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Abstract and Figures

Few continental palaeoenvironmental sedimentary sequences from Southern Europe are long enough to span the last interglacial period (Marine Isotopic Stage-MIS 5), the last glacial cycle (MIS 4 to 2) and the Holocene. El Cañizar de Villarquemado (North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula) is an exceptional sedimentary lacustrine sequence spanning the last ca. 135,000 years of environmental change in an area of inland Iberia characterized by Mediterranean climate with strong continentality. We present a multiproxy study which combines palynological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses framed by an independent, robust chronology. Hydrological and climate evolutions were reconstructed by sedimentological and geochemical proxies. Development of wetlands and shallow carbonate lakes support relatively humid conditions during MIS 6, till the onset of MIS 4, and during the Holocene. Palaeohydrological conditions were drier during MIS 5 (dominance of peat environments) than during the Holocene (more frequent carbonate-producing lakes). Sedimentological evidence indicates extremely arid conditions during MIS 3 with greater activity of alluvial fans prograding into the basin. Sedimentary facies variability highlights a large environmental and hydrological variability during MIS 2 and a rapid humidity response to the onset of the Holocene. Compared to classic Mediterranean sites, we found novel pollen assemblages for the end of MIS 6 and MIS 5 indicating that the vegetation cover was essentially represented by sustained high proportions of continentality-adapted taxa dominated by Juniperus during the relatively humid conditions since MIS 6 till the onset of MIS 4. Higher evapotranspiration in inland Iberia would have increased during periods of higher seasonal insolation maxima, impeding soil development and the usual mesophyte expansion during interglacials observed in other Mediterranean areas. Four main periods of forest development occurred in Villarquemado during MIS 5e, MIS 5c, MIS 5a and the Holocene; secondary peaks occurred also during MIS 3. During colder but still relatively humid MIS 4, junipers and Mediterranean taxa disappear but some mesophytes and cold-tolerant species persisted and Pinus became the dominant tree up to modern times. Pollen assemblages and geochemical data variability suggest a dominant control of seasonality and the impact of North Atlantic dynamics both during MIS 5 (cold events C18-C24) and full glacial conditions (HE and D-O interstadials). At millennial scales, steppe herbaceous assemblages dominated during the extremely arid conditions of MIS 3 and pines and steppe taxa during glacial period MIS 2. Villarquemado sequence demonstrates that the resilient behaviour of conifers in continental areas of inland Southern European regions is key to understand the glacial–interglacial vegetation evolution and to evaluate scenarios for potential impacts of global change.
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1. Introduction
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9J9F H<9 H=A=B; C: %!+ 9 5B8 H<9 K<C@9 %!+  D9F=C8 =B H9FF9GHF=5@
5B8 A5F=B9 5F7<=J9G <5G 5@GC 697CA9 5B 9@IG=J9 EI9GH=CB &CH CB@M H<9F9
5F9 5GMB7<FCB=9G 8I9 HC 5F7<=J9 DFCLM 5B8 ;9C;F5D<=75@ B5HIF9 9;
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+RB7<9N CX= 9H 5@  6IH 5@GC 7<FCBC@C;=75@ 7CBHFC@G 697CA9
7<5@@9B;=B; F5I9F 9H 5@ CJ=B 9H 5@ 
,<9G9 8=GG=A=@5F D5HH9FBG 5H 5 F9;=CB5@ G75@9 5F9 9J9B ACF9 GHF=?=B;
K<9B J9;9H5H=CB F9GDCBG9 HC 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 =G 7CBG=89F98 .9;9H5H=CB
8MB5A=7G 5H H<9 $! CBG9H 5B8 H9FA=B5H=CB ;F95H@M 8=::9FG 57FCGG I
FCD9 K<9F9 BC G=B;@9 =B8=75HCF 75B 69 IG98 5G 5 HF579F C: :I@@ =BH9F
;@57=5@ 7CB8=H=CBG 57FCGG H<9 7CBH=B9BH !B DC@@9B G9EI9B79G H<9 A5L=
AIA :CF9GH 9LD5BG=CB C: H<9 $! <5G 699B HF58=H=CB5@@M B5A98 5G H<9
9A=5B 5FH=B;  6IH H<=G 8C9G BCH 5@K5MG 7CB7IF K=H< H<9
D9F=C8 89bB98 5G %!+ 9 +RB7<9N CX= 9H 5@  9@A9BG
9H 5@ 5AI9F5 9H 5@  ,<IG ACGH A=8HC <=;<@5H=
HI89 G9EI9B79G F97CF8 5B 9A6@9A5H=7 A9GCD<MH9 89J9@CDA9BH 897=8
ICIG C5?G 6=F7< <5N9@BIH 5B8 CH<9F 897=8ICIG HF99G 5G 5 F9GI@H C:
K5FA9F 5B8 AC=GH9F 7CB8=H=CBG 9; 89 95I@=9I 5B8 *9=@@9
56(CBG 9H 5@ F9G7<9F+7<B9=89F %\@@9F
%\@@9F 9H 5@ +5H?IB5G 9H 5@ (=B= 9H 5@ 
=B?5 9H 5@  9@A9BG 9H 5@  K<=@9 %98=H9FF5B95B G=H9G
F97CF8 ACF9 H<9FACD<=@CIG 7CAAIB=H=9G K<=7< 5F9 BCH 5@K5MG GMB7<FC
BCIG HC H<9=F CKB A9GCD<MH9 5GG9A6@5;9G C@@=9F= 9H 5@ (CBG
5B8 *9=@@9 5FF=YB '?I85 9H 5@ ,N985?=G
9H 5@ I=CH 5B8 <98858= 9FBRB89N 9H 5@ 
%=@B9F 9H 5@ 5AI9F5 9H 5@  %CF9 DFCA=B9BH J5F=
5H=CBG 5F9 =B8998 F9;=GH9F98 5H =BB9F 7CBH=B9BH5@ 5B8CF G9A=5F=8 F9
;=CBG K<9F9 H<9 5J5=@56@9 G9EI9B79G 8=GD@5M @5F;9 8=::9F9B79G H<5H DF9
J9BH IG :FCA =B:9FF=B; ;9B9F5@=N5H=CBG 5GG9 9H 5@ (=7?5FG?=
9H 5@ <9B 5B8 $=HH  'F6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG 5F9 C:H9B 5F
;I98 5G H<9 A5=B 8F=J=B; :CF79 C: J9;9H5H=CB 89J9@CDA9BH 5H ;@57=5@=B
H9F;@57=5@ H=A9 G75@9G 5G GIAA9F 5B8 K=BH9F =BGC@5H=CB cI7HI5H=CBG 89
H9FA=B9 H9AD9F5HIF9 AC=GHIF9 5B8 H<9 =BH9F57H=CB C: 6CH< 5G 9J5DCHF5B
GD=F5H=CB ,N985?=G %5;F= 5B8 ,N985?=G #@CHN 9H 5@
F57CBBCH 9H 5@ 5AI9F5 9H 5@  CK9J9F 5G
9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB =G @5F;9@M 7CBHFC@@98 6M @C75@ :57HCFG GI7< 5G @5H=HI89
5B8 5@H=HI89 =H A5M 69 5 A5=B :57HCF 9LD@5=B=B; H<9 @57? C: 5;F99A9BH
5ACB; G=A=@5F D@5BH 7CAAIB=H=9G 57FCGG 8=::9F9BH F9;=CBG
@57=5@ D<5G9G %!+  HC %!+  8IF=B; H<9 $! 7M7@9 8C 5@GC 9L
<=6=H ;9C;F5D<=75@ 5GMB7<FCB=9G H<FCI;< H<9 &CFH<9FB 9A=GD<9F9 @I
B=9F 9H 5@ +<57?@9HCB 9H 5@ +=85@@ 9H 5@ *5G
AIGG9B 9H 5@  5G 9J=89B798 6M H<9 8=::9F9BH H=A=B; C: A5L=
AIA ;@57=9F 58J5B79G 5H 5 F9;=CB5@ G75@9 5F7W5*I=N 9H 5@ 
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7@=A5H9 D5HH9FBG #5;9M5A5 9H 5@  9=F= 9H 5@ $I8
K=; 9H 5@  ,<=G 89@5M98 ;@57=9F 58J5B79 A=;<H 69 F9@5H98 5H
@95GH =B GCIH<9FB IFCD9 HC <9H9FC;9B9CIG 7@=A5H9 7CB8=H=CBG 8IF=B;
:I@@ ;@57=5@ H=A9G 5G GI;;9GH98 6M J5F=98 F9GDCBG9 C: J9;9H5H=CB :CFA5
H=CBG HC 56FIDH 7<5B;9G GI7< 5G H<9 5BG;55F8'9G7<;9F 7M7@9G '
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8CI6H98@M 8=G79FB=B; H<9 J9;9H5H=CB 9JC@IH=CB 5B8 =HG F9GDCBG9 HC 7@=
A5H9 7<5B;9 G=B79 %!+  57FCGG H<9 7CBH=B9BH F9EI=F9G ACF9 +CIH<9FB
IFCD9 F97CF8G K=H< 5 FC6IGH 7<FCBC@C;M
!B H<=G D5D9F K9 8C7IA9BH H<9 D5@MBC@C;=75@ 5B8 G98=A9BHC@C;=75@
G9EI9B79 C: @ 5X=N5F 89 .=@@5FEI9A58C .!$ @C75H98 =B 5 <=;<@M 7CB
H=B9BH5@ 5F95 C: =BB9F &CFH<5GH9FB !69F=5 =;  ,<9 .!$ G9EI9B79
GD5BG H<9 $! G=B79 H<9 %!+ H9FA=B5H=CB HC H<9 C@C79B9 5B8 =H
=G HC CIF ?BCK@98;9 H<9 69GH 85H98 7CBH=B9BH5@ F97CF8 C: !69F=5 :CF
H<=G H=A9 =BH9FJ5@ .5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  G G98=A9BHC@C;=75@
5B8 ;9C7<9A=75@ 5B5@MG9G CB H<9 .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 DFCJ=89 =B89
D9B89BH D5@9C<M8FC@C;=75@ 5B8 7@=A5H9 F97CBGHFI7H=CBG 5H @C75@ 5B8 F9
;=CB5@ G75@9 H<9 .!$ G9EI9B79 C::9FG 5B 9L79DH=CB5@ CDDCFHIB=HM HC =B
J9GH=;5H9 GCA9 C: H<9 7F=H=75@ EI9GH=CBG CB @CB;H9FA H9FF9GHF=5@ 97CGMG
H9A F9GDCBG9 HC 7@=A5H9 7<5B;9 =B H<9 %98=H9FF5B95B 5G=B
,<IG H<9 A5=B 5=AG C: H<=G D5D9F 5F9  HC 7<5F57H9F=N9 H<9 J9;9H5
H=CB <=GHCFM C: .!$ G9EI9B79 H<FCI;< H=A9 5B8 7CAD5F9 =HG F9GDCBG9 HC
@C75@ D5@9C<M8FC@C;=75@ 5B8 7@=A5H9 F97CBGHFI7H=CBG  HC 9J5@I5H9 <CK
CF6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG =B D5FH=7I@5F =BGC@5H=CB 5B8 &CFH< H@5BH=7 8MB5A=7G
=BcI9B798 H<9 @5B8G75D9 9JC@IH=CB C: =B@5B8 5F95G C: =BB9F !69F=5 5B8
 HC =BJ9GH=;5H9 5B5@C;=9G 5B8 8=::9F9BH D5HH9FBG 5ACB; %98=H9FF5B95B
D5@MBC@C;=75@ F97CF8G G=B79 H<9 @5GH =BH9F;@57=5@
2. Geographical setting
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C@5?9 C: 5FCIB8  ?AGIF:579 5F95 @M=B; 5H  A 5G@ =B H<9
+CIH<9FB !69F=5B *5B;9 C: &CFH<5GH9FB +D5=B =; 5 ,<9 @5?9
65G=B =G @C75H98 K=H<=B 5 &+ <5@:;F569B 5::97H98 6M &/+ HF9B8
