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Beyond Classical Gamification: In-and Around-Game Gamification for Education

Conference Paper

Beyond Classical Gamification: In-and Around-Game Gamification for Education

Abstract and Figures

The modern gamification movement, following the classical definition of Deterding (2011), is focused on the use of game elements in non-game applications. According to this definition, gamification elements use familiar elements from games to satisfy player needs, increase the user experience and motivation; hence ensuring a long-term use. However, such approaches including those put forth by Kapp (2012), Stampfl (2012) and Zichermann (2011, 2013) preclude the conceptualisation and application of gamification within and around games. Indeed, gaming environments have the potential to successfully integrate solid gamification examples. The authors propose two new categories of gamification: 'in-game' and 'around-game' gamification. The 'In-game' type of gamification details the use of an additional layer of tasks, badges, achievements, point systems, etc. in a (digital) game, which are not directly related to the storyline of the game. For instance, certain games would reward with a badge if the player collects multiple items of the same species throughout gameplay, even if such a task is independent of or extraneous to the narrative/backstory of the game. 'Around-game' gamification occurs when, for example, the player receives a badge after starting the game 100 times, clicking on the forum 50 times, etc. So, in essence, this form of gamification is associated with the game, but does not happen directly inside the game world. Hence, the authors propose the following up-to-date definition of the term gamification: The use of game mechanics as a further dimension within and around both gaming and non-gaming contexts, in an endeavour to nudge participants to perform certain actions, by adopting a playful attitude. For the purpose of this paper, the authors have held talks with 8 international experts on the topic and extend the principles of 'in-game' and 'around-game' gamification to an educational context.
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Proceedings of the
19th European Conference on e-Learning
ECEL 2020
a Virtual Conference
Supported by
University of Applied Sciences HTW Berlin
Germany
28-30 October 2020
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i
Contents
Paper Title
Author(s)
Paper
No
Preface
vii
Committee
viii
Biographies
xi
Research papers
Measuring the Perception of Knowledge
Gained During the Virtual Learning: Business
Research Method Course Case Study
Hawra Abdulla, Mohamed Ebrahim, Ameena
Hassan, Khadim Al Hashimi, Allam Hamdan, Anjum
Razzaque and Abdulmutallab Musleh
1
How to Increase Knowledge Retention in
eLearning During Covid-19 Pandemic?
Noor Al Shehab
10
The Potential of Podcasts as a Learning
Medium in Higher Education
René Holm Andersen and Susanne Dau
16
e-Mentoring: A web Platform to Support
Mentoring Programs
Cassiano Andrade, Paulo Alves, José Eduardo
Fernandes1 and Flávio Coutinho
23
A Comparison under the RASE Model of
Open-Source e-Learning Platforms Supporting
Video-Streaming
Isabel Araújo, Pedro Miguel Faria and José Evaristo
Lima
31
Covid-19 Mis-Infodemic: Reinventing Social
Media Platforms as Trustworthy Health
Messaging and Learning Tools
Niyi Awofeso
39
Challenges and Relationships of e-Learning
Tools to Teaching and Learning
Don Anton Robles Balida and Riah Encarnacion
48
Towards a Model for an Emotionally
Intelligent Learning Environment Using NLP
Tools
Mohammed Berehil, Sarra Roubi and Karim Arrhioui
57
How can Agility Sustain a Change of Mindset
in Education?
Cella-Flavia Buciuman
66
TechArt Learning Practices for 1st to 3rd
Grade in Danish Schools
Mie Buhl and Kirsten Skov
73
Do e-Learning Activities Increase Students’
Academic Satisfaction?
Sanja Candrlic, Danijela Jaksic and Patrizia Poscic
80
Learning-Teaching Innovation of a University
e-Learning Course
Graziano Cecchinato and Laura Carlotta Foschi
89
Zoom-ing out: The Impact of International
Online Practicum Opportunities on Pre-
Service Teachers’ Development
Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy and Ivana Cechova
95
ii
Paper Title
Author(s)
Paper
No
Test-Run: Mediating Changes to Online
Assessment Practices in a Teacher Education
Setting
Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy and Danisa Salinas
104
The Influence of Students’ Professional
Orientation on the Self-Evaluation of Digital
Competences and use of Digital Technologies
by Teachers
Milan Chmura, Josef Malach and Dana Vicherková
113
Online Vocabulary Learning and Instruction in
the Japanese Context
Adam Christopher
121
Lessons Learned From Developing and
Evaluating an Educational Database Modeling
Tool
Olav Dæhli, Bjørn Kristoffersen and Tomas Sandnes
129
Create. Distribute. Evaluate: Prototyping
Holistic Lightweight Digital Components to
Support Microlearning
Stefan Dahlmanns, Alexander Kuehn, Isabelle
Kuxdorf-Dixon, Thoralf Gebel, Christian Ulbrich,
Holger Langner, Christian Roschke and Marc Ritter
139
Educational Process Digiltalization in Ural
Federal University
Liudmila Daineko, Viola Larionova, Inna Yurasova,
Yury Davy and Natalia Karavaeva
