Article

National trends in pesticides in drinking water and water sources in Japan

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Abstract

Although agricultural activities—especially paddy rice cultivation—are prominent in watersheds in Asian countries, few comprehensive studies have examined pesticide concentrations in water in these areas. Here, we report the concentrations of 162 pesticides in treated drinking water and source water (14,076 samples) in Japan, where rice cultivation is common, along with trends in sales of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides from 1963 to 2016. Herbicides and fungicides—especially those used in rice farming were frequently detected in drinking water sources. The herbicide bromobutide, which is not listed in drinking water quality standards or guidelines except in Japan, as well as the widely used-and-detected bentazone, were frequently detected in source water (bromobutide and bentazone were detected at concentrations >0.1 μg/L in 31.1% and 33.8% of samples, respectively). Dymron and tefuryltrione were also detected in over 10% of samples at concentrations >0.1 μg/L. The highest observed concentration of bromobutide was 10 μg/L, and 7.5% of samples had concentrations >1 μg/L. High concentrations were also observed for halosulfuron methyl (7.9 μg/L), pyroquilon (7.0), molinate (6.8), and metominostrobin (4.6). Some of the pesticides frequently detected in source water were not detected at all in drinking water, but the main cause of the non-detection appeared to be degradation by chlorine. From the 1970s onward, sales of herbicides and fungicides with higher acceptable daily intakes (ADIs; i.e., with lower toxicity) have increased. However, the percentage of herbicides with very low ADIs (<10–2.5 mg kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) being shipped has also increased. Tefuryltrione, which was detected at normalized concentrations >0.1 in 8% of samples, is an example of this type of herbicide. The average log-Kow of herbicides has decreased from the 1970s to the present, due to the strong trend towards the application of hydrophilic herbicides, such glyphosate. The need for increased monitoring of pesticides used in rice paddy farming is highlighted.

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The history of the development of herbicides for mechanized paddy rice production in Japan can be characterized by a combination of products with several ingredients, by large availability in formulation, and by application methods for labor saving in accordance with natural and social conditions of the country, for instance, around 40% of national land located in hilly and mountainous areas, small size paddy fields consolidated in approximately 0.3 ha on average and so on. As for combination products, one‐shot herbicides that can control both annual and perennial weeds, including grasses, sedges and broadleaved weeds, mainly with sulfonylureas have been a major means of rice production since the 1980s. One‐shot herbicides have been improved by using newly developed chemicals with excellent herbicidal efficacy, such as acetolactate synthase (ALS), 4‐hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4‐HPPD), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) and very‐long‐chain fatty acid elongase (VLCFAE) inhibitors, and by combining ingredients that are effective against sulfonylurea‐resistant (SU‐R) biotypes of lowland weeds. The latest type of one‐shot herbicides can control noxious species such as Eleocharis kuroguwai as well as other ordinal species. Regarding herbicide formulation, “1 kg granule,” “Jumbo,” “Flowable,” “Diffusion granule” and so on have been developed to save farmers the troubles of applying herbicides. As for application methods, “at‐transplanting application,” “at‐irrigation inlet application” and utilization of radio‐controlled helicopters or boats were put into practical use as labor‐saving technology. As a result, farmers were spared the severe hand‐weeding work under blazing heat during the summer season. Japan Association for Advancement of Phyto‐Regulators (JAPR) have promoted and contributed to the development of herbicides through collaboration with agrochemical companies and research organizations since it was founded in 1964. In this paper, I explain the development progress of herbicide using materials on the mode of action, the trend of one‐shot herbicides, the feature of a labor‐saving formulation and the working hours for weed management in rice production.
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To better characterize the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015-September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in every month sampled and five of the six target neonicotinoids were detected. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in 74% of the monthly samples with up to three neonicotinoids detected in an individual sample (10% of all samples). The most frequently detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid (53%), followed by clothianidin (44%), thiamethoxam (22%), acetamiprid (2%), and dinotefuran (1%). Thiacloprid was not detected in any samples. The maximum concentration for an individual neonicotinoid was 230 ng L-1 and the maximum total neonicotinoids in an individual sample was 400 ng L-1. The median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations ranged from non-detect to 10 ng L-1. The detections of clothianidin and thiamethoxam significantly increased as the percent of cultivated crops in the basins increased (ρ = 0.73, P = .01; ρ = 0.66, P = .04, respectively). In contrast, imidacloprid detections significantly increased as the percent of the urbanization in the basins increased (ρ = 0.66, P = .03). Neonicotinoid concentrations generally increased in spring through summer coinciding with the planting of neonicotinoid-treated seeds and broadcast applications of neonicotinoids. More spatially intensive samples were collected in an agriculturally dominated basin (8 sites along the Maumee River, Ohio) twice during the spring, 2016 planting season to provide further information on neonicotinoid inputs to the Great Lakes. Three neonicotinoids were ubiquitously detected (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) in all water samples collected within this basin. Maximum individual neonicotinoid concentrations was 330 ng L-1 and maximum total neonicotinoid concentration was 670 ng L-1; median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations were 7.0 to 39 ng L-1.
