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Covid-19 lead to colleges and universities ending in-person instruction. The online education that emerged after COVID-19, has been challenging in Nepal because students, teachers, and administrators were not prepared for it. Stakeholders of education should work in many areas to enhance the effectiveness of online education and make it more similar to classroom education.
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Short Essay
Volume 4, Issue 1 (2020), pp. 45-49
International Journal of
Entrepreneurship and Economic Issues
ISSN: 2616-0048 Print/ ISSN: 2631-231X Online
Challenges of Online Education during COVID-19
Pandemic in Nepal
Kabita Khati
Padmakanya Multiple Campus, Nepal,
Khem Raj Bhatta
Central Department of Psychology, Nepal
Covid-19 lead to colleges and universities ending in-person instruction. The
online education that emerged after COVID-19, has been challenging in
Nepal because students, teachers, and administrators were not prepared for
it. Stakeholders of education should work in many areas to enhance the
effectiveness of online education and make it more similar to classroom
Keywords: COVID-19, Online Education, Challenges, College Education
The coronavirus outbreak that started from Wuhan city of China in late
2019, has claimed more than four hundred thousand deaths globally.
COVID-19 pandemic has become a threat to the community worldwide
(Buheji et al., 2020) and Nepal is no exception. Nepal had the first case of
COVID-19 on 20th February 2020 (Shrestha et al., 2020). In a span of three
months, cases have been increased to 10728 and death toll to 24 (Mishra,
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Besides the casualties, the COVID-19 pandemic has a
multidimensional impact globally and a large number of students are
deprived of their education. The Pandemic contributed to closure of more
than 90% of world’s schools (Strauss, 2020). Many students in Nepal are
experiencing distress due to the lockdown imposed immediately a week
before their scheduled exams. Several students are still waiting for the exam
schedule. Due to pandemic, those planning for abroad study are either
waiting indefinitely or abandoned their plans (Dhungana, 2020).
Educational institutes have, however, started online education as an
emergency alternative to traditional face-to-face education. As lockdown
completed three months government of Nepal and many Universities have
formalized online classes.
Online classes are flexible for both teachers and students but such
classes have their own challenges (Gillett-Swan, 2017). The attention of
students and safety issues can be important challenges during online classes
(Phuyal, 2020). Also, children from low-income working class cannot join
the online class as they often do know have access to a computer of reliable
Internet service (Ghimire, 2020; Ojha, 2020). Professors who mostly relied
on in-person modalities found the shift to online teaching challenging
(Subedi, 2020). Many academicians considered the decision to move
quickly to online or virtual class as premature in face of limited
infrastructure and training. Some experts also argue that online classes in the
Nepalese context are against the spirit of equitable access to education as
this deprived right to education of economically marginalized people.
Recent coverage by ABC News showed that many students do not consider
online classes as equivalent to classroom experiences (Binkley, 2020).
Teachers, administrators, and parents have are also questioning the
effectiveness of online education.
Even though all stakeholders of education have concerns regarding the
effectiveness of online education in Nepal, they report it differently.
Students have four main issues regarding online education. First, they find it
difficult to adapt to technology. Students often struggle to post assignments
and log on to classes. Second, some students consider online classes as less
interactive. For example, one of our students said, “there is more of teacher
talking and less of interaction." Third, poor Internet connectivity in many
areas of Nepal makes it difficult for students to attend classes and post
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assignments. Fourth, the unavailability of computers poses a challenge in
For teachers, the problem arises because they neither expected nor
prepared for online classes. Learning technology is one challenge for
teachers. Also, the lack of eye contact makes it difficult for them to
understand whether or not students are getting their pace. For some
teachers, their children at home often disturb synchronous class delivery.
Administrators have different problems during online classes. For
school administration, the primary problem surrounds on payment of house
rent and salary in light of obstruction in fee collection. School
administrators do worry that COVID-19 will result in a higher dropout rate
as poverty soars. At the university level, administrators often find it hard to
make teachers available to engaging training to better prepare for online
learning. Also, the lower rate of attendance is a burden to administrators.