146
Effects of Course Design on Learning
Outcomes in Pre-Course in Mathematics and
Subsequent Study Success in STEM Subjects
Katja Derr, Reinhold Hübl and Miriam Weigel
154
Embedding LinkedIn Learning MOOCs to
Enhance Students’ Educational Experience
and Employability
Xiangping Du
163
Evaluating a Pattern Language for Scientific
Texts in Higher Education
Gert Faustmann, Dagmar Monett, Kathrin Kirchner
and Claudia Lemke
173
Barriers to Implementing Technology-
Enhanced Learning in South African Primary
Schools
Tamás Fergencs, Olga Pilawka, Rasmus Broholm
and Rikke Magnussen
182
Video Blogs as a Tool for Forming a Cultural
Dialogue Between Foreign and Local
University Students
Valeria Frants
190
Suddenly eLearning: A Qualitative Study of
University Students During COVID-19
Sonja Gabriel
198
Towards Hybrid Learning in Higher Education
in the Wake of the COVID-19 Crisis
Dorina Gnaur, Anette Lykke Hindhede and Vibeke
Harms Andersen
205
Quiz Aftercare With Moodle’s Facility and
Discrimination Indexes
Thomas Goetz
212
Responses of Russian Universities to the
Challenges of Covid-19 Pandemic
Natalia Goncharova and Ekaterina Zaitseva
221
iii
Paper Title
Author(s)
Paper
No
E-Learning and Online Quizzing: Pedagogical
Effects of the Corona Crisis
Hanne Haave and Tone Vold
229
Teaching Visual Facilitation and Sketching for
Digital Learning Design in Higher Education
Heidi Hautopp and Mie Buhl
235
How Higher Education Adapted to Online
Teaching at Aalborg University After COVID-
19: Experiences and Perspectives
Hans Hüttel and Dorina Gnaur
243
Active Learning in Accounting and the Impact
on Student Engagement
Daniel King
252
Problems and Ways of Forming the
Educational Strategy of Students in the
Process of Remote Learning
Ekaterina Kubina, Marina Bareicheva, Natalia
Stepanova and Ken Brown
260
Teaching Online During a Pandemic:
Pedagogical Skills Transfer From Face To Face
Support to Online Synchronous Support
Provision
Iain Lambie and Bobby Law
270
Opportunities and Limitations Regarding
Praxis in Online Education: Three Narratives
Monica Lervik, Stig Holen and Tone Vold
278
A Learner-Centred Approach for Evaluating
Software Tools
Mariana Lilley, Andrew Pyper, Xianhui Che, Wei Ji
and Gani Nashi
284
Applying User Experience Techniques to the
Design of a Programme Site
Mariana Lilley, Andrew Pyper and Joanna Rawska
291
Design Pedagogical Script for Short-Term
Online Course
Le Long, Huynh Son and Nguyen Ly
298
Activity of Estonian Facebook Group During
Transition to e-Learning due to COVID-19
Piret Luik and Marina Lepp
308
Online Education During the COVID19
Pandemic: Perceptions and Expectations of
Romanian Students
Veronica Maier, Lidia Alexa and Razvan Craciunescu
317
Innovative Ways to Assess Soft-Skills: The in-
Basket Game Online Experience
Agostino Marengo and Alessandro Pagano
325
Introducing Evidence-Based Practices to
Manage Problem Behaviours at School: The
BEHAVE Application
Gianluca Merlo, Antonella Chifari, Giuseppe
Chiazzese, Davide Taibi, Silvia Alves, Colin McGee,
Sebastian Bilanin, Isabella Giammusso, Melanie
Vanoort, Nicola Lo Savio and Luciano Seta
335
A Skill set for Gamification Readiness
Josefin Mueller
344
Efficiency: Compromise Between Resources
Available and Created in On-Line Courses
Marie Myers
351
iv
Paper Title
Author(s)
Paper
No
Development of Critical Thinking Disposition
During a Blended Learning Course
Minoru Nakayama, Satoru Kikuchi and Hiroh
Yamamoto
358
Influence of e-Learning via Blackboard on the
Learning Experiences of Late Bloomers in
Information Technology
Tabisa Ncubukezi and Olawande Daramola
365
Enabling e-Portfolio Development Through
Whatsapp Support: Reflections From School
Experience Students
Vuyisile Nkonki, Nobulali Tsipa-Booi and Bongo
Mqukuse
374
Two Ways of Using ICT in Multicultural
Mathematics Teaching Units
Jarmila Novotná and Andreas Ulovec
380
Intentional Content: Usage and Engagement
in a F-L-I-P Classroom Environment
Michael O’Brien, John Walsh and Yvonne Costin
388
Students Perception on Group Workshops: A
Comparison Between Campus-Based and
Online Workshops
Johan Petersson, Mathias Hatakka and Panagiota
Chatzipetrou
397
The Learner’s Perceptions of an Integrated
System for Learning Management of Non-
Cognitive Skills
Maria Petritsopoulou, Thashmee Karunaratne and
Myrsini Glinos
406
Beyond Classical Gamification: In- and
Around-Game Gamification for Education
Alexander Pfeiffer, Stephen Bezzina, Nikolaus König
and Simone Kriglstein
415
Blockchain Technologies for the Validation,
Verification, Authentication and Storing of
Students’ Data
Alexander Pfeiffer, Stephen Bezzina, Thomas
Wernbacher and Simone Kriglstein
421
Analysis of Student Behaviour in e-Learning
Courses in Relation to Academic Performance
Radim Polasek and Tomas Javorcik
428
Narratively Driven Educational Experiences in
Remote Learning Scenarios
Moritz Philip Recke and Stefano Perna
438
E-Learning as an Efficient Technology in
Accounting Education
Olga Reshetnikova
445
Learners’ Sequence of Course Activities
During Computer Programming MOOC
Marili Rõõm, Piret Luik and Marina Lepp
452
Development of a German Digital Assessment
of Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-4
Susanne Seifert and Lisa Paleczek
460
Smart Didactic Means in Learning English for
