ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

One of the biggest problems in the modern urban environment is the phenomenon of the spread of slums, which are threatening the future of the Iraqi city, and this phenomenon has become increasing over time and has become a danger spread in most Iraqi cities. The problem of research: is in the knowledge gap related to the role of the urban upgrading of the slums and the knowledge of the integration of these neighborhoods with the mother city to achieve the process of sustainable urbanization of this city. The research assumes that achieving sustainable urbanization is through the urban upgrading of slums. Therefore, the aim of the research is to reach a theoretical framework that shows the indicators of the spatial organization of the random neighborhoods and the detection of the treatments of the negative characteristics of these neighborhoods to achieve the quality of life which achieves the sustainable urban form. In order to test the hypothesis of the research, theoretical framework indicators were applied to areas of random neighborhoods in the city of Baghdad.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
PAPER • OPEN ACCESS
Urban upgrading and its role in Sustainable urbanism
To cite this article: Ashwaq Fadhel Alomari 2020 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 870 012003
View the article online for updates and enhancements.
This content was downloaded from IP address 207.230.120.170 on 18/07/2020 at 18:09
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
1
Urban upgrading and its role in Sustainable urbanism
Ashwaq Fadhel Alomari*
Architecture Engineering Department, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, 10047, Iraq
* ashwaqalomare@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq
Abstract. One of the biggest problems in the modern urban environment is the phenomenon of
the spread of slums , which are threatening the future of the Iraqi city, and this phenomenon has
become increasing over time and has become a danger spread in most Iraqi cities .The problem
of research: is in the knowledge gap related to the role of the urban upgrading of the slums and
the knowledge of the integration of these neighborhoods with the mother city to achieve the
process of sustainable urbanization of this city. The research assumes that achieving sustainable
urbanization is through the urban upgrading of slums. Therefore, the aim of the research is to
reach a theoretical framework that shows the indicators of the spatial organization of the random
neighborhoods and the detection of the treatments of the negative characteristics of these
neighborhoods to achieve the quality of life which achieves the sustainable urban form .In order
to test the hypothesis of the research, theoretical framework indicators were applied to areas of
random neighborhoods in the city of Baghdad.
Keywords: Slums, upgrading, Slum upgrading, Urban development, Sustainable development,
Sustainability, Housing, Informal Settlement, Low-income Settlements.
1. Introduction
About 60% of the world's urban population is expected to be in two decades. Population growth in urban
areas is faster. The lack of urban planning policies , the rapid growth of urban centres and the inadequate
political and economic conditions do not respond to regulatory frameworks for progress[1].
"Living conditions may vary in slums between countries and even among the population within the same
country or city. Some settlements may have low employment prospects for the population",[2]. "The
challenge is therefore to improve governance, productivity, efficiency and equity in order to provide
safe and secure living environments, sustainable livelihoods and better quality of urban life for people
living in poverty. Informal settlements have become a constant feature of the urban landscape In fact,
there is a general consensus among those studying the urbanization and economic situation that informal
settlements will continue to evolve."[3]
1.1. Related (The Sustainable Development )
Goal 1:"End poverty in all its forms everywhere". Goal 3: "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being
for all at all ages ". Goal 6: "Ensure availability and sustainability management of water and sanitation
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
2
for all" ,Goal 8: "Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth,".Goal 9: "Build
resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation",.Goal
11: "Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient. " Goal 17 : "Strengthen the means of
implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development"[4]
1.2. Definition of slums:
"Upgrading the slums on the site, at its basic level, includes improving the physical environment of the
area, such as improving and installing basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation, solid waste
collection, electricity, stormwater drainage, access to roads, pedestrian walkways and street lighting, as
well as home improvements and secure land tenure" [5]. "Slums are informal housing settlements
commonly found in urban areas of developing countries which are characterised by poor shelter, low
service provision and lacking in security of tenure. Slums are growing and new slums are forming. The
international development community has been actively working to improve the living conditions of
slum-dwellers and to reduce poverty via slum upgrading methods. There are various slum upgrading
delivery models and approaches to tackle the urbanisation of poverty in developing countries."[6]. The
problem of lack of adequate housing is one of the problems that lead to the emergence of slums. The
lack of housing, especially among poor or very low income groups and large families, or due to
emergency problems such as displacement, earthquakes or floods, leads to the absence of adequate
housing, So that people can try to provide adequate housing on their own as one of the basic needs of
the human being, but the phenomenon of random growth can not be separated from the social and
economic conditions of a society. Low-income to severe overcrowding in a population of popular
neighborhoods and empty land within cities as well as extreme areas outside.[7]
Aslum can be defined in simple terms as a squalid, overcrowded section of a city, characterized by
inferior living conditions (Collins 1994). The essential characteristics of slums cover physical , spatial,
social and behavioural criteria; high densities and low standards of housing (structure and services)
physical and spatial; and ‘squalor’ – social and behavioural. ‘The spread of associations is typical, not
just for the definition of slums but also of our perceptions of them.[8]. Slum dwellers are usually
squatters without property rights or bonds, preventing them from taking advantage of these slums .
