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Concept of Sartān (Cancer) and Anti-cancerous drugs in Unani System of Medicine

Authors:
  • Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine Janakpuri New Delhi

Abstract

Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means "crab". In the classical Unani literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
International Journal of Current Science and Multidisciplinary Research
Available Online at www.ijcsmr.in
Research Article Volume 3, Issue 06, June: 2020
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Concept of Sartān (Cancer) and Anti-cancerous drugs in
Unani System of Medicine
Authors:
1Fouzia Bashir*, 2Jamal Akhtar, 3Nighat Anjum, 4Shah Alam, 5Asim Ali Khan
1,4Research Associate, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi
2,3Research Officer (Unani) S-III, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi
5Director General, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi
*Corresponding Author:
* Fouzia Bashir
*Research Associate, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi
E-mail: fouzia.ccrum@gmail.com
Abstract:
Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases
per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been
made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional
anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani
system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means “crab”. In the classical Unani
literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis
and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani
gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the
strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
Keywords: Sartān, Anti-Cancer, Unani Medicine.
Introduction
Cancer is a large group of diseases that can start in
almost any organ or tissue of the body when
abnormal cells grow uncontrollably, go beyond their
usual boundaries to invade adjoining parts of the
body and/or spread to other organs. The latter
process is called metastasizing and is a major cause
of death from cancer. A neoplasm and malignant
tumour are other common names for cancer.
According to WHO, Cancer is the second leading
cause of death globally, accounting for an estimated
9.6 million deaths, or one in six deaths, in 20181.
WHO has estimated that about 15 million new
cancer cases will be diagnosed each year by 2020
worldwide2. The health organization also mentioned
that by the year 2020, overall mortality from cancer
will increase by 104%, and the increase will be 5-
fold higher in developing than in developed
countries3. Lung, prostate, colorectal, stomach and
liver cancer are the most common types of cancer in
men, while breast, colorectal, lung, cervical and
thyroid cancer are the most common among women.
The cancer burden continues to grow globally,
exerting tremendous physical, emotional and
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financial strain on individuals, families, communities
and health systems. Many health systems in low- and
middle-income countries are least prepared to
manage this burden, and large numbers of cancer
patients globally do not have access to timely quality
diagnosis and treatment. In countries where health
systems are strong, survival rates of many types of
cancers are improving because of accessible early
detection, quality treatment and survivorship care1.
Unani Concept
Unani Physicians defined Sartān (cancer) as a
Saudawi warm (melanotic swelling), which occurs
due to the combustion of either Safra (yellow bile) or
both Balgham (phlegm) and Safra (yellow bile) in
the body 5. It starts like an almond and grows to
round or irregular in shape with reddish colour along
with blue or black streaks, which resembles like the
limbs and the middle part like abdomen of a crab 4, 6.
The word “canceroriginated from „cancrum‟ which
is a Greek word for Crab 7 and it is credited to the
Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC).
Hippocrates used the terms carcinos and carcinoma
to describe non-ulcer forming and ulcer-forming
tumors. In Greek, these words, most likely applied to
the disease because the finger-like spreading
projections from a cancer called to mind the shape of
a crab 8. The Andalusian scholar Al-Zahrāwī
(Abulcasis) was the first to conduct classic removal
of breast cancer. He recognized that cancer can be
treated surgically only in its early stages when
complete removal is possible6. The Roman
physician, Celsus (28-50 BC), later translated the
Greek term into cancer, the Latin word for crab.
Galen (130-200 AD) Roman physician, used the
word oncos (Greek for swelling) to describe tumors.
Although, the crab analogy of Hippocrates and
Celsus are still in use to describe malignant tumors 9.
Aetiopathology of Sartān (Cancer)
In Unani System of Medicine, terminology for
cancer is Sartān‟, Amraz-e-Saudawia i.e. disease of
black bile (especially Sauda Mirrah) and Amraz-e-
Khabeesa (chronic and dangerous disease)5. The
cause and development of cancer are multifactorial
i.e. excess production and abnormal changes occur in
sauda. There are five types of abnormal sauda-
excess production of normal sauda, burning of
normal sauda in to abnormal sauda, formation of
sauda due to burning of blood, formation of sauda
due to burning of Balgham (phlegm) and formation
of sauda due to burning of safra (bile) i.e. Sauda
Mirrah 10, 11 and some of the dietary substances like
Masoor Dal, Brinjal, Qan‟beet (cauliflower), old age
animal meat, Beaf, Black wine 12, 13.