Specific Purposes
Ivana Simonova, Katerina Kostolanyova and Ludmila
Faltynkova
468
Macro Design of Multiple-Choice Questions
for Learning
Heinrich Söbke and Jan Mosebach
476
v
Paper Title
Author(s)
Paper
No
An Evaluation Approach to Evaluate a
Recommendation Approach Within Social
Learning Network
Sonia Souabi, Asmaâ Retbi, Mohammed Khalidi
Idrissi and Samir Bennani
485
An Augmented Reality Book for Training a
Child With Autism Spectrum Disorders:
Towards an Inclusive Primary School
Education
Ludmila Tokarskaya, Tatiana Bystrova and
Guillermo Rodrigez Aguilera
490
Emergency Remote Learning in the Times Of
Covid: A Higher Education Innovation
Strategy
Brenda van Wyk, Gillian Mooney, Martin Duma and
Samuel Faloye
499
Teacher’s Education for Oral Graduation
Exam in the Czech Republic
Dana Vicherková, Markéta Šenkeříková and Denisa
Lichá
508
E-Learning of Students for Elaboration of
Reading Lists for Secondary School Exam
Dana Vicherková, Andrea Paličková and Pavla
Davidová Dis
517
Literature Review: How e-Learning Enhances
Students Academic Performance
Rami Abu Wadi and Ala’ Bashayreh
526
Impact of GUI Evaluation on the Affordance
of Interactive Learning Environments
Arnaud Zeller and Pascal Marquet
531
Reflecting on e-Assessment Practices and
Students’ Performance in a Java Programming
Course
Estelle Zietsman, Karin Swart and Olawande
Daramola
537
Phd Research Papers
545
Designing a Mobile Learning Application by
Integrating Universal Design for Learning
Principles and Digital Storytelling: Pilot Study
Sara Alharbi and Paul Newbury
547
Perspectives on Distance Education in
Secondary and Tertiary Education
Ludmila Faltynkova, Ivana Simonova and Katerina
Kostolanyova
556
Clusters of Programming Exercises Difficulties
Resolvers in a MOOC
Lidia Feklistova, Piret Luik and Marina Lepp
563
The Strategy as Perspective for the
Integration of Technology in Education
Sibongile Ngcapu, Andile Mji and Sibongile
Simelane-Mnisi
570
Re-Examining the theory of Transactional
Distance Through the Narratives of
Postgraduate Online Distance Learners
Katharine Stapleford and Kyungmee Lee
579
Masters Research Paper
587
Creating an Authentic Learning Environment
Using e-Learning Application
Muhammad Salman Mushtaq, Muhammad Yousaf
Mushtaq and Muhammad Waseem Iqbal
589
vi
Work In Progress Papers
597
Second Language Oral Assessment and
Feedback for Generation Z in Higher
Education
Nathalie Cazaux and Annika Fuchs
599
Monsters in the Classroom? How to Promote
Gamification Readiness of Educators
Helge Fischer, Corinna Lehmann and Matthias Heinz
603
Comparison of Traditional and Online
Education in Bhutan
Kazuhiro Muramatsu and Sonam Wangmo
607
How to Produce and Acquire Regional
Knowledge Digitally and in Print:
Conceptualisation of the RegioDiff-Project
Lisa Paleczek
University of Graz, Austria
611
Who is the Learner? A Framework for a
Digital Learning Design Process
Michal Pilgaard, Jette Aabo Frydendahl and Lillian
Buus
615
Communication Culture of Generation Z:
Opportunities and Risks for the Education
System
Dmitry Rudenkin and Anastasia Yufereva
619
Increasing Motivation to Practice English
Through Videoconferencing: A Preliminary
Study
Michiko Toyama
622
Beyond Classical Gamification: In- and Around-Game Gamification
for Education
Alexander Pfeiffer1 2 3, Stephen Bezzina6, Nikolaus König2 and Simone Kriglstein4 5
1Comparative Media Studies/Writing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
Cambridge, USA
2Center for Applied Game Studies, Donau-Universität Krems (DUK), Krems, Austria
3Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Malta (UoM), Msida, Malta
4Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (AIT), Vienna, Austria
5Faculty of Computer Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
6Ministry for Education and Employment, Floriana, Malta
alex_pf@mit.edu
simone.kriglstein@ait.ac.at
nikolaus.koenig@donau-uni.ac.at
mail@stephenbezzina.com
DOI: 10.34190/EEL.20.007
Abstract: The modern gamification movement, following the classical definition of Deterding (2011), is focused on the use
of game elements in non-game applications. According to this definition, gamification elements use familiar elements from
games to satisfy player needs, increase the user experience and motivation; hence ensuring a long-term use. However, such
approaches including those put forth by Kapp (2012), Stampfl (2012) and Zichermann (2011, 2013) preclude the
conceptualisation and application of gamification within and around games. Indeed, gaming environments have the potential
to successfully integrate solid gamification examples. The authors propose two new categories of gamification: 'in-game’ and
'around-game’ gamification. The ‘In-game’ type of gamification details the use of an additional layer of tasks, badges,
achievements, point systems, etc. in a (digital) game, which are not directly related to the storyline of the game. For instance,
certain games would reward with a badge if the player collects multiple items of the same species throughout gameplay,
even if such a task is independent of or extraneous to the narrative/backstory of the game. ‘Around-game’ gamification
occurs when, for example, the player receives a badge after starting the game 100 times, clicking on the forum 50 times, etc.