Article
Fipronil and fipronil degradates have been reported in treated wastewater effluent at concentrations that exceed USEPA Aquatic Life Benchmarks, posing a potential risk to the surface waters to which they discharge. Fipronil is a common insecticide found in spot-on flea and tick treatment products that have the potential for down-the-drain transport and direct washoff into surface water. Volunteers currently treating their dogs with a fipronil-containing spot-on product were recruited. Dogs were washed either 2, 7, or 28 days after product application, and rinsate from 34 discrete bathing events were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for fipronil and fipronil degradates (collectively known as fiproles). Total fipronil application dosage ranged from 67.1–410.0 mg per dog following manufacturers' recommendation based on dog body weight. Total mass of fiproles measured in rinsate ranged from 3.6–230.6 mg per dog (0.2 ̶ 86.0% of mass applied). Average percentage of fiproles detected in rinsate generally decreased with increasing time from initial application: 21 ± 22, 16 ± 13, and 4 ± 5% respectively for 2, 7, and 28 days post application. Fipronil was the dominant fiprole, > 63% of total fiproles for all samples and > 92% of total fiproles in 2 and 7 day samples. Results confirm a direct pathway of pesticides to municipal wastewater through the use of spot-on products on dogs and subsequent bathing by either professional groomers or by pet owners in the home. Comparisons of mass loading calculated using California sales data and recent wastewater monitoring results suggest fipronil-containing spot-on products are a potentially important source of fipronil to wastewater treatment systems in California. This study highlights the potential for other active ingredients (i.e., bifenthrin, permethrin, etofenprox, imidacloprid) contained in spot-on and other pet products (i.e., shampoos, sprays) to enter wastewater catchments through bathing activities, posing a potential risk to the aquatic organisms downstream of wastewater discharge.
Article
Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive.
Article
Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values. These areas are mainly distributed along the southeast coast of China, within or downstream of major manufacturing districts, intensive agricultural basins, and other industrial centers. A comparison of the levels of OCPs in the aquatic environment of China with other indicative regions worldwide shows comparable levels of pollution (overall range from below detection limit (BDL) to 5104.8 ng/L and regional means from 2.9–929.6 ng/L). PAHs and PCBs pollution appear to be particularly serious in China (PAHs overall ranging from BDL to 474,000 ng/L with regional means from 15.1–72,400 ng/L; PCBs from BDL to 3161 ng/L with regional means ranging from 0.2–985.2 ng/L). There is as yet limited evidence of serious perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) pollution. We discuss major sources and processes responsible for high POP occurrence using a range of measures (including diagnostic ratios of different compounds), regulatory oversight and policy gaps in the control of POPs in China, and potential long-term health and ecological effects. We argue that water quality guidelines, pollution control measures and cleanup strategies for POPs in China should be urgently improved.
Article
The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.
Article
A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible.
Article
The environmental occurrence, sources and risk factors of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) and their isomers or metabolites were studied using comprehensive surveys (including soil, surface water, groundwater and sediment sampling) conducted in the Yellow River Delta (YRD). HCHs and DDTs were all detected in multi environmental media. Compared with reported organochlorine pesticide values in China and abroad and with related environmental quality standards, the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were generally at low levels in the YRD. Composition of OCPs (DDT metabolites and HCH isomers) showed that DDTs in the multiple environments of the YRD not only came from residues of dicofol but also from atmospheric deposition, while HCH pollution results from the historical usage of a mixture of technical HCH and lindane. Furthermore, the sum of Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (∑ELCR) exposure to HCHs exceeded the generally acceptable risk level of 1.0E-06 recommended by the USEPA for carcinogenic chemicals.