Slums divide into two part:
a. less hopeful slums: characterized by new structures, and be self-built, and these neighborhoods
are part of the process of improvement and development.
b. hopeless slums: which are going through bad conditions at the level of services or environmental
level or healthv sestment[8]
1.3. Characteristics of slums:[8]
1. Lack of basic services.
2. Substandard housing or illegal and inadequate building structures.
3. Overcrowded and high density.
4. Unhealthy living conditions and hazardous locations.
5. Insecure tenure; irregular or informal settlements.
6. Poverty and social exclusion.
7. Minimum settlement size.
A slum is an area that combines to various extents the following characteristics:
a. Inadequate access to safe water
b. Inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure
c. Poor structural quality of housing
d. Overcrowding
e. Insecure residential status
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
3
" Living conditions may vary in slums between countries and even among the population within the
same country or city. Some settlements may have low employment prospects for the population, while
others may do so by providing a wealth of formal and informal income earning opportunities. Rapid
population growth, rural-urban migration Urban management failure is the main contributing factor to
slum development"[2]
1.4. What is an
upgrade:
Upgrading or improving slums as they are called in low-income urban communities are many things,
they mean a package of basic services like clean water supplies and the disposal of sewage, social
communication. But the primary is the codification and "regulation" of property in cases of lack of
possession or lack of clarity. [9]
1.5. Slum Upgrading:
Is the process of improving the slum sites in terms of physical environment and infrastructure such as
water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste down to footpaths and street services and improve private
homes[5]
2. Slum Upgrading as Urbanization Policies:
during the 1970s in the cities of Latin America was (policies of exclusion and deportation) during the
1970s, especially in Brazil's major cities where the first policy of urbanization emerged, thus finding
solutions to infrastructure . Law played No. 6766, which regulates land-cutting land and penalizes
promoters for irregular cutting. a major role in absorbing rural-urban migrants. Return to democracy in
the late 1980s reoriented public policies to consider the slums as merging into the city and the breadth
of interventions to include an intersectoral view along with improved infrastructure. Several
municipalities, such as Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Diadema, and Belo Horizonte have adopted this
approach[3]. "However, as the Expert Group Meeting (UNCHS, 1977) emphasized, informal
settlements Consists of people, not just housing. Thus, the physical upgrade of the environment, without
Promoting self-esteem for the population and helping them to achieve sustainable livelihoods will not
Produce permanent improvements." hypothesizes that spatial organization and location of stabilizers, in
particular, "the way in which the site is united with the network of surrounding streets and the spatial
characteristics of this network is an important variable in the process of integration." This hypothesis is
based on the idea that spatial organization can be a social process Economic development through its
influence on patterns of street traffic and the possibility of generating economic activity[10] studied the
Chilean city of Santiago, which contains 17 informal settlements around the city. The study focused on
identifying measures for the integration of stabilizers.The task of detecting the complex process of
integration of marginal stabilizers was done by testing a set of variables. The variables related to the
merger process were identified represent (18) variables "subject to four social, economic, formal and
land uses.[10]
Is the process of spatial organization of the stability of the transgressors and the way they are applied to
the structure or the larger spatial structure of the mother city. This is either an event that happens
successfully or remains a poor neighborhood characterized by isolation ) [10]
Table 1. Integration process variables [10]