Sites of Sartān
According to classical Unani literature, Sartān
mostly occurs in hollow organ or Aza-e- Ratab like-
Pistan (Breast), Reham (Uterus), Halaq (Throat),
Aalat-e tanaffus (Respiratory System), Amaa
(Intestine), Ahleel (Urethra), Dahan (Mouth), Asaab
(Nerves), Ain (Eyes), Unq (Neck)11,12,13,14,15.
Prevention of Sartān
Prevention can be achieved by abiding the following
principles of Asbab Sitta Zarooriya (Six
Prerequisites of Healthy Living by Unani
medicine)16
1. Hawa (Air)
Fresh and pollution free air for breathing.
Avoiding exposure to excessive heat or excessive
cold.
2. Makool o Mashroob (Food and Drink)
To stop tobacco chewing and smoking.
Avoiding junk and smoked foods, preserved
foods, alcohol, carbonated drinks, etc.
Avoiding excess of non-vegetarian diet.
Avoiding black bile producing diets such as red
meat, dried and salted meat and fish, etc.
Taking soft and easily digestible diets.
Consuming turmeric, tomatoes, garlic, flaxseed,
spinach, broccoli, pomegranates, walnuts, etc.
Taking diet rich in fibre (20-30gm/day).
3. Harkat o Sukoon Badani (Bodily Movement
and Repose)
Avoiding sedentary lifestyle.
Exercising for 30-45 minutes at least five days a
week.
4. Harkat o Sukoon Nafsani (Psychic Movement
and Repose)
Avoiding mental stress and anxiety.
Avoiding extreme emotions, e.g. anger, fear,
sadness.
Lead a spiritual peaceful life.
5. Naum o Yaqza (Sleep and Wakefulness)
Sleeping for six to eight hours.
6. Ihtibas o Istifragh (Retention and Evacuation)
Avoiding constipation.
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Ensuring proper evacuation, urination,
perspiration and menstruation.
Avoiding dehydration and ensure retention of
electrolytes and minerals.
Treatment of Sartān by eminent scholars
In Unani System of Medicine, a numbers of great
scholars like Galen (131-210 AD), Zakaria Razi
(865-925 AD), Ali-Ibn Abbas Majusi (930-999 A.D),
Zahrawi (939-1013 AD), Ibn-Sina (980-1037 AD),
and Al-Karaki (1233-1286 AD) etc, paid their
attention towards the treatment and prevention of
Sartān 5.
The treatment described in Unani text includes: (a)
Drugs-Plants origin, Mineral origin and animal
origins (single/compound forms) and (b) Surgical &
other measures (Diet therapy, Amle Kai, Riyazat,
Nutool, Qai, Zimad, Hammam etc) 14, 17.
Use of Unani Medicine as an adjuvant in Sartān
Early detection leads to better prognosis. Unani
treatment may be used as an adjuvant therapy for the
following purposes in cancer patients16.
To restore the healthy lifestyle by observing
Asbab Sitta Zarooriya (Unani Six Prerequisite
for healthy Living).
To enhance the immunity of the patient.
To reduce the complications associated with
cancer.
To prevent the side-effects of the conventional
cancer therapies.
To improve the quality of life of the patients.
Anti-cancerous activities of some Single unani
drugs
1. Afsantīn (Artemisia absinthium L.)
In a study, The extracts of A. absinthium were
tested for cytotoxicity test in vitro using cancer
cell lines of varied origin by 3-(4,5-
dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium
bromide (MTT) assay. It was observed that the
anti-proliferative activity was more pronounced
by AAH and AAM extracts in four cell lines
among all the six cell lines used in the study.
However, the growth of He La and HepG2 cells
were least affected by treatments of any of the
extracts. The highest decline in cells viability
reached by 250 µg/ mL of the extracts after an
incubation of 48 h when compared to the
control group of untreated cells. Based on the
IC50values, the results showed that extracts had
low activity against HeLa and HepG2 cells in
comparison to their activity against the other
cancer cells suggesting that these extracts are
less toxic against HeLa and HepG2 cells 18.