=B; BCFA5@ :5I@HG *I6=C 5B8 +=AYB  CB %9GCNC=7 @=A9GHCB9G
CH< )I5H9FB5FM H97HCB=7G 5B8 ?5FGH=7 57H=J=HM 5::97H98 H<9 65G9 @9J9@
C: H<9 65G=B H<IG =BcI9B7=B; H<9 89DCG=H=CB5@ <=GHCFM F57=5 9H 5@
IH=UFF9N 9H 5@  ,<9 GCIH<79BHF5@ G97HCF C: H<=G
89DF9GG=CB F9A5=B98 5B 9B8CF<9=7 65G=B IBH=@ <=GHCF=75@ H=A9G K=H<
UNCORRECTED PROOF
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Fig. 1.  $C75H=CB C: @ 5X=N5F 89 .=@@5FEI9A58C G=H9 K<=H9 GH5F 5B8 BIA69F  =B & !69F=5 5B8 A5=B D5@59C9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ G9EI9B79G 7CBG=89F98 =B H<=G 8=G7IGG=CB K<=H9 DC=BHG :FCA
K9GH HC 95GH  I9BH=@@9>C  (58I@  '(    CF7<=5 75J9  $5;C F5B89 8= %CBH=77<=C  $5?9 '<F=8 5B8  ,9B5;<= (<=@=DDCB  .9;9H5H=CB A5D C: H<9 GHI8M F9;=CB 
@=A5H=7 85H5 :CF H<9 .=@@5FEI9A58C 5F95 GCIF79 (! &=BM9FC@5 9H 5@  (CH9BH=5@ 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB 75@7I@5H98 IG=B; ,<CFBH<K5=H9 A9H<C8 @5H=HI89
5  A 899D @5?9 H<5H K5G 5FH=b7=5@@M 8F5=B98 =B H<9 H< 79BHIFM *I
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GC@IH9 H9AD9F5HIF9G 5F9 9LHF9A9 F957<=B; 75  ] =B GIAA9F 5B8
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HF5BGD=F5H=CB  AAMF =; 7 *9;=CB5@G75@9 F5=B:5@@ 8MB5A=7G
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6@C7?G H<9 AC=GHIF9 :FCA H<9 K9GH 5B8 6F=B;G K5FA 5B8 8FM 5=F A5GG9G
:FCA H<9 GCIH< =B7F95G=B; 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB J5@I9G 5B8 H<9 B9;5H=J9
K5H9F 65@5B79 =; 7
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5B8 F=757959 =; 6 ,<9 <9F6579CIG 7CADCB9BH =G 7CADCG98 C:
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@5B8G 5FCIB8 H<9 @5?9 65G=B 5F9 8CA=B5H98 6M 5;FC:CF9GHFM 7I@H=J5FG
C: "78=4=; ,*6*-.6;2; K<=@9 H<9 @=HHCF5@ J9;9H5H=CB =G 7<5F57H9F=N98 6M
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GHI8M G=H9 =G H<9F9:CF9 G=HI5H98 =B 5 7CBH9LH C: 7CAD@9L D<MG=C;F5D<M =B
JC@J=B; 5 D5H7<98 J9;9H5H=CB G9J9F5@ 6=C7@=A5H=7 69@HG 5B8 H<9 :95HIF9G
C: =B@5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B 7CBH=B9BH5@ 5B8 ACIBH5=B F9;=CBG
3. Material and methods
  A @CB; G98=A9BH 7CF9 K5G F97CJ9F98 :FCA H<9 899D9GH 5F95 C:
H<9 D5@59C@57IGHF=B9 65G=B IG=B; 5 HFI7?ACIBH98 8F=@@=B; GMGH9A 5B8
5BCH<9F  A @CB; 7CF9 K5G C6H5=B98 K=H< 5 AC8=b98  7A8=5A9H9F
$=J=B;GHCB9 D=GHCB 7CF9F HC F97CJ9F H<9 IDD9FACGH D5FH C: H<9 G9EI9B79
CH< K9F9 GHCF98 =B 5  ] 7C@8FCCA 5H H<9 !(+! CF9G K9F9 7CFF9
@5H98 IG=B; G98=A9BH5FM :57=9G F58=C75F6CB 85H=B; 5B8 DC@@9B GHF5H=;F5
D<M F5B65FF= 9H 5@ .5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  ,<9 7CA
DCG98 G98=A9BH5FM G9EI9B79 K5G 5B5@MG98 IG=B; 5 AI@H=DFCLM GHF5H9;M
=B7@I8=B; G98=A9BH5FM :57=9G ;9C7<9A=75@ 0*5M @ICF9G79B79 0*
,CH5@ !BCF;5B=7 5F6CB ,! ,CH5@ 'F;5B=7 5F6CB ,' 5B8 D5@MBC
@C;=75@ 5B5@MG9G (F9@=A=B5FM ;9C7<9A=75@ G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 DC@@9B
85H5 K9F9 CIH@=B98 =B %CF9BC 9H 5@  5B8 CBNR@9N+5ADUF=N
9H 5@  ,<9 $5H9;@57=5@ 5B8 C@C79B9 G9EI9B79 K5G DF9G9BH98 =B
F5B65FF= 9H 5@  ,<9 B9K 0F5M cICF9G79B79 0* K9F9 C6
H5=B98 6M H<9 !,*0 0* 7CF9 G75BB9F :FCA H<9 $5F;9 $5?9G '6G9FJ5HCFM
I@IH< C: H<9 -B=J9FG=HM C: %=BB9GCH5 -+ IG=B;  G 7CIBH H=A9
 ?. 0F5M JC@H5;9 5B 0F5M 7IFF9BH C:  A 5 GH9D G=N9 C:  AA 5B8
5 AC@M689BIA 5BC89 0F5M HI69 +CA9 9@9A9BHG += # 5 ,= %B 9
+9 *6 +F 1 2F 5B8 (6 5B8 F5H=CG K9F9 G9@97H98 5G =B8=75HCFG C: 75F
6CB5H9 DFC8I7H=J=HM G98=A9BH cIL9G 5B8 F98CL 7CB8=H=CBG ,<9 AI@H=
DFCLM GHF5H9;M 5DD@=98 HC D5@9C@=ABC@C;=75@ F9G95F7< 9BGIF9G ACF9 FC
6IGH 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F97CBGHFI7H=CBG 9GD97=5@@M K<9B GHFCB; 7<FCBC@C;=
75@ AC89@G 5F9 5J5=@56@9 $CHH9F 9H 5@ 
,<9 7<FCBC@C;M C: H<9 7CF9 K5G 9GH56@=G<98 IG=B; G9J9F5@ H97<B=EI9G
A5=B@M %+  :CF H<9 IDD9F  A 5B8 '+$ 5B8 !*+$ :CF H<9 @CK9F
 A 5B8 H<9 5;9 AC89@ K5G 7CBGHFI7H98 IG=B; 5M9G=5B H97<B=EI9G
.5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  77CF8=B; HC H<=G 7<FCBC@C;=75@ AC89@
H<9 .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 GD5BG :FCA  M95FG ( H<IG H<9 ,9F
A=B5H=CB !! HC  M95FG ( =; 
/9 <5J9 5B5@MG98 75  G5AD@9G :CF :CGG=@ DC@@9B 5B8 GDCF9G 5@CB;
H<9 7CAD@9H9 7CF9 5H H<9 !(+! D5@MBC@C;=75@ @56CF5HCFM K=H< 5
<=;<9F F9GC@IH=CB CB9 G5AD@9 9J9FM  7A 5H H<9 65G9 5B8 H<9
UNCORRECTED PROOF
"76BC4.B%*58D:2B.<*4  #=*<.:6*:A%,2.6,.$.>2.?; @@@ @@@@ 
Fig. 2. <FCBC@C;=75@ 5M9G=5B AC89@ C: .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 65G98 CB 8=::9F9BH F58=CA9HF=7 A9H<C8G :FCA .5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@ 
HCD C: H<9 G9EI9B79 (C@@9B 9LHF57H=CB =B G5AD@9G C:  ;F C: G98=A9BH
:C@@CK98 H<9 GH5B85F8 7<9A=75@ DFC798IF9 %CCF9 9H 5@  AC8=
b98 =B7@I8=B; HF95HA9BH K=H< @   #'  A=B
9F5@ G9D5F5H=CB =B <95JM @=EI=8 ,<CI@9H 89BG=HM  ; 7A 5B8 =B7CF
DCF5H=CB C:  H56@9HG C: A,787-2=5 ,4*>*<=5 9LCH=7 GDCF9G +HC7?A5F
 HC 9GH=A5H9 DC@@9B 7CB79BHF5H=CB (5@MBC@C;=75@ =89BH=b75H=CB <5G
699B 75FF=98 CIH IG=B; DC@@9B ?9MG %CCF9 9H 5@  5B8 D<CHC
5H@5G9G *9=@@9  5B8 GD97=5@@M H<9 F9:9F9B79 7C@@97H=CBG :FCA
!(+! 5B8 -%- /9 7CIBH98 5@@ ID@5B8 5B8 5EI5H=7 H5L5 (C@@9B 8=5
;F5AG <5J9 699B D@CHH98 IG=B; H<9 D57?5;9 *=C>5 "I;;=B;G  =A
D@9A9BH98 =B * 5B8 5 K<C@9 C:  DC@@9B NCB9G .!$  HC .!$  9GH56
@=G<98 :C@@CK=B; A5=B 5 7@IGH9F 5B5@MG9G 7CBGHF5=B98 6M 89DH< '&!++
5@GC D9F:CFA98 K=H< *=C>5 5B8 7<5B;9G :FCA ?9M H5L5
4. Results
 &1. ;.-25.6< ;.9=.6,.
+9J9B G98=A9BH5FM IB=HG <5J9 699B 89bB98 =B H<9 .!$ 7CF9 65G98
CB G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 7CADCG=H=CB5@ :95HIF9G %CF9BC 9H 5@ 
.5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  5B8 B9K 0* ;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5 =; 
IF=B; -B=H .!!  A 89DH< O ?5 ( H<9 G98=A9BH5FM
G9EI9B79 =G 7CADCG98 C: 5B 5@H9FB5H=CB C: D95H 5B8 75F6CB5H9 @5M9FG
5H 897=A9HF9 HC A9HF9 G75@9 H<5H GI;;9GH 5 @5F;9 J5F=56=@=HM C: H<9 89
DCG=H=CB5@ 9BJ=FCBA9BHG 69HK99B HKC A9A69FG K9H@5B8G D95H 89DCG=
H=CB 5B8 DCB8G 75F6CB5H9 89DCG=H=CB ,<9F9 5F9 5 BIA69F C: D5GH 5B8
F979BH G98=A9BH5FM 5B5@C;I9G C: G<5@@CK @57IGHF=B9 65G=BG 7CADCG98 C:
5 ACG5=7 C: 5F95G K=H< CF;5B=7 A5HH9F K9H@5B8G 5B8 75F6CB5H9 577I
AI@5H=CB DCB8G 7CBHFC@@98 6M GA5@@ 7<5B;9G =B HCDC;F5D<M 5B8 <M
8FC@C;M 9; $5?9 <5@7C FCKB 9H 5@  $5?9 "IB=B *C869@@
5B8 66CHH  IF=B; -B=H .!  A 89DH< O ?5 (
75F6CB5H9 DFC8I7H=CB 897F95G98 5B8 7@5GH=7 G98=A9BH =BDIH =B7F95G98
6IH H<9 65G=B K5G GH=@@ @=?9@M 7CADCG98 C: K9H@5B8G 5B8 GA5@@ 75F6CB5H9
DCB8G ,<9 CBG9H C: -B=H .  A 89DH< O ?5 ( F9DF9G9BHG
CB9 C: H<9 @5F;9GH 89DCG=H=CB5@ 7<5B;9G =B H<9 65G=B K=H< H<9 DFC;F5
85H=CB C: H<9 5@@IJ=5@ :5BG HCK5F8G H<9 79BHF9 C: H<9 65G=B H<9 89J9@CD
A9BH C: @5F;9 5@@IJ=5@ D@5=BG 5B8 H<9 8=G5DD95F5B79 C: H<9 K9H@5B8G IF
=B; -B=H !.  A 89DH< O ?5 ( 8=GH5@ 5@@IJ=5@ :5B 5B8 AI8
c5H 9BJ=FCBA9BHG F957<98 H<9 79BHF9 C: H<9 65G=B  F9HIFB HC DF9J=CIG
7CB8=H=CBG C77IFF98 8IF=B; -B=H !!!  A 89DH< O ?5 75@ (
K<9B @5?9 9BJ=FCBA9BHG 89J9@CD98 5;5=B =B H<9 79BHF9 C: H<9 65G=B GIF
FCIB898 6M 5@@IJ=5@ :5BG IF=B; -B=H !!  A 89DH< O ?5 (
@5?9 9LD5B898 K=H< 6CH< 7@5GH=7 5B8 75F6CB5H9 :57=9G =B5@@M 5 75F6CB
5H9 @5?9 K=H< A=BCF 89J9@CDA9BH C: K9H@5B8G C77IFF98 8IF=B; H<9 89DC
G=H=CB C: -B=H !  A 89DH< O ?5 (
%5;B9H=7 +IG79DH=6=@=HM 9@9A9BH5@ 7CADCG=H=CB ,' ,! ,+ 5B8
;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5 0* 7CF9 G75BB9F J5@I9G 7CFF9GDCB8 K9@@ K=H< G98
=A9BH5FM :57=9G ,' =B7C<9F9B797C<9F9B79 F5H=C 5B8 CF;5B=7 A5HH9F
F9@5H98 9@9A9BHG F <5J9 <=;<9F J5@I9G =B D95H :57=9G K<9F9 H<9 CF;5B=7
A5HH9F =G 5@K5MG <=;< 5F6CB5H9 7CBH9BH F9c97H98 6M 5 +F ,! =@@IG
HF5H9G 6CH< 7@5GH=7 =BDIH C: 75F6CB5H9G :FCA H<9 ID@5B8G 5B8 9B8C;9B=7
:CFA5H=CB K=H<=B H<9 @5?9 65G=B +=@=7=7@5GH=7 =BDIH A5F?98 6M ,= *6 9
2F 5B8 A5;B9H=7 GIG79DH=6=@=HM =G <=;<9F =B IB=HG !! HC .! 5B8 @CK9F =B
H<CG9 8CA=B5H98 6M 75F6CB5H9 @5?9G 5B8 K9H@5B8G IB=HG ! 5B8 .!! =;
 (95?G C: %B A5F? ACF9 F98I7=B; 7CB8=H=CBG =B H<9 65G=B 5GGC7=5H98
HC D95H 577IAI@5H=CB *5K ;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5 5F9 =B7@I898 5G @97HFCB=7
+IDD@9A9BH5FM A5H9F=5@ +%
 "*4A674702,*4 ;.9=.6,.
