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MOOD System on Supporter Chant in English Premier League: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Study

Authors:
MOOD System on Supporter Chant in English Premier
League: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Study
Nur Rochman Fatoni
1
, Riyadi Santosa
2
, Djatmika
3
{
1
nrf.fatoni@student.uns.ac.id,
2
riyadisantosa@staff.uns.ac.id,
3
djatmika@staff.uns.ac.id}
1
Graduate student of Department of Linguistics, Universitas Sebelas Maret
2,3
Lecturer of Department of Linguistics, Universitas Sebelas Maret
Abstract One of the recent language phenomena in public area is supporter
chant. Focusing on the interpersonal interaction among the participant, this
research will examine the MOOD system with the SFL approach to determine
the status and positions in chant discourse. This research is descriptive
qualitative. The data is the clauses and words of the chant lyric downloaded
from fanchant.com. It focused on the ‘supporting’ and ‘mocking’ player chant
of the supporter of the Big Six clubs in English Premier League. The data is
collecting through content analysis. The data is analysed through domain,
taxonomy, componential and cultural theme analysis. From the MOOD system
analysis, containing MOOD type, interaction function, and mood structure, the
interpretation of both mocking and supporting chant put the singing supporter in
an equal and balanced position with the listener. There is a special note on the
mocking chant. Despite the structures place the players at different angles, their
level of equality it still the same. Moreover, the message exchanged is in the
form of information whether it is the players strengths, supporters hopes,
promises, something happened, or a player's disgrace.
Keywords: chant, supporters, MOOD, status, interpersonal, SFL
1. Introduction
As time evolved in language and social life, the delivery of information is nowadays often
manifested in the form of songs. It is often found in various fields not only in entertainment
but in politics, education and even sports. It is interesting that singing or chanting becomes a
tool for delivering messages in sports domain. Moreover supporters chant recently has been a
worldwide trend beyond sports, especially football. The chant message can express a
psichological feeling, social petition, support, and event a mockery to demoralize the the the
opponent [1]. Supporter chant is originated from the creativity and fanaticism of Hooligans
(supporters of football in England). It gives a fresh situation during a soccer match. Within the
chant, the supporters can express a positive energy to support or even express mockery to
football player as hatred’s expression. Besides, the chant is also a song of identity for the
supporters of a club and it becomes an entertainment in a football match.
As a language phenomenon, chant is a language system that [2] carrying messages or
meaning from the speaker to the listener. Even though it is a one directional monologue
BASA 2019, September 20-21, Surakarta, Indonesia
Copyright © 2020 EAI
DOI 10.4108/eai.20-9-2019.2296717
having frequent repetition of words and only few verses, it offers a deep message to the
listener. Those facts attract the researcher to examine the status or position of participants in
the chant discourse. In functional linguistics, it belongs to the interpersonal meaning that
investigating social relation including status, power or domination between participants. The
status is related to relationships role or social status. According to[3] the purpose of social
status or relationships role is how the social’s roles played by participants, whether the
position and status of participants are superior or equal.
The interpersonal meaning especially status, at the lexicogrammatical level, is realized by
the MOOD system. [3], [4] explained that the MOOD system is a clause system conveying
information exchange. It consists of indicative (declarative, interrogative) and imperative. The
indicative clause in grammatical structure has the constituents of Subject (S) and Finite (F).
Indicative declarative clause has a rule that the structure of the subject precedes the finite
structure. In the indicative interrogative clause, the finite precedes the subject. In the
imperative clause, there is no subject or finite, it only has predicator. [5] added the exchange
of message in clauses is classified the interaction function into two, namely giving and asking
[3], [5], [6]. The message can be a form of information and goods or services. The clauses
containing giving information and asking for information is called a proposition. The ones
giving goods or services and asking for goods or services is called a proposal.