Artemisia shows anti-angiogenic effects in
tumor cell lines. The methanolic extract of A.
absinthium inhibits proliferation of MCF-7 and
MDA-MB231 cell. These cells were treated
with different concentrations of A. absinthium
for almost 3 days. The methanolic extract at
dose of 20 g/ml caused 50% inhibition in
MDAMB-231 cells and 50% inhibition in cell
proliferation of MCF-7 cells at 25 g/ml as
compared to the control19.
The crude extract of the aerial parts of
Artemisia absinthium (AA) significantly
inhibited cell proliferation and promoted
apoptosis in two human breast cancer cell lines
an estrogenic responsive cell line (MCF-7)
and an estrogenic-unresponsive cell line
(MDA-MB-231). Cells were incubated with
various concentrations of AA, and anti-
proliferative activity was assessed by MTT
assays, fluorescence microscopy after
propidium iodide staining, western blotting and
cell cycle analysis. Cell survival assays
indicated that the extract was cytotoxic to both
MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The
morphological features typical of nucleic
staining and the accumulation of sub-G1 peak
revealed that the extract triggered apoptosis.
Treatment with 25 μg/mL AA extract resulted
in activation of caspase-7 and upregulation of
Bad in MCF-7 cells, while exposure to 20
μg/mL AA extract induced up-regulation of
Bcl-2 protein in a time-dependent manner in
MDA-MB-231 cells. Both MEK1/2 and
ERK1/2 were inactivated in both cell lines after
AA treatment in a time-dependent manner.
These results suggest that AA-induced anti-
proliferative effects on human breast cancer
cells could possibly trigger apoptosis in both
cell lines through the modulation of Bcl-2
family proteins and the MEK/ERK pathway.
This might lead to its possible development as
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a therapeutic agent for breast cancer following
further investigations20.
2. Aftimoon (Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb.)
A study was conducted to determine anti-
inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of
Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-
cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by
MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining
and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53
and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS
induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2
in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to
its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells
as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and
annexin V staining assays. The extract up
regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53,
and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2
and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta
reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory
responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay
of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It
induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the
up regulation of p53, BAX and down
regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin21.
The chloroform and ethanol extracts (at doses
of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally) of
the whole plant of Cuscuta reflexa exhibited
significant antitumor activity in Swiss albino
mice against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)
cell line; and the effects were comparable to
that of the reference standard antitumor, 5-
fluorouracil. Administration of the extracts
resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in
tumor volume and viable cell count, but
increased non-viable cell count and mean
survival time, thereby increasing the lifespan of
the tumor-bearing mice. Restoration of
haematological parameters, including Hb,
RBC, WBC, and Lymphocyte counts to normal
levels in extract-treated mice was also
observed22.
Methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa stems
(MECR) and its Ethyl acetate soluble fraction
(EAMECR) showed significant anti-
inflammatory and cytotoxic activities with
Inhibitory Concentrations IC50% values 277.83
μg/mL and 214.94 μg/mL in Human Red Blood
Cell (HRBC) Stability Assay, and Lethal
Concentration LC50% 257.73 μg/mL and
184.86 μg/mL in Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay
(BSLA) respectively23.
The anticancer potential of Cuscuta reflexa
(whole plant extract), was evaluated by testing
its in vitro cytotoxicity and induction of cell
death by apoptosis. Among three extracts (95%
alcoholic, 50% hydro-alcoholic and aqueous
extracts) and four fractions (n-hexane,
chloroform, n-butanol and water) of alcoholic
extract, the 95% alcoholic extract (A001) and
its chloroform fraction (F002) showed
significant cytotoxic activity human cancer cell
lines. Both A001 and F002 inhibited cell
proliferation and showed dose-dependent
cytotoxicity against cervix (HeLa), prostate
(DU-145), promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60),
colon (50273) and ovary (OVCAR 5) human
cancer cell lines. Both A001 and F002 induced
apoptosis in HL-60 (human promyelocytic
leukemia) cell line, as revealed by several
biological end points viz., DNA ladder
formation, annexin-V-FITC binding, cell cycle
analysis and caspases induction. The results
suggested that both A001 and F002 induced
apoptosis through both mitochondrial-
dependent and independent pathway in HL-60
cells. Thus, apoptotic effect of F002 against
HL-60 cells suggests its potential in
development as an anticancer drug24.
