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The disruptive evolution of technology has impacted on all aspects of communication. Consequently, various alternatives are being developed for storytelling, delivering messages, and connecting to people. The evolution of social media and mul-timedia technologies is evident. Since 2014, we have witnessed changes both in the concept of immersion over the 360º format and virtual reality. Such changes aim at much closer proximity between user and content, strengthening possible empathic bonds. Even so, emerging audiences, especially Generation Z, spend time in digital environments that do not support this type of content. As a consequence, their interactions and multimedia behavior focus on vertical, ephemeral content, rendering TikTok as an innovative alternative with a significant growth trend. This study proposes a review of media outlets and journalists' work reporting on the COVID-19 pandemic using 360º multimedia narratives and Tik-Tok. Research shows evidence of the limited use of the immersive multime-dia format and the increase of productions in the ephemeral vertical format of TikTok-whose audience reach has grown significantly.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
Tripodos, number 47, vol. 1 | 2020 | 105-122
ISSN: 1138-3305
Use of New Narratives for COVID-19 Reporting: From
360º Videos to Ephemeral TikTok Videos in Online Media
Pavel Sidorenko-Bautista
Francisco de Vitoria University (Spain)
José María Herranz de la Casa
Juan Ignacio Cantero de Julián
University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)
Received: 30/04/20
Accepted: 27/05/20
The disruptive evolution of technology
has impacted on all aspects of commu-
nication. Consequently, various alterna-
tives are being developed for storytelling,
delivering messages, and connecting to
The evolution of social media and mul-
timedia technologies is evident. Since
2014, we have witnessed changes both
in the concept of immersion over the
360º format and virtual reality. Such
changes aim at much closer proximity
between user and content, strengthen-
ing possible empathic bonds.
Even so, emerging audiences, especial-
ly Generation Z, spend time in digital
environments that do not support this
type of content. As a consequence, their
interactions and multimedia behavior
focus on vertical, ephemeral content,
rendering TikTok as an innovative alter-
native with a signicant growth trend.
This study proposes a review of media
outlets and journalists’ work report-
ing on the COVID-19 pandemic using
360º multimedia narratives and Tik-
Tok. Research shows evidence of the
limited use of the immersive multime-
dia format and the increase of produc-
tions in the ephemeral vertical format
of TikTok —whose audience reach has
grown signicantly.
Keywords: COVID-19, 360 video,
ephemeral video, journalism, Genera-
tion Z.
The world is going through its Fourth Industrial Revolution, this is a context
where the fast evolution of technology has been decisive in all develop-
mental areas of communication (Schawb, 2016). At the same time, these
changes influence social dynamics and increase the complexity of message distri-
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
106 bution among an increasingly segmented audience (Andriessen and Vartiainen,
2006). This context leads to reassessing McLuhan’s “the media is the message”
and considering “people is the message” (Cardoso, 2014), generating disruptive
change in the relationship between sender-receiver-message (Fernández, 2011).
The emphasis falls on online communications, interactive, and multimedia,
which translates in the constant development of new alternatives for story con-
struction and communicating (Herranz, Sidorenko, and Cantero, 2019).
As a consequence, the definition of new professional profiles arises: i.e., social
media producer, user engagement specialist, or Facebook live producer (Adornato,
2017). The future of communications is uncertain. It aims to technologies such
as blockchain, artificial intelligence (chatbots, virtual assistants), internet of things
(Herranz, Sidorenko, and Cantero, 2019), and definitely towards a content ubiq-
uity model where the user will not be able to avoid messages and stimuli (Sala-
verría, 2018).
Interconnected users can be organized into generations to delineate and compre-
hend their interactions and digital consumption. A generation references a set
of related phenomena that lead to a generational gap, while the members of one
group experience social proximity as a result of shared events, especially those of
cultural nature (Parry and Uwin, 2011).
The most recent segmentation is that of Generation Z, also referred to as the
digitally native generation, because, generally speaking, they were born with full in-
ternet access available, and above all, wireless internet, which has significantly con-
ditioned their communicational habits (Baysal, 2014; Prensky, 2001; Turner, 2015).
Visual Capitalist conducted a study using Global Web Index data (see
<>). They studied the digital behavior of people during the
first month of social confinement, a consequence of the COVID-19 pandem-
ic. The sample comprised the activity of 4,000 users in the United States and
the United Kingdom and reached the conclusion that Generation Z consumes,
largely, online video, on-demand television, on-demand music, and videogames.
Millennials coincide in all these items in addition to a great interest in obtaining
information from digital news sources. Generation x, although consuming more
conventional television, is barely under the consumption index of online video
and on-demand TV of the first two segments compared.
As it is likely to presume, boomers tend to consume content mainly on tradi-
tional media, although with some exceptions. Nevertheless, the coincidence of
multimedia consumption is worth mentioning, conditioned by the social media
phenomena (IAB, 2019). There has been significant growth in this trend as a
consequence of the quarantines imposed in different countries and aimed at
containing COVID-19 contagion: more time spent at home, more opportunities
for interconnection, and lessening the effects of social distancing.
The evolution of these technologies has brought new possibilities for creat-
ing stories. Six years have passed, with ups and downs, in the development of
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
the 360º format with immersive capabilities. A short period that testifies to the
significant progress of the virtual reality concept, closely linked to this type of
Virtual reality proposes immersion and interaction, allowing the user to reach
a feeling of living an event without being physically involved, using a device
over the head. In other words, an individual wearing a digital interface reach-
es physical and emotional perceptions similar to actual life (Mütterlein, 2018;
Sidorenko, Cantero, and Herranz, 2017; Vázquez and López, 2017). Achieving a
complete immersive sensation only when the device used to visualize this type
of content offers user movement. That is to say, it allows us to be more involved
with the content (De la Peña et al., 2010; Pavlik, 2001; Pryor, 2000).
This format enhances informative possibilities presenting a complete visual
range, as well as an emotional and empathic connection between audience
and content (Aitamurto, 2018; Witt et al., 2016). This connection is the rea-
son why journalism added this resource since 2014 (Pérez-Seijó, 2016: 408) to
connect stories and information with the public in a different manner, laying
the way for the concept of immersive journalism (Peña et al., 2010; Domínguez,
The New York Times, USA Today, ABC, Euronews, BBC, The Guardian, RTVE,
and El País have been referenced cases in the subject despite a significant de-
crease and, even a total halt in the production of this type of content, except for
Nevertheless, the usual digital behavior of the younger interconnected gener-
ations, such as Generation Z, is vertical, due to the natural interactive disposition
of smartphones, leading to apps and social media that do not support the 360º
format. The most successful cases that we can mention today are Snapchat, Ins-
tagram, and TikTok.