There were several studies related to the MOOD system and status. In Mata Najwa [7], the
MOOD system show that declarative clauses and proposition clauses convey the balance
status of Najwa and the guests. Moreover, the proposal clause proved the dominations of
Najwa Shihab to some guests. Another MOOD system research show the existence of
indicative, declarative and interrogative clauses in male and female teacher talks in the EFL
class. The analyses of the MOOD system of their utterances tells that the teachers act as a
controller, director, tutor, and facilitator[8]. In another case, MOOD analysis examine the
types of MOOD systems in the form of declarative, interrogative and imperative contained in
the financial service tagline[9]. Then, the declarative and imperative MOOD types were found
in the Lion Air’ safety demonstration announcement [10]. In addition, in the MOOD analyses
of the newsletter between general institutions and Islamic institutions [11], there are
domination of declarative to carry information and also the use of imperatives functioned to
orders and offers.
The outline of the studies above mentioned that several researchers examined the MOOD
in various objects and developed MOOD analysis with context. The previous studies affirm
the language phenomena that bring to the research gap. This research will explore the
interpersonal status or position of participants by analyzing MOOD system. In addition, the
domain is unique and special since still in a rare. The domain of the data is the supporter chant
that then focused on the ‘supporting’ and ‘mocking’ players’ chant of the supporter of the 6
biggest clubs in English Premier League called the Big Six. Through analyzing the supporting
and mocking players chant will show whether there are different interpersonal status realised
from those two types of chant. The supporters are only from the Big Six since the clubs are the
biggest clubs in EPL that dominate the league in decades and also have a great supporter base.
2. Research Method
This research is descriptive qualitative research using systemic functional linguistics
approach focusing on the analysis of the MOOD system to see how the status or position of
the participants. Furthermore, the data is obtained by content analysis techniques [12] with the
technique of collecting archival records [13] through reading and note-taking . The data is in
the form of words and clauses in the chants the lyric sung by the supporters at the stadium
during the clubs’ match. The researchers got the lyrics from the web providing the supporter
chant lyrics, i.e. fanchant.com.
Then the data is analyzed using Spradley’s [14] domain analysis, taxonomic analysis,
componential analysis and also cultural theme’s analysis. To separate the real data from the
non-data[15], the chants is divided into two parts of domain. The domains are the mocking
chant and the supporting chant from each of The Big Six. Then data is classified and analyzed
with MOOD system as the taxonomic category. It is to organize the data on language
phenomena using the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistic. The category of MOOD
system contains clause types (declarative, interrogative, and imperative) as well as the
interaction functions (propositions and proposals) [6]. In the componential table, the taxonomy
categories are on the Y axis/ at the top of the table, while the domain is on the X axis/ on the
left of the table. Then, their intersection will bring the research to the pattern of interaction,
behaviour, and relations between the data and the categories that later point at the findings.
Finally, in cultural theme analysis, the relationships pattern in componential analysis are
interpreted with the context and the theory.
3. Results And Discussion
3.1 Findings
3.1.1 Supporting Chant
Table 01: MOOD System Realisation on the ‘Supporting’ Chant to Players
Club
Interaction Function
MOOD Type
Minor
clause Propositio
n
Proposal Declarativ
e
Imperativ
e
Interrogativ
e
Man. City
5
0
5
0
0
2
Liverpool
8
0
8
0
0
1
Chelsea
5
0
5
0
0
5
5
0
5
0
0
1
Man.
United
6 0 5 0 1 1
Arsenal
6
0
6
0
0
4
Ʃ
35
0
34
0
1
14
All of the clauses in supporting chant are 49 clauses. It contains more than 35 major
clauses compared to 14 minor clauses. Here are the examples from the Manchester City chant:
Minor Clause :
Ooooooo Balotelli,
Mayor Clause
:
He's a striker,
There is no proposal and imperative clause inside. All major clauses are propositions
(providing information). Then it contains of 34 declarative clauses and only 1 interrogative
clause. These are the examples of the MOOD system analysis in Liverpool club chant:
1.