'IF 5J9F5;9 DC@@9B GIA D9F G5AD@9 HCH5@ H9FF9GHF=5@ DC@@9B K5G 75
 DC@@9B ;F5=BG A95B   +   A=B   A5L  
/9 =89BH=b98 75  H5L5 6IH CB@M 5 G9@97H=CB C: H<9A 5B8 GCA9 ;FCIDG
5F9 8=G7IGG98 <9F9 ,<9 F5K 85H5G9H K=H< 5 :I@@ @=GH C: 7CIBHG 5B8 H5L5 5G
K9@@ 5G D@CHH98 8=5;F5AG 75B 69 :CIB8 =B @97HFCB=7 +IDD@9A9BH5FM
%5H9F=5@ +%
9GD=H9 B95F  DC@@9B G5AD@9G 5@CB; H<9 K<C@9  A 89DH< G9
EI9B79 <5J9 699B 5B5@MG98 CB@M  C: H<9A <5J9 699B 7CBG=89F98
:CF 8=G7IGG=CB 5G H<9 F9A5=B=B; G5AD@9G <58 HCC @CK DC@@9B GIAG ,<9
CA=HH98 G5AD@9G <9@8 J9FM @CK DC@@9B DF9G9FJ5H=CB 5B8 BCH 9BCI;<
H5L5 8=J9FG=HM :CF GH5H=GH=75@ J5@=8=HM K=H< @9GG H<5B  8=::9F9BH H5L5 DF9
UNCORRECTED PROOF
"76BC4.B%*58D:2B.<*4  #=*<.:6*:A%,2.6,.$.>2.?; @@@ @@@@ 
Fig. 3. +9@97H98 ;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5 C: H<9 .!$ G9EI9B79 D@CHH98 =B 5;9 K=H< 6CH< G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ IB=HG CB H<9 @9:H 5B8 %!+ D9F=C8G CB H<9 F=;<H =B8=75H98 <FCBC@C;=75@ @=A=HG :CF %!+
D9F=C8G :C@@CK $=G=97?= 5B8 *5MAC  5B8 *5GAIGG9B 9H 5@  K<=@9 GH58=5@G 5B8 =BH9FGH58=5@G =BHC %!+  7<FCBC@C;M :C@@CK %5FHF5H 9H 5@  @@ H<9 0* 85H5 5F9
=B8=75H98 =B 7CIBHG D9F G97CB8 =B77C< F9:9FG HC H<9 F5H=C 5ACB; H<9 =B7C<9F9BH 5B8 7C<9F9BH LF5M G75HH9F=B; 5G 5 DFCLM :CF CF;5B=7 7CBH9BH 5B8 %+ =G H<9 A5;B9H=7 GIG79DH=6=@=HM DFCb@9
5 +F 5B8 ,! 5F9 =B8=75HCFG C: H<9 75F6CB5H9 7CBH9BH =B H<9 G98=A9BH K<=@9 ,' 5B8 =B77C< F5H=C F9c97H H<9 CF;5B=7 A5HH9F GIDD@M +=@=7=7@5GH=7 =BDIH =G C6H5=B98 :FCA H<9 %+ J5@I9G
HC;9H<9F K=H< ,= *6 9 5B8 2F 9@9A9BHG %B =G 5B =B8=75HCF C: F98CL DFC79GG9G
G9FJ98 5B8 H<IG 7CBG=89F98 5G GH9F=@9 @9J9@G ,<9G9 G5AD@9G C77IF =B
:CIF =BH9FJ5@G 5H  ?5 (  ?5 (  ?5 ( 5B8
 ?5 ( =;  77CF8=B; HC CIF 5;9 AC89@ .5@9FC5F7UG 9H
5@  H<9 @CK9FACGH DC@@9B G5AD@9 <5G 5B 5;9 C:  ?5 ( 5B8
H<9 IDD9FACGH DC@@9B G5AD@9 =G  ?5 ( !B GIAA5FM H<9 D5@MBC@C;=
75@ F97CF8 7CADF=G9G 5 @CB; G9EI9B79 C: 75  M95FG C: J9;9H5H=CB
<=GHCFM 8CA=B5H98 6M 7CB=:9FG bFGH =628.:=; 5B8 H<9B "26=; H<9 7CBH=B
ICIG 6IH cI7HI5H=B; DF9G9B79 C: GH9DD9 H5L5 5B8 KCC8M J9;9H5H=CB 7<5F
57H9F=N98 6M H<9 DF9G9B79 C: 6CH< 9J9F;F99B 5B8 G9A=897=8ICIG #=.:,=;
5G K9@@ 5G %98=H9FF5B95B G<FI6G 5B8 :9K A9GCD<MH9G 5G A5=B 7CADC
B9BHG EI5H=7G 5B8 @C75@ <M;FCD<MH9G =B7@I8=B; :9FBG G<CK @5F;9 cI7
HI5H=CBG CK=B; HC H<9 <M8FC@C;=75@ J5F=56=@=HM =B H<9 65G=B H<FCI;< H=A9
!B HCH5@  DC@@9B NCB9G K=H< GI6NCB9G <5J9 699B 9GH56@=G<98 :C@
@CK=B; H<9 A5=B H5L5 7<5B;9G =B7@I8=B; 97C@C;=75@ ;FCID=B;G ,<9 7CF
F9@5H=CB 69HK99B DC@@9B NCB9G G98=A9BH5FM IB=HG 5B8 H<9 %!+ 7<FCBC
@C;=75@ 6CIB85F=9G :C@@CK=B; %5FHF5H 9H 5@  5B8 *5GAIGG9B 9H
5@  7<FCBC@C;=75@ @=A=HG GIDDCFHG H<9 =BH9FB5@ 7CBG=GH9B7M C: .!$
G9EI9B79 GHF5H=;F5D<M =;  .!$ 7CFF9GDCB8G HC H<9 9B8 C: %!+
 5B8 H<9 HF5BG=H=CB HC %!+ 9 5H H<9 6CHHCA C: H<9 F97CF8 5B8 .!$
HC .!$ CB H<9 HCD HC H<9 5@F958M DI6@=G<98 $5H9;@57=5@ 5B8 C@C79B9
85H5 F5B65FF= 9H 5@  B 9LH9B898 89G7F=DH=CB C: H<9 K<C@9
DC@@9B NCB9G 5B8 GI6NCB9G =G =B7@I898 5G +% 5G K9@@ 5G :CIF 8=5;F5AG
D@CHH=B; 5@@ H5L5 K=H< 5 <=;<9F H<5B  56IB85B79 9F9 K9 CB@M =B7@I89
5 G<CFH GIAA5FM C: A5=B HF9B8G C6G9FJ98
Fig. 4. +9@97H98 D5@MBC@C;=75@ H5L5 C: H<9 K<C@9 .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 D@CHH98 =B 5;9 ?5 ( ,5L5 =B7@I898 =B 957< ;FCID /CC8M %9GCD<MH9G %98=H9FF5B95B +H9DD9 5B8 $C75@ %C=G
HIF9 75B 69 7<97?98 =B +% 85H5 F5K 7CIBHG 5B8 7CAD@9H9 8=5;F5AG CH< G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 D5@MBC@C;=75@ NCB9G 5B8 GI6NCB9G 5F9 =B8=75H98 5G K9@@ 5G 6CIB85F=9G C: A5F=B9 =GCHCD=7
GH5;9G %!+  HC  5B8 GI6GH5;9G =B7@I8=B; 29=:9B 5B8 $5H9;@57=5@ D9F=C8G /<=H9 65B8G A5F? H<9 :CIF GH9F=@9 @9J9@G F9;5F8=B; H<9 DC@@9B 7CBH9BH F9M G<5898 5F95G F9DF9G9BH 5B 9L5;;9F
5H=CB :CF 957< C: H<9 577CAD5BM=B; H5L5 9HI@5 5B8 CFM@IG L '@957959 6=9G 5B8 98FIG L 5B8 (=GH57=5 L
UNCORRECTED PROOF
"76BC4.B%*58D:2B.<*4  #=*<.:6*:A%,2.6,.$.>2.?; @@@ @@@@ 
 "744.6 B76.;
.!$  ?5 ( 9B8 C: %!+  5B8 HF5BG=H=CB HC %!+ 9
/CC8M H5L5 K=H<CIH "26=; F97CF8 J5@I9G C: 75  DFC;F9GG=J9@M
897@=B=B; HCK5F8G H<9 HCD =;  =628.:=; =G H<9 A5=B 5F6CF95@
7CADCB9BH 577CAD5B=98 6M A9GCD<MH9G 6CH< G9A=897=8ICIG 5B8
9J9F;F99B #=.:,=;+2.; '@957959 5B8 "2;<*,2* =B @CK9F DFCDCFH=CBG
(C57959 =G =ADCFH5BH =B H<=G NCB9 5B8 F957<9G  +H9DD9 H5L5 cI7
HI5H9 @5F;9@M =B7F95G=B; HCK5F8G H<9 HCD :<.52;2* =G BCH=7956@9 6IH
F5F9@M 9L7998G  K<=@9 5EI5H=7G 5B8 :9FBG 5F9 @9GG H<5B  G<CK
=B; F5D=8 7<5B;9G
.!$ HC .!$  ?5 ( %!+  =628.:=; #=.:,=; 5B8 H<9
%98=H9FF5B95B H5L5 A5=B@M '@957959 8CA=B5H9 H<9 KCC8M 7CADC
B9BH 8IF=B; %!+  =;  +H9DD9 H5L5 9JC@IH=CB 9J=89B79G 5B CD
DCG=H9 HF9B8 HC H<5H C: KCC8M 7CAAIB=H=9G 9G=89G :<.52;2* =
7<CF=C=8959 CF A5F5BH<57959<9BCDC8=57959 8C BCH 7CBJ9F;9 5H
5@@ H=A9G CH< <M;FCD<MH9G MD9F57959 5B8 ,MD<57959 5B8 <M
8FCD<MH9G GI7< 5G A:2781A44=5 F9J95@ 7<5B;=B; @57IGHF=B9 9BJ=FCB
A9BHG  GH9F=@9 @9J9@ C: 75  ?5 G<CK98 =B H<9 DC@@9B 8=5;F5A K=H< 5
K<=H9 65B8 DF97@I89G 5BM =B:9F9B79 CB J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G 69HK99B
 5B8  ?5 ( %!+ 6 =; 
.!$  ?5 ( %!+  IF=B; H<=G D<5G9 BC ACF9 C77IFF9B79G
C: %98=H9FF5B95B H5L5 5F9 F9;=GH9F98 K<9F9 6CH< #=.:,=; HMD9G 5B8 >I
B=D9FG 8=G5DD95F ,<9G9 H5L5 5F9 BCH HC 69 F97CF898 5;5=B IBH=@ GCA9
G<CFH 9D=GC89G 8IF=B; %!+  H<9 $5H9;@57=5@ 5B8 H<9 C@C79B9 88=
H=CB5@@M =B .!$ 5EI5H=7G 5B8 <M;FCD<MH9G cI7HI5H9 =B8=75H=B; DC
H9BH=5@@M =BH9BG9 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 7<5B;9G =; 
.!$ .!$ 5B8 GH9F=@9 @9J9@G  ?5 ( %!+  ,<9G9 NCB9G
F9J95@ 5B CD9B @5B8G75D9 +H9DD9 7CAAIB=H=9G 9LD5B8 5B8 H<9 @CK
9GH J5@I9G C: KCC8M H5L5 5F9 5HH5=B98 6FIDH D95?G C: D=B9G 5B8 <M
8FCD<MH9G 5F9 F97CF898 5G K9@@ 5G =B7F95G=B; 56IB85B79G C: >IB=D9FG
5B8 A9GCD<MH9G +MB7<FCBCIG@M :<.52;2* F=G9G 5B8 H<9 F9A5=B=B;
GH9DD9 H5L5 D95? 5H H<9 9B8 C: H<=G D9F=C8 F957<=B; CB9 C: H<9 <=;<
9GH G9EI9B79 56IB85B79 =;  ,<9 @C75@ AC=GHIF9 ;FCID G<CKG =HG
@CK9GH 56IB85B79G 5B8 HKC D9F=C8G C: @CK DC@@9B DF9G9FJ5H=CB 5F9 C6
G9FJ98
.!$ 5B8 GH9F=@9 @9J9@  ?5 ( 9B8 C: %!+  5B8 %!+  !B
H9BG9 cI7HI5H=CBG C: A5=B H5L5 5B8 ;FCIDG 7<5F57H9F=N9 H<=G D9F=C8
K<=7< =B7@I89G H<9 IDD9FACGH GH9F=@9 @9J9@ C: H<9 .!$ D5@MBC@C;=75@ G9
EI9B79 =;  ,<9 @CK9GH A9GCD<MH9 5B8 <=;<9GH GH9DD9 H5L5 56IB
85B79G 5F9 F97CF898 =B H<=G NCB9 K<=7< <CK9J9F G<CK J5F=56=@=HM 89
H9FA=B98 6M H<9 KCC8M H5L5 <M;FCD<MH9G 5B8 @C75@ AC=GHIF9 DFCDCF
H=CBG 7<5B;9G
.!$ HC .!$  ?5 ( $5H9;@57=5@ 5B8 C@C79B9 69;=BB=B; C:
%!+  F5B65FF= 9H 5@  F97CF898 =BH9BG9 cI7HI5H=CBG C: H<9
8CA=B5BH "26=; 7CAAIB=H=9G 7C9L=GH=B; K=H< :9K DFCDCFH=CBG C: =
628.:=; 5B8 5 DFC;F9GG=J9 9LD5BG=CB C: KCC8M J9;9H5H=CB K=H< A5L=
AIA C: #=.:,=; 5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B H5L5 5H 75  ?5 ( :<.52;2* =G
GH=@@ DF9G9BH 5B8 H<9 <M;FCD<MH9G A5=B@M MD9F57959 5B8 ,MD<57959
5B8 GCA9 <M8FCD<MH9G A5=B@M A:2781A44=5 F97CF8 56FIDH 7<5B;9G
=; 
5. Discussion
 &1.  8.:27- >.0.<*<276 4*6-;,*8. .>74=<276 *6- ,7587;2<276
-B89FGH5B8=B; <CK H9FF9GHF=5@ 97CGMGH9AG F957H98 HC 7@=A5H9 J5F=
56=@=HM =B 7CBH=B9BH5@ 5F95G 8IF=B; H<9 $! 75BBCH 69 57<=9J98 K=H<
CIH 5 7CAD5F=GCB C: K9@@85H98 @CB; 7CBH=B9BH5@ F97CF8G K=H< 5 ;CC8
;9C;F5D<=75@ 8=GHF=6IH=CB IH K9 5F9 GH=@@ :5F :FCA GI7< 5 85H5G9H B9=
H<9F ;@C65@@M 9; BG9@A9HH= 9H 5@ 2C@=HG7<?5 9H 5@ 
F=HN 9H 5@ FCKB 9H 5@ %9@@9G 9H 5@ *C8
69@@ 5B8 66CHH  BCF 5H 5B IFCD95B G75@9 9GD97=5@@M =B H<9
GCIH<9FB F9;=CBG 9; /C=@@5F8 89 95I@=9I 5B8
*9=@@9 ,N985?=G 9H 5@ @@9B 5B8 IBH@9M
$=HH 9H 5@ +58CF= 9H 5@  !B :57H @5F;9 5F95G C: H<9
K9GH9FB %98=H9FF5B95B 5B8 D5FH=7I@5F@M H<9 !69F=5B (9B=BGI@5 GH=@@ <5J9