The ephemeral multimedia logic stems from them because its content re-
quires brief attention from users (Yang, Zhao, and Ma, 2019). And even though
it already has a couple of years, TikTok is today a proper vertical revolution
(González, 2019) because of its particular message code: short, fun, entertain-
ing, conceived by community proposed challenges and with a tendency to re-
ward nano-influencers (Merca2.0, 2020). A social network where user participation
is led by suggested hashtag-challenges, whose success and visibility rely upon the
degree of involvement of people.
This type of participation has ushered TikTok’s extraordinary growth since it
has become a scape valve in the context of the quarantine stemming from the
COVID-19 pandemic (Refojos, 2020; Rodríguez, 2020; Willingham, 2020).
The user community is composed, mainly, by Generation Z (Rapkin, 2017;
Yang, Zhao, and Ma, 2019), although these indicators are prone to change dur-
ing 2020, since, as a consequence of the confinement, many millennials have
started participating in this network. It is worth remarking the incremental pres-
ence of the media and journalists. The Washington Post was among the first to
join, although, is also worthy of note the global presence of Antena 3 Noticias,
USA Today, NBC News, Al Jazera, or Business Insider, among others who are try-
ing to adapt to the particular message code.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the globe, leaving notable displays of emo-
tion and feelings, both positive and negative. The social expectation to know
what is happening, the testimony of those involved, the numbers, official state-
ments, and diverse interpretations have filled the media agenda and have no-
tably increased the flow of content in digital channels. Some authors warn of
high levels of “infoxication” (López, 2020) due to an excess of related content or
“infodemic” (Papapicco, 2020) alluding to a parallel pandemic of fake news and
rumors related to the virus.
Despite the coverage of the pandemic by traditional media, there is also sig-
nificant work on online media. Related to the journalistic work using new narra-
tives, and because the 360º multimedia format with immersive capabilities pro-
duces empathy between audience and content, this study proposes a review of
the coverage of facts using this format.
We propose evidencing, who has covered the pandemic using this format?
Since when? And, what is the type of themes developed?
Considering the data referenced by Visual Capitalist and taken from the Glob-
al Web Index, and due to the digital phenomena rising to the heat of these
events, the vertical, ephemeral format has been considered as another new nar-
rative, departing from the particular experience of TikTok.
As with the previous case, for this format, we propose evidencing How this
particular channel delivers information? Who is doing it? And, Since when?
The initial hypotheses are:
H1: Reference media outlets for 360º video have continued coverage of COV-
ID-19 with this narrative.
H2: 360º video narrative is very relevant for storytelling and news during the
COVID-19 pandemic.
H3: Media outlets have used TikTok’s ephemeral videos to inform about COV-
ID-19 and precautions during the pandemic.
Regarding 360º video, we searched the leading platforms that offer this type of
media: YouTube, Facebook, and Veer. The first two because they are the most
popular social networks that support the format and the last one because it is
a social network born in China and called to be the largest repository of 360º
multimedia on the internet.
The search terms used where: coronavirus, covid-19, isolation, confinamiento
(confinement), cuarentena (quarantine), pandemia (pandemic), virus. In the same
manner, we also visited networks that support the 360º video format to verify the
information distributed using this format and to confirm search results.
We established five profile categories to build analytic charts:
1. public institution/governmental authority
2. religious institutions
3. media outlets/journalists
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
4. media production companies and
5. personal accounts
We also established five thematic categories to publications under scrutiny:
A. medical data
B. urban situation
C. home confinement
D. awareness
E. hospitals and clinics situation
Time of publication was a variable considered, since, due to the quick evolution
of events, the tone of the January publication’s is different from those published
in April.
Videos that albeit containing terms such as covid-19 or coronavirus in the title
did not have an informative intent or were not related to the topic where exclud-
ed from the study. Presumably, those terms where included to optimize search
results in this context.
We built the TikTok analytic chart considering media outlets with a general
journalistic profile, the number of publications until the review date, content
that directly addresses the pandemic, and content tone: entertainment (E) or
informative (I).
In this manner, two new narratives emerge one that tries to establish a greater
empathic connection between audience and content and another that has been
the hype during the quarantine, transcending its primary audience.
The period of analysis for web reviews began on January 1st, as the starting
point of the pandemic, and end April 20th, 2020, equivalent to 16 weeks (4
Summarizing, the goal of this study is to register the evidence of how the
situation derived from the COVID-19 pandemic is informed and documented
through new narratives based on the two formats and networks previously men-
The recount of 360º videos delivered a total of 64 publications that directly refer-
enced the situation derived from the COVID-19 pandemic.