3. Asgand (Withania Somnifera L.)
In a study, Withania Somnifera (WS) showed
significant alteration in levels of
Leucocytes, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils,
Immune complexes and Immunoglobulin
levels and also considerable reduction in
polyethylene glycol (PEG) indices in
azoxymethane induced colon cancer of
swiss albino mice 25.
In other study, WS root extract standardized
(sWRE) inhibited breast cancer cells by
inhibition of cell motility via distorting
vimentin morphology and Epithelial to
Mesenchymal Transition in both human
xenograft and mouse mammary carcinoma
model 26.
A study was conducted in which WS water
extract (ASH-WEX) showed anti-proliferative
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activity on neuroblastoma cell line such as
IMR-32, SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a by
inducing apoptosis through upregulation
of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule),
modulation of cell cycle markers and
increasing Akt-P expression leading to cell
cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase 27.
The 50% ethanol extract of root, stem and
leaves of Withania somnifera showed growth
inhibitory activity against five human cancer
cell lines representing four different tissues,
PC-3, DU-145, HCT-15, A-549 and IMR-32;
and the effects were comparable to that
produced by anticancer drugs paclitaxel,
adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) used as
positive controls. This study gives support that
50% ethanol extract of Withania somnifera
were highly cytotoxic to the human cell lines
studied. The leaf extract produced anti-
proliferative activity on NCI-H460 (lung),
HCT-116 (colon), SF-268 (central nervous
system) and MCF-7 (breast) human tumor cell
lines. Hence, this study has revealed
remarkable anticancer potential in the root,
stem, and leaves of Withania somnifera 28, 29.
Withania somnifera (leaves) showed significant
cytotoxicity on MCF-7, PA-1, and A459 cancer
cell lines. Standard drug Doxorubicin was used
as a positive control 30.
4. Asl-us-Sūs (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.)
The in vitro cytotoxic effects of G.glabra silver
nanoparticles were screened against Hela cell
line and viability of tumour cells was
confirmed using MTT assay. The cytotoxic
potential of G. glabra silver nanoparticles
analyzed by AO/EB staining for apoptotic cell
death in HeLa and Vero cells. The cells were
treated with appropriate IC50 concentration of
G. glabra silver nanoparticles for 24 and 48
hour and evaluated for apoptotic changes under
fluorescent microscope. The synthesized silver
nanoparticles showed a potent cytotoxic
activity against HeLa cells. The IC50 value of
silver nanoparticles after 24 hours was found to
be 51.13% at 62.5 µg/ml concentration and for
the aqueous extract it was found to be 47.24%
at 250µg/ml concentration. It was concluded
that the synthesized SNPs exhibited potential
anticancer activity and were also nontoxic on
mammalian Vero cell line. Hence the SNPs
from plant extracts may be used to develop
nanomedicine against pathogens 31.
The anticancer effects of an ethanol extract of
G. glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth
and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell
line was evaluated The ethanloic extract has
been used in herbal formulation for combating
cancers cells like PC-SPEΌ ; a polyherbal
composition was used for prostate cancer.
These extract induced BC1 2 phosphorlyation
and G2 /M cycle arrest in tumor cell lines. The
highest dead rate was measured by MTT assay.
Then LC 0 value was estimated as 31.2μg/ml.
It was concluded that the ethanolic extract of
G.glabra root extract is potent to kill cancer
cells. It is due to the presence of photochemical
substance like saponins, flavonoids, glycosides,
alkaloids etc 32.
In the preclinical in-vitro cytotoxic study three
different extracts (chloroform, methanol and
water) of Glycyrrhiza glabra showed
significant cytotoxicity by MTT method as
compared with reference standard 18 β-
glycyrrhetic acid. Chloroform extract of
Glycyrrhiza glabra showed good cytotoxicity
(IC 50 value of 0.4485 μM) against human
breast cancer cell line (MCF7) than the other
two extracts (methanol and water) of
Glycyrrhiza glabra because it was containing
higher amount of 18 β- glycyrrhetic acid as
quantified through HPTLC method. The cell
viability of two different cell lines determined
by two fold Trypan Blue method was 45.71%
for normal cell line (VERO) and 78.78% for
human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). From
the results of the study, it can be concluded that
18 β- glycyrrhetic acid could be considered as a
potential source of natural anticancer
component and the percentage of which was
higher in the chloroform extract of Glycyrrhiza
glabra 33.
