ArticlePDF Available

Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns: An investigation through agent-based algorithms applied to architectural elements and space planning.

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The aim of this ongoing doctoral research is to rely on the incommensurable creativity held in the Japanese Katagami patterns in order to translate them into three-dimensional speculative architectures and architectural components to give architects more design approaches differentiated from the systemic usual space configurations. While many designers are diving in the generative and computational design world by developing new personal methods, we would like to recycle the existing production of Katagami Patterns into three-dimensional architectural elements that will perpetuate the artists work and make their design go beyond time, borders and scope of applicability, all the more the current digital shift has given us more computation power, new fabrication strategies and new methods to explore, produce and stock geometry and Data. In this paper, we build bottom-up agent-based algorithms to study the architectural potential of the Katagami patterns as a top-down clean and simple initial topology in order to avoid imitation of standard templates applied during the process of configuring and planning architectural space.
Content may be subject to copyright.
FORCES
archi DOCT
The e-journal for the
dissemination of doctoral
research in architecture.
July 2019
www.archidoct.net
ISSN 2309-0103
13
Listed in:
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
30
//
Three-dimensional translation of
Japanese Katagami patterns
An investigation through agent-based algorithms applied
to architectural elements and space planning
Ghali Bouayad // Graduate School of Fine Arts, Department of Architecture, To k y o
University of The Arts
Abstract
The aim of this ongoing doctoral research is to rely on the incommensurable creativity held in
the Japanese Katagami patterns in order to translate them into three-dimensional speculative
architectures and architectural components to give architects more design approaches dif-
NMZMV\QI\MLNZWU\PM[a[\MUQK][]IT[XIKMKWVČO]ZI\QWV[?PQTMUIVaLM[QOVMZ[IZMLQ^QVOQV
the generative and computational design world by developing new personal methods, we would
like to recycle the existing production of Katagami Patterns into three-dimensional architectural
elements that will perpetuate the artists work and make their design go beyond time, borders
and scope of applicability, all the more the current digital shift has given us more computation
power, new fabrication strategies and new methods to explore, produce and stock geometry
and Data. In this paper, we rely on the Processing library IGeo (developed by Satoru Sugihara)
in order to build bottom-up agent-based algorithms to study the architectural potential of the
Katagami patterns as a top-down clean and simple initial topology in order to avoid imitation
WN[\IVLIZL\MUXTI\M[ IXXTQML L]ZQVO \PM XZWKM[[WNKWVČO]ZQVOIVLXTIVVQVOIZKPQ\MK\]ZIT
space.
Keywords
Katagami patterns; Digital craftsmanship; Emergent and Self-organizing systems; Art and
technology; Agent-based algorithm; Swarm Intelligence
Essays
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
31
//
1. Introduction
Katagami (ᆺ⣬) are the stencil tools that Japanese artisans and artists used in the process of dye-
ing patterns on fabrics of Kimonos and Yukatas. Japanese Mino-Washi paper is sculpted by material
removal through carving techniques (see Figure 1 and 2); as many layers are necessary to produce
one unique pattern, paper is glued together using PersimmonTannin then dyed using the Katazome
method that consists of applying a resisting paste developed during the Kamakura period (1192-
1333). At the end of his career, an artist reaches a level of accomplishment as he spends a whole
lifetime mastering one technique and making his own tools (Ikuta and Maruyama, 2013).
Japanese patterns are a result of the ‘’point of view’’; which makes them new creations and not just
a mere reproduction of nature. They are not real representation but are produced by intuition,
QUIOQVI\QWV\PM ]VZMITIVL\PM QZZI\QWVIT*MTČWZMIVL)4QW\\I<PMXWQV\WN^QM_Q[_PI\
turns raw nature into a content. Especially since everyone is able to see the plant, but not everyone
will see it in the same way (Yanagi1, 1972).
Our globalized societies have evolved and are becoming more complex while developing new
versatile social modes. As architects, and as human beings before all, we need to focus our current
debates on relationships, boundaries, buffer and transition spaces and especially on more inclusive
IVLVIZZI\Q^MM`XMZQMVKM[3]UI!)TT\PMUWZMIZKPQ\MK\]ZMQ[\PMIZ\\PI\PI[\PMUW[\QVč]-
ence on the daily life and social organization of human being; an art that creates a physical difference
(Balmond, 2008). In order to meet these needs today, a synthesis between nature, energy, culture,
society, user, spatial experience and technology is essential.