1. The time of stay in the stable .
2. Family size .
3. Type of family in terms of its components .
4. Type of family in terms of parents .
Social variables
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
4
5. Family Cycle .
6. The level of education .
7. Type of settlement.
8. Family owner
9. Family stability .
10. The amount of income.
Economic variables
11. Stable design.11
12. Integrity score.12
13. Linkage.13
14. 14.The nucleus of totalitarian integration
Organizational variables
15. infantry movement .
16. Passenger traffic .
17. Commercial development .
18. Type of use: residential, commercial and other.
Land Use Variables
3.Sustainable urbanism:
Sustainable urbanism is defined as :"walkable and transit-served urbanism integrated with high
performance buildings and high-performance infrastructure"[11]. Sustainable urban development: is the
design, diversification and density that contribute to the improvement of the standard of living.
Sustainable urbanization includes the application of the principles of sustainability in the design and
planning of cities and promotes mobility through the design of high-density and compact
communities[10-13].The three basic aspects of sustainable urbanism are listed as environmental, social,
and economic. Environmentally, the urban form should enable users to walk within short distances
and/or without the use of private vehicles to fulfill their daily needs. Mixed-use developments allocate
residential,retail, leisure, and commercial areas all together within a short walk and provide access to
public transportation modes. In social terms, sustainable urbanism consists of suitable spaces and
buildings of distinctive sizes and kinds that have a variety of community activities. Economically, in a
sustainable community,developments should have business activities that create job opportunities for
many users
Table 2. Quality of life measure[12]
Urban
development
Social
development
Economic
development
Availability of
services
Social integration
Increase economic
activities
Ease of transition
Safety in the
community
Increase annual
income
Provide adequate
housing
Lifelong learning
Reduce the
unemployment rate
Land Use
Consensus
Good health
Providing job
opportunities
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
5
4.Urban modernization:
Involves improving the informal physical environment of settlements. This, according to the World
Bank, includes improving and or installing the basic urban areas Infrastructure such as water, sanitation,
waste collection, rain drainage, roads, access,Street lighting. But the upgrade also requires regulation of
security of land tenure and housing Improvements, as well as improved access to municipal services and
facilities and social support Programs , health and education .The focus is on developing initiatives in
general on infrastructure and material Improvements, and to a lesser extent economic development.
Interest was significantly less Paid for community development and social upgrading, although these
are equally important .[12]
"However, as the Expert Group Meeting (UNCHS, 1977) emphasized, informal settlements Consists
of people, not just housing. Thus, the physical upgrade of the environment, without Promoting self-
esteem for the population and helping them to achieve sustainable livelihoods will not Produce
permanent improvements."
4.1. Urban development, in order to be sustainable, and the strategic dimensions of planning should
include:
1. Protection of the natural environment and the ecology ensuring clean air and water.
2. Provision of basic health services, housing and environmental sanitation for all .
3. ppropriate and quality education, adequate employment opportunities and income
4. Facilities for recreation and cultural growth.
5. A system of democratic and participatory process of planning involving all segments of
population. "Clearly, the strategic areas of focus necessary for ensuring sustainable urban
development listed above are ecologically aware, economically more rational, and socially more
responsive. And as such should be considered as a point of departure from what is currently
being practiced in many countries" [12, 15]
Is strongly impacted by the availability and closeness of public transportation and public amenities, such
as workplaces and schools .[16]
4.2. Elements of sustainable urbanism.
1. Sustainable Neighborhood
2. compactness
3. connectivity
4. High performance Buildings
5. High performance infrastructures.[17]
Congestion, sprawl, lack of open spaces, air pollution, and green-house emissions are the factors that
have distinguished the importance of urban sprawl. In addition, the rise of housing prices in downtown
areas has limited residential choices and opportunities to homeownership for most people.