Glycyrrhizin showed potential chemo
preventive activity on 12-O-tetradecanoyl
phorbol-13- acetate induced coetaneous
oxidative stress and tumor promotion in Swiss
albino mice 34.
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5. Balela Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.
In a study conducted at Beijing -China, UPLC-
ESI-MSn revealed 40 polyphenols in an EA
extract of T. bellerica. Approximately 50%
were in the form of gallic acid and its simple
derivatives, followed by ellagic acid and its
derivatives 25%. By using cytotoxicity assays,
flow cytometry and western blotting, it was
found that the EA extract T. bellerica exerted
the strongest anti-cancer activity in vitro among
the three isolated extracts (CH2Cl2, EA and
H2O), particularly for ZR-75-1 and Colo-205
cells. Furthermore, the EA extract mediated
and executed apoptotic cell death at early and
late stages by cleaving/inactivating the essential
target proteins required for the growth and
division of cells. It was concluded that EA
extract of T. bellerica possesses anti-cancer
activity, especially against breast and colon
cancers 35.
In an in vitro experiment carried out to know
about the anticancer activity of 70 %
methanolic extract of T. bellerica (TBME)
against human breast (MCF-7) carcinoma and
human lung (A549) carcinoma and its possible
mechanism, the extract showed significant
cytotoxicity to both A549 and MCF-7 cells,
while, in non-malignant WI-38 cells, no
cytotoxicity was found. Flow cytometric
analysis of A549 and MCF-7 carried out by
taking 100 μg/mL of TBME as the effective
concentration inducing apoptosis in the cancer
cell lines. This concentration of TBME proved
to cause DNA fragmentation pattern of
apoptosis. To know the mechanism of
apoptosis induction, western blotting was
performed in which the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 in
both A549 and MCF-7 had increased, which in
turn activated the caspase cascade and the
cleavage of PARP. These results confirmed the
anticancer effects of TBME in both lung and
breast cancer cell lines by modifying the Bcl-2
family proteins 36.
P. emblica and T. bellerica extracts
demonstrated growth inhibitory activity, with a
certain degree of selectivity against the two
cancer cell lines tested. Synergistic effects (CI
< 1) for P. emblica/doxorubicin or cisplatin at
different dose levels were demonstrated in
A549 and HepG2 cells. The T.
bellerica/cisplatin or doxorubicin also showed
synergistic effects in A549 and HepG2 cells. In
some instances, the combinations resulted in
antagonistic effects. The dose reduction level
was different and specific to each combination
and cell line 37.
The methanolic extract of fresh shade-dried
powdered leaves of Terminalia bellerica
showed significant anticancer effect in human
hepatic cancer (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF
7), and colon cancer (HT 29) cell lines as
revealed by (a) cell growth inhibition, (b)
G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, and (c) apoptosis.
The extract inhibited the proliferation of human
cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as
evident from the percentage of cell viability
determined by MTT assay. The extract showed
significant cytotoxicity with IC50 of
5.65μg/mL. Moreover, normal Monkey Kidney
(VERO) cell line was less sensitive to the
extract-induced cytotoxicity. The extract
induced apoptosis by down-regulation of
antiapoptotic gene, Bcl-2, and up-regulation of
pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Caspase-9 and
Caspase-3 in a dose dependent manner. The
pro-apoptotic effect of the extract was also due
to down-regulation of the AKT/mTOR
signaling pathway. Flow cytometry analysis
showed an increase in the percentage of G2/M
arrest phase in HepG2 cell line compared to
control cell line. Overall, these findings suggest
that leaves of Terminalia bellerica can provide
a source of potential therapeutic compounds for
the treatment of cancer 38.
6. Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia Thunb.)
