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Abstract

Many everyday conversations, whether between close partners or strangers interacting for the first time, are about the world external to their relationship, such as music, food, or current events. Yet, the focus of most research on interpersonal relationships to date has been on the ways in which partners perceive each other and their relationship. We propose that one critical aspect of interpersonal interactions is developing a sense of dyadic, generalized shared reality-the subjective experience of sharing a set of inner states (e.g., thoughts, feelings, or beliefs) in common with a particular interaction partner about the world in general, including the world external to the relationship. Across 9 studies, we use mixed methods to investigate the unique role of generalized shared reality in interpersonal interactions, both between close partners and strangers. We hypothesize that generalized shared reality predicts how people connect with each other and perceive the world around them. We also investigate the observable, dyadic behavioral signatures of generalized shared reality in interpersonal interactions. Finally, we examine the motivation to uphold an existing sense of generalized shared reality. We hypothesize that couples high on baseline generalized shared reality exhibit motivated, dyadic interaction behaviors to reaffirm their generalized shared reality in the face of experimentally manipulated threat. By identifying a unique dimension of everyday interactions, these studies aim to capture a critical aspect of the lived subjective experience of human relationships that has not been captured before. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Instead, people often experience shared reality with a conversation partner about various topics (e.g., art, food, current events)about reality at large (Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018). Rossignac-Milon et al. (2021) introduced the construct of generalized shared reality (SR-G): the subjective experience of sharing in common with an interaction partner a set of inner states about the world in general. SR-G is topic-general (about multiple topics and domains) and dyadic (shared with a particular interaction partner rather than with a general group of people). ...
... Couples responded differently to this feedback depending on their baseline level of SR-G. Among couples higher in baseline SR-G, those who received lowrather than high-overlap feedback engaged in greater motivated behaviors to reaffirm their sense of SR-G when subsequently given the chance to discuss various images: They exhibited more SR-G behavioral signatures, established greater latent shared meaning linguistically, and Certainty in Image Content (Self-Reported) Fig. 3. Mediation models displaying the role of self-reported generalized shared reality (SR-G) between newly acquainted dyads conversing online in mediating the relationship between SR-G behavioral signatures (e.g., saying things at the same time, vocalizing thought similarity, and finishing each other's ideas; coded by observers) and two outcome variables: selfreported "clicking" with one's interaction partner (top panel) and self-reported certainty about what was really going on in the images being discussed (bottom panel; Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Asterisks indicate significance (**p < .001). ...
... When do conversation partners begin to feel that they share reality about the world "in general"? In addition to particular conversation behaviors (e.g., finishing one another's ideas; Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021), could experiencing a shared reality about multiple targets also enhance SR-G? If so, how many different targets, and which targets, would suffice to provoke the sense of SR-G? ...
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Humans are fundamentally motivated to create a sense of shared reality—the perceived commonality of inner states (feeling, beliefs, and concerns about the world) with other people. This shared reality establishes a sense of both social connection and understanding the world. Research on shared reality has burgeoned in recent decades. We first review evidence for a basic building block of shared-reality creation: sharing-is-believing, whereby communicators tune their descriptions to align with their communication partner’s attitude about something, which in turn shapes their recall. Next, we describe recent developments moving beyond this basic building block to explore generalized shared reality about the world at large, which promotes interpersonal closeness and epistemic certainty. Together, this body of work exemplifies the synergy between relational and epistemic motives. Finally, we discuss the potential for another form of shared reality—shared relevance—to bridge disparate realities.
... However, other features are often overlooked, such as whether the partner is in the same room but not completing the survey. The present research explores this feature of relationships research methodology with a specific focus on how it uniquely influences shared reality (i.e., experiencing a commonality of inner states; Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021) as compared to other relationship constructs, such as relationship satisfaction. To demonstrate this, the present research also explores the effect of having one's partner spatially proximal on relationship satisfaction. ...
... As romantic relationships develop, romantic partners start to converge upon a shared worldview (Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018). That is, partners come to transcend the limits of their own reality and create a shared reality, where they perceive an overlap of inner states (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and concerns) with their partner about the world (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Research indicates that people possess both a relational and an epistemic motive to establish a shared reality with their partner (Hardin & Higgins, 1996). ...
... Despite shared reality being rather niche and only recently gaining attention in the context of close relationships (e.g., Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021), it is an important outcome for the study of spatial proximity in romantic couples for a number of reasons. First, there is both theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that the presence of one's partner is uniquely important for establishing a sense of shared reality (e.g., Przybylinski & Andersen, 2015;Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018), such that having one's partner present facilitates a couple experiencing their dyadicspecific culture or shared meaning system. ...
Article
Spatial proximity may be an artifact of relationships research methodology; however, little work has explored how this feature of research designs influences perceptions of one’s relationship, particularly shared reality (i.e., experiencing a commonality of inner states). The present research tested whether spatial proximity would independently contribute to shared reality in couples’ daily lives. In 2 daily diary studies, each across 3–4 weeks (N 1 = 76 couples, 3694 observations; N 2 = 84 couples, 3073 observations), participants indicated whether or not their partner was spatially proximal, and also completed measures of shared reality and relationship satisfaction. Spatial proximity to one’s partner resulted in higher shared reality on the day of the survey completion and predicted increases in shared reality from the previous day, but this effect did not spillover into the following day. These findings held controlling for conflict, shared daily experiences (e.g., cooking together), and shared survey experiences (i.e., whether they completed the survey at the same time). In addition, this effect was unique to shared reality, whereby spatial proximity did not predict relationship satisfaction. However, shared reality was associated with increases in relationship satisfaction across the daily diary period. Thus, researchers should consider spatial proximity when developing their research design as it may influence shared reality, which has implications for relationship well-being.
... However, because of the paucity of empirical work on state-like, daily SR, we first wanted to better understand this phenomenon in the daily lives of romantic partners. Rossignac-Milon et al. (2021) provided initial evidence that SR can be conceptualized as reflecting a chronic, trait-like appraisal (e.g., we, as a dyad, often see things in the world similarly), and a more transient, situation-like appraisal (e.g., today/in this situation, we shared the same thoughts and feelings about things). They further showed that within the context of close relationships (e.g., friends, roommates, intimate partners), daily SR was associated with daily levels of closeness. ...
... Previous findings have shown that in response to the disclosure of a negative event, non-overt constructive responses are as beneficial as (or at times even more than) overt constructive responses, in terms, for example, of improving recipients' mood (Zee & Bolger, 2019); therefore, a composite score was created by averaging the two constructive scores with the reversed scores of the two destructive scores. 2 Shared reality. Participants' daily experience of SR was assessed using an adapted diary version of the Shared Reality Generalized questionnaire (SR-G; Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Two items with high loadings were used and adapted for the daily diary: (a) "Today, we shared the same thoughts and feelings about things"; and (b) "Today, we felt like we created our own reality." ...
... These items were rated on a 7-point Likert scale. In addition, as part of the background pre-diary questionnaire, participants completed the chronic version of SR-G, which assesses the "trait-like" experience of SR within one's relationship (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). ...
