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How income and the economic evaluation of time affect who we socialize with outside of work

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Abstract

Building on research showing that organizational practices that highlight the monetary value of time can affect decisions about time use, we examined how income and the economic evaluation of time jointly predict decisions about socializing with others who can be instrumentally useful to people (e.g., colleagues). Using a multimethod approach of surveys and experiments, we found that income was a stronger predictor of both the economic value placed upon socializing with colleagues outside of work as well as the propensity to engage in such activities. When the economic value of time was high, individuals weighed the instrumental value of networking more heavily in their decision making about how to allocate time. These findings illustrate how organizational pay practices and the salience of income can influence decisions about daily social interactions outside of work.

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We address two questions central to the "network as resources" argument, using network data from two mass surveys. First, how is range best measured? We identify six dimensions of range: one each reflecting network size and complexity, and two each representing density and diversity. Second, what is the nature of the relationship between SES and social resources? Evidence here supports the proposition that network range and composition are positively related to an actor's socioeconomic status. © 1986 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland) All rights reserved.
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Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors’ power were assessed in the first wave, employees’ networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and career satisfaction were assessed after three years. Networking was the most robust predictor of career success. Mentoring received predicted career satisfaction and its effects on objective career success were mediated by networking. Further, mentoring by a powerful mentor predicted objective career success beyond networking. Based on previous findings we argue that these findings underscore the critical relationship between early career employees’ networking behaviors and mentoring received.
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Previous research indicates that lower-class individuals experience elevated negative emotions as compared with their upper-class counterparts. We examine how the environments of lower-class individuals can also promote greater compassionate responding-that is, concern for the suffering or well-being of others. In the present research, we investigate class-based differences in dispositional compassion and its activation in situations wherein others are suffering. Across studies, relative to their upper-class counterparts, lower-class individuals reported elevated dispositional compassion (Study 1), as well as greater self-reported compassion during a compassion-inducing video (Study 2) and for another person during a social interaction (Study 3). Lower-class individuals also exhibited heart rate deceleration-a physiological response associated with orienting to the social environment and engaging with others-during the compassion-inducing video (Study 2). We discuss a potential mechanism of class-based influences on compassion, whereby lower-class individuals' are more attuned to others' distress, relative to their upper-class counterparts.
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