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Digital etiquette, "fake news" and media literacy

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Abstract

These are the slides I used at the iACADEMY Webinar Series: Digital Peers Session One on July 17, 2020.
Danilo Araña Arao
Associate Professor of Journalism, UP Diliman
Special Lecturer of Journalism, PUP Sta. Mesa
Associate Editor, Bulatlat Multimedia
Editor, Media Asia
Digital etiquette
Also “netiquette”
Standards for “good” conduct
Usually found in
Rules for commenting
Terms of agreement
Essentially, GMRC on the Net
D. A. Arao 2iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020)
“Fake news”
(Compound Noun) “false, often sensational,
information disseminated under the guise of news
reporting” (Collins Dictionary; word of the Year in
2017)
Refers to lies, misinformation and disinformation; also
“alternative facts”
Used since 1890 as a compound noun; before that the
term “false news” was used
Related term used in the recent past: “zombie facts”
D. A. Arao 3iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020)
Media literacy
“Media and information literacy is a complex concept
proposed by UNESCO in 2007. MIL covers all
competencies related to information literacy and
media literacy that also include digital or technological
literacy. It focuses on different and intersecting
competencies to transform peoples interaction with
information and learning environments online and
offline.(Media and information literacy, n.d., para. 2)
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 4
Definition of media literacy
Knowledge of how the media work
Form
Language used (grammar, syntax, diction)
Interplay of words, images, footage (aka media texts)
Use of colors, fonts, lines, shadows and other elements
Content
Message analysis (accuracy, relevance, timeliness, etc.)
Process
How media content are created, developed, maintained and
distributed across different forms of media (print, broadcast,
film, new media)
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 5
Importance of media literacy
in the time of COVID-19
Too much “fake news” (outright lies, misinformation
and disinformation)
Too much misleading information, even if partially
true
Too much news items that need context, even if data
are true
Too much toxicity in exchanges with some socmed
users (e.g., trolls) and in statements of some sources of
information
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 6
Analyzing text
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 7
Analyzing headline
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 8
Some case studies (“fake news”)
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 9
Analyzing content and context
How do you spot “fake news”?
Form
Grammar, syntax, diction
Source (i.e., institution, author, URL, handle)
Graphics (i.e., logo, pictures, footage)
Content
Names, places, events, dates
Verifiability of messages
Sense of “urgency,” “alarm” and other subjective feelings
Eagerness to share
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 10
What is to be done?
Be critical
Don’t believe everything you read, watch or listen to
Dont feed the trolls
Engage in constructive criticism if necessary
Take the media to task for their weaknesses
Dont just depend on one source of information
Multi-sourcing is most important
D. A. Arao iACADEMY Webinar Series (17 July 2020) 11
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