Article
Shared reality (SR) is the experience of having an inner state believed to be shared by others. Dyadic responsiveness has been suggested to be a critical process in SR construction. The present study tested the extent to which SR varies in the daily lives of romantic partners and whether this variability is related to responsiveness processes. We predicted that disclosure of personal events to one’s partner as well as perceived partner enacted responsiveness would be associated with daily levels of SR. We further predicted that these associations would be more pronounced when one has low epistemic certainty with respect to the disclosed event. To test these hypotheses, daily diaries were collected from 76 cohabiting romantic couples for a period of 4 weeks. Participants reported the occurrence of daily personal positive and negative events, indicated whether they had disclosed these events to their partner, and described how their partner had responded. As predicted, the disclosure of positive and negative events, as well as the perceptions of partners’ constructive responses to these disclosures, were positively associated with daily SR. A significant interaction was found between epistemic uncertainty (i.e., low perceived social consensus) and responsiveness processes in the context of negative (but not positive) events; specifically, when participants experienced low certainty, the disclosure of the event and the perceived partner’s constructive response were more strongly associated with SR.
... In fact, such connectivity between partners is thought to support the unicity of the couple where patterns in their behavior and communication develop, as reflected in their shared activities or "patterns of doing." While we expect shared ways of doing to be unique to each couple [11], it remains unclear as to how such patterns are reflected in a relationship. In other words, we have yet to fully understand "time use" in a coupled relationship, namely what activities are jointly done as a couple and what activities are independently done by each partner. ...
... These patterns are defined as how people "spend and structure their time" within their everyday lives [13]. For those in coupled relationships, we expect time-use patterns to be reflected in both separate and joint activities [14][15][16][17][18]. Thus, everyday activities performed jointly as a couple are thought to contribute to the sense of unicity or mutuality of the relationship in question [11]. Mutuality between partners can also emerge when a partner adequately adjusts to the needs of the other partner, including those activities one does independently. ...
... These perceptions are crucial for the relationship [5,32]. As such, the more partners are congruent in their perceptions of the other partner's activities -for instance, they are able to perceive likes or dislikes in terms of time allocation -the higher their level of mutuality and satisfaction with the relationship [8,11,31,32]. Studies have also suggested perceptual congruence between partners could be an indicator of problems in the relationship. ...
Article
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Background: Perceptual congruence has been defined as the level of agreement between partners on various aspects of their shared lives, including perceived engagement in individual and jointly performed activities. While the level of adjustment made by partners to such activities is thought to contribute to a couple’s sense of mutuality, perceptions of time use concerning activity engagement has yet to be considered. As such, this study will determine the level of perceptual congruence between partners with respect to perceived time use in their respective and shared activities. Objective: The primary objective of the IP-COUPLES study is to determine the similarities and differences between partners in terms of their perceptual congruence with respect to independent and jointly performed activities. This study will also examine the association between independent and joint activities in terms of perceptual congruence of time use and the strength of this association. Methods: This descriptive observational study includes 100 couples from Western Switzerland who are recruited using snowball sampling methods. The Life Balance Inventory (LBI), a self-report questionnaire that captures activity configuration congruence, will measure independent and joint perceptions of both time use allocated to daily activities and corresponding satisfaction. Due to COVID-19, the protocol can be administered virtually by the primary investigator. The mean scores of perceptual congruence variables will be used for analysis, namely perceived congruence of time use in terms of independent and jointly performed activities. For the first objective, an independent t test will be used for each variable to compare the mean score between activities on the LBI. For the second objective, the correlations between the mean scores for these activities will be calculated for each variable using the Pearson correlation. Results: The IP-COUPLES study protocol was developed in 2019 and 2020. Enrollment began in June 2020. Data collection will continue until October 2021 to account for time needed for recruitment due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Analysis and presentation of results are expected in 2022. Conclusions: This study is exploratory, as it is the first to our knowledge to investigate how perceived time-use patterns with respect to independent or jointly performed activities are similar or different among romantic couples. By investigating the interpersonal perception of time-use patterns among couples, the IP-COUPLES study is an important first step to understanding how romantic partners’ daily activities are contributing to the level of satisfaction as a partner and as a couple and to the sense of mutuality between partners in a romantic relationship.
... are true and real (Echterhoff et al., 2009;Higgins, 2012). Establishing a shared reality with one's significant other is a means to fulfilling these relational and epistemic needs and is ultimately associated with greater relationship closeness and satisfaction (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). Despite the absence of literature on the dyadic effects of shared reality, there is some evidence that shared reality may also promote partner relationship satisfaction. ...
... Across various definitions, support is based on one's partner satisfying one's needs (Cutrona, 1996). Thus, as shared reality fulfills one's epistemic and relational needs (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020;Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018), experiencing a shared reality should lead people to perceive greater support from their partner. For example, a health-care worker may return home from the hospital after a 12-hour shift of treating COVID-19 patients. ...
... They may discuss their day's experience with their partner and together the couple may vocalize shared feelings and co-construct a shared understanding of the health-care worker's experience. These behavioral signatures of shared reality should promote feelings of shared reality (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020), which should allow the health-care worker to feel more certain about their experience and closer to their partner. The health-care worker should feel more supported by their partner as a result, regardless of whether the partner interprets their actions as support provision. ...
Article
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People often rely on partner support and shared reality during stressful and uncertain times. As such, the current research explored how these may relate to relationship satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, 155 frontline health-care workers and their significant others completed measures of shared reality and relationship satisfaction, while also indicating their levels of perceived or provided support, respectively. We proposed that shared reality would foster partners providing and health-care workers perceiving support which would, in turn, promote greater relationship satisfaction. Overall, both shared reality and partner support were positively associated with relationship satisfaction for health-care workers and their significant others. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model with Mediation (APIMeM), we found shared reality to be associated with greater relationship satisfaction through health-care workers perceiving greater support from their partner. Our research demonstrates that shared reality may be a way for people under stress to perceive greater partner support, providing relational benefits for the couple as a whole.
... Supporting this view are empirical literatures on collective attention (e.g., Shteynberg, 2015aShteynberg, , 2015bShteynberg, , 2018, shared reality (e.g., Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020), collective efficacy (Bandura, 2000), group emotions (E. R. Smith & Mackie, 2015), and I-sharing (e.g., Pinel et al., 2006), which, we believe, suggest that collective psychological states prepare people for collective action by synchronizing cognition and motivation (e.g., Bandura, 2000;Shteynberg, 2010;Shteynberg et al., 2016;Shteynberg & Galinsky, 2011), affect and attitudes (e.g., Echterhoff et al., 2009;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021;E. R. Smith & Mackie, 2015), and the desire for affiliation and cooperation (e.g., Pinel & Long, 2012;Pinel et al., 2015). ...
... In a tradition of research that begins with the onset of social psychology (e.g., Asch, 1951;Festinger, 1950;Lewin, 1947;Newcomb, 1959;Sherif, 1936), shared reality research (Echterhoff et al., 2009;Hardin & Higgins, 1996;Higgins, 2019) finds that when participants communicate personal attitudes that match those held by others (doing so to attain greater attitudinal certainty and/or relational strength), the attitudinal change is more authentic and lasting. Most recently, Rossignac-Milon et al. (2021) showed that participants in conversations, even if strangers, strive to attain a generalized sense of shared attitudes and feelings across a multitude of topics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary research on human sociality is heavily influenced by the social identity approach, positioning social categorization as the primary mechanism governing social life. Building on the distinction between agency and identity in the individual self (“I” vs. “Me”), we emphasize the analogous importance of distinguishing collective agency from collective identity (“We” vs. “Us”). While collective identity is anchored in the unique characteristics of group members, collective agency involves the adoption of a shared subjectivity that is directed toward some object of our attention, desire, emotion, belief, or action. These distinct components of the collective self are differentiated in terms of their mental representations, neurocognitive underpinnings, conditions of emergence, mechanisms of social convergence, and functional consequences. Overall, we show that collective agency provides a useful complement to the social categorization approach, with unique implications for multiple domains of human social life, including collective action, responsibility, dignity, violence, dominance, ritual, and morality.