CB@M 5 :9K G=H9G K=H< DC@@9B 85H5 GD5BB=B; 5G :5F 657? 5G %!+  5FF=YB
9H 5@  'B@M I9BH=@@9>C %55F .9;5G 9H 5@ 'FH=N 9H 5@
 5B8 H<9 B9K (58I@ 5AI9F5 9H 5@  5B8 .=@@5FEI9A58C
F97CF8G 7CBH5=B D5FH C: H<9 %=8 5B8 H<9 $5H9 (@9=GHC79B9 H=A9 =BH9FJ5@
:CF =BB9F !69F=5 K=H< AI@H=DFCLM 5B5@MG9G 5B8 =B89D9B89BH 7<FCBC@C;=
75@ 7CBHFC@
 (244*:9=.5*-7 ;.9=.6,. 26 <1. ,76<26.6<*4 +.:2*6 ;,.6*:27
@ 5X=N5F 89 .=@@5FEI9A58C F97CF8 7@CG9G D5FH C: H<=G ;9C;F5D<=75@
;5D =B !69F=5 & +D5=B =; 5 5B8 =H =G H<9 CB@M 5J5=@56@9 G9EI9B79
H<5H =B7@I89G BIA9FCIG 85H98 =BH9FJ5@G 5B8 BCH GIGH5=B98 6M 5B =BH9FDC
@5H98 CF HIB987<FCBC@C;M :CF H<9 :I@@ ;@57=5@ 5B8 D9BI@H=A5H9 =BH9F
;@57=5@  '+$ 5B8 !*+$ 85H9G 5F9 @C75H98 69HK99B  5B8  ?5 (
.5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  I9BH=@@9>C 5B8 (58I@ =; 5 KCI@8 69
9EI=J5@9BH G9EI9B79G =B H9FAG C: F97CF898 H=A9 6IH H<9 .=@@5FEI9A58C
5;9 AC89@ DF9G9BHG ACF9 FC6IGH 7CBHFC@G K=H< ?BCKB IB79FH5=BH=9G :CF
H<9 K<C@9 G9EI9B79 !B H<9 75G9 C: I9BH=@@9>C  A G9EI9B79 H<9 5;9
AC89@ =G 65G98 CB F58=C75F6CB 85H9G ID HC 75  ?5 ( 6IH CB@M @=B95F
=BH9FDC@5H=CB 7CBGHF5=B98 6M H<9 =89BH=b75H=CB C: H<9 @5?9 D5@59CA5;
B9H=7 9L7IFG=CB 5@RB 9H 5@  5B8 6M HKC -,< 85H9G K=H< <=;<
9FFCFG =B B5<7C@=H9 G5AD@9G 7CI@8 69 75FF=98 CIH H<9F95:H9F *I=N25D
5H5 9H 5@  +=A=@5F@M =B (58I@ G9EI9B79 F58=C75F6CB 85H9G 7CJ9F
H<9 IDD9F D5FH C: H<9 G9EI9B79 5B8 HKC * =B AC@@IG7 G<9@@G 85H98 75
 5B8  ?5 ( 7CAD@9H9 H<9 5;9 AC89@ ;9 9LHF5DC@5H=CB HCK5F8G
H<9 65G9 5DD@M=B; 5 bL98 G98=A9BH5H=CB F5H9 K5G DFCDCG98 5G H<9 CB@M
K5M HC DFCJ=89 5B 5;9 7CBHFC@ :CF H<9 C@89GH G97H=CB 5AI9F5 9H 5@
 ,<IG 6CH< 85H=B; 577IF57M 5B8 H<9 IB79FH5=BHM 5GG9GGA9BH C:
H<9 89DH<5;9 AC89@ C: .!$ .5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  5@@CK ACF9
DF97=G9 8=G7IGG=CBG CB H<9 %!+  GH58=5@G =BH9FGH58=5@G H<9 CBG9H 5B8 8I
F5H=CB C: %!+  5B8 H<9 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F9GDCBG9G HC A=@@9BB=5@ G75@9 7@=
A5H9 cI7HI5H=CBG
(F9J=CIG G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 7CADCG=H=CB5@ :95HIF9G
.5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  5B8 H<9 B9K 0* 85H5 DFCJ=89 5 D5@9C<M
8FC@C;=75@ 5B8 89DCG=H=CB5@ 9JC@IH=CB C: H<9 65G=B 5B8 5 7@=A5H9 F97CB
GHFI7H=CB =;  +<5@@CK 75F6CB5H9 @5?9 5B8 K9H@5B8 9BJ=FCBA9BHG
89J9@CD98 8IF=B; H<9 =BH9F;@57=5@G  C@C79B9 5B8 %!+  H<9 9B8 C: %!+
 H<9 69;=BB=B; C: %!+  5B8 H<9 G97CB8 <5@: C: %!+  $5H9;@57=5@
(5FH=7I@5F@M 8IF=B; H<9 =BH9F;@57=5@G H<9 5@H9FB5H=CB F9c97HG A=@@9BB=5@
G75@9 J5F=56=@=HM =B F9;=CB5@ 7@=A5H9  @5?9 8CA=B5H98 6M 7@5GH=7 =B
DIHG 7<5F57H9F=N98 ;@57=5@ GH5;9G %!+  5B8 %!+  5@GC G<CK=B; 5 @5F;9
89DCG=H=CB5@ 7@=A5H=75@@M=B8I798 J5F=56=@=HM ,<9 DFC;F585H=CB C: 8=GH5@
5@@IJ=5@ :5BG CJ9F H<9 65G=B 8IF=B; %!+  A5F?G H<9 ACGH 5F=8 D9F=C8
C: H<9 K<C@9 F97CF898 =BH9FJ5@ +98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 ;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5
GI;;9GH H<5H H<9 9A=5B K5G K9HH9F 5B8 K5FA9F H<5B H<9 C@C79B9 5H
.!$ ,<9 CBG9H C: H<9 C@C79B9 K5G F5D=8 =B H9FAG C: @C75@ D5@9C<M8FC@
C;M 5G 75F6CB5H9 @5?9G 89J9@CD98 5H 5FCIB8  ?5 ( F5B65FF= 9H
5@ 
,<9 .!$ G9EI9B79 C::9FG 5B CDDCFHIB=HM HC =BJ9GH=;5H9 H<9 8MB5A
=7G C: H<9 J9;9H5H=CB 5;5=BGH H<9 657?8FCD C: 7@=A5H9 5B8 <M8FC@C;M
9JC@IH=CB F97CBGHFI7H98 :FCA G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 ;9C7<9A=75@ DFCL
=9G ,<9 .!$ G9EI9B79 G<CKG 5B CD9B :CF9GH =B7@I8=B; %98=H9FF5B95B
H5L5 A9GCD<MH9G 5B8 7CB=:9FG 8IF=B; H<9 9B8 C: %!+  5B8 IBH=@ 75
H<9 %!+  CBG9H  ?5 ( DC@@9B NCB9 .!$ =;  ,<=G =BH9F
J5@ C: CD9B :CF9GH98 @5B8G75D9 5H H<9 65G9 C: H<9 G9EI9B79 =G :C@@CK98
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;F99B #=.:,=G K<=7< =G EI=H9 5 ;9B9F5@ :95HIF9 C: GCIH<9FB IFCD95B
DC@@9B G9EI9B79G 5AI9F5 9H 5@  *9;5F8=B; I9BH=@@9>C
F97CF8 5 ACF9 7CBH=B9BH5@ @C75H=CB G=A=@5F HC .=@@5FEI9A58C G=H9 @5F;9
=628.:=; cI7HI5H=CBG C77IF 6CH< 8IF=B; %!+  %!+  5B8 %!+  G<CK
=B; D95?G 5GGC7=5H98 HC 7C@8 5B8 5F=8 7CB8=H=CBG 6IH IB:CFHIB5H9@M BC
DC@@9B 85H5 5F9 5J5=@56@9 :CF %!+  5B8 %!+ 8 HC 5 .9;5G 9H 5@
 %C@97I@5F 6=CA5F?9FG GI;;9GH 5 GI779GG=CB C: <IA=88FM D9F=
C8G 8IF=B; %!+  @=?9@M 5GGC7=5H98 HC 8=::9F9BH J9;9H5H=CB HMD9G 'FH=N
9H 5@  6IH H<9 6=CA5F?9F 85H5 8C BCH 9L57H@M 7CFF9@5H9 K=H< H<9
A5=B HF9B8G C: CH<9F @CB; %98=H9FF5B95B G9EI9B79G =;  ,<9 F9
79BH@M DI6@=G<98 6F=7 *CA5BW D5@MBC@C;=75@ 85H5 GD5BB=B; 75 
?5 ( 9J=89B798 ID HC  C: =628.:=; 8IF=B; %!+ 8 6IH =H 8=G5DD95FG
5:H9FK5F8G =@H9?=B 9H 5@  !B 7CBHF5GH H<9 5BH<F57C@C;=75@ 85H5
:FCA 6F=7 89@ (5GHCF 5@GC D@5798 =B 95GH9FB !69F=5 F9J95@ <=;< :F9EI9B
7=9G C: =628.:=; 5@CB; K=H< 9J9F;F99B #=.:,=; 5B8 "2;<*,2* 8IF=B; H<9
A=@89F D<5G9G C: %!+  .=85@%5HIH5BC 9H 5@ CBBC@@M 9H
5@  G K9 <5J9 A9BH=CB98 69:CF9 6IH BCK F9;5F8=B; D5@MBC@C;
=75@ G9EI9B79G !69F=5B 5J5=@56@9 85H5 G<CK <9H9FC;9B9CIG ;9C;F5D<=7
D5HH9FBG =B F9GDCBG9 HC 7CAD@9L C795B5HACGD<9F9 H9@97CBB97H=CBG 5B8
@C75@ D97I@=5F=H=9G
BCH<9F IB=EI9 5GD97H C: .!$ F97CF8 F9;5F8=B; J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A
=7G =G H<9 FC@9 C: :<.52;2* 8IF=B; %!+  5B8  =;  :<.52;2*
cI7HI5H=CBG 5H H<=G H=A9 7CIBH9F=BHI=H=J9@M bH K=H< KCC8M H5L5 9LD5B
G=CBG G<CK=B; 5B CDDCG=H9 HF9B8 HC (C57959 5B8 9GD97=5@@M HC A5F5B
H<57959<9BCDC8=57959 5B8 =7<CF=C=8959 A5=B 7CADCB9BHG C: GH9DD9
H5L5 ;FCID 69G=89G 81.-:* :<.52;2* 9LD5B8G 5B8 7CBHF57HG 7C9J5@@M HC
=628.:=; 5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B H5L5 DC=BH=B; HC G=A=@5F J9;9H5H=CB 7CAAI
B=H=9G H<5B 7IFF9BH ID@5B8 GH9DD9G C: =BB9F !69F=5 @C75H98 5H  A
5G@ +5=BN '@@9FC 5B8 J5B +H55@8I=B9B  ,<9 GIFFCIB8=B;
5@@IJ=5@ :5BG 9BJ=FCBA9BHG =B H<9 @ 5X=N5F 89 .=@@5FEI9A58C K5H9F
G<98 K=H< DCCF GC=@ 89J9@CDA9BH 7CI@8 <5J9 699B 5B CDH=AIA B=7<9 :CF
:<.52;2* EI5G=D9FA5B9BH 7CAAIB=H=9G G=A=@5F@M HC K<5H C77IFG =B 7IF
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C: J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G =B 7CBH=B9BH5@ !69F=5 %=BCF J5F=5H=CBG =B @C75@
:57HCFG 5B8 H<9 F9G=@=9B79 C: J9;9H5H=CB A5M DFC8I79 5 7CAD@9L ACG5=7
C: 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F9GDCBG9G K<=7< =G IB8CI6H98@M 5 7F=H=75@ 5GD97H K<9B
588F9GG=B; D5@59C9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F97CBGHFI7H=CBG 5B8 :IHIF9 DFC>97H=CBG
C: ;@C65@ K5FA=B; =AD57HG
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,<9 D9F=C8 C: H<9 A5L=AIA :CF9GH 89J9@CDA9BH K=H<=B H<9 @5GH =B
H9F;@57=5@ <5G 699B IGI5@@M B5A98 5G 9A=5B5B8 :F9EI9BH@M 7CFF9
GDCB8G HC H<9 %!+ 9 +RB7<9N CX= 9H 5@  CK9J9F =B H<9
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H<9 :CF9GH8CA=B5H98 @5B8G75D9G 5G 6CH< =628.:=; 5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B
H5L5 D95?G C77IFF98 8IF=B; %!+ 9 %!+ 7 5B8 5;5=B 8IF=B; %!+ 5
=;G  5B8  5B8 +% !B 588=H=CB H<9 A9BH=CB98 =BH9FB5@ GHFI7
HIF9 C: :CF9GH 89J9@CDA9BH .G<5D98 8MB5A=7G C77IFF98 =B 957< C: H<9
H<F99 D<5G9G G K9 =B8=75H98 =B DF9J=CIG G97H=CBG H<9 7C9J5@ 9JC@IH=CB
69HK99B KCC8M H5L5 =B .!$ 5B8 ++, =B @6CFRB 8IF=B; %!+ 7 5B8 5
8=G5DD95F 8IF=B; %!+ 9 =;  ,<IG 9A=5B :CF9GHG K9F9 5 F9GI@H C:
H<9 7CAD@9L =BH9FD@5M C: 97C@C;=75@ :57HCFG D@IG 7@=A5H=7 :95HIF9G
%5F=B9 G9EI9B79G CB@M =89BH=:M 7@95F =BH9F;@57=5@ 7CB8=H=CBG =B !69F=5
5:H9F  ?5 ( +RB7<9N CX= 9H 5@  !B .=@@5FEI9
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7@=B=B; GH9DD9@=?9 J9;9H5H=CB =;G  5B8  5B8 +% ,<9 D@5BH
@5B8G75D9 =B:9FF98 8IF=B; H<=G :CF9GH98 D<5G9 F9c97HG =B8998 5 AC
G5=7 C: 8=::9F9BH 7CAAIB=H=9G GH9DD9 G5J5BB5<@=?9 5B8 :CF9GHG F5H<9F