The majority of content in this group intended to show the conditions of
urban areas in the publisher’s surroundings, especially with an emphasis on hu-
man activity in those areas.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
110 Chart 1. Analytical chart of 360º publications, with immersive capabilities, about
COVID-19 on YouTube, Facebook and VeeR, January 1st – April 20th, 2020
Profile Profile
Date Platform and link
TVR Sanal Gerçeklik Kanalı 5 B 05/02/20 YT -
CGTN 3 E 20/02/20 YT -
CGTN 3 B 26/02/20 YT -
VirtualEyze-VR 4 D 03/03/20 YT -
T13 3 E 05/03/20 YT -
FXG 5 B 09/03/20 YT -
VRAS 4 D 15/03/20 YT -
Siente el BIT 4 B 16/03/20 YT -
Siente el BIT 4 B 16/03/20 YT -
360 grados 5 B 17/03/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 17/03/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 18/03/20 YT -
Josh Grambo 5 C 18/03/20 YT -
Inre Sinnesvilja 5 B 18/03/20 YT -
360VR Medio Solutions 4 B 18/03/20 YT -
Kevin Kunze 5 B 19/03/20 YT -
Cinetique Inmersion 4 D 19/03/20 YT -
Insta 360 Tube 4 B 20/03/20 YT -
dorfi360 5 B 20/03/20 YT -
CGTN 3 E 21/03/20 YT -
El Crítico 5 B 22/03/20 YT -
dorfi360 5 B 22/03/20 YT -
All things Branson 5 B 22/03/20 YT -
Hugh Hou 5 B 22/03/20 VeeR -
Szidor N. Gábor 5 B 22/03/20 VeeR -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 23/03/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 24/03/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 24/03/20 YT -
Worldwide Reality Videos 4 B 24/03/20 YT -
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
Profile Profile
Date Platform and link
The1 VR 4 D 24/03/20 YT -
Gaba VR 5 B 24/03/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 25/03/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 25/03/20 YT -
Sputnik France 3 B 25/03/20 YT -
Philips Argueta 5 B 25/03/20 YT -
Surgical Theater 4 A 26/03/20 YT -
Vila 360 VR Videos 4 B 27/03/20 YT -
MAD Channel 5 B 28/03/20 YT -
Exploring theWorld 5 B 29/03/20 YT -
Damien Gilbert 5 B 30/03/20 YT -
TARGO 4 B 01/04/20 VeeR -
CGTN 3 E 02/04/20 YT -
Urbanist – History of Cities 5 B 05/04/20 YT -
Felix Mizioznikov 5 B 05/04/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 06/04/20 YT -
Nsocial Enriched
Experimental Agency
4 D 06/04/20 YT -
Abu Huraira Center 2 D 07/04/20 YT -
José Ortega 5 B 07/04/20 YT -
Agencia Casa Mais 4 B 09/04/20 YT -
James Z Wu 5 B 10/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 10/04/20 YT -
Abu Huraira Center 2 D 13/04/20 YT -
Men on Tour Live 5 B 13/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 15/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 16/04/20 YT -
VR Gorilla 4 B 17/04/20 YT -
Sputnik France 3 B 17/04/20 YT -
AbbiLee360 5 C 18/04/20 YT -
WyoColo Experience 5 B 18/04/20 YT -
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
112 Profile Profile
Date Platform and link
Abu Huraira Center 2 D 18/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 18/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 19/04/20 YT -
Abu Huraira Center 2 D 20/04/20 YT -
Andy Kay 5 B 20/04/20 YT -
Source: Prepared by the authors.
The majority of this type of content was published from personal accounts, as shown
in Chart 1 and represent 57% of the publications found, as illustrated in Graphic 1.
The segment that follows, with a much smaller proportion is that of media pro-
duction companies, who created content showing the situation in urban areas in
the quarantine and confinement regime applied globally as a consequence of the
pandemic (13%). Both segments account for 70% of the immersive content studied.
Chart 1 also evidences that a mayor flow of communications took place in
March, followed by April. Conversely, February has barely any evidence of activ-
ity and January none.
Another aspect worth noting is that 95% of the publications appeared on You-
Tube (Graphic 2) and the remaining 5% on VeeR. In contrast, there is no registry
of content with similar characteristics on Facebook during the period studied.
Graphic 1. Profile percentage of 360º publications with immersive capabilities
of COVID-19 on YouTube, Facebook, and VeeR, January 1st– April 20th, 2020
Source: Prepared by the authors.
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Graphic 2. Thematic percentage of 360º publications with immersive capabilities
of COVID-19 on YouTube, Facebook, and VeeR, January 1st– April 20th, 2020
Source: Prepared by the authors.
Regarding TikTok and its ephemeral vertical content, the media outlets refer-
enced in Chart 2, show that, in general, coverage of the global pandemic began
at the end of January, when the information transcended Chinese borders. Nev-
ertheless, some of them began producing content in a deferred way.
The News outlet of Costa Rica, NCR Noticias, began producing content in
this social network on March 29th, that is to say, they premiered in this platform
with coverage of the virus in their country. But this is not the case of RT or USA
Today who started publishing what was happening in China.
Another important detail is that despite the message code dominating the
web at the moment, most of the publications in these profiles had informative
The Washington Post case is worthy of notice. This news outlet engaged in
generating publications of the pandemic in a strict entertainment and comedy
tone, respecting if you want, the content style that dominates in that platform.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
114 Chart 2. Analytical chart of COVID-19 publications on TikTok by media outlets,
January 1st– April 20th, 2020
Media Outlet First
Total Nº of
Total Nº of COVID-19
and derived events
publications January-
April 2020
Tone of COVID-19
Entertainment (E) or
Information (I)
Al Jazeera (Qatar) 28 Jan 399 79 79 - I
Business Insider
France (France)
28 Jan 28 8 3 – E / 5 - I
RT (Russia) 28 Jan 169 34 11 – E / 23 - I
NBC News (USA) 28 Jan 79 7 1 – E / 6 – I
USA TODAY (USA) 30 Jan 188 35 16 – E / 19 – I
Times Now (India) 31 Jan 378 85 85 - I
NBC Chicago (USA) 4 Mar 37 5 1 – E / 4 - I
Washington Post
4 Mar 309 41 41 - E
El Tiempo
10 Mar 29 2 2 - E
Antena 3 Noticias
13 Mar 43 3 2 – E / 1 - I
Business Insider India
18 Mar 22 12 12 – I
National Post
18 Mar 42 7 1 – E / 6 – I
NCR Noticias (Costa
29 Mar 11 9 9 - I
TOTAL ----- 1734 327 78 – E / 249 - I
Source: Prepared by the authors.
TikTok has included in its home page a button labeled COVID-19 that redirects
to a section labeled “Coronavirus”. This section contains informative content
from the World Health Organization, Red cross Bizkaia, World Economic Forum,
International Organization for Migration (UN), International Federation of Red
Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
Stands out in this section on TikTok that, in contrast to Facebook’s “Corona-
virus COVID-19 information center”, there is no collection of Journalistic sourc-
es treating the subject, only voices of NGOs and health authorities.
This informative content is presented in many different ways: as audiovisuals
in a vertical format with duration no longer than 15 seconds, as well as live casts,
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
which, at the moment, are only available to profiles with more than one thou-
sand followers.
Furthermore, there are two additional buttons: “Preventive measures” and
“Questions and answers.” The first one leads to advice and actions aimed at
awareness and hygiene, published by the Ministry of Health (in this case, Spain,
the country where the review took place) (image 1). The second button presents
a series of frequent questions on symptomatology, actions needed after conta-
gion or, hygiene practices, and measures to avoid it (image 2).
Images 1 and 2. Information contained in the button “Protective measures”
of the COVID-19 pandemic specific section on TikTok
Source: TikTok. Viewed 04/18/2020.