In a mono-cultural and metropolitan society like Japan, symbolic communication will be easy to
QVKWZXWZI\MITT\PMUWZM[aUJWT[QKWVWOZIXPQM[IVLXI\\MZV[PI^MJMMVKWLQČML\PZW]OP^IZQW][
consensus (Dower, 1990). Investigating the expressionist materiality of architecture is the oppor-
\]VQ\a\WČVLVM_UM\PWL[QVWZLMZ\WQV\MZIK\_Q\P\PM]ZJIVKWVČO]ZI\QWVIVL\WKWV^MZOM\W-
_IZL[K]T\]ZM5W][[I^QIVL3]JW.WZ\PQ[VW\WVTaVM_ZMKaKTQVOUMKPIVQ[U[KW]TLPMTX
in the production of concepts, diagrams, and new ways to see, understand and imagine architectural
MTMUMV\[QVWXXW[Q\QWV\W\PM][]IT[XIKMKWVČO]ZI\QWV[J]\\ZIV[TI\QVOIVLZMKaKTQVO\PMM`Q[\QVO
production of Katagami Patterns into three-dimensional architectural elements will perpetuate the
artists work and make their design go beyond time and borders, which could lead to “another form
of Japonisme2ï)[WN\WLIaIXXZW`QUI\MTaWVTaČN\a3I\IOIUQKIZ^MZ[\_WJ][QVM[[M[\PI\XZWL]KM
paper and fourteen sellers of Katagami are still protecting such valuable cultural assets (see Figure
3)(Ikuta and Maruyama, 2013).
The idea of using Japanese patterns in architecture has been proposed in the past and has been
[\]LQMLIVL M`XTWZMLJaLQ^MZ[MIZKPQ\MK\[3]UI IVLZM[MIZKPMZ[*MTČWZMIVL)4QW\\I
2012; Obuchi, 2012) to cite a few. Their design mainly applied patterns on building envelopes by
extruding the pattern geometry and remapping it on the wall or ceiling surfaces (Figure 4).
While we also investigate a potential application of Katagami patterns on building facades, our alter-
native approach focuses mainly on bottom-up agent-based algorithms as it allows greater freedom
in creating unpredictable and unconventional space formation while using the Katagami patterns
I[I_MTTLMČVML\WXLW_VQVX]\<PMZWTMIVL\PMQUXIK\WN\PMXI\\MZVIZM\P][ZMQV^M[\QOI\ML\W
imagine alternative space organization and are considered as an alternative to standard architectur-
ITXTIVVQVO\MUXTI\M[[MM.QO]ZM
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
32
//
Figure 3.
A sample and preview of the diversity and richness of the Katagami pattern production, from
organic to geometrical and multi layered (Ikuta and Maruyama, 2013)
Figure 1.
(Nanbu Yoshimatsu (1894- 1976) working
on tsukibori (push cutting)(Photo by Suzuka City)
Figure 2.
(Tsukibori (push cutting)(Photo by Suzuka City)
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
33
//
Figure 4.
Example of a Japanese cloud pattern remapped
on walls and ceiling surfaces
(A design by Salvator John A.LIOTTA)
Figure 5.
A conceptual diagram suggesting an imaginary
situation of how a Katagami pattern’s geometrical
topology could be used for implementing activity
and usage of spatiality. A different scenario could
emerge according to every architect’s inspiration
and imagination
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
34
//
2. Pattern selection and investigation methodology
2.1 Katagami Pattern selection
Up to today, Katagami production has been referenced by the Isetan Mitsukoshi Collection and
contains more than 1600 patterns (Ikuta and Maruyama, 2013). For this ongoing research, a total
of twenty patterns were chosen and organized in two groups (structured, and un-structured) in
order to study their three-dimensional architectural potential with the hypothesis that these two
geometry criteria will have different sort of outputs when used as a top-down input patterns to
our agent-based algorithms.