... Cognitively, creating a shared reality with another person or group of people enhances memory (Echterhoff et al., 2005) and reduces cognitive dissonance (Rossignac-Milon and Higgins, 2018a). From a relational perspective, constructing a shared reality improves relationship maintenance between two people (Rossignac-Milon and Higgins, 2018b) and plays a larger role in explaining relationship outcomes compared to other important constructs such as commitment, intimacy, trust, and perceived similarity (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Given the positive epistemic and relational outcomes associated with shared reality in other contexts, and given the motivational need to gain truth and bond with others during stressors (see above), it seems likely that successfully creating a shared reality with another person could reduce people's reactivity to a stressor, relative to when two people fail to create a shared reality while jointly facing the same stressful situation. ...
... Scale items ranged from 1 = Strongly disagree to 7 = Strongly agree and an average was computed for each participant. This scale has been used in prior research (see Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Because this scale measured perceived shared reality, participants in the SRC condition should have higher scores than those in the SRD condition. ...
Article
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When a person faces a stressor alongside someone else, do they get more or less stressed when the other person agrees that the situation is stressful? While an equally stressed partner could plausibly amplify stress by making the situation seem more real and worthy of distress, we find that social validation during co-experienced stressors reduces reactivity. Specifically, the psychological experience of shared reality calms some people down. In Study 1, 70 undergraduate females who jointly faced a stressful event with someone else reported feeling less anxious when the other person felt the same way about the stressor, relative to when the other person appraised the situation in the opposite way or provided no indication of their appraisal. These findings were reflected in participants’ physiological reactivity, especially in the parasympathetic nervous system. In Study 2, we generalize these findings to co-experienced stressors in the daily lives of 102 heteronormative romantic couples in the New York City area. In line with tend-and-befriend theory, we found that shared reality during co-experienced stressors reduced anxiety for almost all females (99% of the sample) and for a minority of males (42% of the sample). Together, these findings unify major theories in health and social psychology by implying that shared reality reduces stressor reactivity, and that this effect is partially moderated by sex.
... On one hand, close social network members, such as a romantic partner, might have higher potential for social influence because of access: they are trusted, nearby, and in position to influence (Goldberg et al., 2020). On the other hand, the issue of selection is a potential drawback: people often are drawn to and surrounded by people that are similar to themselves (Byrne, 1961;Rossignac-Milon, Bolger, Zee, Boothby, & Higgins, 2020). Perfect correspondence between partners' beliefs or behaviors would allow little opportunity for one member of the relationship to change the views of the other. ...
... However, our Six Americas analysis also revealed a pattern of discrepancies between many partners in their beliefs and attitudes about climate change, suggesting opportunities for one partner to influence the other. Given the degree to which romantic partners influence the way people see and interact with the world (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020;Smith & Mackie, 2016), they offer a unique opportunity to develop social norms that could foster shifts toward pro-climate beliefs and behavior (similar to the way one's social circle can influence one's flu vaccine behavior; de Bruin et al., 2019). ...
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Romantic partners influence one another’s beliefs and behaviors. However, little is known about the dynamics of climate change beliefs and behaviors within romantic couples. We surveyed 758 romantic couples (N = 1,516 individuals) to investigate (a) correspondence between partners’ climate change beliefs and behaviors, (b) accuracy of people’s perceptions of their partner’s beliefs and behaviors, (c) how accuracy varies across moderating variables such as frequency of global warming discussion, and (d) whether partner perceptions are more strongly predicted by their partner’s actual beliefs and behaviors or by projections of their own beliefs and behaviors. Results indicate beliefs and behaviors commonly differ between romantic partners. Moreover, people’s perceptions of their partner’s beliefs and behaviors are predicted by their own beliefs and behaviors (assumed similarity), separate from the predictive effect of their partner’s actual beliefs and behaviors (accuracy). We use these findings to identify opportunities for future research on relationship-based interventions.
... For example, as close social network members, romantic partners might have more potential for social influence because of access: they are trusted, nearby, and in position to influence (Goldberg, Gustafson, & van der Linden, 2020). However, the issue of selection is a potential drawback: people are often drawn to and surrounded by people that are similar to themselves (Byrne, 1961;Rossignac-Milon, Bolger, Zee, Boothby, & Higgins, 2020). ...
... However, our measures of correspondence and our segmentation analysis also revealed a pattern of discrepancies between many partners in their beliefs and attitudes about climate change, suggesting opportunities for one partner to influence the other. Given the degree to which romantic partners influence one another (Christakis & Fowler, 2008;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020;Smith & Mackie, 2016), these relationships offer a unique opportunity to develop intimate social norms that could foster shifts toward pro-climate beliefs and behavior (similar to the way one's social circle might influence one's decision to get a flu vaccine, smoke, or exercise; Berli et al., 2018;Christakis & Fowler, 2008;de Bruin et al., 2019;Lewis & Butterfield, 2007). One possibility is that people who are with a pro-environment romantic partner become more pro-environment themselves through self-expansion processes (Aron et al., 1991). ...
Article
Romantic partners influence each other's beliefs and behaviors. However, little is known about the dynamics of climate change beliefs and behaviors within romantic couples. We surveyed 758 romantic couples (N = 1,516 individuals) to investigate (a) correspondence between partners' climate change beliefs/behaviors, (b) accuracy and bias in people's perceptions of their partner's beliefs/behaviors, (c) whether a person's perceptions of their partner's beliefs/behaviors are more strongly predicted by that partner's actual beliefs/behaviors or by projections of one's own beliefs/behaviors, and (d) how perceptual accuracy varies across moderating variables such as frequency of discussion about global warming. We find that climate change beliefs and behaviors often differ between romantic partners. Moreover, people's perceptions of their partner's beliefs/behaviors are predicted by their own beliefs and behaviors (assumed similarity), independently from the predictive effect of their partner's actual beliefs and behaviors (accuracy). We identify opportunities for future research on relationship-based climate change interventions.
... 27 Evaluations of others can be seen as a form of implied communication, in which the topic of discussion is actually the implied acceptability of behaviors (i.e., norm violations, morals). 9,28 These implied discussions can help establish a shared reality 29 with consensus understanding of social norms and broader cultural conventions. ...
... 8,36,37 We speculate that participants established a sense of commonality with one another, creating a ''shared reality'' that served to influence each other's behavior and perspectives 38 while satisfying each other's inherent desire for social connection. 29,39 This idea is consistent with observational work demonstrating the strong relationship between workplace gossip and friendship over time. 26 At the group level, the possibility of gossip also facilitated sustained cooperation. ...
Article
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Complex language and communication is one of the unique hallmarks that distinguishes humans from most other animals. Interestingly, the overwhelming majority of our communication consists of social topics involving self-disclosure and discussions about others, broadly construed as gossip. Yet the precise social function of gossip remains poorly understood as research has been heavily influenced by folk intuitions narrowly casting gossip as baseless trash talk. Using a novel empirical paradigm that involves real interactions between a large sample of participants, we provide evidence that gossip is a rich, multifaceted construct, that plays a critical role in vicarious learning and social bonding. We demonstrate how the visibility or lack thereof of others' behavior shifts conversational content between self-disclosure and discussions about others. Social information acquired through gossip aids in vicarious learning, directly influencing future behavior and impression formation. At the same time, conversation partners come to influence each other, form more similar impressions, and build robust social bonds. Consistent with prior work, gossip also helps promote cooperation in groups without a need for formal sanctioning mechanisms. Altogether these findings demonstrate the rich and diverse social functions and effects of this ubiquitous human behavior and lay the groundwork for future investigations.
... The interpersonal process model of intimacy (Reis & Patrick, 1996;Reis & Shaver, 1988) maintains that disclosing emotional experiences creates interpersonal closeness by inviting interpersonal processes involving trust, validation, and social support. Research has indeed documented temporary increases in relationship closeness after social sharing (Cameron & Overall, 2018;Laurenceau et al., , 1998Lippert & Prager, 2001;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). Importantly, these momentary effects are also assumed to have longterm implications. ...
... Importantly, these momentary effects are also assumed to have longterm implications. Social sharing may help the partners to increasingly refine mutual social support processes (Reis & Patrick, 1996;Reis & Shaver, 1988) and to build a shared reality that facilitates the interpersonal alignment of emotions, goals, and actions during future interactions (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). The effects of social sharing may thus accumulate over time to foster positive relationship development. ...
Article
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People often tell others about recent daily hassles. Such social sharing of emotion is often assumed to support affect repair, but empirical evidence points to the contrary. We tested the notion that social sharing primarily serves relationship closeness, rather than immediate affect repair. Using dyadic experience sampling with N = 100 couples, we captured social sharing in everyday contexts and assessed socioemotional implications for speakers and listeners. Across M = 87 individual measurement occasions, both partners reported potential social-sharing episodes following daily hassles and rated their momentary negative affect and relationship closeness. Global evaluations of relationship closeness were assessed at baseline and 2.5 years later. Social sharing involved both affective benefits and costs, but it predicted momentary and long-term increases in partners’ relationship closeness. These results suggest that sharing bad news in relationships may not primarily serve immediate affect–repair functions. Rather, it may be a catalyst for creating and nourishing relationship closeness.
... Experiencing a shared reality with others validates judgments and helps one establish what is true (Higgins, 2019). Research among dyads showed that shared reality is linked with higher epistemic trust towards the partner, more effort in joint sense-making, and more certainty in opinions and joint decisions (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). Thus, when one's perceptions about job insecurity are mirrored in teammates' perceptions, one may feel more certain about their own judgments. ...
... The lack of shared reality may threaten individuals' epistemic and relational motives (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). When experiences are not shared, two forms of incongruence are distinguished: excess, when an individual's perception of a particular phenomenon exceeds those of the teammates, and deficiency, when the individual's perception is lower compared to the teammates'. ...
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Background: In healthcare, employees are exposed to continuous change when new methods are implemented to optimize care. Such changes may result in qualitative job insecurity (QJI), i.e., a fear concerning the potential loss of important job features. QJI is an individual experience; however, it may be shared within a team to a varying extent. This study examines how QJI perceptual (in)congruence between individuals and their teammates relates to individuals’ well-being. Method: Healthcare employees (N = 305) from 30 healthcare units completed questionnaires measuring QJI, work engagement, and recovery. Results: Multi-level polynomial regression analyses showed that QJI congruence had a curvilinear relationship with well-being: employees reported higher work engagement when QJI perceptions were in agreement, both when QJI was low and high. We observed a negative relationship between QJI congruence and recovery. Recovery was lower when perceptions of QJI were in agreement and were high (vs. low). Finally, we found support for the effects of perceptual incongruence: when employees reported higher QJI than their teammates, they experienced lower recovery and engagement. Conclusions: To understand how employees’ QJI relates to their well-being, it is essential to consider their teammates’ perceptions. The social context can augment or reduce individuals’ stress reactions to job insecurity.
... Supporting this view are empirical literatures on collective attention (e.g., Shteynberg, 2015aShteynberg, , 2015bShteynberg, , 2018, shared reality (e.g., Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020), collective efficacy (Bandura, 2000), group emotions (E. R. Smith & Mackie, 2015), and I-sharing (e.g., Pinel et al., 2006), which, we believe, suggest that collective psychological states prepare people for collective action by synchronizing cognition and motivation (e.g., Bandura, 2000;Shteynberg, 2010;Shteynberg et al., 2016;Shteynberg & Galinsky, 2011), affect and attitudes (e.g., Echterhoff et al., 2009;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021;E. R. Smith & Mackie, 2015), and the desire for affiliation and cooperation (e.g., Pinel & Long, 2012;Pinel et al., 2015). ...
... In a tradition of research that begins with the onset of social psychology (e.g., Asch, 1951;Festinger, 1950;Lewin, 1947;Newcomb, 1959;Sherif, 1936), shared reality research (Echterhoff et al., 2009;Hardin & Higgins, 1996;Higgins, 2019) finds that when participants communicate personal attitudes that match those held by others (doing so to attain greater attitudinal certainty and/or relational strength), the attitudinal change is more authentic and lasting. Most recently, Rossignac-Milon et al. (2021) showed that participants in conversations, even if strangers, strive to attain a generalized sense of shared attitudes and feelings across a multitude of topics. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Contemporary research on human sociality is heavily influenced by the social identity approach, positioning social categorization as the primary mechanism governing social life. Building on the distinction between agency and identity in the individual self (“I” versus “Me”), we emphasize the analogous importance of distinguishing collective agency from collective identity (“We” versus “Us”). While collective identity is anchored in the unique characteristics of group members, collective agency involves the adoption of a shared subjectivity that is directed toward some object of our attention, desire, emotion, belief, or action. These distinct components of the collective self are differentiated in terms of their mental representations, neuro-cognitive underpinnings, conditions of emergence, mechanisms of social convergence, and functional consequences. Overall, we show that collective agency provides a useful complement to the social categorization approach, with unique implications for multiple domains of human social life, including collective action, responsibility, dignity, violence, dominance, ritual, and morality.
... People need to prepare an appropriate response in advance, notice when their partner is likely to end their turn, decide when to deliver their response, and anticipate their partner's reaction (15,(23)(24)(25)(26)(27). Building an overarching mental model of the conversation further aids prediction, helping to anticipate not only when their partner is going to speak but where their thoughts are headed (28,29). As such, response time conveys how well one mind predicts another, a behavioral metric of being "heard and understood" (30). ...
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Significance Social connection is critical for our mental and physical health yet assessing and measuring connection has been challenging. Here, we demonstrate that a feature intrinsic to conversation itself—the speed with which people respond to each other—is a simple, robust, and sufficient metric of social connection. Strangers and friends feel more connected when their conversation partners respond quickly. Because extremely short response times (<250 ms) preclude conscious control, they provide an honest signal that even eavesdroppers use to judge how well two people “click.”
... Many of these shared practices revolve specifically around cleansing. Children are taught particular bathing and toilet routines, depending on the culture they grow up in (Higgins, 2016;Rogoff, 2003). Collective cleansing rituals abound, from preparation for the Chinese Lunar New Year to Thailand's Songkran festival, in which people cleanse themselves and their homes. ...
Article
Our commentators explore the operation of grounded procedures across all levels of analysis in the behavioral sciences, from mental to social, developmental, and evolutionary/functional. Building on them, we offer two integrative principles for systematic effects of grounded procedures to occur. We discuss theoretical topics at each level of analysis, address methodological recommendations, and highlight further extensions of grounded procedures.
... One challenge in identifying mechanisms for the progression bias is that romantic relationships can be leveraged as a tool to meet a wide variety of needs, including evolved desires for intimacy (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and sex (Park et al., 2020), social pressures for status and conformity (Day et al., 2011), practical considerations such as access to material necessities (Eagly et al., 2009), and psychological needs such as self-esteem (G. MacDonald & Leary, 2005), meaning (Florian et al., 2002), and reality testing (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Given that each of these (and likely more) can act individually or in concert to lead individuals to be prone to make decisions that promote rather than curtail relationships, future research will need comprehensive approaches that examine the progression bias as multiply motivated. ...
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Dating is widely thought of as a test phase for romantic relationships, during which new romantic partners carefully evaluate each other for long-term fit. However, this cultural narrative assumes that people are well equipped to reject poorly suited partners. In this article, we argue that humans are biased toward pro-relationship decisions—decisions that favor the initiation, advancement, and maintenance of romantic relationships. We first review evidence for a progression bias in the context of relationship initiation, investment, and breakup decisions. We next consider possible theoretical underpinnings—both evolutionary and cultural—that may explain why getting into a relationship is often easier than getting out of one, and why being in a less desirable relationship is often preferred over being in no relationship at all. We discuss potential boundary conditions that the phenomenon may have, as well as its implications for existing theoretical models of mate selection and relationship development.
... Many of these shared practices revolve specifically around cleansing. Children are taught particular bathing and toilet routines, depending on the culture they grow up in (Higgins, 2016;Rogoff, 2003). Collective cleansing rituals abound, from preparation for the Chinese Lunar New Year to Thailand's Songkran festival, in which people cleanse themselves and their homes. ...
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Lee and Schwarz (L&S) suggest that separation is the grounded procedure underlying cleansing effects in different psychological domains. Here, we interpret L&S's account from a hierarchical view of cognition that considers the influence of physical properties and sensorimotor constraints on mental representations. This approach allows theoretical integration and generalization of L&S's account to the domain of formal quantitative reasoning.
... Many of these shared practices revolve specifically around cleansing. Children are taught particular bathing and toilet routines, depending on the culture they grow up in (Higgins, 2016;Rogoff, 2003). Collective cleansing rituals abound, from preparation for the Chinese Lunar New Year to Thailand's Songkran festival, in which people cleanse themselves and their homes. ...
Article
Lee and Schwarz suggest grounded procedures of separation as a mechanism for embodied cleansing. We compare this process to other mechanisms in grounded cognition and suggest a broader conceptualization that allows integration into general cognitive models of social behavior. Specifically, separation will be understood as a mindset of completed avoidance resulting in high abstraction and openness to new experiences.
... The first is shared attention-"a unique psychological state in which the self perceives the world from a collective standpoint, and hence constitutes a cognitive state that is inherently social" (Shteynberg 2018). The second is a shared reality-"the experience of sharing a set of inner states (e.g., thoughts, feelings, or beliefs) in common with a particular interaction partner about the world in general" (Rossignac-Milon et al 2020). The third is positivity resonance, which incorporates shared positive affect, mutual care and concern, and behavioral and biological synchrony (Major et al 2018). ...
Article
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Listening is associated with and a likely cause of desired organizational outcomes in numerous areas, including job performance, leadership, quality of relationships (e.g., trust), job knowledge, job attitudes, and well-being. To advance understanding of the powerful effects of listening on organizational outcomes, we review the construct of listening, its measurement and experimental manipulations, and its outcomes, antecedents, and moderators. We suggest that listening is a dyadic phenomenon that benefits both the listener and the speaker, including supervisor-subordinate and salesperson-customer dyads. To explain previous findings and generate novel and testable hypotheses, we propose the episodic listening theory: listening can lead to a fleeting state of togetherness, in which dyad members undergo a mutual creative thought process. This process yields clarity, facilitates the generation of novel plans, increases well-being, and strengthens attachment to the conversation partner. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... As a consequence, employees may exhibit stronger team identification by connecting to others who share their experiences. Indeed, research indicates that dyad members who experience shared reality feel more connected to each other (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Consequently, team identification based on similarities may promote more work engagement (Torrente et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Organizational constraints (OCs) represent work conditions that interfere with employees’ performance. Although employees share the same work environment, perceptions of OCs may vary among team members. In this study, we examined employee–teammate perceptual congruence and incongruence regarding three types of OCs (i.e., social, structural, and infrastructure) and the associated consequences for employee work engagement among health care employees from two Spanish hospitals (N = 141). Multilevel polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that the perceptual congruence and incongruence effects depended on the type of OCs. Congruence in perceptions was linked with greater work engagement only for social OCs. Incongruence had an effect in cases of social and structural OCs, but not infrastructure OCs: work engagement was worse when an employee rated OCs as higher (i.e., more problematic) than their teammates did. Our findings suggest that the negative effects of OCs are additionally exacerbated by perceptual incongruence with teammates and indicate the need to include social contexts in the study of work environment perceptions.
... For instance, social identification has been linked with positive health outcomes [20] and lower turnover intentions [21]. Additionally, shared experiences and a possibility to discuss them allows employees to create 'shared reality' , which increases interpersonal connectedness and trust [22,23]. Purposeful recruitment which considers person-organization fit as it relates to congruence in values that relate to benevolence can facilitate this process [24]. ...
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Objective Advancing social purpose in organizations is usually studied from the macro perspective, i.e., how it benefits organizational business goals or society more broadly. In this paper, we focus on social purpose from the perspective of the employee and propose that advancing social purpose in an organization allows individuals to fulfil an important human need for the meaning of work (MW). This study’s objective was to assess whether a volunteering Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in a manufacturing company allows employees to fulfil their basic psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The data was collected through in-depth interviews with 15 employees and an analysis of artifacts. Results In the analysis, three main themes describing different aspects of voluntary work at the company were identified. We found that across all groups of interviewed employees the voluntary activities served the needs of (1) relatedness, (2) competence, and (3) autonomy. We conclude that CSR programs have the most positive impact on MW when they allow employees to engage in prosocial actions and satisfy those needs.
... Future studies may also address the implications of daily trust experiences for generalized social attitudes, J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f behavioral tendencies, and well-being [29,44]. Moreover, the (meta-)cognitive concomitants of trust, such as a sense of shared reality [10,[62][63][64] and trust in specific groups [23] constitute promising directions for future research. Finally, cross-cultural research should include non-WEIRD samples and examine the impact of macro-level ecological variables (e.g., cultural individualism-collectivism), for example on the relationship between social closeness and everyday trust [36,39,65]. ...
Article
In this contribution, we review current research on daily-life experiences of trust in diverse and naturally occurring social interactions ranging from close relationships to complete strangers. Experience-sampling methodology allows the joint examination of situational, relational, dispositional, motivational and behavioral variables in their relation to trust. Thereby, these recent studies advance our understanding of how trust is shaped by important features of the social situation such as perceived conflict of interest. They elucidate how trust fluctuates according to stable traits, and how these traits interact with situational variables (e.g., social closeness to the target). Furthermore, trust connects social perceptions of trustees with trustors’ prosocial tendencies.
... According to Rogers, listening allows individuals to "establish realistic and harmonious relationships with people [beyond the specific partner involved in the encounter] and situations" [Rogers & Roethlisberger 1991(1952, p. 106]. Second, the encounter satisfies both epistemic needs (Rossignac-Milon et al. 2021) and belongingness, or relatedness, needs. Satisfaction of these needs is likely to foster the well-being of the dyad members. ...
Article
Listening is associated with and a likely cause of desired organizational outcomes in numerous areas, including job performance, leadership, quality of relationships (e.g., trust), job knowledge, job attitudes, and well-being. To advance understanding of the powerful effects of listening on organizational outcomes, we review the construct of listening, its measurement and experimental manipulations, and its outcomes, antecedents, and moderators. We suggest that listening is a dyadic phenomenon that benefits both the listener and the speaker, including supervisor-subordinate and salesperson-customer dyads. To explain previous findings and generate novel and testable hypotheses, we propose the episodic listening theory: listening can lead to a fleeting state of togetherness, in which dyad members undergo a mutual creative thought process. This process yields clarity, facilitates the generation of novel plans, increases well-being, and strengthens attachment to the conversation partner. 4.1
... These various situations of shared experience find a niche under the broader label of "shared reality", or the perceived commonality of inner states (feelings, beliefs or concerns) with another person about a target referent (event, object, or third person) (Echterhoff et al., 2009;Hardin & Higgins, 1996;Higgins, 2019). Recently, shared reality was extended to the study of generalized shared reality (SR-G), or the subjective experience of shared reality about multiple topics and domains with a particular interaction partner (Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). Across studies, SR-G predicted "clicking" between strangers, as well as closeness, rapport, and the desire to interact again. ...
Article
For Durkheim (1915), individuals’ survival and well-being rest on cultural resources and social belonging that must be revived periodically in collective assemblies. Durkheim’s concern was to clarify how these assemblies achieve this revitalization. An intensive examination of primitive religions led him to identify successive levels of engagement experienced by participants and to develop explanatory principles relevant to all types of collective gatherings. Durkheim’s conception is widely referred to nowadays. However, the question of its empirical status remains open. We extracted from his text his main statements and we translated them into research questions. We then examined each question in relation to current theories and findings. In particular, we relied on the plethora of recent cognitive and social psychology studies that document conditions of reduced self-other differentiation. Abundant data support that each successive moment of collective assemblies contributes to blurring this differentiation. Ample support also exists that as shared emotions are increasingly amplified in collective context, they can fuel high-intensity experiences. Moreover, recent studies of self-transcendent emotions can account for the self-transformative effects described by Durkheim at the climax of collective assemblies. In conclusion, this century-old model is remarkably supported by recent results, mostly collected in experimental settings.
... Such research will also help inform the how and when social media usage shapes the way individuals subsequently remember their personal past. Indeed, research has shown that the converging and/or diverging goals among discussants can play a critical role in understanding the way the discussants' memories change (see, e.g., Echteroff & Schmalbach, 2018;Cuc et al., 2007;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2020). The extent to which similar mnemonic phenomena extend to social media usage requires future research. ...
Article
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Social media has become one of the most powerful and ubiquitous means by which individuals curate and share their life stories with the world at large. Not surprisingly then, researchers have started to examine the reasons why individuals post personal memories on social media and said individuals’ characteristics. Across two studies, we extended this line of research by further testing the Purposes of Online Memory Sharing Scale (POMSS) and its subscales: self, social, therapeutic and directive. Additionally, we examined which of these motives led college students (Study 1) and adults of a community sample (Study 2) to post personal memories on social media and whether said motives were associated with the individuals’ psychological characteristics. Overall, the results revealed that emerging adults and older adults posted personal experiences on social media primarily for social reasons. We also found that extraversion, disclosure and social media usage predicted each of the motives for posting personal experiences on social media. In addition, individuals who were more lonely and who had lower self-esteem were more likely to post personal experiences on social media for therapeutic reasons. We discuss these results in terms of their implications towards understanding the mnemonic consequences associated with social media use.
... This also implies that the use of diaries in research can take advantage of information that might be overlooked under traditional designs involving cross-sectional assessments (e.g., surveys) or widely spaced longitudinal assessments (Laurenceau & Bolger, 2005). It would be interesting to add the perception of how much one's behavior affects the partner's behavior and the value attributed to this effect on the relationship itself to the research records (own emotional response, stressful events, strategies used, among others) (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The literature on extrinsic emotion regulation or the intention to modify other people’s emotions has grown in recent years, accompanied by proposals in which its definition is made more precise, the way to understand it in relation to other related processes is delimited, and the consequences of its use in the quality of close relationships are evidenced. Conceptual reviews on this topic recognize the importance of examining the affect and dyadic dynamics that arise between those who regulate each other extrinsically. This dynamic refers to emotional interdependence, the potential of the members of a dyad to shape each other’s emotions reciprocally, particularly in those who share a close bond, such as that of a romantic couple. There is little theoretical development regarding the relevance of this characteristic in relation to EER. This article has two objectives: (1) to make a narrative synthesis of the characteristics that define EER and (2) to expand and complexify the existing model by including the emotional interdependence as a vital component in the understanding of the functioning of EER. Lastly, the role of emotional interdependence in the emergence, maintenance, and satisfaction concerning couple relationships is made explicit through phenomena such as shared reality.
... A rich literature highlights the innate human need to seek social contact, form relationships, and experience a sense of connection, belonging, and shared reality (1)(2)(3). Indeed, the amount of social interaction in an individual's daily life is one of the most consistent predictors of psychological well-being (4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13). The link between social connection and well-being is well-documented, as a stable characteristic [happier people spend more time with close others (4,8)] and as a momentary experience-both when initiated naturally [people report greater positive affect while socially engaged (14)(15)(16)] and when induced by experimental intervention [people encouraged to interact with others report high levels of enjoyment, depth, and closeness (17)(18)(19)]. ...
Article
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We document a link between the relational diversity of one's social portfolio-the richness and evenness of relationship types across one's social interactions-and well-being. Across four distinct samples, respondents from the United States who completed a preregistered survey (n = 578), respondents to the American Time Use Survey (n = 19,197), respondents to the World Health Organization's Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (n = 10,447), and users of a French mobile application (n = 21,644), specification curve analyses show that the positive relationship between social portfolio diversity and well-being is robust across different metrics of well-being, different categorizations of relationship types, and the inclusion of a wide range of covariates. Over and above people's total amount of social interaction and the diversity of activities they engage in, the relational diversity of their social portfolio is a unique predictor of well-being, both between individuals and within individuals over time.
... Why would response ambiguity make responders less likable? Our prediction is grounded in the vast body of research showing that human social bonding is enhanced by the sharing of information and mental states between individuals (e.g., Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021;Wolf & Tomasello, 2020b). For instance, self-disclosure (Aron et al., 1997), gossip (Dunbar, 2004), possessing shared knowledge (Soley & Spelke, 2016), shared attention (Dunbar et al., 2016;Haj-Mohamadi et al., 2018;Wolf et al., 2015;Wolf & Tomasello, 2020a), and shared experiences (Gao et al., 2021) are all specific factors shown to be conducive to social bonding. ...
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People strive to be liked by others, and likability has profound effects on various life domains such as relationships and career success. Eight experiments (seven preregistered; total N = 2587) involving Western and Asian samples show that people providing ambiguous (i.e., vague, imprecise) responses to questions are seen as less likable compared to those who provide responses that are specific or precise. This phenomenon was consistently observed across multiple scenarios from family, stranger, and coworker conversations to politician interviews and first dates. This is because response ambiguity is interpreted as a way to conceal the truth, and sometimes as a sign of social disinterest. Consequently, people reported a lower inclination to befriend or date others who responded to their questions ambiguously. We also identified situations in which response ambiguity does not harm likability, such as when the questions are sensitive and the responder may need to “soften the blow”. A final exploratory study (n = 389) showed that beyond likability, response ambiguity also impacts personality trait perceptions such that responders providing ambiguous answers are judged as less warm and extraverted, but also less gullible and more cautious. We discuss theoretical implications for the language psychology and person perception literatures. Given that response ambiguity is a controllable and ever-present feature of conversations, and given the potential reputational and social consequences that come with insufficient response precision, practical implications of the present research are also discussed.
... This source includes any account suggesting that "certain people evaluate certain other people positively" and encompasses all forms of the meta-theoretical perceiver × target account of compatibility (e.g., ideal preferencematching, similarity-matching, and mate-value matching; Chopik & Lucas, 2019;Van Scheppingen et al., 2019;Sparks et al., 2020;Tidwell et al., 2013;Watson et al., 2004). The second source (called the "target-specific lens") refers to history, narrative, "microculture," idioms, rituals, and other forms of personal knowledge that are bound to one and only one relationship (Bell et al., 1987;Dunleavy & Booth-Butterfield, 2009;Finkel, 2020;Garcia-Rada et al., 2018;Harris et al., 2014;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021;Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018;Weigel & Murray, 2000). This source captures effects that are not generalizable to other similar perceivers and targets, including events and disclosures that partners experience with each other that are not available to other perceivers. ...
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There are massive literatures on initial attraction and established relationships. But few studies capture early relationship development: the interstitial period in which people experience rising and falling romantic interest for partners who could—but often do not—become sexual or dating partners. In this study, 208 single participants reported on 1,065 potential romantic partners across 7,179 data points over 7 months. In stage 1, we used random forests (a type of machine learning) to estimate how well different classes of variables (e.g., individual differences vs. target-specific constructs) predicted participants’ romantic interest in these potential partners. We also tested (and found only modest support for) the perceiver × target moderation account of compatibility: the meta-theoretical perspective that some types of perceivers experience greater romantic interest for some types of targets. In stage 2, we used multilevel modeling to depict predictors retained by the random-forests models; robust (positive) main effects emerged for many variables, including sociosexuality, sex drive, perceptions of the partner’s positive attributes (e.g., attractive and exciting), attachment features (e.g., proximity seeking), and perceived interest. Finally, we found no support for ideal partner preference-matching effects on romantic interest. The discussion highlights the need for new models to explain the origin of romantic compatibility.
... As to why shared consumption increases social connection, one reason is that shared consumption may help co-consumers develop a sense of shared reality (Andersen & Przybylinski, 2018;Rossignac-Milon & Higgins, 2018). Indeed, research suggests that shared experiences facilitate shared knowledge (Shteynberg, 2015) and shared feelings toward stimuli (Ramanathan & McGill, 2007), which contribute to developing a sense of shared reality and thus can help to bring people closer together (Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). ...
Article
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People often engage in shared consumption experiences with other people, including romantic partners, friends, family, coworkers, neighbors, and acquaintances. Although the field of consumer psychology has traditionally focused on the perspective of an individual consumer, researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance and relevance of studying shared consumption (also known as joint consumption, dyadic consumption, or group consumption). In this chapter, we first discuss common methodological paradigms for studying shared consumption, given that studying shared consumption poses unique methodological challenges relative to studying solitary consumption. We then discuss prior research on shared consumption, organizing our review around the potential benefits and potential costs involved in shared consumption as compared to solitary consumption. Finally, we delineate four main areas for future research on shared consumption that we view as particularly promising.
... Similarly, the subjective experience of I-sharing-the momentary subjective experience of sharing a sense of self with another person-may reflect awareness of common ground assumptions being strengthened (e.g., if we face a common challenge or trauma, mimic each other's behavior, sing or dance in synchrony, and so on, Pinel et al., 2006). The subjective perception of such cognitive alignment with others is one way to understand the important concept of "shared reality" (Echterhoff et al., 2009;Higgins, 2019;Rossignac-Milon et al., 2021). ...
Article
Social interaction is both ubiquitous and central to understanding human behavior. Such interactions depend, we argue, on shared intentionality: the parties must form a common understanding of an ambiguous interaction (e.g., one person giving a present to another requires that both parties appreciate that a voluntary transfer of ownership is intended). Yet how can shared intentionality arise? Many well-known accounts of social cognition, including those involving "mind-reading," typically fall into circularity and/or regress. For example, A's beliefs and behavior may depend on her prediction of B's beliefs and behavior, but B's beliefs and behavior depend in turn on her prediction of A's beliefs and behavior. One possibility is to embrace circularity and take shared intentionality as imposing consistency conditions on beliefs and behavior, but typically there are many possible solutions and no clear criteria for choosing between them. We argue that addressing these challenges requires some form of we-reasoning, but that this raises the puzzle of how the collective agent (the "we") arises from the individual agents. This puzzle can be solved by proposing that the will of the collective agent arises from a simulated process of bargaining: agents must infer what they would agree, were they able to communicate. This model explains how, and which, shared intentions are formed. We also propose that such "virtual bargaining" may be fundamental to understanding social interactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This perception of being in syncbehaviorally indicated by a dyad finishing each other's sentences or verbally indicating agreement (e.g., exactly!)is known as a sense of shared reality, or the subjective feeling of sharing one's beliefs, thoughts, and feelings with another person [117]. Such feelings of shared reality are thought to fulfill individuals' needs for validating their own general and social reality [75] and are an important part of interpersonal trust and closeness [76]. After witnessing signals of shared reality, individuals feel greater intimacy and closeness with their conversation partner. ...
Article
Subjective well-being is characterized by relatively frequent positive emotions, relatively infrequent negative emotions, and high life satisfaction. Although myriad research topics related to subjective well-being have been explored – from how it should be measured to how it affects physical health – a key finding is that social connections are crucial. Researchers are therefore increasingly exploring whether subjective well-being can be improved through interventions that encourage specific types of social behaviors, including prosociality, gratitude, extraversion, and brief social interactions. We review this recent work, highlighting potential behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of such interventions, along with their boundary conditions.
Chapter
Recent advances in memory research within psychology and neuroscience have contributed to a shift from examining memory through an individualistic lens towards a growing recognition of potential social and collective influences on mnemonic processes. This shift is prominently illustrated by continuing research on collective memory. Through a scoping literature review, we identify three crucial components defining collective memory: memories held in common across individuals within a social group, which are centrally important to group identity, and which impact significantly on perceived group agency. This review attempts to distil and organize empirical evidence into (i) neural, (ii) psychological, and (iii) social foundations of collective memory, while considering the reflexive relationship between common memory, identity, and agency (CIA). We conceptualize collective memory as based on neuropsychological substrates, influenced by social processes, and extended to societal, historical, and political domains, driven by human sociality. To engage the complexity of, and shed light on, numerous remaining questions surrounding collective memory, future research should embrace a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach focused on issues of common memory, identity, and identity.
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Patient-clinician interactions are critical to patient-centered care, including in cancer care contexts which are often defined by multiple patient-clinician interactions over an extended period. Research on these dyadic interactions has been guided by perspectives in clinical communication science, but the study of clinical communication has not been fully integrated with perspectives on interpersonal interactions from relationship science research. An overlapping concept in both fields is the concept of responsive social support. In this article, we discuss responsiveness as concept that offers opportunities for connections between these two disciplines. Next, we focus on how relationship science research can be applied to research in clinical settings. We discuss how three areas of relationship science define responsiveness and have potential for extension to clinical communication: (1) (in)visibility of social support, (2) attachment orientations, and (3) shared meaning systems. We also discuss how social biases can impede responsiveness and suggest research avenues to develop ideas and understand potential challenges in connecting these two fields. Many opportunities exist for interdisciplinary theory development that can generate momentum in understanding interpersonal processes in cancer care.
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The default mode network (DMN) is classically considered an ‘intrinsic’ system, specializing in internally oriented cognitive processes such as daydreaming, reminiscing and future planning. In this Perspective, we suggest that the DMN is an active and dynamic ‘sense-making’ network that integrates incoming extrinsic information with prior intrinsic information to form rich, context-dependent models of situations as they unfold over time. We review studies that relied on naturalistic stimuli, such as stories and movies, to demonstrate how an individual’s DMN neural responses are influenced both by external information accumulated as events unfold over time and by the individual’s idiosyncratic past memories and knowledge. The integration of extrinsic and intrinsic information over long timescales provides a space for negotiating a shared neural code, which is necessary for establishing shared meaning, shared communication tools, shared narratives and, above all, shared communities and social networks.
Article
We propose that cleansing behaviors and other acts of separation or connection have more powerful effects when they are grounded in shared practices – in a shared reality. We conceptualize sensorimotor and shared reality effects as synergistic. Most potent should be physical behaviors performed collectively as a shared practice (e.g., communal bathing), grounded both in sensorimotor experience and in shared reality.
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Making investment decisions is usually considered a challenging task for investors because it is a process based on risky, complex, and consequential choices ( Shanmuganathan, 2020 ). When it comes to Investments in human capital (IHC), such as startups fundings, the aspect of decision-making (DM) becomes even more critical since the outcome of the DM process is not completely predictable. Indeed, it has to take into consideration the will, goals, and motivations of each human actor involved: those who invest as well as those who seek investments. We define this specific DM process as multi-actor DM (MADM) since not a group is making decisions but different actors, or groups of different actors, who – starting from non-coinciding objectives – need to reach a mutual agreement and converge toward a common goal for the success of the investment. This review aims to give insights on psychological contributions to the study of complex DM processes that deal with IHC to provide scholars and practitioners with a theoretical framework and a tool for describing the complex socio-ecological systems involved in the DM processes. For this purpose, we discuss in the paper how the third generation of activity theory ( Leont’ev, 1974 , 1978 ; Engeström, 1987 , 2001 ) could be used as an appropriate model to explain the specificities of MADM construct, focusing on the particular case of startup funding. Design thinking techniques will be proposed as a methodology to create a bridge between different activity systems.
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Despite renewed interest in organizational cynicism, we still know little about how it affects relationships with others in the organization. Using a shared reality framework, we apply the common-fate model to explore how supervisor and subordinate’s organizational cynicism operates in tandem to influence the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) at the dyad level and affects job performance ratings. Across 199 supervisor-subordinate dyads, we find that dyad-level organizational cynicism has negative effects on dyad-level LMX, impacting supervisory perceptions of subordinate performance. Expanding our understanding of organizational cynicism beyond the individual and incorporating methodology from the interpersonal relationships literature into the study of LMX, our results suggest that to understand the impact of cynicism in the workplace, we need to move beyond the study of subordinates alone.
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In this paper we review the self-expansion model in the context of close relationships, focusing primarily on work in the last 20 years, considering throughout variation in our samples across cultures and other demographics—both in existing studies and in potential implications for future research. The self-expansion model has two key principles. The first half of the paper focuses on the motivational principle: The model theorizes that people have a fundamental desire to expand the self—that is, to increase their self-efficacy, perspectives, competence, and resources, and this often occurs through relationships in general. The second half of the paper focuses on the inclusion-of-other-in-the-self principle, in that a major means of self-expansion is through close relationships, when one’s partner’s identities, perspectives, skills, and resources become to some extent “included in the self” as also one’s own. For each principle we briefly describe its foundational research support and then explore the extensive, significant work of the last 20 years substantially expanding and deepening the implications of the model. The majority (although with some interesting exceptions) of studies have fallen short of testing the universal breadth of the model. As we review the research, we consider where the studies were conducted and with what kinds of populations. Where there are data from diverse populations, the overall pattern of results are generally similar. However, there were individual differences found within the populations studied, such as in attachment style, that affected the operation of both principles. Since there are well known differences in the distribution of such individual differences across populations of many types, it is quite likely that while the basic patterns may not differ, future research will show different degrees of operation in different populations.
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Homophily refers to the tendency to like similar others. Here, we ask if homophily extends to brain structure. Specifically: do children who like one another have more similar brain structures? We hypothesized that neuroanatomic similarity tied to friendship is most likely to pertain to brain regions that support social cognition. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed friendship network data from 1186 children in 49 classrooms. Within each classroom, we identified "friendship distance"-mutual friends, friends-of-friends, and more distantly connected or unconnected children. In total, 125 children (mean age = 7.57 years, 65 females) also had good quality neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans from which we extracted properties of the "social brain." We found that similarity of the social brain varied by friendship distance: mutual friends showed greater similarity in social brain networks compared with friends-of-friends (β = 0.65, t = 2.03, P = 0.045) and even more remotely connected peers (β = 0.77, t = 2.83, P = 0.006); friends-of-friends did not differ from more distantly connected peers (β = -0.13, t = -0.53, P = 0.6). We report that mutual friends have similar "social brain" networks, adding a neuroanatomic dimension to the adage that "birds of a feather flock together."
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Following interpersonal transgressions, both victim and offender can experience psychological loss due to threatened needs for agency and moral-social identity. Moral repair is the process by which these losses are restored. Rather than involving only intra-individual static processes, research is starting to recognize that moral repair is dyadic, reciprocal, and interactionist. It involves the victim and offender co-engaging with one another, reciprocally responding to the other’s psychological needs, and co-constructing a shared understanding of what has occurred, their relationship, and a way forward. Each of these steps represents periods of vulnerability where the losses of a transgression can be repaired - or exacerbated.
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