If
he
scores
another few
Conj
S
F / P
C
Re
-
Mood
-
sidue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
2.
then
I
'll be
Muslim too
Conj
S
F
C
Re
-
Mood
-
sidue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
The examples above are the proposition clauses with the indicative: declarative type. The
next example will be indicative: interrogative from Manchester United club chant:
3.
who
is
h
e
Wh / c
F
S
Residue
Mood
Indicative: interrogative; proposition
In mood structure, from the 35 proposition clauses, there are 22 clauses using personal
subject pronouns to initiate the clauses (He and I) and only 2 clauses using the name (see
examples 4 and 5 from Chant Tottenham). Uniquely, in the supporting chant, there are 13
conjunctions used to initiate the clauses (see example 6 from Arsenal chant). In addition, all
clauses are in positive polarity and there are only 3 modalities using ‘will’.
4.
Eric Dier
l
oves
m
e
S
F / P
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
5.
But
H
e
'll
be
B
ack
conj
S
F
C
Re
-
Mood
-
sidue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
3.1.2 Mocking Chant
All clauses of mocking chant in the data tabulation below are 52 clauses. It is more than
the supporting chants. The clauses distribution of the mocking chant in the MOOD analysis is
in the table afterwards:
Table 02: the Realisation of MOOD System on the ‘Mocking’ Chant to Players
Club
Interaction Function
MOOD Type
Minor
clause
Proposition
Proposal
Declarative
Interrogative
Man.
City
5
0
3
0
2
0
Liverpool
9
0
3
0
6
0
Chelsea
4
0
4
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
2
2
Man.
United
7 0 7 0 0 5
Club
Interaction Function
MOOD Type
Minor
clause
Proposition
Proposal
Declarative
Interrogative
Arsenal
14
0
14
0
0
3
Ʃ
42
0
32
0
10
10
There are 42 major clauses in the form of propositions out of all clauses. It is the different
findings when the frequency of interrogative clause is higher than before. There are 32
indicative: declarative clauses and 10 indicative: interrogative clauses. In addition, there are
also 10 minor clauses. These are the examples from Tottenham club chant:
Minor Clause : Heeeeeey hey Campbell
Wanker ...
Mayor Clause : Why you're such a cunt
In this part, the number of major clauses is greater than the one above while the number of
minor clauses is less than the supporting chant. There are no proposals and imperative as well
as the supporting chant. The lexicogrammatical structure shows 2 types of interrogative
clauses. There are 4 clauses in wh- interrogatives and 6 forms of yes / no interrogative clauses.
Uniquely, the 6 of yes/no interrogative clauses were only found in one chant, the Liverpool.
The following is the example of MOOD System analysis in Man. United chant:
1.
He
w
ears
a frock
S
F /
P
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
2.
H
e
loves
the c
o
ck
S
F / P
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
This is the example of wh- interrogative on Manchester City chant and yes/no interrogative
on Liverpool chant with MOOD system analysis:
3. wh- interrogative
Who
's
[that] shagging
round Cardiff
Wh / S
F
P
Adj.
Re
-
Mood
-
sidue
Indicative: wh- interrogative; proposition
4. Yes/no interrogative
Have
you
ever
seen
Lampard [win the Euro]
F
S
Adj.
P
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: interrogative; proposition
The mood structure of the mocking chant is more variable. There are 14 clauses using
subject personal pronoun ‘You’, 16 clauses begins with ‘he/she’, while others are 'it' and 'I'.
There are also 'wh-question' and nickname 'the wife'. There are 3 vocatives and 1 continuative.
In mocking chant, there is only 1 conjunction opens the clause.
5.
He
's
half a boy
S
F
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
6.
You
're
a
cun
t
S
F
C
Mood
Residue
Indicative: declarative; proposition
Cited from [6] and [16], the polarity is related to finite while the modality is the marker of
speaker judgment. The grammatical structures of the mocking chants have no modality and
negative polarity. In addition, the predicator lexis is dominated by negative lexis.
3.2 Interpretation
This section indeed belongs to the analysis of cultural themes. Findings from the
componential analysis above is juxtaposed within the context and the underlying theory [15].