Aqueous Tinospora cordifolia stem extract
(Aq.Tc) and arabinogalactan (AG), its bioactive
polysaccharide, which are antioxidant remedies
were evaluated on pulmonary cancer and
associated tumor markers. Mice were randomly
segregated into 6 groups. Group I: animals
served as control. Group II: animals which were
administered Aq.Tc extract (200 mg/kg, orally),
thrice a week. Group III: animals which
received AG (7.5 mg/kg, orally) thrice a week.
Group IV: animals which were instilled with
benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) (50 mg/kg, orally)
twice within an interval of 2 weeks. Group V:
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animals which received Aq.Tc extract as in
group II, along with B(a)P after 2 weeks of
Aq.Tc administration. Group VI: animals which
received AG as in group III along with B(a)P
after 2 weeks of AG administration. Aq.Tc and
AG supplementation to B(a)P abused animals
significantly attenuated the parameters at
different stages of cancer, depicting their anti-
cancer effects in lung carcinogenesis. The
apoptotic index in case of Aq.Tc and AG fed
mice treated with B(a)P was higher as
compared to only B(a)P treated mice 39.
The 50% methanolic extract of the fresh shade-
dried powdered stems of Tinospora cordifolia
significantly prevented the micronucleus
formation in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice
in a dosedependent manner, suggesting its
antimutagenic activity. In melanoma assay in
C57BL mice, the extract significantly reduced
the melanoma size and increased the lifespan of
mice as compared to control, suggesting its
anticancer activity 40.
7. Kalonji (Nigella sativa)
In a study conducted, oral administration (6
g/kg/day) of the polyherbal mixture of N.
sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra led to a long-
term protection against diethylnitrosamine-
induced hepatocellular adenoma in Wistar rats
41.
In an in vivo study, topical application
of N. sativa extract (100 mg/kg) inhibited the
two-stage initiation/promotion of skin
carcinogenesis and delayed the onset of skin
papilloma in mice challenged with 7,12-
dimethylbenzanthracene/croton oil 42.
In a study the cytotoxic and proapoptotic
potential of Nigella sativa seed oil or extract
used together were checked with novel
octahydropyrazino[2,1-a:5,4-a′]diisoquinoline
derivative (OM-90). Their effect was compared
with etoposide used in combination
with Nigella sativa seed oil or extract and all of
agents alone. The strongest cytotoxic potential
was observed after 24-hour incubation
with Nigella sativa seed oil or extract together
with OM-90. The weaker effect was detected
after incubation with Nigella sativa seed oil or
extract used together with etoposide, but the
weakest were agents used alone. Our studies
suggest that cytotoxic activity of
chemotherapeutic agents (OM-90, etoposide) is
enhanced by Nigella sativa oil or extract 43.
8. Zard Chob (Curcuma longa)
In a study conducted, the anti-proliferative
activity of curcumin the major yellow pigment
extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) and
its effect(s) on the apoptosis of breast cancer
cells was examined. This study was performed
by an in vitro assay and the anticancer effects
of curcumin were determined by MTT (3-[4,5-
dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium
bromide). Quantitative real time Polymerase
Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for detection
of Mcl-1 gene expression in treated groups and
then compared to control samples. It was
concluded that curcumin significantly inhibited
the growth of human breast cancer cell MCF-7
by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-
dependent manner, accompanied by a decrease
in MCF-7 cell viability 44.
In an animal study, N-nitrosodimethylamine
(DENA), a powerful hepatocarcinogen, was
injected intraperitoneally in five-week-old
C3H/HeN mice. One group of mice received a
diet containing 0.2% curcumin, from 4 days
prior to DENA injection until the end of the
study. At the age of 42 weeks, the curcumin
group exhibited an 81% reduction in the
multiplicity and a 62% reduction in the
incidence of hepatocarcinoma compared with
the non-treated group 45.
In a phase II clinical study conducted in
patients with advanced pancreatic cancer,
curcumin was administered orally at the
dose of 8 g/day for 8 weeks. The treatment
was well tolerated by the patients with no
systemic side effects, while effectively
reducing the tumor size and the activation of
NF-B and COX-2. Mechanistically, curcumin
induces cancer cell apoptosis through an
upregulation of p53 in the tumor tissues 46.
9. Darchini (Cinnamomum zeylenicum)
In a study conducted, the IC50 values of
methanolic extract of Cinnamomum
zeylanicum bark were found to be 200 and
150μg/ml after 24 and 48 hr respectively.