Consequently, this theory seeks to provide creative, friendly, and environmentally responsible societies.
It defines professionals from all disciplines to house growth
"Establishing mixed land uses allows people to meet their needs through walking and without using
cars. This leads to creating healthier neighborhoods that are pedestrian and bicycle friendly that promote
urban connectivity. These neighborhoods should be safe and easy to move around in, and the local
economy should support the smart community movement. High-density developments encourage the
principle of smart growth. Smart growth offers accessibility to facilities and social and educational
services within walkable short distances ".[18]
4.3. Urban growth and sprawl could be well controlled through these specific strategies:
1. managing growth;
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
6
2. encouraging compact growth through transit, linking mixed-use societies within walkable
distances;
3. streets that are liveable and integrate the use of various transportation systems and are walkable,
increasing social equity.[14, 18]
Table (3) Prepared by the researcher
criterion
Integration process variables
criterion
Urban development
Stable design
Integrity score Linkage
The nucleus of totalitarian integration
Availability of services
Ease of transition
Provide adequate housing
Land Use Consensus
Environment
development
infantry movement .
Passenger traffic .
Commercial development .
Type of use: residential, commercial
and other.
Efficient waste management
Rational management of
resources
Improve water quality
Improve air quality
Social development
The time of stay in the stable.
Family size .
Type of family in terms of its
components .
Type of family in terms of parents .
Family Cycle .
The level of education .
Type of settlement.
Social development
Social integration
Safety in the community
Lifelong learning
Good health
Economic
development
Family owner
Family stability .
The amount of income.
Increase economic activities
Increase annual income
Reduce the unemployment
rate
Providing job opportunities
5.practical part:
Iraqi society witnessed a natural increase in population due to the progress of medicine on the one hand
and the increasing flow of rural people to cities, particularly to the city of Baghdad, on the other In its
various extremes following the improvement in the level of relative recovery within a decade. The
seventies of the last century, and then after entering the country in the war came .Living conditions,
social and cultural deterioration, and the absence of procedures .Planning and development, the
problems of society have become more complex and complicated to come the era of the nineties to live
the society where the worst social and economic conditions.
With the change in 2003 and the absence of law, Baghdad and other Iraqi cities were seen The
phenomenon of the spread of slums in an unprecedented manner, which has been accompanied by an
increase in numbers Urban poor who lack the most basic necessities of life as well as lack of basic
services resulting from the migration of rural or some urban dwellers. The other Iraqi to the city of
Baghdad resulting in the influx of urban population, which It appears that this exceeded the possibility
of the Baghdad Municipality to integrate newcomers into the city Due to the weakness of the industrial
sector and increase the proportion of unemployed, rising Notable in the value of real estate and rent
allowances has been greatly affected The revival of the old urban phenomenon and became a source
of concern for its inhabitants Especially in the spread of some aspects that are incompatible with the
manifestations of urban life Such as the emergence of further abuses on the adjacent lands.
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
7
The problem of slums grew significantly after 2003, significantly until it was formed Until the year
2014 is more than (7.3%) of the total number of housing in Iraq,And (6.9%) of the total population,
economically and security of the society and the state and grew up .The phenomenon is due to several
reasons, the most important of which is the negligence of the relevant bodies, poor control, the factors
of poverty and the situation Security and society, and one of the most important ways of confrontation
is cooperation between all ministries and stakeholders And conducting a comprehensive survey of
housing and residents in slums, and take economic and security ,The cooperation of society in all its
measures categories[19] of these areas in the city of Baghdad, in AL Adhamiya district, use of the basic
design of the city of Baghdad is to be a land free of construction, but built by the residents of random
housing return to the Municipality of Baghdad, but built as slabs of brick and cement, the proposed
added them and integrated to the parent city after the application of research indicators[20]
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
8
Figure 1. Exploitation of random housing in the municipality of Adhamiya
6.Conclusions:
6.1.Results of the practical part
At the urban level, this random housing is stable and can be linked to achieve comprehensive
integration and easy to provide services and ease of transition and land use compatibility
At the environmental level, traffic is available, there is strong momentum, there is commercial
development, and there is residential, commercial and other use. Effective waste management,
rational management of resources, improvement of water quality and improvement of air quality
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
9
At the social level, these settlements are somewhat stable and the size of these families is normal.