The “Coronavirus” section shows hashtag-challenges deliberately created to in-
volve users with current events related to the pandemic. Institutions or authori-
ties promote these tags; the remaining content belongs to anyone who adds the
tag to their publication. These challenges are #yomequedoencasa (I stay at home),
#manosseguras (safe hands), #10toqueschallege (10contacts challenge —bounc-
ing a roll of toilet paper ten times without letting it fall on the floor), #concier-
toenmibalcon (balcony concert), #fitnessencasa (fitness at home), #showencasa
(home show).
The majority of media outlets does not participate in these challenges, al-
though they include their coronavirus content through trends (hashtags) such
as #covid19, #coronavirus, #lockdown, #isolation, or #pandemic. The lack of
participation in these challenges explains why they do not gain visibility in the
“COVID-19” section, where only NGOs and users participate.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
116 The informative bias also stands out in TikTok, the search engine gives more
visibility to this type of content, aiming at engaging a more significant number
of users.
Image 3. Promotion of the “Coronavirus” section in TikTok’s trends section
Source: TikTok. Viewed 04/18/2020.
Establishing a first comparison of the leading intermediaries of the various in-
formative pieces derived from the global COVID-19 pandemic and developed
with new narratives such as 360º video with immersive capabilities, we can point
out that user-generated content predominates. Only three news media outlets
produced 360º content: Sputnik France (Russian media outlet with French corre-
spondents), T13 (Chilean media outlet), CGTN (Chinese media outlet with glob-
al reach). In the first case, as with most of the publications mentioned, the focus
was on the low affluence of people in urban areas. Concurrently, T13 —having
only one report with these characteristics— and a few publications from CGTN,
showed the situation of health professionals and hospitals in the context of the
None of the cases showed evidence of content aimed at raising awareness.
However, one of the roles of journalism is to educate and guide, especially in
this type of situation where social uncertainty, doubts, and an increasing flow of
inaccurate and fake content are warned by fact-checkers such as and
Newtral (see <>).
It draws attention that in other past catastrophes and humanitarian crises,
this format has played an essential role in the construction of stories about the
facts, and directed at reaching greater audience involvement. These past events
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
have made evident different players such as the immersive journalist (see The
New York Times and the report on the war in Irak <>), the
lead actor or leading journalist (see ABC news and Hong Kong’s 2019 protests
coverage, <>), or the journalist narrator (see The Guardian
report on the war in Mosul <>) (Herranz, Sidorenko
and Cantero, 2019).
In all those cases, the use of the format responded to its powerful inform-
ative and emotional load, but there is no confirmation of its implementation
under the present circumstances. Stands out that none of the international news
outlets representatives of the 360º immersive format have published anything
of that kind. When reviewing the activity of The New York Times, BBC, CNN,
Euronews, or RTVE, there is no evidence of reports in this format with coverage
of the current global situation.
Nor do governmental institutions or NGOs, which in other crises and con-
flicts such as the refugee crisis (see Medecins Sans Frontieres <
M3R> or UNICEF, <>) have produced reports with these
characteristics aiming at more audience involvement with the facts. Additional-
ly, the production of some of this content was made possible with the collabo-
ration of news outlets.
It is true that on YouTube as well as on Facebook, there are links that lead to
more information on the COVID-19 pandemic. Still, in these sections, there is
no reference to 360º videos or photographs with immersive capabilities. Even
less in the VeeR platform, that although being Chinese does not offer anything
of the kind.
Regarding TikTok, although there is a more significant number of inform-
ative publications related to the pandemic, the ones published by the Indian
news outlet Times now, for example, are mostly not tailored, narrative-wise, for
this platform. These productions were intended for other digital platforms such
as YouTube (see < and <>) and dis-
played in horizontal mode. Something similar happens to the Spanish news out-
let Antena 3 Noticias (see < and <>),
and NCR Noticias (see <
On the contrary, Business Insider India (see <>) and
Al Jazeera (see < sustain a strictly journalistic tone, tailor-
ing the content to the interface of this social network. However, we must high-
light the work of The Washington Post (see <>), USA TO-
DAY (see <>), NBC News (see <>),
or El Tiempo (see <>), which use the native production
resources of the social network, resulting in natural and creative aesthetics akin
to the informative proposition.
Nevertheless, as Chart 2 shows, The Washington Post has rendered the par-
ticular code of the platform entirely. As a consequence, although they reference
the different moments associated with the pandemic and the social confinement
that ensued, the content has a high comedy and entertainment tone.
Be it as it may, all cases are an innovative approach of media outlets and jour-
nalists to deliver information to emerging audiences. A relevant fact considering
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
118 the initial research on media during the COVID-19 period. As stated by Case-
ro-Ripollés (2020: 10), research shows that news consumption and the positive
appraisal of informative coverage during the pandemic have increased in users
“previously barely connected like young people, people with less information,
and the occasional consumers of information.”
From the standpoint of visualization, if we do a random review of the number
of views of the 360º content referenced here, the media network that accumulates
the most significant figure is the Chinese network CGTN with close to 13,000. In
contrast, TikTok’s user community participation around hashtag-challenges such
as #yomequedoencasa (I stay at home) rises to 2.4 billion views, without being
able to quantify the total number of videos published under that tag. Or, for ex-
ample, #manosseguras (safe hands), that by the time measurement of the sample
ended, gathered 4,2 billion views. More playful tags such as #conciertoenmibal-
cón (balcony concert) accumulated in the same period 26 million views.
In the same way, NBC news pandemic related content goes from 10,000 up to
almost 700,000 views (see <>), or USA TODAY from 10,000
up to 242,000 views (see <>). These figures show that
TikTok messages related to the pandemic have more reach than 360º content.
One interesting finding, in the case of 360º immersive content, is that the
spectrum of spiritual and religious voices and speakers register only one partici-
pant from Abu Huraira Center, who, from the Islamic point of view, and based
in Canada, aims at building awareness within its congregation.
Despite the novel narrative of both formats, after the examples mentioned,
its visible a significant decline of the possibility to capture attention and greater
involvement of journalistic actors around 360º immersive content in contrast
with ephemeral videos, primarily through TikTok, where there is evidence of a
compelling creative process.
Since 2015, immersive journalism has focused on the coverage of topics with a
significant social impact, requiring more user empathy, or related to situations
or places with difficult access. Some examples are, the nuclear accident at Fuku-
shima (<>), the refugee drama (<>),
the consequences of hurricane Harvey (<>), or discovering
the inside of North Korea (<>).