Criteria for such differentiation were based on the ideas of the architect and systems theorist
+PZQ[\WXPMZ)TM`IVLMZ_PWI[[]UML\PI\MIKP[a[\MUMQ\PMZIZ\QČKQITWZVI\]ZITKIVJMIVITabML
\PIVS[\WČN\MMVXZWXMZ\QM[\PI\ PMTX ][ ]VLMZ[\IVL IVLIXXZMKQI\MQ\[XPa[QKIT IVLOMWUM\ZQKIT
KPIZIK\MZ4MQ\VMZ0MTU]\4MQ\VMZ_PW[]UUIZQbML)TM`IVLMZì[TQNM\QUM_WZSWVXI\\MZV[
LM[KZQJM[\PMČN\MMVXZWXMZ\QM[I[\PMNWTTW_QVO"[KITM[\ZWVOKMV\MZJW]VLIZQM[IT\MZVI\QVOZMXM-
\Q\QWVKWUXTMUMV\IZQ\a_PMVKMV\MZ[M`XIVLUWZMIVLUWZM\WČTT\PMI^IQTIJTM[XIKMIVLKWUM
in contact to each other), good form, local symmetry, ambiguity, contrast or difference, gradients,
individuality, similarity, voids, simplicity, and connectedness. According to him, some properties are
KWVčQK\QVOJaKPIZIK\MZIVL\PMZMNWZMWVTa]X\WNW]ZWZXZWXMZ\QM[KIVWKK]Z_Q\PQV\PM[IUM
pattern.
As a personal assumption, a structured Katagami pattern will therefore have few of the above
properties or is made of different layers of sub patterns. Figure 6 is an illustrated example of one of
the structured pattern that has been disassembled for layering and geometrical property analysis.
By contrast to the previous example, an unstructured pattern will not be made of layers of sub
patterns and will be inspired by nature or depicts a landscape or an every day life scene (Figure
7).
2.2 Basic Setup
The behavior of various animal species and social insects produce very complex architectures that
LMUWV[\ZI\MOZMI\[MV[MWNXZWXWZ\QWV_PQTMN]TČTTQVOU]T\QXTMN]VK\QWV[[]KPI[XZW\MK\QWVNZWU
XZMLI\WZ[P]UQLQ\aZMO]TI\QWVZMXZWL]K\Q^MIK\Q^Q\QM[M\K0IV[MTT! #2MIVVM!#?QT[WV!
cited in Bonabeau et al, 2000, pp 1-2). In the very recent years, various researchers have relied on
biological and animal behavior where agents reacts to their environments such as stigmergyc plan-
VQVO/MZJMZIVL4WXMbIVL1ZMTIVLXIZI[Q\QKJMPI^QWZ)TJWZOPM\\QIVL-ZQWTQ
and cellular growth (Klemmt, 2019) to cite a few.
1V\PQ[XIXMZ_M_QTTNWK][WV\PMčWKSQVOJMPI^QWZ.QO]ZM LM[KZQJMLJa+ZIQO:MaVWTL[!!!
in order to give our top down initial Katagami pattern the ability of locomotion and self organiza-
tion in the three dimensions while we store each particle coordinates at each time frame update
and build geometry on it in order to get a spatial structure that emerges as a consequence of the
system’s behavior.
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
35
//
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
Figure 6.
Ink-Rapidrograph on tracing paper
Figure 7.
Example of two unstructured patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
36
//
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
Figure 9.
Katagami pattern’s architectural potential exploration methodology
Figure 8.