Parents also have many concerns regarding online education. The
overreliance of their children on the Internet during lockdown is one
insecurity they have. One parent said, “I fear, my child can go out of my
hands.” Working parents have added burden due to lower safety standards at
worksites. These parents report anxiety about bringing COVID-19 to their
homes. Also, some parents have issues because they have no one to take
care of children when they are at work.
Despite many challenges, online education has some benefits for
students, administrators, and teachers. Some students loved online classes
either because it is flexible or because they would miss traditional classes
due to jobs. For some students, online classes are good because it saves
travel time. For administrators, the engagement of a variety of experts can
be one benefit of online education. Due to flexibility of time, administrators
can engage experts who would be unavailable in face-to-face classes. This
trend has now started with many university classes engaging foreign experts
as guest lecturers. For teachers, the flexibility of time is one merit of the
online class. Thus, handled effectively, online education can be long term
supplementary to traditional classes.
Online education, though it has its positives, is full of challenges at the
moment in Nepal. Despite some flexibility and the only alternative at the
moment, a continuation of it without the development of physical and
human resource infrastructures can be ineffective. Poor network, the
security of the Internet, and the possibility of Internet addiction can be other
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challenges. Consideration of online education as a short-term solution by
teachers and administrators can contribute to lower motivation and the
ultimate effectiveness of online classes.
To enhance the effectiveness of online education in Nepal,
stakeholders should focus more on the improvement of infrastructures, to
train teachers, and motivate students. According to the World Health
Organization, COVID-19 extend for two- three years. Thus, online
education can be one important knowledge-sharing platform. Also, the
enhancement of online education can be helpful to continue teaching
learning education in other natural calamities like that Nepal experienced in
the 2015-earthquake. At the moment, online education should be considered
complementary rather than an alternative to traditional classes. Stakeholders
of education should also work for equitable education when they plan for
online education.
Binkley, C. (2020, May 5). Unimpressed by online classes, college students
seek refunds. abc News, Retreived
Buheji, M., da Costa Cunha, K., Beka, G., Mavric, B., de Souza, Y. L., da
Costa Silva, S. S., ... & Yein, T. C. (2020). The extent of covid-19
pandemic socio-economic impact on global poverty. a global
integrative multidisciplinary review. American Journal of
Economics, 10(4), 213-224.
Dhungana, S. (2020, June 25). Covid-19 lockdown affects Nepali students
planning to go abroad. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Ghimire, B. (2020, May 28). Digital divide too wide for online classes to
succeed in Nepal. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Gillett-Swan, J. (2017). The challenges of online learning: Supporting and
engaging the isolated learner. Journal of Learning Design, 10(1),
Mishra, A. (2020, June 25). Bikalpa ma Suti Ko Mask. Kantipur, p. 2.
Ojha, A. (2020, June 9). Children from low-income working class families
can't join online classes. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Phuyal, K. (2020, April 10). Challenges of Virtual Class. Himalayan Times,
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Shrestha, R., Shrestha, S., Khanal, P., & KC, B. (2020). Nepal’s First Case
of COVID-19 and public health response. Journal of Travel
Medicine, 27(3), taaa024.
Subedi, A. (2020, May 10). Guru karma in virtual times. The Kathmandu
Post, Retrieved
Strauss, V. (2020, April 6). Schools of more than 90 percent of the world’s
students closed during this pandemic. This graphic shows how fast
it happened. Washington Post, Retrieved
KABITA KHATI, M.A., is a Senior Lecturer in Padmakanya Multiple
campus, Psychology Department, Tribhuvan University. Her major research
interests lie in the area of psychological welling, higher education research
and women issues. Email:
KHEM RAJ BHATTA, M.A., is Lecturer in Central Department of
Psychology, Tribhuvan University. His major interests lie in the area of
academic achievement of students, test anxiety and elderly issues. Email:
Manuscript submitted: June 25, 2020
Manuscript revised: July 10, 2020
Accepted for publication: July 15, 2020
... Bangladesh has not been exempt from the COVID-19 catastrophe, with more than 500 thousand confirmed cases and about 8,000 deaths by the end of 2020. Besides the loss of lives, the educational infrastructure has taken a hit as almost 90% of the world's schools (in about 107 countries) have been closed due to this pandemic (Khati & Bhatta, 2020;Viner et al., 2020). Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of UNESCO, presented this situation as, 'Never before have we witnessed educational disruption on such a large scale' (Demuyakor, 2020). ...