The global situation derived from the COVID-19 pandemic brought an ap-
propriate context for media networks and journalists to opt for this narrative to
expose the conditions in hospital and retirement homes. Reporting desolated
places that previously showed dense demographic concentration, and that, due
to confinement, show an unrecognizable appearance.
For example, in Spain, Antena 3 Noticias produced several journalistic pieces
in the program series called En primera línea. The first one showed the hard work
performed by health personnel at different hospitals, fighting the pandemic in
question. But the report was done in conventional multimedia format.
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
The New York Times case is even more conspicuous because, until today, it was
an essential representative of the use of this type of digital narrative. Although
not the first media outlet to exploit this narrative, it indeed has a consistent
production output with a great variety of topics. Despite its been months since
the last 360º content post, they have experimented with other types of alter-
native narratives, such as augmented reality. The New York Times offers a mo-
bile app that tells users, in real-time, the correct distance they should have with
other people, thus complying with social distancing health recommendations
(see <>).
The majority of 360º content that addresses topics related to the COVID-19
were made by individuals, which presumably opted for YouTube because its a
social network that attracts the participation of a higher number of segments of
the global audience. This trend would probably be the main reason why there is
no evidence of this type of content on Facebook.
With all this, the first hypothesis does not apply since the referring 360º vid-
eo media networks did not produce coverage of COVID-19 with this narrative.
There is corroboration for the second hypothesis: the 360º video narrative, is
very relevant for storytelling and news during the COVID-19 pandemic, as evi-
denced by the videos made by individuals, by some media networks and because
of the use of this technology in other situations of crisis or war.
Media networks and journalists are absent from the informative section pro-
posed by TikTok for COVID-19, where the information comes directly from
health organizations and health authorities. Nevertheless, the majority of me-
dia networks referenced in this social network have been producing informative
content on prevention and pandemic updates. This output confirms the third
hypothesis, although in some cases, the messages are more focused on entertain-
ment and align with the social network’s tone.
As a consequence of this and the production resources made available by the
social network to the users, much of the content considered informative has a
particular aesthetics that may generate confusion in other platforms or digital
outlets. This effect is part of the innovation process applied by journalists to
reach younger audiences.
Hence, we are in the process of narrative evolution where vertical format,
short, creative content adapts to mobile consumption and dominates in every
sense. In the same manner, the development and popularity of virtual reality
and the 360º format in the coming years will be subject to the global deployment
of 5G networks, with the resulting betterment of graphic quality and the higher
performance of streaming solutions.
Pavel Sidorenko-Bautista (pavel.sidorenko@ Professor in the Advertising Bachelor’s
degree at the Faculty of Communication
Sciences of Francisco de Vitoria University.
Previously, he was a professor at the Facul-
ty of Communication of Castilla-La Mancha
University, Faculty of Information and Com-
munication Sciences at Monteávila Universi-
Tripodos 2020 | 47 | VOL. 1
120 ty (Caracas) and the Social Communication
Master’s degree at Central University of Vene-
zuela (Caracas), lecturing on Journalism, Poli-
tical Communication and History.
Ph.D. from the Faculty of Journalism (today
Faculty of Communications) at Castilla-La
Mancha University. His research focuses on
new narratives applied to communication. He
has published various studies on immersive
journalism, social media, and new formats in
corporate and advertising contexts. Available
at: <>.
José María Herranz de la Casa (josemaria. Ph.D. on Journalism from
the Complutense University of Madrid. He
is currently a full professor at the faculty of
Communication at Cuenca of Castilla-La
Mancha University. Published several works
and papers that explore his research inter-
ests: communication and transparency in
social organizations and NGOs —the theme
of his Ph.D. thesis—; corporate and organi-
zational communication; social responsibi-
lity and the SDGs; innovation, specialized
journalism (Sports and Environment) and
immersive journalism/ virtual reality. All ar-
ticles are available on his blog: <https://bit.
He worked as a journalist in the daily Sport’s pu-
blication MARCA. A former professor at Ávila’s
Catholic University (UCAV), where he develo-
ped his work attached to the communications
bureau. He has also been a professor at the Fa-
culty of Human Sciences and Information of Mi-
guel de Cervantes European University, UEMC
(Valladolid). There he taught in the Bachelor’s
degree in Journalism, advertising, and Public Re-
lations; he was also director of graduate studies
and director of the communication and marke-
ting bureau of UEMC for four years.
Juan Ignacio Cantero de Julián (juanigna- B.A. in Journalism
and Master’s degree in Teaching of mandatory
secondary school, baccalaureate, professional
training, and language teaching from Castilla-
La Mancha University.
He has worked as a journalist for the online
daily newspaper El Deporte Conquense. Foun-
ding member and financier of this project.
He has taught on the global structure of the
media, cyber journalism, sports journalism,
the Spanish media system, Genres of interpre-
tation, opinion, institutional and corporate
communication at Castilla-La Mancha Uni-
versity. He is currently working on his Ph.D.
thesis on environmental journalism while re-
searching virtual reality and 360º video.
He is also the coordinator of El Observador, a
digital publication of the Faculty of journa-
lism of Castilla-La Mancha.
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... También se encuentran trabajos sobre los usos del humor (Wang, 2020), los usos para motivar a los estudiantes (Pamungkas, 2020) y su uso científico (Hayes et al., 2020;Zeng & Schäfer, 2020). Esta plataforma ha sido estudiada, además, como facilitadora de la difusión de mensajes de salud pública durante la pandemia de COVID-19 (Basch et al., 2022;Eghtesadi & Florea, 2020;Kennedy, 2020;Sidorenko-Bautista et al., 2020), o su uso durante el confinamiento (Olivares-García y Méndez-Majuelos, 2020; Quiroz, 2020). ...
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Las redes sociales se han convertido en una de las principales vías de difusión de contenidos por parte de los medios de comunicación tradicionales. La última en sumarse a ellas es la china TikTok, aupada a fenómeno de masas gracias a la llamada «Generación Z» y a los meses de confinamiento pandémico. Sin embargo, estos entornos en los que tanto tiempo pasan los jóvenes se han convertido también en difusores de discursos de odio, entre ellos, el que se hace en contra de las mujeres, la misoginia. La presente investigación explora a través de grupos de discusión la percepción por parte de los jóvenes de este tipo de mensajes en TikTok, en particular en los perfiles de la prensa española. A su vez, comprueba con un análisis cuantitativo si en los contenidos de dichos perfiles los usuarios dejan mensajes machistas o misóginos. Proponiendo, además, la siguiente clasificación de dichos mensajes: no sexista/misógino, sexista/sexismo benevolente, odio/misógino, acoso y amenazas. Se concluye que los perfiles de la prensa española en TikTok son entornos prácticamente libres de mensajes de odio contra las mujeres, coincidiendo con la percepción expresada por los jóvenes.