Flocking behavior explanatory diagram
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
37
//
)[_MLQLVW\PI^MXZQWZ[WTQL[SQTT[QVKWUX]\MZ[KQMVKM[_MVMMLML\W\ZIQVČZ[\IVLOM\SVW_T-
edge of programming languages. We chose to use the IGeo library (Sugihara / ATLV, 2011) developed
for the Processing environment (Fry and Casey, 2009). Sugihara (2014) developed IGeo in order
\WČOP\WJ[K]ZIV\Q[UQVKWUX]\I\QWVLM[QOVČMTLIVLJZQVOUWZMMI[aIVLZMILa\W][M\WWT[NWZI
larger number of architects and designers by minimizing the coding effort. The website not only of-
fers full training tutorials to get familiar with the fundamentals, agent-based algorithms and swarms
simulations, but also explains and illustrates in detail different situations for interaction depending
on the population number and the computation power needed IGeo3.. The following diagram (Fig-
]ZM!M`XTIQV[\PM_WZSčW_NWZOMWUM\ZaIVLIZKPQ\MK\]ZITM`XTWZI\QWV
Each Katagami pattern can take from 200 to 8000 points in order to reconstitute it and transform
it into particles. They have been manually implemented to keep room for imperfection as an analogy
to the Japanese artisans who will never use perfect or regular tool and will appreciate asymmetry
and irregularity, a concept contained in the word of “Fukinsei - ୙ᆒᩧ’’ (Okakura, 1906).
3. Case Studies
1V1/MW\PMčWKSQVO[_IZUJMPI^QWZQ[KWLMLJa;]OQPIZII[I+TI[[VIUMLî1*WQLï\PI\PI[\PZMM
parameters for threshold distances and three others for force ratio that control the strength of
cohesion, separation and alignment. For the case studies discussed in this paper, our agent-based
algorithms were based on the following parameters:
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
Table 1.
Flocking parameters
used in the agent
based algorithm
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
38
//
Table 2.
Case 01-02
Figure 11-2.
8MZ[XMK\Q^M^QM_WN\PMXI\\MZVì[čWKSQVO[QU]TI\QWV
Figure 10-1.
Elevation of the pattern’s
čWKSQVO[QU]TI\QWV
Figure 10-2.
8MZ[XMK\Q^M^QM_WN\PMXI\\MZVì[čWKSQVO[QU]TI\QWV
Figure 11-1.
Elevation of the pattern’s
čWKSQVO[QU]TI\QWV
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
39
//
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
Table 3.
Case 03-04
Figure 12-0.
Input pattern
Figure 13-0.
Input pattern
For the behavior simulation of the cases 1 and 2, the same pattern has been used. Flocking IBoid
class’s parameters are also identical except for the initial direction and velocity vector. When
increased, the enclosure’s height, indicated by the white arrows (comparison between Figure 10
- 1 and Figure 11 - 1), is stretched as the system agents need more time frames to reach their
positions according to the IBoid parameters. Through this parameters, the pattern is investigated
XW\MV\QITTaI[I[XIKMKWVČO]ZML_Q\PKQZK]TI\QWV[MVKTW[]ZM[WNLQNNMZMV\PMQOP\[IKKWZLQVO\W\PM
architectural program needs (see Design Applications chapter).
The cases 03 and 04 investigate potential application as wall surface (see Design Application chap-
\MZIVLJZQVOIVW\PMZIOMV\KTI[[\WQV\MZIK\_Q\P\PMčWKSQVO1*WQLKTI[[)JZIVKPQVOJMPI^QWZ
was added to create branches between each particle’s current position and other particles pre-
vious position within a distance threshold in order to control the density of the geometry and
therefore the porosity of the facade thanks to the branching threshold and the frames count.
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
40
//
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
Figure 12-2.
Simulation perspective view at 20 frames
Figure 13-2.
Simulation perspective view at 8 frames
4. Design applications
<PMčWKSQVO[QU]TI\QWV[][QVO3I\IOIUQXI\\MZV[I[I\WXLW_VQVX]\_MZMIXXTQMLI[KQ\MLIJW^M
WV\_WKI[M[\]LQM["ČZ[\QV.QO]ZM[IVL\PMZMVLMZQVO[XPW\WUWV\IOM[[PW_KI[M\PMIXXTQ-
cation on a wall surface representing building facades.
On the other hand, Figures 16 and 17 demonstrate how a Katagami pattern can emerge into a
morphology that has the possibility to host circulations, enclosures, open air spaces, galleries and
therefore can host diverse activity.
.QVITTa.QO]ZM Q[ILM[QOVWNI\W_MZX]\QVIV]ZJIVKWV\M`\PMZM;PQVR]S]LQ[\ZQK\-IKPčWWZWN
the tower is made of a unique Katagami pattern that, using our research methodology, emerged into
I]VQY]M[XI\QITKWVČO]ZI\QWVIVL\PMZMNWZMMIKPčWWZKIVPW[\ILQNNMZMV\IZKPQ\MK\]ZITXZWOZIU
in the case of a mixed use tower.