... In Bangladesh, the first three known cases were confirmed on 8 th March, 2020 and the educational institutions have been shut down from 17 th March. However, traditional classes were replaced with online classes and being continued in almost all levels of learning until institutions reopen (Khati & Bhatta, 2020). ...
... This system, however, has some challenges too as it is significantly different from the orthodox system (Gillett-Swan, 2017; Robinson & Hullinger, 2008). Online classes are inherently challenging to the financially underprivileged students as access to internet and internetcompatible devices are essential to participate in online classes (Khati & Bhatta, 2020). Students often find it challenging to focus in such classes leading to reduced learning satisfaction and reduced grade as well as teachers who are habituated in a board-chalk setting frequently find it challenging to cope with the online accessories (Kenny, 2002;Roth et al., 2020). ...
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic halted educational institutions all over the world which forced a shift to online classes, a new experience for Bangladeshi students which increased their screen time. Objective: This study aimed at discerning the physiological challenges accompanied by the online education system and the compatibility of Bangladeshi students considering health and socio-demographic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional pilot study was performed based upon an online survey on students (n = 590) during September 1st to 14th of 2020. Results: Interestingly, an inevitable consequence of online education was several physiological problems. It was found that 93.9% of the participants faced some kind of physiological challenges, e.g., headaches, fatigue, eye and ear problems, from online classes. The majority of the participants (57.5%) could not concentrate for one hour or more in online classes. Conclusion: Along with transitioning towards online education, innovative teaching methods would be helpful for the students to adapt to the ‘new normal’.
... But most of the academic institutions were faced many obstacles due to limited infrastructure and trained human resources. Some experts suggested that online classes were against of Nepalese context, which was against the spirit for equitable access to education as the deprived right to education of economically marginalized people (Bhatta, 2020). Above many discussions the major disturbing factor was low socio-economic conditions of the community, the marginalized household could not offer to access smartphones and internet connectivity, which are a minimum condition of virtual learning. ...
... The external factor plays a crucial role in education contribution to pupils with the high engagement of parent's, and their capacity. K. Khati and K.R. Bhatta (2020) have raised issues of accessibilities, their inequalities, and the impact related issues on online learning in this Covid019 pandemic in the context of Nepal. They added further on the improvement of infrastructures, social protection to disadvantaged households, and their children's education participation. ...
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The usual learning activities have been affected during the Covid019. Research has explored the growing practices of the informal modes of teaching-learning. The current virtual teaching-learning practices were unfriendly among local pupils but due to the obligation of the Covid019 pandemic, it has been practiced based on locally available resources. Lack of familiarity with virtual learning, guidance, and weak socioeconomic conditions of parents, virtual learning is going to be complicated, especially in oppressed communities in Gorkha. Research has tried to find out what was the major learning practices during the pandemic.Explain the schooling, contribution of teachers, and local initiations into the teaching-learning process & explore the socioeconomic condition of parents. Primary information was collected from observation of students, parents, and teachers' engagement, and the narratives of the informants contribute to primary information collection. The key informant interviews, open-ended question-answer, and focal groups discussion-based qualitative method were applied to qualitative data interpretation, and multiple regression was applied to quantitative data interpretation. The parents' roles, the dependent and independent socioeconomic roles were also interpreted during the informal learning explanation of the study.The virtual classes were too hard to operationalize with lower accessibility of smart gadgets and lower familiarity. Local teachers and parents facing hard to accept smart gadgets-based instruction, teaching methods, and virtual learning. Further virtual base instruction was being complex during the pandemic. Need to scale up socioeconomic conditions of parents, adding subsidy or social protection provision in education can make a difference in education practices during the pandemic.