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
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9H 5@  5B8 D5D9FG H<9F9=B
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K=H< H<9G9 7@=A5H=7 7CB8=H=CBG 5 A5L=AIA D95? C: A9GCD<MH9G =G 5@GC
F97CF898 =B .!$ 75  ?5 ( =; 
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7@95F IFCD95B 5B5@C;I9 6CH< =B H9FAG C: 7CADCG=H=CB 5B8 H=A=B; C:
H<9=F A5L=AIA 89J9@CDA9BH 8IF=B; H<9 D5GH =BH9F;@57=5@ H H<5H H=A9
H<9 @5B8G75D9 =B H<9 @CK 5@H=HI89 5F95G C: H<9 .!$ 65G=B KCI@8 <5J9 699B
8CA=B5H98 6M K9H@5B8G K=H< A=BCF 75F6CB5H9DFC8I7=B; DCB8G K<=@9
8IF=B; H<9 7IFF9BH =BH9F;@57=5@ H<9 C@C79B9 G<5@@CK DCB8G K=H< G=;
B=:=75BH 75F6CB5H9 DFC8I7H=CB K9F9 H<9 8CA=B5BH 9BJ=FCBA9BH =B H<9
65G=B +I7< 5 @5B8G75D9 KCI@8 =B8=75H9 ACF9 <IA=8 7CB8=H=CBG K=H<
@9GG9F 7CBH=B9BH5@=HM =;  H<5H KCI@8 <5J9 7F95H98 H<9 5DDFCDF=5H9
B=7<9 :CF 5 HFI9 C5? 9LD5BG=CB 8IF=B; H<9 C@C79B9 G=A=@5F@M HC CH<9F
%98=H9FF5B95B G=H9G 8CA=B5H98 6M C5?G 8IF=B; =BH9F;@57=5@G F5B65FF=
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H=CB 8IF=B; $! 5B8 D5FH=7I@5F@M H<9 H=A=B; C: H<9 GIAA9F =BGC@5H=CB
A5L=AIA AIGH <5J9 699B H<9 A5=B :57HCF 7CBHFC@@=B; :CF9GH 9LD5BG=CB
,N985?=G  !B H9FAG C: J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G 8IF=B; H<9
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8CA=B5B79 6M H<9 9LD5BG=CB C: :CF9GH98 @5B8G75D9G DC=BH=B; HC 6CH<
DF979GG=CB 5B8 9779BHF=7=HM 5G H<9 A5=B :57HCFG 7CBHFC@@=B; =BGC@5H=CB
5B8 H<9F9:CF9 J9;9H5H=CB 89J9@CDA9BH 5B8 GI779GG=CB 9; ,N985?=G
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6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG G=A=@5F@M HC CH<9F GCIH<9FB IFCD95B D5@MBC@C;=75@ G9
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+9J9F5@ ?9M H5L5 GI7< 5G =628.:=; +2.; 5B8 H<CG9 C: H<9 KCC8M
;FCID 7CJ5F=5H9 K=H< H<9 9779BHF=7=HM 7IFJ9 5G =H C77IFG =B ,9B5;<=
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69HK99B GIAA9F 5B8 K=BH9F =BGC@5H=CB 7IFJ9G ACGH @=?9@M 8F=J9B 6M
;F95H9F G95GCB5@=HM 5B8 H9AD9F5HIF9 9LHF9A9G 19@@CK 65B8G =B =; 
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H=CB KCI@8 <5J9 :5JCIF98 K9H@5B8 89J9@CDA9BH CJ9F G<5@@CK 75F6CB5H9
@5?9G =B .=@@5FEI9A58C 65G=B 88=H=CB5@@M H<9 7CA6=B5H=CB C: @9GG DF9
7=D=H5H=CB 5B8CF =BH9BG9 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB =B GI7< D9F=C8G KCI@8 <5J9
@98 HC =628.:=; H<F=J=B; CJ9F CH<9F KCC8M 9@9A9BHG =; 
,<9 GIAA9F =BGC@5H=CB A5L=A5 8IF=B; %!+ 9 H<9 ACGH =BH9BG9
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D@=98 <=;<9F 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB 5B8 H<9F9:CF9 =B7F95G=B; K5H9F 89b7=H =B
GC=@G @=A=H=B; :CF9GHG 89J9@CDA9BH GI7< 5G 6FC58@95: 7CAAIB=H=9G CK
9J9F 8IF=B; %!+ 9 5B8 H<9 C@C79B9 75F6CB5H9 G<5@@CK @5?9 9BJ=FCB
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HK99B F9;=CB5@ J9;9H5H=CB 5B8 @C75@ <M8FC@C;M 7CI@8 5@GC F9c97H H<9 J5F
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G9EI9B79 C: 9B<5B798 G95GCB5@=HM 75IG98 6M CDDCG=H9 GIAA9F 5B8 K=B
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:5JCIF56@9 985D<=7 89J9@CDA9BH =B H<9G9 7CBH=B9BH5@ 5F95G 89H9FA=B
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9::97H=J9 AC=GHIF9 KCI@8 <5J9 D@5M98 5 ACF9 =ADCFH5BH FC@9 =B J9;9
H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G =B 79BHF5@ !69F=5 H<5B H9AD9F5HIF9 5@CB9 ,<9 7@=A5H9
7CB8=H=CBG 8IF=B; %!+  KCI@8 <5J9 699B 69HH9F :CF :CF9GH 89J9@CD
A9BH H<5B H<CG9 C: %!+  5B8 H<9 GI6G9EI9BH ;@57=5@ D9F=C8G %!+ 
HC  K=H< 5B CJ9F5@@ =B7F95G98 AC=GHIF9 5J5=@56=@=HM CK9J9F K5
H9F 89b7=H KCI@8 <5J9 =BH9BG=b98 8IF=B; GCA9 D9F=C8G @958=B; HC @CK
DC@@9B DF9G9FJ5H=CB @9J9@G =B .!$ G9EI9B79 GI7< 5G =9 ACGH D5FH C: %!+
6 =;G  5B8  H @95GH H<=G ACF9 5F=8 D<5G9 <58 5 F9;=CB5@ F957<
5G H<9 "-GD9@9CH<9A =B H<9 B95F6M (MF9B99G ,CFB9F 9H 5@ 
8=8 BCH ;FCK <=5HIG 8IF=B; %!+ 6
'H<9F 9L5AD@9G GIDDCFH=B; 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB 5G 5 ?9M :57HCF 9L
D@5=B=B; J9;9H5H=CB J5F=56=@=HM =B A=8 @5H=HI89G 7CA9 :FCA H<9 +CIH<
9FB $9J5BH F97CF8G <9B 5B8 $=HH  K<9F9 @9GG :CF9GH98 @5B8
G75D9G DF98CA=B5H98 8IF=B; H<9 %!+  CBG9H 89GD=H9 GCA9 A9GCD<MH9
89J9@CDA9BH C77IFF98 =B ACIBH5=B 5F95G ,<9 75IG9G :CF @CK 9::97H=J9
AC=GHIF9 D<5G9G 8IF=B; ;@57=5@ 5B8 =BH9F;@57=5@ D9F=C8G <5J9 HC 69 :CIB8
=B 6CH< H<9 J5F=56=@=HM C: CF6=H5@ 7CBb;IF5H=CB =B7F95G98 G95GCB5@=HM
6IH 5@GC F9;=CB5@ A=7FC7@=A5H9 7CB8=H=CBG <=;< 5@H=HI89 7CBH=B9BH5@=HM
9B56@=B; 5 GHFCB; 5B8 D9FG=GH9BH G95GCB5@ AC=GHIF9 89b7=H 5G =H C77IFG
=B .=@@5FEI9A58C 5F95 5B8 :57=@=H5H=B; H<9 5:CF9A9BH=CB98 585DH=J9 F9
GDCBG9 C: =628.:=; <1=:2/.:*
 &1. 7:<1 <4*6<2, 258*,< 26 *+:=8< ,1*60.;
!B H<9 DF9J=CIG G97H=CBG K9 <5J9 G<CKB H<5H H<9 .!$ G9EI9B79 GID
DCFHG H<9 CF6=H5@ 7CBHFC@ CJ9F J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G =B H<9 %98=H9FF5B95B
F9;=CB 6IH CH<9F :57HCFG GI7< 5G &CFH< H@5BH=7 7=F7I@5H=CB J5F=56=@=HM
+RB7<9N CX= 9H 5@ ,N985?=G 9H 5@  H<9 D5FH=7I@5F
;9C;F5D<=75@ G9HH=B;G (=7?5FG?= 9H 5@ +=BCDC@= 9H 5@ 
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7CAAIB=H=9G C: =B@5B8 !69F=5 +RB7<9N 89 =CG 9H 5@  A5M
<5J9 D@5M98 5 7F=H=75@ FC@9 CB D@5BH @5B8G75D9 J5F=56=@=HM =B 5F95G C: H<9
9BHF5@ !69F=5B *5B;9 5::97H98 6M GHFCB; 7CBH=B9BH5@=HM
BCH<9F D@5IG=6@9 75B8=85H9 8F=J=B; J9;9H5H=CB cI7HI5H=CBG =G H<9 G9
EI9B79 C: 56FIDH 7C@8 9J9BHG HF=;;9F98 6M 7C@8 K5H9FA5GG 9LD5BG=CBG
=B H<9 &CFH< H@5BH=7 <5DA5B 5B8 +<57?@9HCB  7CBG=GH9BH
K=H< 5 F98I7H=CB =B H<9 CJ9FHIFB=B; 7=F7I@5H=CB 5B8 F9GI@H=B; CB 897F95G
=B; =B@5B8 H9AD9F5HIF9G 8IF=B; %!+ 9 =B +CIH<9FB IFCD9 ,N985?=G
9H 5@  C@8 9J9BHG  HC  <5J9 699B 7@95F@M F97CF898
6M 8=::9F9BH DFCL=9G =B =9 A5F=B9 G9EI9B79G % %
5B8 '( 5G K9@@ 5G =B CF7<=5 75J9 GD9@9CH<9A ,N985?=G 9H
5@  DC=BH=B; HC 9J9B 5 ;F95H9F J5F=56=@=HM 8IF=B; H<9 @5GH =B
H9F;@57=5@ H<5B H<5H C6G9FJ98 :CF H<9 DF9G9BH CB9 H<9 C@C79B9 ,<=G
7@=A5H9 =BGH56=@=HM =G 8=:b7I@H HC =89BH=:M =B 7CBH=B9BH5@ G9EI9B79G 5G
@5B8G95 7CFF9@5H=CBG B998 HC 7CBG=89F H<9 5;9AC89@@=B; IB79FH5=BH=9G
6IH =B 79BHF5@ !69F=5B *5B;9 H<9F9 5F9 HKC F97CF8G GD5BB=B; H<=G =B
H9FJ5@ K=H< 9BCI;< H=A9F9GC@IH=CB HC 75DHIF9 H<9 7C@8 9J9BHG ,<9
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5G =B8=75H=J9 C: 7<5B;9G =B GC=@ 89J9@CDA9BH 5B8 F98I7H=CBG =B H<9
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IB79FH5=BH=9G  HC  7C@8 9J9BHG =AD57HG A5M <5J9 699B CB9
UNCORRECTED PROOF
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8IF=B; H<5H H=A9 =;  5H 79BH9BB=5@ G75@9G
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H<9 5@F958M A9BH=CB98 585DH=J9 75D57=HM C: =628.:=; 7CAAIB=H=9G HC
7CBH=B9BH5@=HM 8C9G BCH DF97@I89 G<5FD F9GDCBG9G HC 56FIDH H9AD9F5HIF9
897@=B9 IFF9BH 85M 97C@C;=75@ GHI8=9G G<CK @9GG GHCA5H5@ 7CB8I7H5B79
5B8 D<CHC7<9A=75@ 9:b7=9B7M C: H<9 D<CHCGMGH9A C:  <1=:2/.:* IB89F
@CK H9AD9F5HIF9 H<F9G<C@8G 5G =H DF9G9BHG D<MG=C@C;=75@ @=A=H5H=CBG IB
89F G9J9F5@ :F99N=B; 7M7@9G %5FH=B9N9FF= 9H 5@ F5B85 9H
5@  /9 GI;;9GH H<5H DFC656@M =628.:=; 7CAAIB=H=9G =B .=@@5F
EI9A58C K9F9 H<9 8CA=B5BH KCC8M J9;9H5H=CB K=H< cI7HI5H=B; J5@I9G
7CD=B; K=H< 7C@8 9J9BHG IBH=@ 75  ?5 ( K<9B 56FIDH@M 8=G5DD95FG
'IF <MDCH<9G=G =G H<5H 5 B9K CF6=H5@ 7CBb;IF5H=CB 7<5B;=B; 9779BHF=7
=HM 5B8 DF979GG=CB =;G  5B8  =AD@=98 H<5H 7C@8 7CB8=H=CBG K9F9
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=B 5 7CAD@9L J5F=56=@=HM F9;5F8=B; H<9 9LD5BG=CB 5B8 7CBHF57H=CB C: 8=:
Fig. 7. 6FIDH C@8 9J9BHG  HC  <5DA5B 9H 5@  =89BH=b98 =B 6CH< GH57?98 δ =B 6@I9 5B8 δ' =B D=B? GD9@9CH<9A G9F=9G C: CF7<=5 75J9 FMG85@9 9H 5@ 
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F9GC@IH=CB 5B8 H<9 IB79FH5=BHM C: H<9 5;9 AC89@ DF97@I89 89bB=H=J9 5G
7F=DH=CBG C: ' CF 9J9BHG 8IF=B; @5GH ;@57=5@ D9F=C8 =;  EI9GH=CB
A5F?G H<9G9 J9;9H5H=CB cI7HI5H=CBG 5F9 5H @95GH GI;;9GH=J9 C: A=@@9B
B=5@G75@9 J5F=56=@=HM =AD57HG !B F95 $CB;5 5B8 CH<9F DC@@9B F97CF8G
:FCA &/ !69F=5 H<F99 D<5G9G C: 897=8ICIG KCC8@5B8 9LD5BG=CB 5@CB;
K=H< GA5@@9FG75@9 cI7HI5H=CBG 8IF=B; %!+  5F9 =89BH=b98 5G 5 J9;9
H5H=CB F9GDCBG9 HC 5B8 ' 7M7@9G %IXCN+C6F=BC 9H 5@ 
YA9N'F9@@5B5 9H 5@ 5F7W5%CF9=F5G 9H 5@  !B
ACGH G9EI9B79G BC@ (CFH5@9H 5BMC@9G GCA9 ;9C7<9A=75@ 5B8 DC@@9B
cI7HI5H=CBG <5J9 699B =BH9FDF9H98 BCH 5G ' 6IH 5G =AD57HG 8IF
=B; 6CH< %!+  5B8 %!+  CBNR@9N+5ADUF=N 9H 5@ %CF9BC
9H 5@  Z6=; 9H 5@ $579M 9H 5@ ,<IG 5J5=@
56@9 !69F=5B F97CF8G DC=BH HC %!+  5G H<9 8F=9GH D9F=C8 C: H<9 @5GH
;@57=5@ 7M7@9 K=H< 5 D5H7<98 5B8 ACG5=7 J9;9H5H=CB @5B8G75D9 8CA=
B5H98 6M GH9DD9 :CFA5H=CBG 5B8 ;9B9F5@@M ACF9 5F=8 9BJ=FCBA9BHG %=@
@9BB=5@G75@9 J5F=56=@=HM =G GI;;9GH98 =B GCA9 F97CF8G 6IH 8I9 HC H<9
@5F;9 ;9C;F5D<=75@ J5F=56=@=HM B9K @CB; G9EI9B79G 5F9 B979GG5FM HC 7<5F
57H9F=N9 H<9 =AD57H C: ' 5B8 9=BF=7< 9J9BHG 8IF=B; %!+ =B =BB9F
!69F=5
  >*:2*+4. %  3* " %!+  H<9 @5GH D9F=C8 C: H<9
;@57=5@ D<5G9 =G 7<5F57H9F=N98 =B .!$ 6M ;F95H9F @C75@ 5B8 F9;=CB5@ 9B
J=FCBA9BH5@ 5B8 AC=GHIF9 J5F=56=@=HM 5G =B8=75H98 6M H<9 8=J9FG=HM C:
G98=A9BH5FM :57=9G 5B8 5EI5H=7 J9;9H5H=CB 89J9@CDA9BH +98=A9BH5FM
:57=9G =B8=75H9 5B =B7F95G9 =B <IA=8=HM 7CAD5F98 HC H<9 %!+  =BH9F
J5@ K=H< H<9 89J9@CDA9BH C: G<5@@CK @5?9G =B H<9 8=GH5@ 5F95G C: H<9
65G=B .5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@  A5F?98 6M H<9 =B7F95G9 =B 75F6CB
5H9G 5B8 @CK9F *62F F5H=CG =;  =B 7CBHF5GH K=H< 8F=9F 7CB8=H=CBG
9J=89B798 6M H<9 DFC;F585H=CB C: 5@@IJ=5@ :5BG 8IF=B; DF9J=CIG GH5;9
%!+ H 5 F9;=CB5@ G75@9 F9G=@=9BH H5L5 8CA=B5H9 K=H< H<9 DF9J5@9B79
C: D=B9G GH9DD9 <9F6G 5B8 G<FI6G =;G  5B8  5B8 +% CK
9J9F 5BCH<9F =BH9FJ5@ C: @CK DC@@9B DF9G9FJ5H=CB H<9 MCIB;9GH CB9 C7
7IFF98 =B .=@@5FEI9A58C 8IF=B; %!+  =;  ,<=G 9D=GC89 5@H<CI;<
BCH 5G =BH9BG9 5G H<CG9 8IF=B; %!+  7CI@8 69 H<9 F9GI@H C: H<9 C77IF
F9B79 C: 5F=8=HM GD9@@G 8IF=B; :I@@ ;@57=5@ 7CB8=H=CBG G K9 <5J9 =B8=
75H98 69:CF9 H<9 $% 8C9G BCH 7CFF9GDCB8 K=H< H<9 A5L=AIA 58J5B79
C: ;@57=9FG =B !69F=5 DFC656@M 6975IG9 +CIH<9FB IFCD9 K5G =BcI9B798
6M ACF9 5F=8 7CB8=H=CBG H<5B 9BHF5@ 5B8 &CFH<9FB IFCD9 5H H<5H H=A9
%CF9@@YB 9H 5@ @9H7<9F 9H 5@ CBNR@9N+5ADUF=N
9H 5@ %CF9BC 9H 5@ +HC@@ 9H 5@ I9BH=@@9>C
5@GC G<CKG F9@5H=J9@M <=;< J5F=56=@=HM 8IF=B; %!+  6IH =G 7<5F57H9F
=N98 6M <=;< ,= 7CBH9BH 5B8 %5;B9H=7 GIG79DH=6=@=HM J5@I9G @CK ,'
F98I798 J9;9H5H=CB 89J9@CDA9BH 5B8 GC=@ :CFA5H=CB @@ H<9G9 =B8=75
HCFG DC=BH HC G=;B=:=75BH H9FF=;9BCIG =BDIHG 56FIDH D9F=C8G C: @CK @5?9
@9J9@ 5B8 A5>CF 9FCG=J9 DFC79GG9G 5GGC7=5H98 HC 7C@89F 5B8 ACF9 5F=8
D<5G9G =B 79BHF5@ !69F=5 G=B79  ?5 ( .9;5G 9H 5@  CBHF5F
=@M HC H<9 F9@5H=J9@M 5F=8 7CB8=H=CBG GI;;9GH98 6M .!$ 5B8 I9BH=@@9>C G9
EI9B79G :CF =BB9F !69F=5 8IF=B; %!+  H<9 (58I@ G9EI9B79 G<CKG H<5H
H<9 $% K5G H<9 ACGH 9LHF9A9 ;@57=5@ 7@=A5H9 C: H<9 $5H9 (@9=GHC79B9
=B +CIH<9FB !69F=5 6IH =H K5G BCH D5FH=7I@5F@M 5F=8 ,<=G =G G<CKB 6M
=9 7@5M9M 75F6CB5H9 :57=9G @=B?98 HC 899D K5H9F 9BJ=FCBA9BHG IB89F
7C@89F ;@57=5@ 7CB8=H=CBG G 5 7CBG9EI9B79 @CK 5F6CF95@ DC@@9B DFCDCF
H=CBG 5B8 H<9 C77IFF9B79 C: ".-2*;<:=5 =G F97CF898 CB@M 8IF=B; %!+ 
5B8 %!+  =B H<9 75G9 C: ".-2*;<:=5 5AI9F5 9H 5@ %CGH I
FCD95B 5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B G9EI9B79G G<CK H<9 @CK9GH J5@I9G C: KCC8M
H5L5 8IF=B; %!+  @9H7<9F 9H 5@  9@A9BG 9H 5@ 
K<=@9 H<9 !69F=5B G9EI9B79G G<CK 5 ACF9 8=J9FG9 J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A
=7G ,<9M =B7@I89 D5F?@5B8 :CFA5H=CBG K=H< 8CA=B5BH GH9DD9 J9;9H5
H=CB 5B8 GCA9 A9GCH<9FACD<MH9G GIFJ=J=B; =B F9:I;9 5F95G 5FF=YB 9H
5@  5B8 F9:9F9B79G H<9F9=B CBNR@9N+5ADUF=N 9H 5@ 
5B8 <=;< DFCDCFH=CBG C: 7CB=:9FG HCC 9GD97=5@@M D=B9G ,<9G9 J9;9H5H=CB
5GG9A6@5;9G <58 5 7@95F 7CBH=BI=HM 8IF=B; H<9 69;=BB=B; C: H<9 C@C79B9
=B ACGH %98=H9FF5B95B 5B8 7CBH=B9BH5@ 5F95G C: !69F=5 %CF9@@YB 9H 5@
 =B7@I8=B; .=@@5FEI9A58C F5B65FF= 9H 5@  ,<IG H<9
FC@9 C: 7CB=:9FG bFGH =628.:=; 5B8 H<9B "26=; =B G5J5BB5<@=?9 CD9B
9BJ=FCBA9BHG <5G 699B IB8CI6H98@M 9GG9BH=5@ :CF 6CH< (@9=GHC79B9 5B8
C@C79B9 J9;9H5H=CB <=GHCFM C: =BB9F !69F=5 *I6=5@9G 9H 5@ 
'B@M 5:H9F H<9 %=88@9 C@C79B9 5B8 69:CF9 <IA5B =AD57H 69;=B HC
G<5D9 F9;=CB5@ J9;9H5H=CB ;9B9F5@@M AC=GH9F 7CB8=H=CBG 5B8 H<9 F98I798
H<9FA5@ 5AD@=HI89 5@@CK98 H<9 GDF958 C: A=L98 :CF9GH 8CA=B5H98 =B
.!$ 6M 6CH< G9A=897=8ICIG 5B8 9J9F;F99B #=.:,=; 5G A5=B KCC8@5B8
7CADCB9BHG =;G  5B8  5H H<9 G5A9 H=A9 H<5H G<5@@CK 75F6CB5H9
@5?9 89J9@CD98 =B H<9 79BHF9 C: H<9 65G=B F5B65FF= 9H 5@ 
.5@9FC5F7UG 9H 5@ ,<=G G79B5F=C =G 7C<9F9BH K=H< ACGH =B
H9F;@57=5@ :CF9GH 9LD5BG=CBG 5B8 AC=GHIF9 7CB8=H=CBG F97CBGHFI7H98 :CF
H<9 C@C79B9 5H 5FCIB8 H<9 %98=H9FF5B95B F9;=CB 5B8 +CIH<9FB I
FCD9 *C69FHG  CK9J9F H<9 .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 =; 
=B8=75H9G H<5H %!+  9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 7CB8=H=CBG <5J9 699B @9GG K5FA
5B8 ACF9 <IA=8 H<5B H<CG9 C: %!+  =BH9F;@57=5@ G K9 <5J9 A9B
H=CB98 H<FCI;< H<=G KCF? G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 ;9C7<9A=75@ F9GI@HG C:
.!$ F97CF8 GI;;9GHG 8F=9F 7CB8=H=CBG =B DF9J=CIG =BH9F;@57=5@ 7CAD5F98
HC H<9 7IFF9BH K=H< H<9 8CA=B5B79 C: K9H@5B8G 5B8 BCH 5 G<5@@CK 75F
6CB5H9 @5?9 !B 5;F99A9BH K=H< H<=G G79B5F=C =628.:=; *6- BCH #=.:,=;
<5G 699B H<9 A5=B HF99 C: H<9 8CA=B5BH :CF9GH 7CAAIB=H=9G
6. Conclusions
,<9 AI@H=DFCLM 5B5@MG=G C: @ 5X=N5F 89 .=@@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79
& !69F=5 DFCJ=89G 5 89H5=@98 J9;9H5H=CB D5@9C<M8FC@C;=75@ 5B8
D5@59C9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ 9JC@IH=CB :CF H<9 @5GH  M95FG CAD5F=GCB
C: D5@9C<M8FC@C;=75@ 5B8 D5@9C7@=A5H9 F97CBGHFI7H=CBG 65G98 CB G98=
A9BHC@C;=75@ 5B8 ;9C7<9A=75@ 85H5 K=H< DC@@9B 85H5 5@@CK98 5B =BJ9G
H=;5H=CB C: <CK CF6=H5@ F9;=CB5@ 5B8 @C75@ :57HCFG <5J9 7CBHFC@@98 H<9
7CAD@9L @5B8G75D9 9JC@IH=CB C: H<9 K9GH9FB %98=H9FF5B95B F9;=CB .=@
@5FEI9A58C G9EI9B79 =G 5 B9K AI@H=DFCLM D5@59C9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F97CF8
GD5BB=B; H<9 K<C@9 $! 7M7@9 =B =BB9F 5F95G C: +CIH<9FB IFCD9
K=H< GHFCB; 7CBH=B9BH5@=HM K<9F9 :9K G9EI9B79G 5F9 5J5=@56@9 ,<=G B9K
F97CF8 =B =BB9F !69F=5 GIDDCFH98 6M 5 FC6IGH 7<FCBC@C;M =@@IGHF5H9G H<9
G=A=@5F=H=9G C: +CIH<9FB IFCD95B J9;9H5H=CB <=GHCFM 8IF=B; H<9 $!
7M7@9 6IH 5@GC H<9 IB=EI9B9GG C: %98=H9FF5B95B F9;=CBG K=H< 5 <=;< 7CB
H=B9BH5@=HM
,<IG F9;5F8=B; H<9 H<F99 A5=B 5=AG C: H<=G KCF? GIAA5F=N98 7CB
7@IG=CBG 5F9
 .9;9H5H=CB <=GHCFM C: .!$ G9EI9B79 H<FCI;< H=A9
-B9LD97H98 9J9BHI5@ DF9J5@9B79 C: F9G=@=9BH =628.:=; 7CAAIB=
H=9G 8CA=B5H9G H<9 J9;9H5H=CB @5B8G75D9 G=B79 H<9 9B8 C: %!+ 
5B8 8IF=B; H<9 K<C@9 %!+  8=G5DD95F=B; =B %!+  ,<9B "26=;
H5?9G H<9 @958=B; FC@9 8IF=B; H<9 :I@@ ;@57=5@ 5B8 H<9 C@C79B9
,<9 F97CF8 89ACBGHF5H9G H<9 F9G=@=9B79 C: 7CB=:9FG =B !69F=5B J9;
9H5H=CB @5B8G75D9G H<FCI;< H=A9
,F99 7CJ9F F9DF9G9BH98 6M KCC8M H5L5 9LD5BG=CBG F97CF8G :CIF
D9F=C8G C: A5L=AIA 89J9@CDA9BH 8IF=B; H<9 @5GH  ?5 ( H<9
@5GH CB9 =B H<9 C@C79B9 5B8 H<9 CH<9F H<F99 8IF=B; %!+ 9 7
5B8 5  7CBH=BI98 F98I7H=CB C: KCC8M J9;9H5H=CB C77IFG G=B79
H<9 bFGH D5FH C: %!+  :C@@CK98 6M A=BCF D95?G 8IF=B; %!+  5B8
%!+ 
,<9 %!+  :CF9GH 9JC@IH=CB G<CK 5B =BH9FB5@ 8CI6@9 D95? .