Families are composed of fathers and mothers and their level of education is low and the level of
settlement is by owning them, achieving social development, social integration, achieving safety in
the community, providing lifelong learning and ensuring good health for them.
At the economic level, owning this role for these families will help stabilize the family and
determine the amount of monthly income, increase economic activities, increase the annual income,
reduce unemployment rates and provide job opportunities. All this makes it easy to integrate these
settlements with the city of Baghdad
6.2.Results of the theoretical part
knowledge the role of the urban upgrading of the slums and the the integration of these
neighborhoods with the mother city to achieve the process of sustainable urbanization of this city.
Application of theoretical framework indicators for research, which are indicators of spatial
organization of the random neighborhoods and the detection of the treatments of the negative
characteristics of these neighborhoods to achieve the quality of life which achieves the sustainable
urban form.
The upgrade requires regulation of "security of land tenure and housing Improvements, as well as
improved access to municipal services and facilities and social support Programs".
The elements of sustainable urbanism.1-Sustainable Neighborhood,2-compactness,3-
connectivity,4-High performance Buildings,5-High performance infrastructures
The low income level of the family, high unemployment and high urban prices housing , all
contributed to the existence and expansion of the phenomenon of informal housing
Security and political conditions and the weakness of the official authorities in the application of
the laws that deal with the transgressors have contributed significantly to the emergence of these
complexes.
Highlights the solution to the problem of housing within the big cities themselves as the high prices
housing fees and rents are among the most important reasons for the inflation of these cities and
exacerbate its population crises
7. Recommendations:
Utilize the application of theoretical framework indicators to other areas in Iraq
Implementation of the provisions of the Report on Sustainable Development Goals for ( 2018)
Knowledge of the variables of the process of urban integration and its role in achieving urban
sustainability.
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
10
Full awareness of the dimensions of the problem of random housing and what it can mean serious
repercussions and waste on the urban environment and contain it by trying to adopt ways
modernism contributes to the integration of the community of squatters with the mother city.
Develop new planning and design mechanisms that adopt root solutions and treatments for regions
from the allocation of funds and the financial resources necessary to improve the environment of
the inhabitants. As an initial solution that improves the level of the region on the road to a decent
standard of living According to a developmental time plan) to adopt sustainable design plans and
solutions that ensure continuing the success of the development plan and adapting it to the
surrounding urban environment, both locally and temporally.
References:
[1] UNb 2007 Human Settlements Programme GUO.Report on Progress on the MDGs Target
7, Nairobi, Kenya
[2] United Nations 2005 Department of Economic and Social Affairs World Urbanisation
Prospects
[3] Majale M 2002 Regulatory Guidelines For Urban Upgrading, Intermediate Technology
Development Group (ITDG) Towards Effecting Pro-Poor Change
[4] United Nations 2018 The Sustainable Development Goals Report. United Nations
[5] Ruth Turley R S, Nandita Bhan, Eva Rehfuess, Ben Carter 2013 Slum Upgrading Strategies
Involving Physical Environment and Infrastructure Interventions and their Effects on Health and
Socio-Economic Outcomes, Grantee Final Review
[6] Cronin V L M 2012 Slum upgrading in India and Kenya : investigating the sustainability ,
University of Cambridge
[7] Al-Azhar University Engineering Journal. 2007
[8] United Nations 2003 Human Settlements Programme ,The Challenge of Slums. Global
Report on Human Settlements
[9] http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/whatis/what-is.htm
[10] Hillier B Greene M. and Desyllas, J. 2000 Self-Generated Neighborhoods": the Role of
Urban Form in the Consolidation of Informal Settlements, Urban Design International
[11] Farr D 2008 Sustainable Urbanism Urban Design with Nature. United States: Wiley.
