhood is the future of a nation's assets that must be
considered in each phase of development. (Mayenti &
Sunita, 2018).
There was also an effect on language development in
children. when children watch a video on YouTube or other
sites, making the child only one-way communication, where
it has a serious impact on early childhood. We can see that a
lot of animated films that only displays the image without
any dialogue in the story, which makes communications
child in one direction, in addition to mute the video as well
makes children lose time to get to know and learn new
vocabulary. In addition, we see examples of this bus
children aged 2 years has been introduced with the gadget,
it will reduce the quality of children's two-way
communication. So that children experience difficulties
when communicating with others or in other words, the
child will experience speech delay. Whereas the
development of children's language skills is an ability that is
very important to communicate, especially for those who
have entered into the preschool education environment,
especially kindergarten. In this regard, Learning early goal
(1999) in Susanto (2011) argued that the purpose of the
development of language at an early age is described as
follows: (a) Enjoys listening, listening, using spoken
language and more prepared for play and learning. (B)
Investigate and try to sounds, words and text (c) Listening
with pleasure and responding to stories, flow and rhythms,
and rhymes and fix their own stories, stories, songs, music
and rhyme and rhythm, (D) Use language to create, describe
the role and experience (e) Using talks to organize, sort,
clear thinking, ideas, feelings and events. (F) Support,
listening attentively (g) Respond to they hear the comments,
questions and the relevant actions. (H) Interaction with
other mortal, negotiate planning and activities and wait for
the turn in conversation. (I) Expand their vocabulary,
examines the meaning and sound of new words (j) Telling
the stories in the correct order on the story illustrates a
pattern language.
Generally the stages of child development can be
divided into several age ranges, each of which shows the
characteristics of its own. According to Guntur (1998)
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
202
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
(Susanto, 2011, p. 75), the stages of this development as
follows:
Phase 1 (prelinguistic), which is 0-1 years. This
phase consists of:
1. Phase palpate-1 (first prelinguistic). This
stage starts from the first month until the
sixth month in which the child will start
crying, laughing, and screaming.
2. Phase palpate-2 (paralinguistic second).
This stage there is essentially a word
without meaning stages ranging from 6
months to 1 year.
Phase 2 (linguistic). This stage consists of stages I
and II, namely:
1. Phase-I; holophrastic (1 year old), when
children begin to express the meaning of
the whole phrase or sentence in one word.
This stage is also characterized by the
vocabulary of children up to
approximately 50 vocabularies.
2. Phase-2; phrase (1-2 years), at this stage
the child is able to utter two words
(speech two words). This stage is also
characterized by the vocabulary of
children up to 50-100 vocabulary
Phase 3 (development of grammar, i.e. preschool 3,
4, 5 years old). At this stage the child is able to
create a sentence, like a telegram. An examination
of the development of grammar such as: SPO,
children can extend words into one sentence.
Stage 4 (grammar before adulthood, i.e. 6-8 years).
This stage is characterized by the ability that is able
to combine simple sentences and complex
sentences.
Bruner Susanto (2011), states that children learn from
concrete to abstract through three stages, namely enactive,
iconic and symbolic.
-In the enactive stage. Kids interact with objects in
the form of objects, people and events. Of this
interaction, children learn the names and recording
characteristics of objects and events. That is why
children aged 2-3 years old children will be a lot to
ask "what" "what's that" etc.
-At that stage the child begins to learn to develop
the iconic symbols of the object.
-Symbolic process occurs when children develop
the concept. By the same process, children learn
about various objects such as glasses, drink and
water
According to research conducted by the Son and
Patmaningrum (2018) TK students in Bandung routine use
gadgets, making children miss time with their families to
share their daily routine, because when both (children and
mothers) have started to play the gadget, each having his
own world. Moreover, because the lack of social interaction
to make children become individual figure who does not care
about the circumstances. Gadget make children more easily
gain access to information and technology media, so that
children become lazy moving and active. They prefer to sit
and enjoy the world in the gadget itself. Things like this will
certainly affect the child's development, both in terms of
physical, motor, psychological and social development.
They become no longer interested in playing with their peers
because it is more interested in digital games. In addition
children will be more difficult to concentrate on the real
world because they are already familiar with the digital
world (Ameliola & Nugraha, 2013).
Based on research conducted by Sapardi (2018)
mentions that found based on the results of research
conducted in children whose development deviates from
gadgets using seen most children are not normally in use
gadgets (over 30 minutes per week). The use of gadgets too
long to make children lazy to move and doing activities,
less interact with the environment, and hamper the process
of socialization of children, so it can affect a child's
development.