GHFI7HIF9 G=A=@5F HC H<5H G<CKB 6M GCA9 6IH BCH 5@@  A5F=B9 5B8
@57IGHF=B9 G9EI9B79G :FCA K9GH9FB 5B8 79BHF5@95GH9FB %98=H9F
F5B95B DC=BH=B; HC +CIH<9FB IFCD9 <9H9FC;9B9CIG ;9C;F5D<=7
D5HH9FBG 8IF=B; 6CH< =BH9F;@57=5@G 5B8 =BH9FGH58=5@G
UNCORRECTED PROOF
"76BC4.B%*58D:2B.<*4  #=*<.:6*:A%,2.6,.$.>2.?; @@@ @@@@  
 F9@5H=J9@M <IA=8 CBG9H C: %!+  =G F97CF898 K=H< D9FG=GH=B; A9G
CD<MH9G 5B8 7C@8HC@9F5BH H5L5 K<=@9 %!+  G<CK98 H<9 8F=9GH 7CB
8=H=CBG C: H<9 K<C@9 $! 7M7@9 K=H< 8CA=B5BH +H9DD9 J9;9H5H=CB
5B8 bB9 8=GH5@ 5@@IJ=5@ :5BG DFC;F58=B; CJ9F H<9 65G=B  J5F=56@9
%!+  =G 7<5F57H9F=N98 6M H<9 8=J9FG=HM C: 5EI5H=7 J9;9H5H=CB 89
J9@CDA9BH 89GD=H9 F9G=@=9B79 7CBH=BI9 5G A5=B 7<5F57H9F=GH=7 C: F9
;=CB5@ J9;9H5H=CB
 'F6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG =BGC@5H=CB 5B8 &CFH< H@5BH=7 8MB5A=7G
,<9 <=;< H<9FA5@ G95GCB5@ 5AD@=HI89 8IF=B; G9J9F5@ D<5G9G C: H<9
@5GH =BH9F;@57=5@ 5G F9GDCBG9 HC CF6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG K5G 7CB8I7=J9
HC =BH9BG9 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB HF=;;9F=B; <=;<9F K5H9F 89b7=H =B
GC=@G +9J9B =;<9F +95GCB5@=HM (9F=C8G +( HC  <5J9 699B
F97CF898 8IF=B; H<9 @5GH  ?5 ( G<CK=B; 5 7@CG9 F9@5H=CBG<=D
K=H< H<9 5AD@=HI89 C: 6CH< GIAA9F 5B8 K=BH9F =BGC@5H=CB 7IFJ9G
.9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G 5F9 IGI5@@M 7CBHFC@@98 6M CF6=H5@ D5F5A9H9FG
<CK9J9F H<9 &CFH< H@5BH=7 J5F=56=@=HM 5H 5 A=@@9BB=5@G75@9 9G
D97=5@@M 7C@8 9J9BHG  HC  8IF=B; %!+  5@GC =AD57H98 =B =B
@5B8 !69F=5 ,<9 F97CF8 C: 9=BF=7< 9J9BHG 5B8 ' J5F=56=@=HM 8IF
=B; :I@@ ;@57=5@ H=A9G =G GI;;9GH98 6CH< 6M G98=A9BHC@C;=75@ DFCL
=9G 5B8 GCA9 J9;9H5H=CB 7<5B;9G
$C75@ :57HCFG GI7< 5G GHFCB; 7CBH=B9BH5@=HM K<=7< 89F=J9 =B <=;<
G95GCB5@=HM 5B8 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB 9A9F;9 5G 9GG9BH=5@ 8F=J9FG HCC
:CF %98=H9FF5B95B J9;9H5H=CB 8MB5A=7G
 B5@C;=9G 5B8 8=::9F9BH D5HH9FBG 5ACB; %98=H9FF5B95B D5@MBC@C;=
75@ F97CF8G
9A=5B :CF9GHG =B =BB9F !69F=5 5F9 IB=EI9 K=H< BC 7@95F IFCD95B
5B5@C;I9 CH< J9;9H5H=CB 7CADCG=H=CB >IB=D9FG 8CA=B5B79 5B8
H<9 8CA=B5B79 C: K9H@5B8G DC=BH HC 5 ACF9 7CBH=B9BH5@ @9GG <I
A=8 D9F=C8 8IF=B; H<9 @5GH =BH9F;@57=5@ H<5B H<9 C@C79B9 8I9 HC
ACF9 9J5DCHF5BGD=F5H=CB
%=BCF J5F=5H=CBG =B @C75@ :57HCFG 5B8 H<9 @5B8G75D9 F9G=@=9B79 A5M
DFC8I79 5 7CAD@9L ACG5=7 C: 9BJ=FCBA9BH5@ F9GDCBG9G F5H<9F H<5B
5 G9EI9BH=5@ GI779GG=CB =B =B@5B8 %98=H9FF5B95B 5F95G K<=7< =G 5
7F=H=75@ 5GD97H K<9B 588F9GG=B; :IHIF9 DFC>97H=CBG C: ;@C65@ K5FA
=B; =AD57HG
Declaration of competing interest
,<9 5IH<CFG 897@5F9 H<5H H<9M <5J9 BC ?BCKB 7CAD9H=B; bB5B7=5@ =B
H9F9GHG CF D9FGCB5@ F9@5H=CBG<=DG H<5H 7CI@8 <5J9 5DD95F98 HC =BcI9B79
H<9 KCF? F9DCFH98 =B H<=G D5D9F
Acknowledgements
IB8=B; :CF H<=G F9G95F7< K5G DFCJ=898 6M H<9 +D5B=G< !BH9F%=B
=GHFM CAA=GG=CB C: +7=9B79 5B8 ,97<BC@C;M !1, H<FCI;< H<9 DFC
>97HG !&%' $* !&%' $ 5B8
!&%' $ 5G K9@@ 5G H<9 F5;YB *9;=CB5@ CJ9FB
A9BH GIDDCFH K=H< DFC>97H  ( 5B8 3* 9C9BJ=FCB
A9BH5@ (FC79GG9G 5B8 @C65@ <5B;9 FCID 8I5F8C 5F7W5(F=9HC 5B8
%5F=5 $9IB85 K9F9 GIDDCFH98 6M HKC (< :9@@CKG<=D DFCJ=898 6M H<9
+D5B=G< %=B=GHFM (! F9: + 5B8 + F9
GD97H=J9@M F57=9@5 =@*CA9F5 =G :IB898 6M H<9  *9G95F7< -B=H
'* %CIBH5=B L=H9 MDCH<9G=G /9 H<5B? &C9AW I9BH9G 95H
F=N I9BC W85 8GI5F @9B5 *CMC 5B8 *5EI9@ $YD9N 5BH9FC :CF H<9
<9@D DFCJ=898 8IF=B; G98=A9BH G5AD@=B; 5B8 @56CF5HCFM DFC798IF9G /9
H<5B? "I8M @@9B 5B8 "CB 5AI9F5 5G K9@@ 5G H<9 &9CHCA5 85H565G9 :CF
DFCJ=89 D5@MBC@C;=75@ 85H5 :CF 7CAD5F=GCB ,<=G KCF? KCI@8 BCH <5J9
699B DCGG=6@9 K=H<CIH H<9 <9@D C: H<9 $5;IB5 89@ 5X=N5F CIB85H=CB
8=F97H98 6M "CGU 5F@CG *I6=C
Appendix A. Supplementary data
+IDD@9A9BH5FM 85H5 HC H<=G 5FH=7@9 75B 69 :CIB8 CB@=B9 5H <HHDG8C=
CF;>EI5G7=F9J
References
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=BHF5ACBH5B9 89DF9GG=CB H<9 "=@C75 65G=B !69F=5B <5=B +D5=B 9C@ %5; 
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+58CF= $ #CIHGC89B8F=G  %5G=  9FH=B=  CA6CIF=9I&96CIH & F5B7?9  #CI@=
# "C5BB=B + %9F7IF=  % (9MFCB ' ,CFF= ( /5;B9F  25B7<9HH5  +=BCDC@=
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$5?9 '<F=8 + IFCD9 8IF=B; H<9 D5GH  ?5 =C;9CG7=9B79G  
+5=BN '@@9FC .5B +H55@8I=B9B %  !69F=5B GH9DD9G !B /9F;9F % "  J5B
+H55@8I=B9B %  8G IF5G=5B +H9DD9G 7C@C;=75@ (FC6@9AG 5B8 $=J9@=<CC8G =B 5
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+RB7<9N CX= %   !BHFC8I7H=CB HC 7@=A5H9 5B8 J9;9H5H=CB =B IFCD9 8IF=B; %!+
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7<5B;9G 8IF=B; H<9 $5GH @57=5@ 7CB79DHG 5B8 H9FA=BC@C;M )I5H +7= *9J  
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+RB7<9N CX= %  MB5I8  ,IFCB " $ +<57?@9HCB & "  =;< F9GC@IH=CB
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!BH9F;@57=5@ 7CAD@9L 5FH< (@5B9H +7= $9HH  
+RB7<9N CX= %  ,IFCB " $ MB5I8  +<57?@9HCB & " 5MF9 '  =F97H @5B8G95
7CFF9@5H=CB C: H<9 9A=5B 5B8 =HG 7CAD5F=GCB K=H< H<9 C@C79B9 5 <=;< F9GC@IH=CB
D5@MBC@C;=75@ F97CF8 Cd H<9 !69F=5B A5F;=B 9C@ %=>B6CIK  
+RB7<9N CX= %  $CIHF9 %  FI7=bL % (9MFCB ' +5BHCG $ IDF5H " %5@5=NU
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/9GH9FB IFCD9 CJ9F H<9 $5GH @57=5@ !B79DH=CB  ?5 85H5AC89@ 7CAD5F=GCB
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+5B7<9N CX= %  5??9F ( 9GDF5H + 5F@GCB   .5B %99F6997?  " (9MFCB
' &5I;<HCB  @9H7<9F / " MB5I8  *CGG=;BC@ $ *9BGG9B  IFCD95B
7@=A5H9 CDH=AIA 5B8 9B<5B798 F99B@5B8 A9@H 8IF=B; H<9 $5GH !BH9F;@57=5@ 9C@C;M
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+RB7<9N 89 =CG * .9@RNEI9N "  +5=BN '@@9FC  @5GG=b75H=CB 5B8 A5DD=B; C:
+D5B=G< %98=H9FF5B95B A=L98 :CF9GHG =CF =C;9CG7= CF   
+5B7<C  F9B5G  (5F8C  (9X5%CBBU " $ *<C89G  " 5FHC@CAU % 5F7W5*I=N
" % %5FHWCBC   @57=C@57IGHF=B9 89DCG=HG :CFA98 =B 5B =7985AA98
HF=6IH5FM J5@@9M =B H<9 GCIH<79BHF5@ (MF9B99G B9K 9J=89B79 :CF @5H9 (@9=GHC79B9
7@=A5H9 +98=A9BH 9C@  
+5H?IB5G " F=;=9B9  .9@=7<?9J=7<  *C69FHGGCB  +5B8;F9B (  -DD9F
(@9=GHC79B9 GHF5H=;F5D<M 5H H<9 %98=B=B?5= G=H9 95GH9FB $=H<I5B=5 5 7CBH=BICIG F97CF8
C: H<9 9A=5B/9=7<G9@=5B G9EI9B79 CF95G  
+<57?@9HCB & " 5@@  .=B79BH   (<5G9 F9@5H=CBG<=DG 69HK99B A=@@9BB=5@G75@9
9J9BHG   M95FG 5;C (5@9C795BC;F5D<M  
+<57?@9HCB & " +5B7<9NCX= %  (5=@@9F7  $5B79@CH 1  %5F=B9 !GCHCD9
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7M7@9 &5HIF9  
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... T. Bardají et al. Iberian Peninsula and hence of the westernmost Mediterranean, make them ideal locations to analyse the interactions between Atlantic -Mediterranean and Europe -Africa climate dynamics along this complex period (Torner et al., 2019;Cacho et al., 2000;Frigola et al., 2008;Moreno et al., 2012;Martrat et al., 2004Martrat et al., , 2014Camuera et al., 2019Camuera et al., , 2021Wey et al., 2019;Sánchez-Goñi et al., 2020;González Sampériz et al., 2020;García-Alix et al., 2021). In addition to this, the Balearic Islands lay between the northern cooler waters of the Catalonian Provençal Basin and the warmer ones of Algerian Basin, acting as a threshold for surface circulation (Fig. 1), so its climate is strongly affected by any change in the oceanographic conditions and shifts of the North Balearic Front. ...
... This sudden shift in wind direction and in vegetation cover, must be related to changes in regional climate recorded in other areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the transition from MIS 4 to MIS 3, and in particular during the onset of MIS 3. Climate during MIS 3 has been reported to be the warmest stage of the last glacial period (MIS 4 to MIS 2) both in continental areas from Iberian Peninsula (Camuera et al., 2019;Wei et al., 2019) and in the marine settings of Alboran Sea (Martrat et al., 2004), and also extremely arid in certain areas of inland Spain (Villarquemado, González-Sampériz et al., 2020). In Formentera, a weakening of westerlies winds coming into the Gulf of Lions may have favoured the entry of southern winds coming form the warmer Algerian Basin, with a higher moisture content. ...
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Paper free link https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1eTZ03ic-FU1UR A sedimentary sequence covering the entire last glacial cycle (period between Terminations I and II) outcrops along the south-eastern coast of Formentera Island. A detailed geomorphological, geological and sedimentological study, supported by geochemical, soil and soil-morphology analyses, magnetic susceptibility, phytolite content and luminescence dating (TL, OSL) allowed to reconstruct the environmental evolution of this coastal setting, and to frame it within the evolutionary pattern of the North Atlantic climate variability. Three highstands of sea level are identified in this island for MIS 5e, and a fourth one is attributed to MIS5a. MIS5 – MIS4 transition is characterized by soil development under a moist-warm climate and a descending sea level scenario. Aeolian units (72 ± 7 ka BP) developed during MIS4 under prevailing northerly winds that persisted until the beginning of MIS3, when new aeolian dunes (54 ± 5 ka BP) developed after a major sea-level lowstand. A sudden shift in prevailing winds occur within MIS3, when aeolian units (51 ± 4 ka BP) grew under the influence of S-SW winds and moister climate, evidenced by a dense root bioturbation. The greater influence of northerly winds is attributed to the weakening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Current (AMOC) in North Atlantic, and enhancement of westerlies in NW Europe during colder periods. Periods of prevailing southerly winds and moister climate correlate well with warm Greenland Interstadials, and reinforcement of AMOC. Between 50 and 40ka, alluvial/colluvial sedimentary units punctuated by soil and calcrete development, witness the climatic variability recorded along this period in the North Atlantic. A sedimentary hiatus with erosion and calcrete development characterizes the transit between MIS3 and MIS2. Finally, a reddish alluvial sedimentary unit records a short span of humid and warm climate (soil development, peak in magnetic susceptibility, phytolite content) within MIS 2 (20 ± 2 ka BP – 17 + 2.4/-2.2) that contrast with the general climatic trend recorded in Western Mediterranean during the Last Glacial Maximum.
... The establishment of more steppe landscapes, as well as the increase in the xerophytic component, is confirmed by other sequences from lakes, peat bogs, deltas, lagoons, dunes and cliffs ( Fig. 14 and Table 3). Among them, the following stand out for the studied period: Padul (Camuera et al., 2019;Pons andReille, 1988), El Portalet (Gil-Romera et al., 2014;González-Sampériz et al., 2006), Estanya (González-Sampériz et al., 2017), Tramacastilla (Montserrat Martí, 1992), Villarquemado González-Sampériz et al., 2013, 2020, KEB 25 (Yll, 1995), Caamaño (Carrión et al., 2005;Ramil-Rego et al., 1996), Tarna (Ruiz-Zapata et al., 2000a, Fuentillejo (Ruiz-Zapata et al., 2008), San Gregorio (Ruiz-Zapata et al., 2000b), Salines (Burjachs, 2009(Burjachs, , 2012Burjachs et al., 2007), Banyoles (Pérez-Obiol and Julià, 1994), and to a lesser extent, El Asperillo (Fernández et al., 2021;Stevenson, 1984). ...