So, in essence, this form of gamification is associated with the game, but does not happen directly inside the game
world.Hence, the authors propose the following up-to-date definition of the term gamification: The use of game mechanics
as a further dimension within and around both gaming and non-gaming contexts, in an endeavour to nudge participants to
perform certain actions, by adopting a playful attitude. For the purpose of this paper, the authors have held talks with 8
international experts on the topic and extend the principles of ‘in-game’ and ‘around-game’ gamification to an educational
context.
Keywords: gamification, in-game gamification, around-game gamification, serious games, E-Sport
1. Introduction
The gamification movement was considered one of the top trends of the early 2010s. Chamberlin (2013) lists
this movement in the Horizon Watching Report. Gamification has and is still being applied in a wide range of
disciplines such as Health, Art, Culture, Human Resources, Marketing and Organisational Development.
gamification may be applied in the private life of individuals/families (as a task planner to playfully design a
shared cleaning plan), in the not-for-profit and voluntary originations contexts (in order to encourage society to
cycle more), but of course, the main and mostly debated form of gamification occurs in the commercial world.
This use can take place within a company or in different fields aimed and targeting different levels of consumers.
Zichermann (2013) lists among others Nike, SAP, Pearson, Salesforce, Cisco, United Airlines, Microsoft, Target,
Spotify, Siemens, GE, IBM or McDonald's in his list of leading companies that increasingly rely on gamification to
increase sales. The effects of gamification and its applications, have also been empirically investigated. For
example, the IT corporation IBM has implemented gamification mechanisms in its in-house social media
platform to increase employee motivation. A follow-up study examined the effects of switching off those same
functionalities. As a result, user activity decreased significantly, so all gameplay elements were reintegrated into
the platform (Thom et al., 2012). A study by Gigya (2013) showed that Pepsi, Nike and Dell increased interaction
with users on social platforms by 29% with the help of gamification strategies.
415
Alexander Pfeiffer et al.
However, and perhaps more importantly, games and gamification itself, can be used for a variety of disciplines
apart from entertainment. In this sense, Jane McGonigal (2011, 2015) is considered as the founder of the modern
gamification movement. The web-based game ‘Superbetter’ (Described in the book of the same title. 2015) is
designed to help players improve their health in a multimodal way. Similar to role-playing games, various skills
such as mental or physical health parameters, can be improved by solving tasks. The control over the progress
of the game is completely up to the players, there is no objective review of the actual game performance.
Another example from the leisure sector is based on the recording of physical activities and represents one of
the most well-known gamification applications called ‘Nike Plus’1. This app tracks the distance covered by a
mobile wristband and converts this into game points, called ‘fuel’. In addition, badges and comparison with
other players provide the motivational dimension for this experience. ‘Sortie en Mer’2 shows the possibilities
that current technologies can offer. An ‘advergameby a French brand, ‘Sortie en Mer’ disguised as a highly
immersive simulation, explores the possibilities of the genre. A minimal interface is laid over a photorealistic
environment, creating a very deep game experience without the use of points or achievements.
However, basic principles of gamification have existed for a very long time. The structure of the clergy, the ranks
of the scouts or the military, the badges of the Red Cross or the simple star stickers in kindergarten. However,
the concept itself and consequently the applications of the term ‘gamification have undergone a major
transformation and adaptation, due to the opportunities and new possibilities of the digital age. For instance,
feedback, which presents itself as one core dimension of gamification, has drastically evolved in terms of its
response time and has now become practically instantaneous. This has in turn, opened up the possibility of
developing much more complex structures and systems for badges and rewards. Furthermore, modern
gamification is often linked to smart devices such as wristwatches, and is now managed and controlled using
smartphones or remote assistants.
The modern gamification movement, following the classic definition of Deterding (2011), is centred around the
use of game elements in non-game applications.
"Gamification is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming
systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement." (Deterding, 2011)
In gamification, elements familiar in games are used to satisfy player needs, to increase the experience and to
motivate users to make sustainable use of the particular content (Bunchball 2010, Deterding 2011, Kapp, 2012
Zichermann 2011 & 2013). Although the concept of gamification in its principles, is based on the achievement
of an activity by means of selectively applied incentives (rewards) (and thus essentially follows a basic
behaviouristic idea, cf. Skinner 1938), the modern approach aims to trigger intrinsic motivation processes that
go beyond the short-term behavioural change due to the reward system. This has resulted in different
connotations for the term and consequently gamification has become an informal umbrella term for the use of
video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement
(Deterding, 2011).
In their Gamification Whitepaper, Bunchball (2010), a company specializing in commercial gamification, provides
a good overview of various mechanisms in gamification applications that are directly related to human needs.
Bunchball considers points, as well as tasks, as particularly motivating dimensions and factors. Zichermann
(2013), in his book The Gamification Revolution", describes gamification as more than merely the application
of game mechanics to a problem or turning everything into a game. The core concepts and mechanics in
gamification are underpinned by the theories of play. Dutch anthropologist Johan Huizinga (1938) and French
sociologist Roger Caillois (1961) have defined play as a voluntary and safe activity of intrinsic value, with order
and rules and having uncertain, social, absorbing and make-believe dimensions (Huizinga 1938, Caillois 1961).
In turn, in gamification, the game elements which trigger this playfulness, have to be well thought out and
thoroughly planned, before being applied to the real-life contents and events. Stampfl (2012), in her book "die
verspielte Gesellschaft" (The Playful Society), argues that much of what is today considered as gamification, is
in fact more of a "pointification. According to Stampfl, most gamification is about points which are simply
awarded for a/any number of pre-set activities. This implies that gamification has not yet reached the real
potential that could be achieved, if a considerate and proper use of the terminology is applied. The goal of good
1 https://www.nike.com/de/de_de/e/nike-plus
2 http://sortieenmer.archives.grouek.com
416
Alexander Pfeiffer et al.
gamification processes is to initiate long-standing intrinsic motivation processes. This means that no external
stimulus is necessary anymore, but that (at a certain point in time) the activity itself is rewarding enough to be
pursued in and out of its own accord (e.g. doing sports, learning the school material, etc).