... In recent years, scholars have studied TikTok's notification of health-related information (Comp et al., 2021), published official government information (Jiang and Wang, 2020), public political discussions (Medina Serrano et al., 2020), uploaded travel content (Du et al., 2020), online live sales (Su, 2020a), and broadcast educational science (Hayes et al., 2020). During the epidemic, the most recent study analyzed the video content of the TikTok platform conveying COVID-19 messages (Li X. et al., 2021), as well as the narrative approach in video epidemic reports (Sidorenko-Bautista et al., 2021). However, TikTok has been studied mainly as a marketing tool due to its huge amount of data and users, it has thus become an important platform for city marketing (Lei et al., 2020), as TikTok can make a destination famous quickly (Wengel et al., 2022). ...
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The city on social media has become a hot topic in the study of city communication and city image. From the perspective of spatial theory and the communication characteristics of social media, this paper divides the spatial imagery of TikTok into three spaces: material space-cognitive attention, mental space-mental association, and relational space-emotional involvement. Based on the content analysis of 40 videos, we analyze the process of social media using cognition, association, and emotion as the starting points to increase the material space, expand the mental space, and expand the relational space. We find that spatial imagery can be co-constructed from the material space, mental space, and relational space. Lastly, the model is changed, and the value of using spatial theory to understand how city images are made is talked about.
El contenido visual e interactivo que permite TikTok, lo hace un perfecto aliado para las marcas de moda. Este estudio tiene como finalidad analizar cómo Zara utiliza TikTok como herramienta de comunicación digital a través de tres objetivos: la evaluación de las tendencias (trends), la influencia de la estrategia de comunicación de Zara en TikTok y la identificación del grado de engagement que tiene el usuario con la marca. Los resultados reflejan que Zara hace un gran esfuerzo comunicativo, crea contenido estratégico y el grado de engagement que se genera entre la marca y su público es sólido.
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Los nuevos medios de comunicación han cambiado la producción y el uso que hacemos de imágenes estáticas y dinámicas que visionamos en las pantallas de nuestros dispositivos móviles. El panorama audiovisual se presenta plagado de posibilidades de combinación de formatos y recursos. En los últimos años la verticalización de la pantalla ha incursionado como soporte de la comunicación audiovisual en la Tecnologías de Comunicación e Información. El objetivo principal de esta investigación ha sido conocer la literatura publicada sobre el vídeo en formato vertical donde se ha optado por la revisión bibliográfica de tipo narrativo, y para su elaboración se han consultado las bases de datos de Web of Science, Scopus y Google Académico con una estrategia de búsqueda relacionada. La evidencia científica publicada se puede sectorizar en la discusión sobre la relación entre la imagen y el dispositivo, la relación de aspecto, los soportes y formatos de los nuevos medios, el vídeo vertical en redes sociales y lineamientos sobre la gramática del vídeo vertical. Entre las principales conclusiones destaca que el formato vertical desafía las concepciones tradicionales y conduce a ajustes visuales/espaciales, estilísticos y estéticos que determinan una nueva forma de ver y experimentar de los medios y plataformas de comunicación. Esta revisión de la literaria hace patente la escasa bibliografía científica disponible sobre el tema en cuestión.
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La consolidación de TikTok como una plataforma orientada al mero entretenimiento no ha limitado el empeño divulgativo de profesionales de muy diferentes ámbitos que han encontrado en esta red social una oportunidad para compartir de forma masiva conocimientos rigurosos, útiles y desmitificadores (Guiñez-Cabrera y Mansilla-Obando, 2022; Yalamanchili et al., 2022). A través de una metodología basada en el análisis de contenido, se examinan las publicaciones y las reacciones de los principales perfiles de temática farmacéutica en TikTok, profundizando en los recursos comunicativos, estrategias de interacción y temas con los que conectan con su audiencia. Los resultados revelan que, a diferencia de otros espacios digitales más propensos a la crispación y el enfrentamiento, los influencers farmacéuticos pueden exponer abiertamente su experiencia y opinión profesional, demostrando, además, un dominio de los recursos técnicos que ofrece TikTok para crear vídeos divulgativos sobre salud. El empleo de un lenguaje cercano y alejado de tecnicismos, sumado a un tono natural y con ciertas dosis de humor, representan sus señas de identidad y la clave de la buena acogida por parte de una audiencia que responde (79.696 comentarios analizados) de forma asertiva planteando dudas, relatando sus propias experiencias y, sobre todo, expresando apoyo a las tesis defendidas por el profesional. Ante un tema de interés general como es la salud, todo esfuerzo por emplear las herramientas y códigos de comunicación propios de la población joven contribuye a integrarlos en los nuevos circuitos de divulgación.
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To build representations and meanings, telejournalism in the context of transmediationhas relied on the interrelation of different languages, adapting itself according to the emergence of resources and interfaces. In this context, one can cite the exploration of 360-degree audiovisual narratives, an emerging image modality used by the press as a mechanism to bring spectators closer to events. In Brazil, 360-degree journalistic productions made by communication companies, in general, go beyond the television space and are also explored in virtual social networks and websites to instigate the participation of the enunciatee through access to interactivity resources. The present investigation focuses on this articulation process between TV and the Internet, intending to point out reflections on the language of 360-degree audiovisual content in journalism, proposing to analyze discursive strategies and technical specificities of productions disseminated through television support and the online environment. To this end, the series of 360-degree reports “O Vírus na Favela” was examined, launched in 2020 by the program Balanço Geral RJ(Record TV Rio -Brazil) and which sought to portray challenges faced by residents of communities in Rio de Janeiro during the COVID-19 pandemic. This exploratory study is guided by a methodological path formed by a bibliographic survey, based on discussions such as telejournalism, interactivity and 360-degree narratives, and on the analysis of the corpus based on three principles of French semiotics presented by Barros (2005, 85): “narrative syntax,”“discursive syntax” and “discursive semantics.”In addition, the semiotic analysis method for 360-degree films developed by Moreira (2020) was applied. In conclusions, it can be recognized that the analyzed series evidences the enunciators' search to follow the contemporary trend of telling stories in more than one media support, as well as creating interactivity with the viewer. Also, it was observed that TV productions have a hybrid proposal based on several languages, such as graphic elements, conventional videos and 360-degree videos. On the other hand, web content, in part, is configured as interactive versions of 360-degree videos shown on TV. Such evidence may signify that television content producers see this image as an accessory innovation in the composition of traditional reports.
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Pode-se dizer que os aparatos tecnológicos têm despertado transformações intensas nos valores e condutas sociais, moldando comportamentos e instigando novas expectativas e preferências do público em relação ao consumo de produtos midiáticos. Como consequência desse processo, o campo de estudo comunicacional configura-se, cada vez mais, por sua natureza fluida, difusa e movediça, sendo formado por matérias-primas em constante renovação. Dentro desse quadro de pesquisa provocador, encontram-se investigações que versam sobre as produções audiovisuais em 360 graus. Desenvolvidas a reboque da propagação de tecnologias digitais de criação, divulgação e recepção de imagens – estáticas e em movimento –, essas obras são reconhecidas por oferecerem aos interatores cenas registradas em diferentes ângulos, possibilitando, portanto, distintos caminhos de leitura. Nesse sentido, ao mirar para o estágio das produções em 360 graus de não-ficção em comparação com o de outras formas expressivas imagéticas, compreende-se que problemas – de ordem estrutural, cultural, entre outros –, têm prejudicado a consolidação de uma linguagem para o audiovisual imersivo. Assim, o presente artigo, à luz de pressupostos da Teoria da Informação fixados por Décio Pignatari (1981; 2004), dedica-se a apresentar ruídos relacionados às narrativas audiovisuais em 360 graus não-ficcionais, ilustrando-os a partir de comentários feitos por usuários em vídeos esféricos divulgados no YouTube. Para tal, preliminarmente, o trabalho se alicerça em revisão bibliográfica pautada em diversificadas correntes teóricas da Comunicação, representadas por autores como Marshall McLuhan (1964; 1977), Pierre Lévy (1998) e Manuel Castells (2002). Fundamentando-se no repertório adquirido com pesquisas sobre imagens em 360 graus, foi possível identificar cinco ruídos, isto é, cinco fontes de erros que parecem estar comprometendo a eficácia da transmissão das mensagens audiovisuais esféricas: Olhar; Acesso à tecnologia; Ecologia imagética contemporânea; Investimento da mídia; e Codificação. Sobre a questão do olhar, é válido destacar que as pessoas são acostumadas, tradicionalmente, com o consumo de peças imagéticas bidimensionais, enquanto as produções em 360 graus, responsáveis por transpassar a ideia de perspectiva, ainda são estranhas à visão e sofrem com a rejeição de parte considerável do público. Em termos de acesso tecnológico, verifica-se, principalmente no caso das audiências brasileiras, dificuldades de usuários para acessar vídeos esféricos, desencadeadas por problemas como a instabilidade de conexão com a Internet e a falta de óculos de realidade virtual, dispositivo que não faz parte dos lares da maioria das pessoas. Já o ruído da atual ecologia imagética corresponde à preferência dos consumidores pela produção e recepção de peças midiáticas curtas, que não exigem tanto tempo para serem apreciadas, logo, parecem ir na contramão da proposta imersiva das narrativas em 360 graus, caracterizada por instigar a navegação dos usuários. A respeito do fator investimento da mídia, deve-se ressaltar que os meios de comunicação, sobretudo os veículos jornalísticos, foram essenciais para o desenvolvimento da tecnologia 360 graus, com a realização e divulgação de diversas experimentações narrativas, porém, percebe-se que nos últimos anos houve uma estagnação dessas produções. Por fim, as discussões acerca da codificação buscam apontar que, muitas vezes, os vídeos esféricos denotam problemas de linguagem, indicando certa falta de domínio dos emissores em relação às propriedades que compõem a tecnologia 360 graus. A partir dos resultados apresentados neste estudo exploratório deseja-se contribuir com debates sobre conteúdos audiovisuais em 360 graus de não-ficção, modalidade emergente que carece de olhares científicos acerca da eficácia e precisão de sua linguagem. Ainda, espera-se que o panorama de problemas fornecido possa suscitar novas reflexões científicas dedicadas a apresentar outras fontes de erros, além de possíveis direções para solucioná-los. Também, este trabalho, ao incorporar perspectivas teóricas da comunicação de diferentes contextos históricos, procura demonstrar que o período de uma publicação científica não obrigatoriamente invalida o seu potencial para ser acionada no caso de objetos contemporâneos. Como recomendações, sugere-se que pesquisas futuras referentes às narrativas em 360 graus apostem na realização de experimentações narrativas, apoiando-se, por exemplo, em percursos metodológicos baseados no design, de modo a colaborar para a consolidação da linguagem 360 graus.
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O presente artigo investiga a utilização dos dispositivos móveis pelos estudantes de jornalismo da Universidade da Beira Interior e do Instituto Politécnico de Portalegre, dando especial foco ao projeto académico VivaCovilhã e à unidade curricular de Comunicação e Linguagens Audiovisuais, à luz da qual os alunos produzem conteúdos jornalísticos com recurso ao smartphone. Num contexto em que o digital e a mobilidade são indissociáveis da prática do jornalismo, analisa-se de que forma o ensino se adapta às novas realidades, dando relevo aos projetos académicos que valorizam as potencialidades dos dispositivos móveis.
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Introducción: La presente investigación analiza la visión de destacados periodistas y comunicadores sobre la adaptación del periodismo científico al entorno digital: por un lado, se abordan las posibilidades del ecosistema web para el uso de las narrativas transmedia y, por otro, se explora el potencial de TikTok como plataforma divulgativa. Metodología: El trabajo incluye un corpus de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profesionales vinculados a instituciones y medios junto a investigadores del área de Comunicación. Resultados: El estudio evidencia la oportunidad que supone para el periodismo científico el entorno transmedia como aliado para acercar el conocimiento a nuevos públicos. A nivel práctico, apuntan sus potencialidades gráficas, de acceso e inmediatez, además de proponer recomendaciones sobre contenidos, estilo y relación con los usuarios de los mensajes que se divulgan en TikTok. Discusión: La investigación también conlleva un sentido crítico ante la necesidad de que profesionales y medios se adapten a los nuevos entornos como un factor vital de sostenibilidad. Entendiendo que no se trata de tendencias pasajeras sino del reto de recuperar la confianza de las audiencias y garantizar su viabilidad. Conclusiones: Además de informar con rigor sobre temas de interés en un momento crítico de infodemia, se debe aspirar a crear comunidades en torno a la ciencia y generar contenidos atractivos para públicos no habituados a estas informaciones. Evitando un uso replicante de las redes sociales, aprovechando todas sus posibilidades narrativas y, en última instancia, contribuyendo a reforzar el valor del ejercicio profesional en un contexto de desprestigio mediático.