[12] Ayman muhamad musatafi yusif, 2010 Measuring and managing the development of new
urban communities through quality of life indicators, PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams
University
ICEAT 2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 870 (2020) 012003
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/870/1/012003
11
[13] yusif A m m 2010 Measuring and managing the development of new urban communities
through quality of life indicators, PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University
[14] Furlan R, Eiraibe, N. & AL-Malki, A. 2015 Exploration of Sustainable Urban Qualities of Al
Saad Area in Doha. American Journal of Sociological Research, 5(4), 101-118.
[15] Al-Shihri F S 2013 Principles Of Sustainable Development And Their Application In Urban
Planning In Saudia Arabia, 2 July
[16] Zaina S, & Furlan, R. 2016 Urban planning in Qatar: strategies and vision for the
development of transit villages in Doha. Australian Planner, 53(4), 286-301.
[17] Fatima Shubbar R F 2018 Sustainable Neighborhood in Doha (State of Qatar): A Strategy
for Achieving Urban Quality in Al-Hitmi,Saudi J. Eng. Technol., Vol-3, Iss-7 (Jul, 2018) p, 466)
[18] Furlan R, Eissa, B., Awwad, R., & Awwaad, R. 2015 Neighborhoods and Social
Interactions: The Case of Al-Najada Area in Doha. American Journal of Sociological Research, 5(4),
119-133.
[19] Firas M 2017 Slums in Iraq Read the risks and solutions , House Research Department
[20] Exploitation of random housing in the municipality of Adhamiya (Municipality of
Baghdad,2018)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, gulf cities have been rapidly growing, mainly after the discovery of oil. Large-scale urban projects have been constructed as a result of globalization, which has affected the built environment and the urban fabric of gulf cities. Doha, the capital city of the State of Qatar, has been substantially influenced by globalization. The city has experienced great transformation in its environment since the 1950s, after the discovery of oil. Therefore, Doha has faced the challenge of keeping pace with urban developments that have been increasing and taking over the existing heritage embedded in buildings and traditional neighborhoods. Al-Hitmi is one of the neighborhoods affected by urbanization and sprawling. This research study investigates Al-Hitmi neighborhood and its features, opportunities, constraints, and relationship with the surrounding areas, specifically Qatar National Museum and the Museum Metro Station. The research design is based on the review of the literature, site analysis of the selected case, and surrounding context in order to (1) find opportunities and challenges and (2) to propose a strategy for the urban regeneration of the neighborhood of Al-Hitmi.
Article
Full-text available
This research focuses on the contributions made to social sustainability, firstly by the functionality of urban spaces in Qatar, as defined by their physical form, and secondly by the socio-cultural attributes of those areas. The urban area addressed in this research is Al Sadd area, located in Doha, Qatar. Data is collected from both primary and secondary sources; the research methodologies were questionnaires, which targeted fifty users of the Al Sadd area, and initial 'walk through observations' of several areas of the Al Sadd neighborhood. The objective of this research is to explore urban qualities within the region, the meanings, who construct them, what are the parameters which are guiding those areas and what makes them sustainable. This exploration would allow understanding the context in which those urban areas are constructed and what makes them sustainable in the long term. The main findings related to the social sustainability of Al Sadd were: (1) population characteristics of the area and their needs are not properly addressed in the neighborhood design, where most of them are immigrant workers, (2) the architecture of the area lacks a distinguishing character, that sets it apart from other neighborhoods, and lastly (3) the urban design and lack of well defined open spaces, does not help in fostering social interaction between different groups.