... Such challenges might be more or less similar to the Nepalese context of virtual learning. For example, Khati & Bhatta (2020) found that teachers are not well-prepared for online classes, they lack eye contact, or disturb synchronous class delivery. As stated by them, there was difficult to adapt to technology, less interactive, poor internet connectivity, and unavailability of computers. ...
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Learner-centered instruction is very important concept in virtual and face-to-face classes for enhancing academic performance of students. This research aims to study the status of learner-centered instructions followed by the teachers in online classes during the pandemic and its effectiveness on the mathematics achievement of the learners. The cross-sectional survey design was used by taking 2273 students by convenient sampling from basic to university level of Nepal. The t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The finding of the study indicates that the learning-centered role of teachers was found to be high in mathematics teaching during the pandemic situation in Nepal however teachers are not habituated to give extra time in learning difficulties whereas the problem solving and creative role of teachers were found better as compared to other. Types of the institutions, teaching level, access to the internet, and having tablet are the determinants for the learner-centered instruction in teaching whereas availability of laptop and computer, types of institutions, and access to the internet have significant roles to determine the mathematics achievement. The findings of this research suggest that practice of learner-centered instruction would be useful and beneficial for the learners in online classes.
... A child protection approach should also recognise a child's ability to participate in decisions about themselves" (Adhikari and Turton 2020, p. 394). From recognizing the involvement and/or articulations of children and young people in Nepal extends to other contexts such as navigating challenges children face with livelihood transitions when living on the street (Van Beers 1996; Sharma 2020); precarious and hazardous child and youth labour situations (Daly et al. 2020a;Kamei 2018); past challenges with avoiding being recruited as child soldiers and/or navigating life course(s) after being recruited as child soldiers during the Civil War (Khan and Hyndman 2015;Medeiros et al. 2020); managing post-traumatic stress after the earthquake (Acharya et al. 2018;Sharma et al. 2021) and more recently, life course transitions and trajectories uncertainties caused due to the COVID-19 crisis (Chalise 2020;Daly et al. 2021;Khati and Bhatta 2020). ...
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During certain crises, displacement of populations seeking safe refuge elsewhere can occur without the certainty of a return, if at all. Children and young people in such contexts often face the additional challenge of restrictions or disregard towards engaging their agency in migration decision-making processes. Through 60 in-depth interviews with 30 trans-Himalayan participants (ages of 16–23) and multi-sited ethnography throughout Nepal, this paper investigates multiple experiences of crises experienced by young people and the effects on their life course trajectories. From focusing on the Civil War in 1996–2006, the 2015 earthquake, and most recently the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper proposes that initial displacements from the Civil War, when connected with other crises later on in a participant’s life course, better prepared them to deal with crises and enabled them to create a landscape of resilience. Furthermore, a landscape of resilience that connects past and present life course experiences during crises prepared some participants for helping their larger communities alleviate certain crises-related tension. Overall, this paper extends analysis on an under-researched group of young migrants by connecting crises that shaped their (im)mobility and life trajectories, rather than approaching crises as singular, isolated experiences.
... Parents will be more involved in their children's learning process. (Khati, & Bhatta, 2020). Nepal ...
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Nearly all governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions due to Covid-19 pandemic which are affecting up to 60% of the world’s student. Around, near to 200 countries closed their schools are interrupting the education of more than 1.5 billion young people and impact in long-term social and economic consequences. The aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the challenges and opportunities of online education during Covid-19 situation in Nepal by performing a systematic Meta analysis of related published literature. The Meta analysis was done diverse subjects and diverse research design was eligible among the 11 full-text articles. A formal extraction protocol was the PRISMA-P. Main finding of analysis is to offer an opportunity to shift to online learning and interaction and use virtual platforms for e-conference, webinars, podcasts, online class/ online-lectures etc. Opportunities for being continuations of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among job holders. The changes in education technique, modality and process, which may required extra effort initially, provides teacher, faculty and facilitator the forcedly to keep pace with current trends in technology. This study recognized challenges as unequal access and quality of internet conveniences; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances.