International Journal of Current Science and Multidisciplinary Research (IJCSMR)
166
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The results of the study showed that the
induction of apoptosis by methanolic extract of
Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark in human
hepatoma cancer cells indicates its anticancer
activity 47.
In another study, the effect of cinnamon extract
on the migration of SiHa (human cervical
tumor) cells was examined. The result showed
that cinnamon significantly reduced the
migration of cancer cells, demonstrating its
potential use as an anticancer drug in cervical
cancer 48.
10. Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri)
A study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro
cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of
dichloromethane (DCM) fraction of B.
monnieri on two different cell lines. The
ethanolic extract of B. monnieri was prepared
using soxhlet extraction method and different
fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone,
and water) of ethanolic extracts were prepared.
The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-
diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic
extract and of all fractions was carried out on
MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. The
presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in
these fractions was confirmed by high-
performance thin layer chromatography. The
IC50 values of ethanolic extract in MCF-7 and
MDA-MB 231 cell lines were 72.0 μg/mL and
75.0 μg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of
B. monnieri showed maximum cytotoxic
activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was
found to be 57.0μg/mL and 42.0 μg/mL,
respectively 49.
A study was conducted to observe the effects of
B. monnieri extracts derived from artificial
digestive juices on physiological traits of
prostate cancer cells (DU 145), such as
viability and migratory activity. The safety
profile and chemopreventive potential of B.
monnieri extracts were investigated in Vibrio
harveyi mutagenicity assays. The investigated
extracts were cytotoxic to DU 145; however, in
non-cytotoxic concentrations, they significantly
reduced cancer cell motility, thereby
demonstrated anti-invasive activity. All extracts
under study exhibited very strong anti-
mutagenic activity against nitroquinoline-N-
oxide. Bacoside A and phenolic acids were
determined, but qualitative and quantitative
differences between extracts were found 50.
Conclusion
Since cancer has been considered as a fatal and
dreaded disease, people of all age groups and
gender are at equal risk. In the current scenario,
Unani system of medicine is a holistic approach
to cancer care as the eminent physicians of
Unani system were well aware with the in
depth knowledge of cancer, its causes and
prevention as well. Through this paper, an effort
has been made to highlight and discuss the latest
findings of studies conducted on some Unani
medicinal plants for their anticancer effects, in
order to fight against this deadly disease by
developing the safe and effective anticancer
therapeutic agents.
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Technical Report
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The Association of Unani Physicians (AUP), Bihar has been organizing several events centered on academic activities and welfare issues of Unani physicians since 2012. All along, these events have been an abundant source of knowledge and have aided the participants in enhancing their clinical skills as well. One of the events in this series is ONCON-22 (An Integrative Approach in Cancer Management). The whole world perceives that in the last couple of years, COVID-19 is the biggest killer of humans. However, the association of comorbidities like non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with COVID-19 augmented the mortality rate and has had a detrimental effect on global healthcare systems, with a ripple effect on every aspect of human life. Yet, the prevalence of non�communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased manifold lately. Likewise, India is facing the rising burden of NCDs, including cancer too. Several hypotheses, including out-of-whack lifestyles, changing climatic conditions, and an aging population, explain the rising prevalence of NCDs. I am not denying these facts, but then there are further reasons behind them. It is a well-known fact that diet, drink, regimen, and environmental conditions all play a role in health and disease. Not only our environment, air, and water reservoirs, but the cultivating lands too are polluted with a number of toxic chemicals. Some of the key reasons are: Several types of pesticides, fertilizers, and even hormones are being used in the cultivation process. Use of a variety of hazardous chemicals by vendors for the coloring and coating of fruit and vegetables to make them attractive. Also, reputed companies add several types of preservatives, coloring chemicals, etc., not merely to the raw foods but the processed foods too. When it comes to our territory, the amount of arsenic in drinking water in some areas of Patna is 10 times higher than the WHO permissible limit, and health agencies have noticed that fish in Patna was polluted. In these circumstances, the display of the warning "Tobacco causes cancer" on packets of Cigarettes is not enough for the prevention of cancer. So, the biggest challenge to control the NCDs is meeting the demand for essential commodities in general and dietary substances in particular, and the liability of Dalak (massage), Riyazat (exercise), and Yoga will be better to amuse. The AUP Bihar is moving one step forward in the management and control of cancer. For this program, we have invited a number of prominent scholars of Unani medicine and eminent cancer specialists from different parts of the country to convey their orations. We are confident that, Insha Allah, the program will be beneficial to the delegates and truants afterward through souvenirs. We feel glad to inform you that the publication of the souvenir was aimed at assembling the literature on cancer from the innumerable treatises of Unani medicine for more advanced research.