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... be related with the different biogeographical features and the different sedimentation conditions in both sites during this period, which affected the pollen and geochemical compositions. Only few pollen records cover periods older than the Eemian in the Mediterranean region 30,[36][37][38][39] . Sediment lake records older than 100 kyr exist only in the northern side of the Mediterranean and the only available quantitative precipitation reconstructions come from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) 11 and Lago Grande di Monticchio (including an stack for southern Europe) 40 , which span barely from 160-70 and 135-105 kyr BP, respectively. ...
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The presence of Cedrus atlantica on the European continent, including, especially, the determination of the time of its disappearance from the Iberian Peninsula, is one of the most controversial issues in recent decades regarding the successive extinction of conifers in the Western Mediterranean. This work propounds the possibility that C. atlantica and Pinus nigra could have co-habited in the past, mutually excluding each other in the areas with suitable conditions for both species, where, ultimately, the one that was the most competitive would have remained. The niche overlap in the two-dimensional ecological space was analyzed. In addition, the potential distribution of both species in the Western Mediterranean today and two past periods (Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene) was modeled to identify their common geographic area of distribution. The species showed very well differentiated niches and a distribution of their habitats virtually segregated by continents since the Mid-Holocene (P. nigra in Europe and C. atlantica in Africa), which responds to differences in climatic affinities. However, the contact of the bordering areas of their distributions in the Baetic mountain range suggests that C. atlantica could have maintained its presence in the Iberian Peninsula until recent times. P. nigra would have displace it in later stages due to its greater prevalence on the continent, so it would have had greater opportunities to occupy the available space.
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In this paper, we conduct a palynological analysis of a high-resolution Holocene record from Cartagena Bay, southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to establish paleoenvironmental variability of coastal areas in the western Mediterranean region at a centennial-scale over the last 7300 years. Statistical analysis of four palynozones allows reconstruction of paleotemperature and paleohumidity conditions. Pinus, steppic, xerophilous, and Mediterranean taxa persisted continuously through the record, and only during periods of increased humidity did deciduous and Mediterranean taxa expand (Zones II, subzone IIIb). Cooler and dry conditions favored the development of Cupressaceae and scrubs between 7300 and 7000 yr cal BP. The mid-Holocene (Northgrippian) mesophytic optimum took place between 6800 and 4000 yr cal BP during which time a Mediterranean climate was present and open forest developed, predominantly consisting of Mediterranean taxa and deciduous trees. The gradual rise in aridity in the Meghalayan (4000–1700 yr cal BP) led to Mediterranean forest being replaced by steppic and xerophilous vegetation, a change related mostly to a decrease in summer insolation, with superimposed centennial-scale variability in humidity. In parallel with forest degradation caused by increasing aridity, the record shows marked evidence of human influence since 4000 yr cal BP, which accelerated the progression of open landscapes from the Chalcolithic onwards, this change being especially marked during the Roman period. Significant denudation of the landscape can be attributed to the use of fire, as well as due to agriculture and grazing, with a major contributor being intense metallurgical and mining activity in the area. The Cartagena Bay record reported herein shows centennial-scale oscillations in humidity and temperature that correlate with well-known climatic events during the late Holocene in the western Mediterranean region, synchronous with variability in solar and atmospheric dynamics. The alternation of persistent North Atlantic Oscillation modes is likely to have played a key role in regulating humid–arid periods.
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Pollen analyses have been carried out on the infilling deposits of Grotta Romanelli (Apulia, Italy), a reference site for the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of Italy. The analysis focused on Terre rosse, a fine unit till now ascribed to an interstadial phase following the Würm acme, and on the uppermost unit (Terre brune), recently dated to the latest Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Despite the diffuse barrenness and low pollen concentration of many levels, pollen data from Grotta Romanelli gives insights into the palaeoenvironmental setting of the deposits and their chronological attribution. The presence of Olea in all levels of Terre rosse strongly suggests their attribution to the Last Interglacial (Eemian), during which this plant was diffused in the Mediterranean area. The Terre brune deposition occurred when the environment was open, with rare trees and shrubs and prevailing steppe elements. This association reflects the climatic conditions of the Lateglacial, with evidence of both the warm interstadial Bølling/Allerød and the cold stadial Younger Dryas. Mediterranean, mesophilous and riparian arboreal elements are present, especially in the Early Holocene levels. Comparison with modern pollen material allowed some fossil grains, found in high amounts and in clusters, to be tentatively ascribed to the species Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae), Muscari comosum and to Asparagus maritimus/Ornithogalum (Asparagaceae). The significant occurrence of such entomophilous plants reveals differential transportation inside the cave and, since most of them are edible and/or have medicinal properties, suggests an intentional introduction and possible use during time, by both Neanderthals and modern humans.
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Padul is one of the few wetland sites in southern Europe and the Mediterranean region that exhibits an unusually large temporal span (>100 kyr) and continuous Quaternary sedimentary record. Previous core-based studies from Padul yielded paleoecological datasets (i.e., pollen and organic geochemistry), but with a poor age control that resulted in rather arbitrary climate inferences. Therefore, precise age control and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to understand long-term regional environmental and climate change and the associated local response of the Padul wetland environment. Here we present a new long sediment record (Padul-15-05) from this wetland in the southern Iberian Peninsula with the aim of improving the age control of the sedimentary sequence and carrying out up-to-date high-resolution multiproxy analyses. In this study the age control is based on 61 AMS radiocarbon dates for the last ca. 50 kyr BP and on the extent of amino acid racemization (AAR) in mollusc shells extending back ∼118 kyr BP. No numerical ages are available for the bottom part of the core but the sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and the cyclostratigraphic analysis of the multiproxy data suggest that the core preserves a continuous record of the last ∼197 kyr (from late MIS 7 to present) with millennial-scale time resolution. Sedimentological (lithology, magnetic susceptibility, XRD, color), geochemical (XRF, TOC, C/N, % carbonate content) and paleontological (pollen, charophytes, gastropods) data show co-varying cyclical paleoenvironmental changes linked to orbital-scale climatic variability. Silicon, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data show periodicities between ∼26.2–19.6 kyr linked to insolation, which is strongly dominated by precession cycles at this latitude. High values of Si and MS data have been related to high siliciclastic/detrital input from Sierra Nevada range during minima in insolation due to enhanced soil weathering/erosion during regional aridity and lower forest cover recorded by the arboreal pollen, which could also be favored by a minor biogenic productivity. In addition, warm climate conditions during maxima in insolation mostly resulted in negative precipitation/evapotranspiration balance and low lake levels, while cold glacial and stadial periods were mainly characterized by positive precipitation/evapotranspiration balance, and therefore, high lake levels. The improved chronology of the Padul sedimentary sequence along with a multiproxy study permitted us to better relate environmental and vegetation changes to climatic events and to demonstrate how both local (i.e., lake level, sedimentation) and regional (i.e., vegetation) environments responded to orbital-scale climate changes.
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The spatial distribution and dating of archaeological sites suggest a poor occupation of southern Iberia by hunter-gatherers after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and during Heinrich event 1 (H1) compared to Northern Iberia. The H1 was a period of cold and arid climate conditions and is suspected to have played an important role in the population dynamics in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene. In this study, the potential influence of climate change on the human settlement patterns in Iberia is analysed based on regional palaeoclimate modelling. Here, the WRF model is used to simulate continuous time slices of 30 years of climate conditions representative for both the LGM and H1 at high spatial resolution. The model results indicate that, apart from a general decrease in temperature, a considerable decrease in precipitation over southern Iberia occurred during the H1, that agrees with the available climate proxy data. The analysis of ombrotypes unveils extremely arid conditions, particularly over southern Iberia and during the growing season (summer), which could have constrained the availability of food and water to the inhabitants. The total area in Iberia that can be characterized as ultrahyperarid in summer enlarged from 2% (13 K km2) during the LGM to 22% (148 K km2) during the H1. Likewise, the reconstruction of vegetation types shows an increase of non-arboreal (open shrubland, grassland) types at the expense of arboreal types in southern Iberia for H1. Thus, the different climate conditions and changes in palaeovegetation between the LGM and H1 probably played a major role in the decrease of the hunter-gatherer populations in southern Iberia.
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The evolution of the landscape surrounding the rivers of the Madrid basin during the Middle Pleistocene is summarised in the present paper. Patterns of adaptation of human populations who settled on the riverbanks have been established in this area through geoarchaeological data recovered from associated deposits, mainly in the Manzanares and Jarama rivers. An exceptional paleoenvironmental record has been documented for the last 379,000 years in the sequences studied in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Pollen and non-pollen samples were studied in eight sequences obtained from different sedimentary environments of two terraces, one located in the Manzanares river (Complex Terrace of Butarque) and the other in the Jarama river (Complex Terrace of Arganda), both in Madrid (Spain). The findings show the constant presence of Pinus, sometimes as the prevailing species, and Juniperus as an element of the regional vegetation. The local vegetation is characterised by open Mediterranean forest and riverside woodlands, which together with the aquatic taxa demonstrates the presence of water. The occasional presence of deciduous forest taxa, probably related to riverside woodlands, suggest warmer conditions. Ubiquitous taxa prevail among the herbaceous strata. These types of plants do not require specific ecological conditions, but could suggest a certain degree of humidity and explain the low values of xeric taxa and sub-continental steppe grasslands. The development of nitrophilous taxa, associated with the presence of fauna, is consistent with the faunal remains recorded from the sites. However, the pollen record shows changes in the structure of the vegetation in all sequences (progressive increase in the tree component), as well as in the composition of the plant landscape (decrease of the Mediterranean taxa and increase of xeric and steppe grasslands), due to temperature and humidity rate related changes. Climatic oscillations are observed across the stratigraphic sequence, and discussed in light of the archaeological evidence for the human occupation of inland Iberia.
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This study explores the climatic variability in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and its surrounding seas from 140 to 65 kyr BP. Marine sediment cores and cave speleothems are used to reconstruct changes in sea surface water conditions, deep sea current intensities and atmospheric moisture availability based on stable isotopes, trace elements, grain size and XRF-elemental analysis. Oxygen isotopes in both terrestrial and oceanic archives recorded a large-scale precessional climatic rhythm that suggests a common modulation. This signal is interpreted as changes of the isotopic composition in the rainwater source area that is later transmitted into the cave. In terms of millennial-scale variability, the records trace the sequence of events dened for the North Atlantic region. The marine records show an intense sea-surface freshening and cooling related to Heinrich Event 11. During the Last Interglacial (LIG), the sea surface temperature evolution was heterogeneous around the IP with gradients larger than those from today. The LIG ended earlier in the Cantabrian Sea than in the western Mediterranean Sea, which it was coincident with an accelerated aridication phase that marked the glacial inception in a Minorca speleothem at 116.5 kyr BP and preceding the GS25. This was the rst of a series of stadials that punctuated the early glaciation and where the sea thermal gradient almost disappeared around the IP. These intense cooling during stadials led the development of drier but intense westerlies over southern European latitudes, reected in a Pyrenees speleothem record, and favouring enhanced deep convection in the western Mediterranean Sea. In contrast to this stadial regional homogeneity among the studied records, the interstadials periods are distinguished by their rather heterogeneous patterns around the IP pointing to much complex ocean-atmosphere interconnections during warm intervals.
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This study addresses the pollen record of Abric Romaní archaeological site and the climate evolution of the last interglacial and glacial stadials in the Iberian Peninsula. The new pollen record spans the interval from 110,000 to 55,000 years ago. In general, the glacial/stadial vegetation is characterized by a steppe and herbaceous communities indicating dry and cold climatic conditions, whereas the vegetation optimum of past interglacials can be described as pine-oaks with mediterranean forest indicating milder and moister climatic conditions. During the first half of the MIS 5a and the MIS 5c, the region was warmer, which is characterized by temperate forests. However, the existence of Artemisia steppes during the second part of the MIS 5a indicates that the degree of continentality can be related to the low winter temperatures and precipitation. During MIS 4, a colder and dryer climate enabled the development of open vegetation (dominated by Artemisia with Poaceae and other Asteraceae) around the study site.
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We present a multidisciplinary dating approach - including radiocarbon, Uranium/Thorium series (U/Th), paleomagnetism, single-grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), polymineral fine-grain infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and tephrochronology - used for the development of an age model for the Cañizar de Villarquemado sequence (VIL) for the last ca. 135 ka. We describe the protocols used for each technique and discuss the positive and negative results, as well as their implications for interpreting the VIL sequence and for dating similar terrestrial records. In spite of the negative results of some techniques, particularly due to the absence of adequate sample material or insufficient analytical precision, the multi-technique strategy employed here is essential to maximize the chances of obtaining robust age models in terrestrial sequences. The final Bayesian age model for VIL sequence includes 16 AMS ¹⁴C ages, 9 single-grain quartz OSL ages and 5 previously published polymineral fine-grain IRSL ages, and the accuracy and resolution of the model are improved by incorporating information related to changes in accumulation rate, as revealed by detailed sedimentological analyses. The main paleohydrological and vegetation changes in the sequence are coherent with global Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 1 transitions since the penultimate Termination, although some regional idiosyncrasies are evident, such as higher moisture variability than expected, an abrupt inception of the last glacial cycle and a resilient response of vegetation in Mediterranean continental Iberia in both Terminations.
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New multi-proxy analyses were performed on two sedimentary sections from shallow marine ecosystems of Ría de Vigo (NW Iberia) to study the effects of the MIS-3 and early Holocene environmental variability. High-resolution data (microfossils, sedimentary facies, and geochemistry) allowed performing a comprehensive reconstruction of the main environmental changes (climate, vegetation, hydrology and sea level) that occurred during part of the MIS-3 period (57.0–38.8 cal ka BP) and the early Holocene (11.2–7.0 cal ka BP). The chronology is supported by isotopic dating and the correlation of pollen data with other regional palaeo-climatic records. Several phases characterised by increasing pollen representation of deciduous Quercus alternate with others marked by increasing representation of heliophytes that may reflect the succession of Interstadials (GI) and Stadials (GS) described in Greenland ice cores. In addition, dinoflagellate cysts and diatoms reflect conditions in the marine environment (SST and productivity). New palynological data confirms that coastal ecosystems of Atlantic Iberia were sensitive to the main climatic oscillations affecting the North Atlantic. It also suggests that pinewoods, juniper communities and mesophilous deciduous forests with Carpinus betulus L. (which shows exceptionally high pollen abundances for the MIS-3) persisted in the surroundings of Ría de Vigo until ~7500 a BP. For the first time in this region, we describe the effects of an abrupt episode of cooling that may correspond to Bond cycle 7 (10.5 ka event).