... Ang mahinang network at seguridad ng internet ay ilan sa mga hamon sa edukasyon sa online (Khati at Bhatta, 2020). Ayon din kina Qui at Olugbenga (2020), pinatunayan na ang kakulangan ng internet bandwidth ay isa sa mga hamon sa edukasyon sa online. ...
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This study aims to identify the condition of the teachers on Webinar on the following: The use of technology, Internet connection and Time; Find out teacher's perspective on webinar according to; content, relation to present condition and the use for teaching; Suggestion for conducting a webinar. Descriptive phenomenological is used in the research. Respondents of this study were selected using purposive sampling. Respondents of this study were from Juban District compose of 1 teacher from Elementary, Junior High School and Senior High School. Questionnaire was used in an interview to gather needed data. This study finds out teachers' condition on webinar according to the use of technology, Internet connection and time. The use of technology, slow internet connectivity and time during webinar have impact on the learning of the participants during webinar. Topics discussed on webinar is timely because this is related to teaching strategies during pandemic. New teaching strategies and learning resources were part of the topics in webinar as important needs in education. The researcher recommends that gadgets such as cellphone, laptop or technologies that are manipulative are to be consider during webinar. Provides a better internet connection and time frame are to consider. Wider information and learning are to be shared and discussed to be use by the teacher in the present condition of Education.
... They expected that online education would be mainstream for the general education schooling systems by 2025. They investigated some factors that have impacts on the online education progress including industry, national, regional, or local government education authorities, state education laws, the capacity of ICT usage, online or mobile technological issues and solutions, national income, and other financial situations.Studies(Farooq, Rathore, & Mansoor, 2020;Khati, & Bhatta, 2020;Simamora, 2020) have been published to investigate challenges for online education platforms in the literature lately.Farooq, Rathore, and Mansoor (2020) discussed challenges in online medical education caused by the Covid-19 epidemic in Pakistan. Medical colleges in addition to other higher institutions have been facing challenges during the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic. ...
Online education faces several challenges because it requires different technological infrastructures, materials, environments, and trained instructors. Speaking is known as one of the major English skills since individuals are required to communicate with others. Speaking is utilized to express personal ideas. Without speaking, it is difficult to express any ideas in environments confined to English-speaking individuals. This study was designed to investigate existing speaking problems that the students encounter in online education from the perspectives of the English Language Teaching (ELT) faculty members at a medium university in Turkey. It is expected that certain important elements of ELT problems regarding speaking English in the classrooms and public environments outside the classroom will be examined and discussed. Specifically, the views, perspectives, perceptions, experiences, and recommendations about developing speaking skills of undergraduate students were collected from 15 ELT instructors via individual interviews. The descriptive qualitative research design of the qualitative research methodology was implemented. The study universe consisted of EFL academicians who teach English in Istanbul. The participants were chosen from a Foundation University with a purposeful sampling approach. A total of 15 ELT academicians who teach English experience to college students were selected for the study purposes. Data collection tools include a socio-demographic form and an interview protocol. The socio-demographic form consists of demographic information for the participants including age, gender, education status, and previous teaching experiences. The interview protocol included viii questions regarding the participants’ perceptions of the implementations of the current online EFL courses. Results showed that major issues or problems that students are worried about in the ELT classrooms include making mistakes, being criticized, ridiculed by peers, and lack of confidence to speak in English. Another issue regarding speaking struggles is students experiencing difficulties regarding issues such as correct pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. Many students, do not have enough levels of understandings of spelling, writing, and reading abilities with English passages. Many English learners tend to think in their mother language first and translate it into English. This approach could cause students to experience speaking problems because they usually hesitate as they think Turkish and speak in English at the same time. It also takes and requires extra effort and more than a necessary burden. Another issue that the instructors raising regarding speaking problems involves the acquisition, which is described as not being exposed to the English language enough. Additionally, language barriers, the misconception of preconceptions regarding English language courses are critical issues. Instructors made some recommendations to promote students’ speaking abilities such as focusing on the positive sides of the students, encouraging them by their parents and instructors, providing speaking opportunities and dialogues, building a comfortable classroom setting. Finally, the instructors commented on curriculum, resource materials, and application for speaking English including utilizing movies and TV shows for daily dialogs, modern approaches (CLT), integrated approaches, small groups, and participating in English-speaking groups and places.