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The spreading of new Coronavirus in addition to becoming a global phenomenon, following the declaration of a pandemic state, has generated excessive access to information, phenomenon named “Infodemia” (Cinelli et al., 2020). The general purpose of the exploratory study is to investigate how the coronavirus situation is described from the journalistic communication. Starting from La Repubblica online, as a reference journalistic magazine, the study assumes that if the circulation of information helps to create a social representation of the phenomenon, the excessive accessibility to sources of information (infodemia) can be modulated by the “how” the phenomenon is described by the journalists. The methodology proposed is quanti-qualitative (mixed method). A Content Analysis (Mayring, 2004) with the SketchEngine software (Thomas, 2016) is carried out first. In support, a Diatextual Analysis (Papapicco & Mininni, 2019) was carried out. The results show the presence of the contrast vision about COVID-19 situation in Italy.
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Las narrativas periodísticas, que aumentan la capacidad de inmersión del usuario, representan una excelente vía para acercar al público a la noticias, además de una forma fresca y nueva de informar, pensando en las audiencias que convencionalmente no se acercan al medio por los canales tradicionales. Este capítulo profundiza en la narrativas en 360º y realidad virtual y las nuevas oportunidades narrativas que ofrecen estas formas de contar.
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Interactive nonfiction offers new narrative possibilities for journalism in a hybrid and developing context. Through mobile devices, in the new media ecosystem, virtual reality takes shape. Immersive journalism grows through these experiences looking for the user’s engagement during the consumption of information. International reference media have recently started the exploration of virtual reality, as it is shown in this article, through mobile apps of virtual reality.
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Está muy extendida la percepción de la importancia que han tenido las redes sociales en las movilizaciones populares de protesta en los últimos años en casi todo el mundo. Sin embargo, es necesario mejorar los conocimientos que se tienen sobre ellas. Al respecto, son esclarecedores los datos aportados por una consulta realizada a principios de 2013 entre unos 6.000 internautas de 17 países.
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This case study demonstrates a relatively low-cost, quick-startup project that advances work in virtual world immersive journalism; in this case, to amplify the voices of often marginalized youth in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Using ethnographic and survey research, it provides insights into producing “machinimas” (videos filmed in virtual worlds) to tell journalistic stories using virtual world tools, props, scenery and avatars, and provides a prototype for college-level journalism, communication and media studies programs considering initiating their own immersive journalism and virtual reality journeys.
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Mankind which is a social entity and whose most basic necessity is staying with other people have been in tendency of being together, acting together and uniting since the early ages of history. People living in the same period and therefore sharing the same conditions and even same experiences are influenced by each other. This situation results in the fact that individuals who are born, grown and brought up in the same or close periods have similar characteristics. It is not attractive that individuals who are shaped by the environment in which they are born and grown up, social, economic and cultural conditions, social cases and cases which interest the entire humanity have similar characteristics. Scientists moving from this point put forward the term “generation” in order to define individuals and their characteristics and carried out studies over this term. Within the scope of studies; the generation which was born between 1925-1945 was named as ‘Traditionalists’ silent generation and it was not subject of studies too much since it is regarded as a generation which does not have major effect. The generation which was born after World War II and therefore have the name of ‘Baby Boomers’ includes people born between 1946-1964 and representatives of this generation are regarded as those who are retired or about to retire today. The greatest aim of the generation which was born between 1965-1979 and named as ‘X Generation’ is considered as keeping pace with the changes in the world. Representatives of this generation have active role in social life and business life today. The generation which was born between 1980-2001 and named as ‘Millennials’ or as ‘Y generation’ as more commonly known are the children of globalization. For the children of this generation who have accessed the development and easiness of technology, technology is one of the cornerstones of life. Y generation which has an important place especially in business life has been subject for various studies today. The last generation which was born between 2000-2020 is the technology generation. Although this generation which regards technology as something indispensable has not got into business life yet, enterprises would have to make preparation for this generation within 10 years. Enterprises which are globalized and brought competition at international level today have to employ these individuals in one place who are belong to different generations therefore have different characteristics and structures. Employing rapidly changing generations of rapidly changing world in one place, keeping their motivation high and obtain efficiency from them is possible by knowing generations, learning characteristics of them and acting according to these characteristics. In this study, first of all the term generation will be mentioned, generations and their characteristics will be explained, then characteristics of different generations and formation of management process of enterprises will be discussed. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n19p218
The article explores Generation Z, its special relationship with technology and social media, and its values, as well as how this generation may form and practice social interest. The author shares recommendations for parents, teachers, and clinicians.
This paper presents a critical review of the theoretical basis and empirical evidence for the popular practitioner idea that there are generational differences in work values. The concept of generations has a strong basis in sociological theory, but the academic empirical evidence for generational differences in work values is, at best, mixed. Many studies are unable to find the predicted differences in work values, and those that do often fail to distinguish between generation and age as possible drivers of such observed differences. In addition, the empirical literature is fraught with methodological limitations through the use of cross-sectional research designs in most studies, confusion about the definition of a generation as opposed to a cohort, and a lack of consideration for differences in national context, gender and ethnicity. Given the multitude of problems inherent in the evidence on generational differences in work values, it is not clear what value the notion of generations has for practitioners, and this may suggest that the concept be ignored. Ultimately, it may not matter to practitioners whether differences in the values of different birth cohorts reflect true generational effects, provided one can reliably demonstrate that these differences do exist. However, at present this is not the case, and therefore significant research is required first to disentangle cohort and generational effects from those caused by age or period. The suggestion that different groups of employees have different values and preferences, based on both age and other factors such as gender, remains a useful idea for managers; but a convincing case for consideration of generation as an additional distinguishing factor has yet to be made.