Figure 12-1.
Simulation top view at 20 frames
Figure 13-1.
Simulation top view at 8 frames
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
41
//
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
Figure 14.
A Katagami pattern applied to a building facade
Figure 15.
A Katagami pattern applied to a building facade
Figure 16.
Photomontage of potential user activities within a 3d translated Katagami pattern.
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
42
//
Figure 17.
Photomontage of potential user activities within a 3d translated Katagami pattern
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese
Katagami patterns
Figure 18.
5Q`ML][M\W_MZQUXTMUMV\QVOLQNNMZMV\3I\IOIUQUWZXPWTWOQKITKWVČO]ZI\QWVI\MIKPčWWZ
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
43
//
5. Conclusions and future works
The methodology adopted in this paper for the morphogenetic experiments has demonstrated its
ability to generate a wide variety of spatial morphologies through the translation of Katagami pat-
\MZV[IVL[PW_ZMTM^IV\XW\MV\QITNWZIXXTQKI\QWV[WVIZKPQ\MK\]ZITKWVČO]ZI\QWV[
By contrast to standard architectural process where an architectural planning and design are made
following a design brief and constraints, taking inspiration from Katagami patterns using swarm in-
telligence offers us new possibilities to explore forms of design and architectural composition. Our
goal is not to produce algorithmically clean geometries, but to nurture our imagination for early
esquisse phases by generating basic data (coordinates at each time frame) before starting to sculpt
form using softwares such as Rhino/Grasshopper, creating architecture that offers a new interest
in space and forces the user to question his practice and curiosity. In this surrealist method of ex-
ploration, we abandon the search for the “best” solution (Ogrydziak, 2011) and disrupt rationality,
alienation, oppression, and predomination of existing design methods (Eagle, 2018). Just after the
delivery of the Serpentine Gallery pavilion, Toyo Ito then described Cecil Balmond as someone who
used algorithms to produce rules : «He claims that when people try to imagine on their own they
run out of ideas very quickly and instead begin to think of conventional spaces. An approach based
on algorithms offers greater freedom. It allows you to create unpredictable complexity and hybrid
situations».
While we wrongly thought that all patterns behavior can be studied through one same algorithm,
up to today’s trials showed that each pattern needs its own algorithmic strategy and agent-based
model to explore its potential. As Katagami artisans spend a lifetime developing their tools and
techniques to deliver unique mind-blowing patterns, we consider that our algorithms are digital
craftsmanship as each agent method must be personalized for each pattern. The purpose is to be
able to develop an algorithmic tool that takes advantage of the pattern structure. For now, our
pattern selection and assumption about structured and unstructured patterns has not shown a
[I\Q[NIK\WZaKWVKT][QWV[7]ZN]\]ZM_WZS_QTT\MVL\W[\]LaPW_LWM[\PMčWKSQVOJMPI^QWZQUXIK\
the bi-dimensional pattern, and study if the structure or criteria are translated into 3d. In the 3d
space formation, can we still read any sub layers of patterns and therefore layering of space? Despite
the fact that all the properties of the pattern are not assimilated at the beginning, the process of
«trial and error» will discover new generative aspirations. On a programmatic and morphologic
level it would be interesting to also explore how multiple patterns can generate enclosed spaces by
JTMVLQVOQV\WMIKPW\PMZ_PMVOZW_QVO^MZ\QKITTa.WZVW_I[[MMVQVČO]ZM MIKPTM^MTXI\\MZV
IVLIZKPQ\MK\]ZITKWVČO]ZI\QWVIZM[MXIZI\MLJa[QUXTM[TIJ[
On a more pragmatic investigation level, an implementation of a user interface to control the sen-
[Q\Q^MITOWZQ\PUQ[VMKM[[IZa.WZVW_QVX]\XIZIUM\MZ[IZMLQNČK]T\\WKWV\ZWT\PMXZWKM[[Q[\QUM
consuming and we are obliged to rewrite the inputs directly in the script and launch a new simu-
lation every time. Using control sliders is for now incompatible with IGeo library as explained by
Satoru Sugihara via an email exchange : «unfortunately because of my direct use of JavaGL, it hijacks
the drawing process of Processing».