While to become individuals capable of society
needed three socialization process. This socialization
process seems separate, but actually relate to each other, as
suggested by (Hurlock, 1996) is as follows. (1) Learn to
behave in a socially acceptable manner. (2) Learning to play
a social role in the community. (3) Developing attitudes /
social behavior to other individuals and social activity in the
community.
In its development, based on the three stages of this
social process, the individual will be divided into two
groups, namely the social and individual non-social
individuals. Social individual groups are those whose
conduct a third reflects the socialization process.
They were able to follow the desired group and
accepted as a member of the group. Sometimes they always
want the other person and feel lonely if they are alone. In
addition they also feel satisfied and happy if always be with
others. The group of non-social individuals, they are people
who are not successful third reflect socialization processes.
They are individuals who do not know what to expect social
groups so that their behavior does not correspond to social
expectations. Sometimes they grow into antisocial
individuals, i.e. individuals who know the expectations of
social groups, but deliberately against it. As a result of this
antisocial individual is rejected or ostracized by social
groups.
Besides the two groups above, in this social
development unisex terms Introvert and extrovert
individuals. Introvert is a person's tendency to withdraw
from social environment. Interests, attitudes or decisions
taken are always based on feelings, thoughts, and his own
experiences. People with a tendency introvert, usually quiet
and do not need other people because they feel all their
needs can be met alone.
Extrovert is a person's tendency to direct attention to
the outside of him so that all the interests, attitudes, and
decisions are taken more determined by events that occur
outside of him. People usually tend to be active extrovert,
gregarious and welcoming.
An expert expressed introvert and extrovert just a type
of reaction that indicated a person. If someone shows a
continuous reaction as it is or has become a habit then be
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
203
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
regarded as a type of personality. While other experts
suggest that a healthy or balanced personality must have
both of these tendencies. Thus, the need to deal with the
social environment and the need for achievement and self-
reflection can both be satisfied.
Good or bad impact on children of gadgets depending
on how parents restrict and filter out which ones are good
and which are bad for their children.
III. CONCLUSION
Eyes like two sides of the blade, the gadget can
provide positive and negative effects as well. As teachers
and parents, we must be smart to address the use of gadgets
on children, how we are able to utilize gadgets to a more
positive and minimize the negative impact caused by the
gadget in order to achieve optimal development in children.
With so many interesting features on offer and often
make children familiar with it quickly. Many of the impacts
and benefits of the gadgets among others, to facilitate a
child in a child's creativity and intelligence. As the
application of coloring, learning to read and write letters
certainly a positive impact on brain development of
children. Children do not require much time and effort to
learn to read and write in a book or paper. Children also
will be more eager to learn because such applications are
usually complemented by interesting pictures. In addition,
the ability to imagine children as well honed.
The gadget also obtains any negative impact child
development. Psychological terms, childhood is a golden
age where children learn to know what is not yet known. If
childhood is already addicted and negatively affected by the
gadget, then the children's development will be hampered,
due to childhood experiences have a powerful influence on
subsequent developments.
So, as teachers and parents, we must be smart to
address the use of gadgets in children, how we are able to
utilize gadgets to a more positive and minimize the negative
impact caused by the gadget in order to achieve optimal
development in children.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 449
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Dampak Penggunaan Gadget Pada Anak Usia Dini
  • H Al-Ayouby
Al-Ayouby, H. (2017). Dampak Penggunaan Gadget Pada Anak Usia Dini, Studi Di PAUD Dan TK Handayani Bandar Lampung. Universitas Lampung.
Perkembangan Bahasa Anak Usia Dini
  • S Anita
Anita, S. (2015). Perkembangan Bahasa Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Al-Shifa, Vol. 06. No. 02, 172-173.
Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga
  • E B Hurlock
Hurlock, E. B. (1996). Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Dampak Penggunaan Gadget Terhadap Perkembangan
  • F Mayenti
  • I Sunita
Mayenti, F., & Sunita, I. (2018). Dampak Penggunaan Gadget Terhadap Perkembangan. Jurnal Photon, 209.
Hubungan Penggunaan Gadget Dengan Perkembangan Anak Usia
  • V S Sapardi
Sapardi, V. S. (2018). Hubungan Penggunaan Gadget Dengan Perkembangan Anak Usia. Menara Ilmu, 143.
Perkembangan Anak : Sejak Pembuahan Sampai Kanak-Kanak Akhir
  • C H Seotjiningsih
Seotjiningsih, C. H. (2012). Perkembangan Anak : Sejak Pembuahan Sampai Kanak-Kanak Akhir. Jakarta: Prenada.
Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga
  • P Upton
Upton, P. (2012). Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga.