Conference Paper


  • İstanbul Technical University, Architectural Faculty
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Because of usage of finite and limited sources unconsciously, especially after industrial revolution and increase in industrial and chemical facilities, there are environmental issues such as global warming, water pollution and ozone depletion. When the construction sector and its environmental impact are concerned, first of all, the building itself creates a negative effect by vanishing the vegetation and flora where it settles. Building destroys as much the soil and the ecosystem as the area of the settlement. Nevertheless, during the construction period, environmental impacts continue as the energy used and the process during production of construction materials. During the production processes of construction materials, there are emissions to air, to soil and to water. For designers and architects, and actors in construction sector, selection of construction materials is an important issue. Recently many construction materials manufacturers have been announcing their Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) in which the environmental impacts are measured. Construction materials that have an EPD can be compared to each other in seven categories in terms of environmental performance. However, these seven categories measured by different units; for instance, Global Warming Potential (GWP) measured in [kgCO2-Eq], while ODP (Depletion potential of the stratospheric ozone layer) in [kg CFC11-Eq.]. Since comparing construction materials with seven indicators is difficult, some institutions developed databases for researchers to unify the results by determining the shadow cost for each category.

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Abstract Buildings and constructions are responsible for a great amount of global energy and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Because of these negative impacts, there is an increase in Life cycle assessment research in the construction sector to measure these effects and evaluate the sustainability performances. Life cycle assessment is a tool that can facilitate the decision-making process in the construction sector for material selection, or for the selection of the best environmentally friendly option in the building component level or building level. In this study, a comparative life cycle assessment analysis is conducted among 12 roof coverings of 1 square meter in the 60-year lifetime of a building. Impact categories that are available in environmental product declarations and included in this study are the global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, abiotic depletion potential of non-fossils and abiotic depletion potential of fossils resources. To facilitate the decision-making process, panel and monetary weightings are applied to convert environmental product declaration data of seven impact categories into one single-score. Monetary weightings applied in the study are in Euro 2019, differentiating itself from other comparative life cycle assessment studies. The single-score results are ranked and compared. R04 has the best performance for all panel weightings, while for monetary weightings, R03, R07 and R08 have the best performance for EPS, MMG and EVR, respectively. As a result, for 12 roof coverings, the weighted results could not address one single roof-covering material for numerous reasons. Among the weighting methods, panel weighting sets show more similarity in ranking results, while monetary-weighting sets results are more diverse.
This review brings together research on life cycle assessment (LCA) applied within the building sector. More than ever, the construction industry is concerned with improving the social, economic and environmental indicators of sustainability. By applying LCA it is possible to optimise these aspects, from the extraction of raw materials to the final disposal of waste building materials. Firstly, this review details LCA concepts and focuses on the LCA methodology and tools employed in the built environment. Secondly, this paper outlines and discusses the differences between the LCA of building materials and components combinations versus the LCA of the full building life cycle. Finally, this work can be used by stakeholders as an important reference on LCA including up to date literature on approaches and methodologies to preserve the environment and therefore achieve sustainable development in both developed and developing countries.The present review has tried to compile and reflect the key milestones accomplished in LCA over the last 7 years, from 2000 to 2007 within the building sector. In summary, it can be stated that the application of LCA is fundamental to sustainability and improvement in building and construction. For industrial activities, SMEs must understand the application of LCA, not only to meet consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also to increase the productivity and competitiveness of the green construction markets. For this reason, this review looks at LCA because of its broad international acceptance as a means to improve environmental processes and services, and also for creating goals to prevent adverse environmental impacts, consequently enhancing quality of life and allowing people to live in a healthy environment.
Life Cycle Cost Analyses of Construction Materials Including Environmental Impact Costs
  • A Bayazıt
Bayazıt, A. (2016), Life Cycle Cost Analyses of Construction Materials Including Environmental Impact Costs, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Assessing Environmental Impact of Building Materials Using Dutch Approach
  • M Chevaerias
Chevaerias, M. (2015). Assessing Environmental Impact of Building Materials Using Dutch Approach, Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, Nederlands.
SBR Kennispaper -Bepaling van de miliueprestatie van gebouw en GWW -werken (MPG)
  • C Sbrcurnet -Vissering
SBRCURnet -Vissering, C, (2015). SBR Kennispaper -Bepaling van de miliueprestatie van gebouw en GWW -werken (MPG), Delft.
Available from: Open Source Repository
  • Web
Web (2016) Available from: Open Source Repository <>, (accessed 11.01.2016).