.QVITTaW\PMZČMTL[WNQV\MZM[\QVKT]LMW\PMZIOMV\JI[MLITOWZQ\PU[[]KPI[KPMUW\I`Q[[\QOUMZOa
for decision making for real time structural optimization of our spatial morphology, an agent class
that constructs a ready 3d-printable mesh on top of the geometry track coordinates, cellular au-
\WUI\IIVL][MWN\PM3I\IOIUQXI\\MZVì[TIaMZ[I[INWZKM^MK\WZČMTL[
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
44
//
Acknowledgments
The ongoing research presented in this paper is part of doctoral investigations
conducted in the architecture department of Tokyo University of The Arts, and is
[]XXWZ\MLJaI[KPWTIZ[PQXN]VLMLJa\PM2IXIVM[M5QVQ[\ZaWN-L]KI\QWV5-@<
My gratitude and special thanks goes to my thesis supervisor Professor Mitsuhiro
Kanada who has been a valuable interlocutor supporting my research by generous
discussions and sharp theory and methodology critics.
Image credits
-`KMX\ČO]ZM[IVLITTQUIOM[IZMXMZ[WVITXZWL]K\QWVWN\PMI]\PWZ
Notes
;WM\[]AIVIOQPI[JMMVLM[KZQJMLI[\PMČZ[\XPQTW[WXPMZIVLIZ\Q[\_PW\ZQML\W
understand, to decode and emulate theories about Japanese pattern.
(2) Comparable to the effect of Ukiyoe on the Impressionist painters.
(3) IGeo, 2011. Available at http://igeo.jp/tutorial/32.html.
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
45
//
References
)TJWZOPM\\Q8IVL-ZQWTQ)Stigmergy-based parasitic strategies in architectural
design for the transformation of existing heritage. System Journal 3-2, pp. 80 -90.
Balmond, C. and Smith, J., 2007. Informal. Ed Prestel.
Balmond, C, 2008. Frontiers of architecture. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art.
*MTČWZM5IVL)4QW\\I;RPatterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature
and architecture. Gestalt-en.
Bonabeau, E, Guérin, S, Snyers, D, Kunts, P and Theraulaz, G, 2000. 3Dimensional
architectures grown by simple stigmergic agents. Biosystems Journal.
Carpo, M. 2017. The second digital turn : Design Beyond Intelligence. MIT Press.
Reynolds, C., 1999. Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters. Available at https://
www.red3d.com/ cwr/papers/1999/gdc99steer.pdf
Gerber, D. and Lopez, R., 2014. Context-Aware Multi-Agents Systems. ACADIA.
Dower, J. 1990. The Elements of Japanese Design: A handbook of Family Crests, Heraldry &
Symbolism. Ed. Shambhala.
Eagle, J., 2018. )Y]MW][č]`\PM+I+WLMXW[Q\QWVITPW][M in Architectural Design, Vol
88. Wiley.
Fry, B., & Casey, R., 2009. Processing : V2.2.1, http://processing.org/. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Media Lab.
Ikuta, Y. and Maruyama, N., 2013. Traditional Japanese Stencil Patterns (with DVD):
1600. Images of Ise Katagami from Mitsukoshi-Isetan Collection. Pie.
Ireland, T., 2010. Stigmergic Planning. In Proceedings of ACADIA. Pp. 183,189.
Klemmt, C., 2019. Cellular Design. The e-journal for the dissemination of doctoral
research in architecture, 2-6, pp. 46 - 63.
Kuma, K., 2009. In The Patterns of Architecture: Architectural Design. London : Wiley.
Kuma, K., 2010. Studies in organic. Toto.
4MQ\VMZ0Pattern Theory: Introduction and Perspectives on the Tracks of Christopher
Alexander. CreateSpace.
5W][[I^Q.IVL3]JW5The Function of Ornament. Barcelona : Actar.
Obuchi, Y., 2012. In Patterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature and architecture.