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This study aimed to determine the experiences of students in remote areas upon their Learning Modality, Modular. The researcher focused on finding out the following: Students ’Most Outstanding Experiences; Challenges Faced by Students; Students' Methods of Solving Their Problems. Descriptive phenomenological is used in the research. Respondents of this study were selected using random sampling. Respondents of this study were from in Juban National High School which consists of 25 Senior high students living in remote areas. Semi-structured questionnaire was used in an interview to gather the needed data. This study finds out students’ experiences in remote areas on their Modular Learning according to the learning modules, internet connection, time, and financial. Absence of knowledge in answering modules, slow internet connectivity, lack of modulation time and finance for transportation and other educational expenses have impact on the learning of the participants during Modular Learning. This study proposed to the Department of Education (DepEd) to provide an adequate funding in the manufacture of learning modules for the effectivity of students’ learning. Provides a better internet connection and time frame are to consider. Wider information, methods and learning are to be shared and discussed to be use by the students in remote areas in the present condition of Education. Keywords – Modular Learning Modality, Learning Modules, Rural Setting, COVID-1
Covid-19 is a pandemic disease and as the evidence shows, the world is not ready for such a disease like this. Therefore currently, online education is used to prevent the limitations of learning. This paper seeks a way to expand and develop the joy of perception and encourage more teachers and students to use the online environment to conduct classes. The results of this article show how the use of graphic design material help to online educational be more interactive and motivate students. In this study, we try to use a package of General Standards for using colors, text, Illustrations, and pictures, video clips, using soundtrack, and music. But the most important thing is when we convert the whole chapters of classes to short movies like comic video or cartoons the participation rate increase significantly. Also, we convert a small video of the next class or theme in order to motive the students for the next session. In this case, using technology in graphic design education will create a sense of pleasure in learning and teaching for both categories of teachers and students.
Education is the fundamental need for achieving equality in society and promoting national development. For every child between 6 and 14 years of age, the ‘Right to Education’ is a fundamental right in India. Higher education has a vital role in human and societal well-being and for the development of the country. India has the third-largest educational system in the world, which is changing in terms of digitalization. Digitalization is crucial in the education sector to sustain itself in a competitive world. During the COVID-19 pandemic, digitalization was the only way to continue classes and studies. Educational Practitioners who were not that familiar with digital tools and technologies have faced a lot of challenges. This chapter throws light on challenges faced by Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) educators in adopting digitalization and suggests some measures to alleviate the issues. Data was collected through telephonic interviews from eight educators working in HEIs. Thematic analysis was applied on interview transcripts, and five themes were identified: advantages of digital learning, benefits of traditional learning over digital learning, challenges of digitalization, measures to alleviate challenges, and prospects in digitalization.
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The outbreak of COVID 19 made many poor communities in different places of the world face very challenging socioeconomic and livelihood consequences. This paper targets to analyse this socioeconomic impact to determine how the pandemic is causing various problems to the impoverished. An integrative literature review was carried out to sample the consequences of the global pandemic economic crisis on the poor communities in four different continents. The research points out how it is hard on the poor to adhere to the restrictive measures of social isolation or the lockdown. Immediate strategies that minimize the pandemic impact on the livelihood and the socioeconomic activities of the poor are suggested. The research opens future research about more specialised programs for the poor during any future lockdowns.