In general, the total amount of the 'supporting' and 'mocking' chants is 101clauses. They are 52
clauses of the mocking chant and 49 clauses of the supporting chants. The comparison is
presented below:
Table 03: The Comparison of MOOD System Analysis in Mocking and Supporting Chant
Club
Interaction Function
MOOD Type
Minor
clause
Proposition
Proposal
Declarative
Interrogative
MOCKING
42
0
32
0
10
10
%
81%
0%
62%
0%
19%
19%
SUPPORTIN
G
35 0 34 0 1 14
%
71%
0%
69%
0%
2%
29%
Ʃ
77
0
66
0
11
24
In the componential table above, the clauses are dominated with the proposition clauses
and zero proposal clause. In mocking chants, there are 81% of proposition clauses and the
remaining 19% are minor clauses. In the supporting chant, there are 29% minor clauses and 71%
major clauses are functioning propositions. The domination of the proposition clause implies
that the chants exchange information [3]. Regarding the context, the information exchanged is
about the players’ pride or shame. Whereas the minor clause is dominated with the form of
exclamations to shout out some nicknames for the players they addressee. This is intended to
praise or even mock the players. Besides, other minor clauses are calls which functioned to
clarify to whom the chant addressed.
The domination of the indicative: declarative proposition clauses, 62%, in the mocking
chant and 69% in the supporting chant is actually not only conveying information. However, it
implies a judgment or opinion that pretended to be a fact. From underlying context, the fans
bring their opinions and expectations to the players, as well as promises to do something if the
players meet their expectations. Besides exposing the players to the listeners, these opinions
and flattery are actually referred to motivate and boost the player's confidence. In the mocking
chant, the supporters want to express their opinions related to the lack or disgrace of the
addressed players.
The MOOD system of the clauses indicate the status or position of the participants in the
interaction of exchanging messages[3], [4], [6], [16]. Chant is a supporter expression when
watching football match in stadium. The language phenomena result on the three sides of
participants, namely the singing supporters, the listeners, and the players. There were
differences in the interactions status among them. The domination of the proposition implies
that the supporters put themselves equal to the listener. The percentage of declarative clauses
also means that the equality is present between them and the players the addressee.
The existence of interrogative clauses in mocking chant can be interpreted differently. In
this chant, the interrogative clauses do not function purely asking for information. The
interrogative clauses indeed function to involve the listener into the interaction, convey satire,
and expose the players' disgrace. Basically, the grammatical structure of the indicative:
interrogative proposition clause is still placing the supporters equal to the listener. However,
the interrogative clause is a rhetorical question or does not need answers. The existence of the
information inside the question itself in fact is intended to uncover the players' disgrace. It
makes the addressed players is no longer positioned equally to the supporters.
In the mood structure, the subject is the source of negotiation in interpersonal interaction.
Generally, initiating a clause with subject illustrates that the speaker still put themselves
balanced or equal to others. A clause placing the player as the subject means that the players
have no obligation to do something; unlike the proposal clause. In addition, the existence of
positive polarity and a bit of modality shows evidence that supporters of the chant conveyed
their hopes and opinions only [17].
4. Conclusion
The language phenomena on supporters’ chant of English Premier League, especially at
the Big Six clubs, presents two types of discourse meaning, mocking and supporting. The
interpersonal interaction between the discourse participants, i.e. the singing supporters, the
players, and the listeners is examined through the MOOD system with the SFL approach to
determine the status and positions of them.
The analysis and interpretation of MOOD type, interaction function, and mood structure
lead to the conclusion of the study. From the lexicogrammar in both mocking and supporting
chant, the singing supporter puts himself in an equal and balanced position with the listener.
There is a special note on the mocking chant. Despite its lexicogrammar place the players at
different angles, their level of equality it still the same. Moreover, the message exchanged is in
the form of information whether it is strengths, hopes, promises, something happened, or a
player's disgrace.
Finally, the researcher is obliged to deliver the suggestion for further research. Chant
discourse, whether in mocking, supporting, or other essence of the chant, still provides many
aspects to be examined, of course, with the SFL approach. The lexicogrammatic element of
the text provides the grammatical structure and lexical aspect as the research object. In this
case, there is much lexis with unique character, generally rude in the mocking chant and
excessive in the supporting chant. This will be interesting for other researchers to explore in
further research.
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