Gestalt-en.
Ogrydziak, L., 2011. Tetrahedron Cloud. In proceedings of ACADIA.
Okakura, K., 1906. The book of tea. Createspace Independent .
Sugihara, S., 2011. http://igeo.jp.
Sugihara, S., 2011. Comparison betweenTop-Down and Bottom-Up Algorithms in
Computational Design Practice Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Algorithmic Design for Architecture and Urban Design. Tokyo : ALGODE.
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
ISSN 2309-0103
www.archidoct.net
Vol. 7 (1) / July 2019
46
//
Sugihara, S., 2014. Algorithm development environment for computational design coders with
integration of NURBS geometry modeling and agent-based modeling. ACADIA.
Yanagi, S., 1990. The Unknown Craftsman. Tokyo : Kodansha.
Ghali Bouayad
Three-dimensional translation of Japanese Katagami patterns
... In this paper, I will focus on the flocking behavior described by Craig Reynolds (1999) in order to give our top down initial Katagami pattern the ability of locomotion and self organization in the three dimensions while we store each particle coordinates at each time frame update and build geometry on it in order to get a spatial structure that emerges as a consequence of the system's behavior (Bouayad, 2019). ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
This paper is part of an ongoing doctoral research investigating the meaning of ornament in the age of the postdigital. Here I rely on Alina Payne’s hypothesis of what if modernism ornament crisis was a shift from ornament as a surface to the ornament-as-object. Within this framework, I rely on the incommensurable creativity held in the Japanese Katagami patterns -used in Kimono and Yukata textiles- in order to translate them into architectures. The article presents a theoretical framework explicating ornament as a well codified cultural asset and the ornament from optic to haptic.
Full-text available
Article
This paper presents solutions for one requirement of autonomous characters in animation and games: the ability to navigate around their world in a life-like and improvisational manner. These "steering behaviors" are largely independent of the particulars of the character's means of locomotion. Combinations of steering behaviors can be used to achieve higher level goals (For example: get from here to there while avoiding obstacles, follow this corridor, join that group of characters...) This paper divides motion behavior into three levels. It will focus on the middle level of steering behaviors, briefly describe the lower level of locomotion, and touch lightly on the higher level of goal setting and strategy.
Frontiers of architecture. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. Patterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature and architecture
  • C Balmond
Balmond, C, 2008. Frontiers of architecture. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art. Patterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature and architecture. Gestalt-en.
3Dimensional architectures grown by simple stigmergic agents
  • E Bonabeau
  • S Guérin
  • D Snyers
  • Kunts
  • G Theraulaz
Bonabeau, E, Guérin, S, Snyers, D, Kunts, P and Theraulaz, G, 2000. 3Dimensional architectures grown by simple stigmergic agents. Biosystems Journal.
Context-Aware Multi-Agents Systems
  • D Gerber
  • R Lopez
Gerber, D. and Lopez, R., 2014. Context-Aware Multi-Agents Systems. ACADIA.
Traditional Japanese Stencil Patterns (with DVD): 1600. Images of Ise Katagami from Mitsukoshi-Isetan Collection
  • Y Ikuta
  • N Maruyama
Ikuta, Y. and Maruyama, N., 2013. Traditional Japanese Stencil Patterns (with DVD): 1600. Images of Ise Katagami from Mitsukoshi-Isetan Collection. Pie.
Cellular Design. The e-journal for the dissemination of doctoral research in architecture
  • C Klemmt
Klemmt, C., 2019. Cellular Design. The e-journal for the dissemination of doctoral research in architecture, 2-6, pp. 46 -63.
Studies in organic. Toto. Pattern Theory: Introduction and Perspectives on the Tracks of Christopher Alexander. CreateSpace. The Function of Ornament
  • K Kuma
Kuma, K., 2010. Studies in organic. Toto. Pattern Theory: Introduction and Perspectives on the Tracks of Christopher Alexander. CreateSpace. The Function of Ornament. Barcelona : Actar.
In Patterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature and architecture
  • Y Obuchi
Obuchi, Y., 2012. In Patterns and layering : Japanese spatial culture, nature and architecture. Gestalt-en.