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Background: The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains bacoside A and B, brahmin, cucurbitacins, and betulinic acid. Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their strong anti-tumorigenic and anti-proliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation of multiplied cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of dichloromethane (DCM) fraction of B. monnieri on two different cell lines. Materials and methods: The ethanolic extract of B. monnieri was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and different fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone, and water) of ethanolic extracts were prepared. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic extract and of all fractions was carried out on MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. The presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in these fractions was confirmed by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Results: The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines were 72.0 μg/mL and 75.0 μg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri showed maximum cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was found to be 57.0 μg/mL and 42.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in both the cell lines may be due to the presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in DCM fraction.
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dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v10i4.10 Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of the chloroform and ethanol extract of the whole plant of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae) in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line. Methods: The antitumor activity of the chloroform and ethanol extracts of Cuscuta reflexa was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight orally, respectively, while acute oral toxicity studies were performed to determine the safety of the extracts. Briefly, the EAC cells were injected (i.p.) into ninty six mice (divided into 6 numerically equal groups), and after a one-day incubation period, the extracts were administered to the mice daily for 16 days. On day 21, six animals in each group were sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity and the remaining animals were observed to determine host the life span. Antitumor effect was determined by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count and hematological parameters of the host. The standard antitumor used was 5-fluorouracil. Results: Administration of the extracts resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in tumor volume and viable cell count, but increased non-viable cell count and mean survival time, thereby increasing the life span of the tumor-bearing mice. Restoration of hematological parameters -red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocyte count -to normal levels in extract-treated mice was also observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the chloroform and ethanol extracts of C. reflexa exhibit significant antitumor activity in EAC-bearing mice that is comparable to that of the reference standard, 5-fluorouracil.
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In this research article make known on Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) as Medicinal plants have therapeutic potential due to the presence of natural antioxidants functioning as reducing agents, free radical scavengers and quenchers of singlet oxygen. And this article also determines the use of Withania Somnifera (leaves) Polyphenolic Compound activity on MCF-7, A549 and PA-1 cancer cell line (breast, lung and ovary respectively). By providing a scientific basis the study can be made conventional to evaluate its constituents (natural product) to determine which of Withania Somnifera (leaves), would facilitate further study as potential new anticancer agents or lead to new anticancer compounds. Hydro alcoholic (1:1) sample of Withania Somnifera (leaves) were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549and PA1) with standard Doxorubicin. The most essential reason of this study is to estimate cytotoxicity of certain important Indian medicinal plants with facilitate of MTT assay. Concentrations are set of each plant extract which are 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml, 0.01 μg/ml and 5-10×10 3 cells/ml are taken into each well which are exposed to different Concentrations of Withania Somnifera (leaves) for 96 hr and then treated with MTT. For MTT absorbance in use at 570 nm. From IC50 values of MTT assay of Withania Somnifera (leaves) for MCF7, A549 and PA1 cancer cell lines, from this it may conclude that Withania Somnifera (leaves)shows efficient cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (10 ± 1 μg) than PA-1 (13 ± 1 μg) and A-459 (11± 1 μg) cancer cell line.
Article
Objective Evaluation of preliminary antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities of a parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa.Methods Human red blood stabilizing activity was used for the evaluation of in vitro antiinflammatory activity and Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of extract of stems of Cuscuta reflexa.ResultsMethanolic extract and Ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR & EAMECR resp.) were found to have significant antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration IC50% values 277.83 μg/ml & 214.94 μg/ml in HRBC stabitlity assay[table 01], and lethal concentration LC50% 257.73 μg/ml 184.86 μg/ml in BSLA respectively[table 02].Conclusions Amongst various extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activities, methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR) and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EAMECR) show significant cytotoxic as well as antiinflammatory activities which may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols and flavonoids.