Article
Full-text available
Cities provide places for people to live, work, learn and socialize. As urban environments, cities nowadays are typically characterized by urban sprawl in which open public spaces (1) are neglected and/or (2) social interactions are discouraged. In fact, the encouragement of social interactions among neighbors is a vital factor implementing livability among city dwellers. Recent evidence suggests that social interactions occur infrequently in contemporary urban neighborhoods. Therefore, it is worth investigating how communities can be designed in the future with the aim to increase social interactions. Al-Najada area in Doha provides a useful case study because it is a traditional area, built based on formal social structures aiming to the formation of social interaction in old neighborhoods (which is called Fereej in Arabic). This paper investigated how the urban fabric of Al-Najada area can be implemented in order to enhance social interactions and become an effective sample of sustainable development. Also, this paper examined the factors that contribute to socially sustainable development in the regeneration of Al-Najada as a traditional asset in the heart of Doha. Literature review is conducted on topics of sustainable urbanism, urban sociology, and built heritage to learn about design implementation in order to enhance social interactions within the urban fabric of neighborhoods. Therefore, content analysis, site observations, and walking tour assessments are adopted as the main research methods in order to investigate how social interactions at Al-Najada area can be encouraged, namely how the spatial form can be implemented in order to enhance social interactions. The research study findings led to the definition of a set of recommendations for a design approach, based on smart planning and design guidelines, aiming at implementing Al-Najada neighborhood in order to facilitate social interactions. The recommendations are genuinely plan-led, empowering local people to shape their surroundings, with concise neighborhood plans setting out a positive vision for the future of Al-Najada area.
Article
Full-text available
Doha, the capital city of the State of Qatar, has went through a fast growth in its economy and transformation of its built environment. Currently, major urban public transit systems are under construction. This paper looks at Souq Waqif station and its surrounding neighbourhood as one of the new transit hubs of Qatar. The district is located in the core of Doha and plays a significant role in the social, economic and particularly culture, as a way of life, of the people in Qatar. Within the context of Doha, there is an urge to implement transit villages, also defined as transit-oriented developments (TODs), in most of the existing centres along the rail network. A TOD is a mixed use commercial and residential area designed to maximise access to public transport and to encourage transit ridership. Therefore, it is critical to understand the benefits and impacts that TODs would invite in this context before investing large funds in developing them. The research empirically investigates the level at which transit villages can be implemented and also formed within the built environment of Doha. It is argued that this strategy and vision would encourage sustainable development by supporting better transport integration and land use. The aim is to assess and promote sustainable developments integration in the city of Doha through controlling increasing traffic and planning for transit villages. In order to develop a strategy for intervention, the existing TOD case study of Yeerongpilly in Australia was analysed, followed by the exploration of the conditions of the existing Souq Waqif area. The assessment of the Souq Waqif allowed judgments of the existing development to be made, which in turn leads to the draft of potential recommendations and suggestions for the formation and implementation of transit villages in Doha.
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanisation in Santiago de Chile has led to a large number of informal settlements on the periphery of the city which from an initial common origin, now exhibit very different degrees of social and physical consolidation. Of particular interest to planners and architects is whether locational or spatial factors play a role in determining the long term development of a settlement. This paper presents the findings of a joint research project between University College London and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile on peripheral settlements formalised through a Neighbourhood Upgrading Programme in Santiago. A sample of 17 settlements was examined through a set of objective instruments for measuring housing, neighbourhood and community consolidation; detailed surveys of pedestrian and vehicular patterns of movement and land use patterns; and computer configurational models of the urban form. Key findings are that spatial and locational factors, especially the layout of the settlement and its relation to its urban context, have played a major role in the pathway of development of the settlements and the different degrees to which they have become consolidated. The critical spatial factor is the degree to which the settlement is able to develop 'edge oriented commercial activity' through its outward facing edges, and through this to participate in wider local economy. The prime determinant of the development of this type of economic activity is the extent to which the streets on the settlement, especially the edges, are strategically integrated within the surrounding area and therefore carry significant levels of vehicular movement. Where this edge-oriented economic activity is strong there are further benefits to housing consolidation, community development and crime levels.
Sustainable Urbanism -Urban Design with Nature
  • D Farr
Farr D 2008 Sustainable Urbanism -Urban Design with Nature. United States: Wiley.
Slums in Iraq Read the risks and solutions , House Research Department [20] Exploitation of random housing in the municipality of Adhamiya
  • M Firas
Firas M 2017 Slums in Iraq Read the risks and solutions, House Research Department [20] Exploitation of random housing in the municipality of Adhamiya (Municipality of Baghdad,2018)