However, the authors of this paper have noticed another aspect of gamification that has hardly been dealt with
yet, but appears to be highly relevant and used quite often, that is the gamification that occurs within digital
games. This basically means the registration of game mechanics that have nothing to do with the core game
mechanics or the storyline, but motivate the user to perform certain actions within the game, or motivate them
to open the game more regularly. .
The goal of this paper is to introduce the concepts of In- and Around Game Gamification, apply these to the
educational sector and discuss in more detail with fellow researchers. Finally, the team of authors will propose
a new definition that includes gamification within and around game environments, in addition to the previously
established and more well-known concepts of gamification.
2. Methods
The team of authors has analysed aspects of In- and Around gamification in digital games with the aim of finding
exemplars and modes of operation of this specific and focussed type of gamification. In accomplishing this, eight
experts from the field of game studies were contacted and asked if they could give examples and, if so, provide
a description to them. The question asked was as follows:
“We are interested in game elements within digital games that are not actually directly related to
the story or the actual game mechanics. We call these elements "In -Game gamification" for the
purposes of our conference contribution at ECEL 20. We also want to look at game elements,
especially badges, points and achievements, for which a game must be played, but the results are
not displayed in the game itself but on an external platform. We call this process "Around-Game"
gamification. We would like to discuss these terms with you and find examples that fit the
description.
We would also like to discuss with you how these elements can be used in the educational sector.”
The experts were composed of the following persons:
Table 1: The experts
Expert ID
Gender
Profession / Field
E1
male
Games-, media- and technology researcher
E2
male
Psychologist and neuroscientist, games researcher
E3
male
Visiting Prof. in the field of transmedia experiences
E4
male
Game studies expert & game developer
E5
male
Project manager at large E-Sports company, former editor in chief of a games Magazine
E6
female
Expert for serious games and technologies
E7
female
Technology journalist, former professional e-sports woman
E8
female
Professor for media and games
3. Examples and definition for In- and Around Game Gamification
Gamification processes in connection with game worlds could be described as In-Game gamification’, when an
additional dimension of game elements that are not directly related to the game story occurs within the game
itself (e.g. achievements for collecting cats in World of Warcraft3). On the other hand, Around Game
gamification occurs when specific game elements which are directly related to the playing of the game, are
visible outside of the game world (e.g. in Xbox Live, Steam or Playstation user accounts). Another suggestion for
the naming of these concepts, based on the interview with expert [E3], is Intra- and Extra-game gamification.
One of the most mentioned among the examples by the experts was the game World of Warcraft as a pioneer
of in-game gamification [E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7]. Batch 3.0.2. in 2008, introduced the feature to collect
achievements and badges. However, these achievements and badges are purely cosmetic and are neither
directly related to NPC quests, nor the story of the game. Players can of course set themselves the goal of getting
various achievements. Often, according to the experts, these achievements are also achieved simply by chance.
3 https://worldofwarcraft.com/
417
Alexander Pfeiffer et al.
One expert [E7] has noted that this in-game gamification was probably created because it is much easier to
create new achievements than new quests and keep a certain group of players happy in the time between game
updates in the form of batches. One expert [E5] has also noted that
“[…] for World of Warcraft and other subscription-based games, this was a cost-saving way to keep
players in the game and keep paying the monthly subscription fees, without any major updates
relating to the back story or narrative of the game.
One major exciting aspect of in-game gamification is the ability to motivate players to achieve specific goals in
the game that are not part of the actual or existing storyline, but can still be very exciting for the players. In
World of Warcraft, for example, this is the motivation to uncover the entire map, even though this would not
be necessary to level up and consequently experience the primary storyline [E2, E4, E7]. In later updates of
World of Warcraft, an additional layer was introduced. In addition to the achievements, there has been an
explicit possibility to collect things like pets or toys in a kind of scrapbook. According to some of the experts E2,
E4, E6] , these various approaches address the different types of players.
A very early example of in-game gamification is the ability to collect red flags in the first part of Assassins Creed4,
nearly 10 years ago. [E2, E6, E8] Collecting these flags makes it possible to collect various achievements. For
example, one becomes "Keeper of the four gospels" [E2], if he/she collects all the flags in Jerusalem. Interestingly
enough, an expert has noted [E6] that this kind of gamification was misleading for many players and disturbed
the game world, whereas flags were suddenly set up randomly in a very real-looking game world. Another
example of in-game gamification has been implemented in the player profiles of multiplayer online battle arenas
(MOBAs), like League of Legends5. Depending on the season or special theme, one finds different gamification
elements being used [E3, E4, E7]. In contrast to the aforementioned examples, these are not cosmetic in nature.
Some of these elements (e.g. if you got the grade A or A+ after a very good game), lead to the possibility to earn
keys and boxes, which allow the player to get in-game items.
Sport games like FIFA6 implement in-game gamification in the form of several point systems. Coins can be earned
by playing in Football Ultimate Team and therefore one can actually earn players and item collection packs [E2,
E4, E5]. These can also be opened by buying FIFA Points, as the system in the game is linked to real currency.
These two point systems are reset every year. Another point system that is linked to the player's account is the
FCC points. One earns these points when trying out different things in the game or by just starting the game.
With these points, one can unlock different rewards like new balls or the possibility to play another league game
and maybe even get promoted. In this sense, the activation of a joker becomes possible. It is very evident that
this form of in-game gamification is not only cosmetic, but also serves to unlock further game elements.
It is also quite common that one cannot clearly distinguish between the different forms of gamification or
gameplay elements/mechanics. In games like Pokémon Go7, where collecting Pokémons is the core game
mechanic, an expert explains [E8] that
“[…] the act of collecting is the core gameplay mechanic, and the achievements, such as "Hurray,
you've collected 50 Pikachus", which intrinsically are a form of in-game gamification, are also part
of the gameplay mechanic itself.
Elements, like the currently very popular "Gold Passes" in games like Clash of Clans8 or Rocket League9 are not
considered by experts [E1, E4, E6, E7, E8] as in-game gamification, but are instead seen as extra rewards that
players can buy as an incentive to complete certain tasks/goals. Consequently, these present themselves more
of a hybrid between a quest and in-game purchase.
In Around-Game gamification, the gamification takes place on/through an external source/platform. This mostly
occurs on platforms where digital games can be purchased, such as Steam10, or in the user profiles of the
4 https://www.ubisoft.com/de-de/game/assassins-creed
5 https://euw.leagueoflegends.com/
6 https://www.ea.com/de-de/games/fifa/fifa-20
7 https://pokemongolive.com/
8 https://supercell.com/en/games/clashofclans/
9 https://www.rocketleague.com/
10 https://store.steampowered.com/games/?l=german
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Alexander Pfeiffer et al.
operating system of the respective game console, such as PlayStation11 or X-Box12. Experts, interviewed as part
of this research study, [E4, E8] have particularly mentioned the function of the Niantic Wayfarer in Pokémon-
Go. Starting at level 40 (which can take years to achieve), players can suggest new game zones that become
Pokéstops or Arenas. These suggestions are reviewed by other community members and then by Niantic
employees. Depending on the reviews submitted by each individual player, points are awarded. With 100 points
one can boost his/her own proposal. Boosting here means that the proposal will be reviewed by others earlier
in comparison to the rest. The reward itself appears only at the very end, if/when the suggested game zones
appear inside the official game world. Through this approach, it was possible to not only make the game world
of Pokémon Go constantly grow, but also to take into account new places that were recently built, such as public
playgrounds or other areas. Thanks to the players’ community and its effort, only new places that comply with
the game's value rules in terms of permitted locations, photos and text will be accepted and consequently
appear in the game world. Another similar approach was the tribunal system in League of Legends, where
players reviewed chats and if agreement with the majority of the other reviewers was achieved, rewards in the
form of points that could be used for in-game items were unlocked. In a way, this was also a game, around the
game itself [E1, E4, E7].
With Around-the Game approaches implemented via user profiles of the game sales platforms and/or operating
systems of the consoles, achievements accomplished through the interaction in the game, are not being
displayed inside the game world, but on the particular platform/system [E2, E3, E6, E8]. Moreover, the rewards
received inside the game during gameplay by the player and their value, extend beyond the game world and can
in fact be used to buy products or unlock discounts offered by the platform or the retailer. The game studies
experts [E2, E3, E6, E8] have noted that many players are often surprised by these kinds of achievements (an
example of this Around-Game gamification for players on Playstation and the game Rocket League can be found
at https://www.exophase.com/game/rocket-league-ps4/trophies/)
4. Applying the concept of In- and Around Game Gamification to the educational sector
Gamification of learning in education is aimed at motivating students through the adoption of game design and
game elements in formal (and even non-/in formal) learning environments. The ultimate goal is to augment the
enjoyment and engagement of the students by capturing their interest and inspiring them to further learning.
In educational contexts, research suggests that gamification, although with a mixed level of success, has led to
the desired student behaviour include attending class, focusing on meaningful learning tasks, and taking
initiative (Borys and Laskowski, 2013).
By extended the current notion of gamification, to include In- and Around Game gamification, the students can
become immersed in a holistic rather than specific or directed motivation and engagement. For instance, in
serious games, In-Game gamification could be used to achieve advanced learning goals or to motivate players
to try different things and aspects of such games, including personalised approaches to transversal skills like
critical thinking and creativity, by the utilisation of several solutions for different tasks. And through in-game
gamification, players would be encouraged and further motivated to explore these different approaches.
But the aspect of Around-Game gamification is especially interesting for education, specifically when applied to
the learning and assessment domains. For example, learning management software (such as Moodle) could be
used to link different serious games and commercial games, and educators could create suitable badges and
achievements that fit the different learning goals. One could also create a knowledge base where ideas can be
entered, copied and edited by the different educators. If the possibility of a direct API call to the game results is
not available, students can share/upload screenshots or links to their player profiles.
Another important and especially relevant use-case of Around-Game gamification is its implementation in
grading and assessment. By gamifying the learning experience, educators can use specific data points occurring
around and throughout the course of the lessons (hence Around-Game gamification), to award experience
points to their students. The grades can be based (partially or exclusively) on the number of points accumulated
by the end of the course. This motivates the students to achieve their level of expertise while keeping them
engaged throughout the course. Furthermore, this creates a competitive environment which will further
facilitate and incentivise more learning.
11 https://www.playstation.com/de-at/
12 https://www.xbox.com/de-AT/live
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Alexander Pfeiffer et al.
It would also be desirable to introduce Around Game gamification elements in platforms that provide
educational concepts around games, such as the project Toolkit Game-Based Learning13 or the Spieleratgeber
NRW14 (Games Guide NRW).
Pfeiffer, one of the authors of this essay, has developed an around-the-game approach for the upcoming Vienna
E-Sports School League15. Here a little trivia quiz is played between 2 teams before each round of the
competition, e.g. on the topic "financial literacy". The relevant content can be viewed beforehand on the
Schulliga web platform in the form of short learning videos. The winner has a small advantage in the next game
round. For example, they can choose on which pitch the next round in games like Rocket League or FIFA Volta
should take place. This around-the-game mechanism replaces the obligatory coin toss and is intended to
encourage the young people to watch the learning content.
5. Conclusion
Since the presented study in this paper is informed and based on innovative approaches to gamification, both
in its conceptualisation and implementation, a number of interesting opportunities arise. Based on the possible
implications and limitations discussed, further research is recommended through the identification and testing
of In- and Around Game gamification strategies. It would also be useful to evaluate the underlying concepts and
implementation in other fields and areas pertaining to, and non-exclusive to gaming environments. As such, the
authors propose the following up-to-date definition of the term gamification:
Gamification is the use of game mechanics as a further dimension within and around both gaming
and non-gaming contexts, in an endeavour to nudge participants to perform certain actions, by
adopting a playful attitude”
The propositions and arguments resulting from this research contribute interesting observations and
understating to the body of knowledge and practice in the field of gamification. More than a cosmetic change,
the proposed forms of gamification, represent an attempt of philosophical shift; one which is more inclusive and
adopts a holistic approach to the existing gamification models. However, rather than being based on
potentialities, beliefs or individual preferences, further research underpinned by empirical evidence has the
potential to inform future thinking and practice in the field of gamification and its widespread application/s.
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13 https://toolkit-gbl.com/start
14 https://www.spieleratgeber-nrw.de/Schule.4581.de.html
15 https://esport-hub.at/schulligaflodo/
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... The instrumental use of these design elements, through which the transfer of the positive qualities of games should take place, is generally understood as gamification (Deterding et al., 2011). However, a consensual definition is still lacking (Pfeiffer et al., 2020;Schöbel et al., 2020). For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements in order to increase value creation (Hamari et al., 2014;Huotari & Hamari, 2012;Stieglitz, 2015) or nudge participants to perform certain actions (Pfeiffer et al., 2020). ...
... However, a consensual definition is still lacking (Pfeiffer et al., 2020;Schöbel et al., 2020). For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements in order to increase value creation (Hamari et al., 2014;Huotari & Hamari, 2012;Stieglitz, 2015) or nudge participants to perform certain actions (Pfeiffer et al., 2020). While the definition of Deterding et al. (2011) includes the use of game design elements without direct transfer to an improved output (e.g. higher motivation, more performance), this is a mandatory prerequisite for the intention of gamification in the definitions of Huatori et al. (2012) and Pfeiffer et al. (2020). ...
... For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements in order to increase value creation (Hamari et al., 2014;Huotari & Hamari, 2012;Stieglitz, 2015) or nudge participants to perform certain actions (Pfeiffer et al., 2020). While the definition of Deterding et al. (2011) includes the use of game design elements without direct transfer to an improved output (e.g. higher motivation, more performance), this is a mandatory prerequisite for the intention of gamification in the definitions of Huatori et al. (2012) and Pfeiffer et al. (2020). The utilitarian perspective of gamification is of particular interest in educational contexts (Buckley et al., 2017;Buckley & Doyle, 2014;Córdova et al., 2017;Pill, 2013;Subhash & Cudney, 2018), but there are also critical perspectives on its use in these contexts (Buck, 2017;Woodcock & Johnson, 2018). ...
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Gamification is regularly defined as the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts. This utilitarian perspective in gamification sparks controversies about the pedagogical value of gamification. While on the one hand the potential is seen in the design of joyful learning environments critics point out the pedagogical dangers. It becomes apparent that the assumptions guiding action on the subject matter of gamification in educational contexts differ. This in turn leads to different pedagogical practices. Taking a reflexive stance towards the underlying assumptions of gamification in these contexts may allow to consolidate initially controversial positions and to open up potential for the use of gamification. With regard to the pedagogical use of gamifying elements and their empirical investigation, there are three main anchor points to consider from a reflexive stance: (a) the high context specificity of the teaching undertaken and (b) the (non-)visibility of the design elements used and (c) the potential (non-)acceptance of the gamified elements by the students. We start by providing a discussion of the definitional discourse on what is understood as gamification leading to our argument for non-defining gamification to open up its full potential. To exemplify this potential we describe a gamified concept in higher education for police recruits.
... The instrumental use of these design elements, through which the transfer of the positive qualities of games should take place, is generally understood as gamification [16]. However, a consensual definition is still lacking [43,52]. For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements to increase value creation [19,26,59] or nudge participants to perform certain actions [43]. ...
... However, a consensual definition is still lacking [43,52]. For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements to increase value creation [19,26,59] or nudge participants to perform certain actions [43]. While the definition of Deterding et al. [16] includes the use of game design elements without direct transfer to an improved output (e.g. higher motivation, more performance), this is a mandatory prerequisite for the intention of gamification in the definitions of Huotari et al. (2012) and Pfeiffer et al. [43]. ...
... For example, other definitions focus on the utilitarian benefits of gamification: gamification as process improvement through playful elements to increase value creation [19,26,59] or nudge participants to perform certain actions [43]. While the definition of Deterding et al. [16] includes the use of game design elements without direct transfer to an improved output (e.g. higher motivation, more performance), this is a mandatory prerequisite for the intention of gamification in the definitions of Huotari et al. (2012) and Pfeiffer et al. [43]. The utilitarian perspective of gamification is of particular interest in educational contexts [8,9,14,44,61], but there are also critical perspectives on its use in these contexts [7,68]. ...
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... In recent years, gamification of training was adopted in several industries and reported positive effects, mainly on the learner's motivation, productivity, and engagement [11]. The primary focus of this is to use game elements in non-game applications [12]. Out of many components, there are a few main elements ranking, levels, and badges. ...
... The principles of gamification have existed for a long time. Ranks in scouts or military, the badges in Red cross, or the simple start stickers in kindergarten [12]. ...
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The document discusses gaps in cybersecurity in the maritime industry and how they can be filled using gamified learning of cybersecurity for various subdomains in the industry. This is a project proposal contains an initial evaluation of the current status and raises a research question about how learning can be made effectively and efficiently. It's an experimental approach that needs to perform further research to move forward as a practical solution. Also, the same approach can be used for other industries as well.
... Pfeiffer et. al. [13] coined a new definition of Gamification: "Gamification is the use of game mechanics as a further dimension within and around both gaming and non-gaming contexts, in an endeavour to nudge participants to perform certain actions, by adopting a playful attitude". This definition shows that gamification can also take place within games, whenever further elements outside the core mechanics and the core storyline are used to get the players to explore certain content. ...
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Urban planning needs to discover and incorporate new energy sources to meet climate protection targets in the future. Waste heat from industrial and urban infrastructure has proven to be a viable solution, but its proper identification can be challenging, especially for smaller and unconventional sources. Our project relies on the principles of gamification enhanced by a blockchain based token system and crowdsourcing as methods to collect and utilise spatial data such as the location and the size of previously unused heat sources. The mobile platform-neutral HotCity App enables users to collectively patrol the city in search of waste heat sources and to gain tokens that can be exchanged for rewards. The blockchain platform Ardor was used for cheat proofing and to enable transparency for the reward system. The field test conducted in winter 2020/2021 showed high usability scores as well as high acceptance ratings of our approach opening up new use case scenarios in the context of spatial energy planning.
... In recent years, games have also seen their adoption in education materialize on a novel conceptual dimension. The theoretical basis underpinning the term gamification or the 'use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts' (Deterding et al 2011, p 1), moves away from the deployment of actual games in learning contexts but instead focusses on the use of specific design elements, including game mechanics and thinking to engage and solve problems (Pfeiffer et al 2020). Initial empirical research on the utilization of gamification in education suggests positive effects on students' engagement and motivation (Kingsley andGrabner-Hagen 2015, Leaning 2015). ...
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Gamification, the use of game mechanics in non-gaming applications, has been applied to various systems to encourage desired user behaviors. In this paper, we examine patterns of user activity in an enterprise social network service after the removal of a points-based incentive system. Our results reveal that the removal of the incentive scheme did reduce overall participation via contribution within the SNS. We also describe the strategies by point leaders and observe that users geographically distant from headquarters tended to comment on profiles outside of their home country. Finally, we describe the implications of the removal of extrinsic rewards, such as points and badges, on social software systems, particularly those deployed within an enterprise.
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Skinner outlines a science of behavior which generates its own laws through an analysis of its own data rather than securing them by reference to a conceptual neural process. "It is toward the reduction of seemingly diverse processes to simple laws that a science of behavior naturally directs itself. At the present time I know of no simplification of behavior that can be claimed for a neurological fact. Increasingly greater simplicity is being achieved, but through a systematic treatment of behavior at its own level." The results of behavior studies set problems for neurology, and in some cases constitute the sole factual basis for neurological constructs. The system developed in the present book is objective and descriptive. Behavior is regarded as either respondent or operant. Respondent behavior is elicited by observable stimuli, and classical conditioning has utilized this type of response. In the case of operant behavior no correlated stimulus can be detected when the behavior occurs. The factual part of the book deals largely with this behavior as studied by the author in extensive researches on the feeding responses of rats. The conditioning of such responses is compared with the stimulus conditioning of Pavlov. Particular emphasis is placed on the concept of "reflex reserve," a process which is built up during conditioning and exhausted during extinction, and on the concept of reflex strength. The chapter headings are as follows: a system of behavior; scope and method; conditioning and extinction; discrimination of a stimulus; some functions of stimuli; temporal discrimination of the stimulus; the differentiation of a response; drive; drive and conditioning; other variables affecting reflex strength; behavior and the nervous system; and conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Gamification: An Introduction to the Use of Game Dynamics to Influence Behavior. White Paper. Caillois, R. (1961) Man, play, and games
  • Bunchball
Bunchball (2010) Gamification: An Introduction to the Use of Game Dynamics to Influence Behavior. White Paper. Caillois, R. (1961) Man, play, and games. New York: The Free Press.
Gamificaiton: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts
  • S Deterding
  • S Miguel
  • L Nacke
Deterding, S., Miguel S., Nacke, L. (2011) Gamificaiton: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts. http://gamification-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/01-Deterding-Sicart-Nacke-OHara-Dixon.pdf Gigya (2013) Player Loyalty through Gamification; White Paper Huizinga, J. (1938) Homo Ludens. A Study of the Play Element in Culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Die verspielte Gesellschaft
  • N Stampfl
Stampfl, N. (2012) Die verspielte Gesellschaft, Teleopolis.
The Gamification Revolution
  • G Zichermann
  • J Linder
Zichermann, G., Linder, J. (2013) The Gamification Revolution, MC Graw Hill Books 13 https://toolkit-gbl.com/start