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p class="JLDAbstract">Higher education providers are becoming increasingly aware of the diversity of their current and potential learners and are moving to provide a range of options for their engagement. The increasingly flexible delivery modes available for university students provide multiple pathways and opportunities for those seeking further education. In changing between and across modes, a one-size-fits-all approach is often used. That is, internal content is converted into a form deemed suitable for an external delivery. However, there is a significant problem with the one-size-fits-all approach for external students who feel or experience isolation. When compared to their internal counterparts, these students often face a number of barriers to their full participation in coursework units. These barriers may not be experienced by those engaging in these same units via face-to-face or blended enrolment modes and therefore present another type of learner to consider in the planning and implementation of learning activities online. The barriers to participation appear particularly evident in groupwork activities. The online environment also presents challenges for many academic staff who increasingly require higher levels of technological competency and proficiency on top of their regular academic workload. Drawing on reflections of several years of facilitating student learning online, this paper provides one lecturer’s perspective and critical commentary on some of the challenges faced by external students and the implications of an increasingly online delivery framework for practice.</p
To examine the potential roles of melatonin in cadmium (Cd) uptake, accumulation and detoxification in Malus plants, we exposed two different apple rootstocks varying greatly in Cd uptake and accumulation to either 0 or 30 μM Cd together with 0 or 100 μM melatonin. Cadmium stress stimulated endogenous melatonin production to a greater extent in the Cd-tolerant Malus baccata Borkh. than in the Cd-susceptible Malus micromalus 'qingzhoulinqin'. Melatonin application attenuated Cd-induced reductions in growth, photosynthesis and enzyme activity, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde accumulation. Melatonin treatment more effectively restored photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments and biomass in Cd-challenged M. micromalus 'qingzhoulinqin' than in Cd-stressed M. baccata. Exogenous melatonin lowered root Cd2+ uptake, reduced leaf Cd accumulation, decreased Cd translocation factors and increased root, stem and leaf melatonin contents in both Cd-exposed rootstocks. Melatonin application increased both antioxidant concentrations and enzyme activities to scavenge Cd-induced ROS. Exogenous melatonin treatment altered the mRNA levels of several genes regulating Cd uptake, transport and detoxification including HA7, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, HMA4, PCR2, NAS1, MT2, ABCC1 and MHX. Taken together, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin reduced aerial parts Cd accumulation and mitigated Cd toxicity in Malus plants, probably due to the melatonin-mediated Cd allocation in tissues, and induction of antioxidant defense system and transcriptionally regulated key genes involved in detoxification.
Unimpressed by online classes, college students seek refunds
  • C Binkley
Binkley, C. (2020, May 5). Unimpressed by online classes, college students seek refunds. abc News, Retreived
Covid-19 lockdown affects Nepali students planning to go abroad
  • S Dhungana
Dhungana, S. (2020, June 25). Covid-19 lockdown affects Nepali students planning to go abroad. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Digital divide too wide for online classes to succeed in Nepal
  • B Ghimire
Ghimire, B. (2020, May 28). Digital divide too wide for online classes to succeed in Nepal. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Children from low-income working class families can't join online classes
  • A Ojha
Ojha, A. (2020, June 9). Children from low-income working class families can't join online classes. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Challenges of Virtual Class
  • K Phuyal
Phuyal, K. (2020, April 10). Challenges of Virtual Class. Himalayan Times, Retrieved
Guru karma in virtual times
  • A Subedi
Subedi, A. (2020, May 10). Guru karma in virtual times. The Kathmandu Post, Retrieved
Schools of more than 90 percent of the world's students closed during this pandemic. This graphic shows how fast it happened
  • V Strauss
Strauss, V. (2020, April 6). Schools of more than 90 percent of the world's students closed during this pandemic. This graphic shows how fast it happened. Washington Post, Retrieved