Article
Trends in pesticide concentrations in 38 major rivers of the United States were evaluated in relation to use trends for 11 commonly occurring pesticide compounds. Pesticides monitored in water were analyzed for trends in concentration in three overlapping periods, 1992-2001, 1997-2006, and 2001-2010 to facilitate comparisons among sites with variable sample distributions over time and among pesticides with changes in use during different periods and durations. Concentration trends were analyzed using the SEAWAVE-Q model, which incorporates intra-annual variability in concentration and measures of long-term, mid-term, and short-term streamflow variability. Trends in agricultural use within each of the river basins were determined using interval-censored regression with high and low estimates of use. Pesticides strongly dominated by agricultural use (cyanazine, alachlor, atrazine and its degradate deethylatrazine, metolachlor, and carbofuran) had widespread agreement between concentration trends and use trends. Pesticides with substantial use in both agricultural and nonagricultural applications (simazine, chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and carbaryl) had concentration trends that were mostly explained by a combination of agricultural-use trends, regulatory changes, and urban use changes inferred from concentration trends in urban streams. When there were differences, concentration trends usually were greater than use trends (increased more or decreased less). These differences may occur because of such factors as unaccounted pesticide uses, delayed transport to the river through groundwater, greater uncertainty in the use data, or unquantified land use and management practice changes. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article
Water samples collected in 1995 and 2007 from the Shinano and Agano rivers were examined to determine the types and concentrations of pesticides and their effects on tap water in typical rice production areas of Japan. Tap water originating from the Shinano River was also sampled in 2007, in Niigata City, Japan. Pesticides were present in the river and tap water throughout the year. Comparison of 13 pesticides common to both 1995 and 2007 series revealed that the frequency of individual pesticide occurrence and concentrations were decreasing. Riverine pesticides were classified into five groups according to the period of their appearance and changes in concentration. Pesticides were detected at the time of application to, and drainage from, paddy fields. Pesticide concentrations in tap water showed notable decline following rapid sand-filtration combined with granular activated carbon. The detection index (DI) for tap water and Shinano River water did not exceed a value of 1. Herbicides contributed most to the DI.
Article
The kinetics of bensulfuron-methyl chlorination were studied at pH 4-9 at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C), which can be described well by a second-order kinetic model, first-order in chlorine and first-order in bensulfuron-methyl concentrations. Bensulfuron-methyl reacted very rapidly with aqueous chlorine with the maximum reaction rate constant at pH 6 and minimum at pH 9. The superior reactions were the reactions between HOCl and ionized/nonionized bensulfuron-methyl. The reaction factors including bromide and ammonium concentrations as well as temperature were also evaluated. It was found that bromide accelerated the chlorination of bensulfuron-methyl and the reaction rate increased linearly with the increase of bromide concentration. In contrast, the presence of ammonium inhibited the degradation of bensulfuron-methyl due to its quick conversion of chlorine to chloramines. Bensulfuron-methyl chlorination is an endothermic reaction with the activation energy being estimated as 13.74 kJ/mol using the Arrhenius equation. Four volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) were identified after bensulfuron-methyl chlorination, including chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile, 1,1,1-trichloroacetone and nitrotrichloromethane. Trihalomethanes were the dominant species with a maximum reached at pH 8, which could cause potential risks to public health during bensulfuron-methyl chlorination, especially with the presence of bromide because the concentration and species of brominated DBPs increased with increasing bromide concentration.
Article
Fenitrothion [O, O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate], a typical organophosphorus pesticide, is widely used as an insecticide in Japan. In this study, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (3M4NP), which is a typical hydrolysate of fenitrothion, was focused as a possible mutagen precursor because it is reported as a common contaminant in raw water for water works, and is capable of forming mutagens when it is chlorinated in water works. In order to examine molecular formulae of mutagens produced from 3M4NP, a chlorinated 3M4NP sample was analyzed with a high-resolution LC/MS. Several peaks were found in a base peak chromatogram. A peak of m/z 215.971 was focused to be analyzed, suggesting a formation of C7H4O5NCl (mass error = 0.397 mmu or 1.837 ppm). To examine the chemical structure of the found substance, MS² experiments were conducted with a collision induced disassociation technique. Four product ions: m/z 198.9679, 187.9757, 170.9731 and 136.0043 which can be attributed to losses of OH, CO, COOH and Cl functional groups were observed. From these fragment ions and the structure of 3M4NP, the substance was extrapolated to be chloro-5-hydroxy-2-nitrobenzoic acid (C5H2NB). The mutagen formation potential (MFP) of 5-hydroxy-2-nitrobenzoic acid, which is considered to be a precursor of C5H2NB, was tested and the MFP of 3,400 net rev./μmol was observed.
Article
During the 20 years from 1992 to 2011, pesticides were found at concentrations that exceeded aquatic-life benchmarks in many rivers and streams that drain agricultural, urban, and mixed-land use watersheds. Overall, the proportions of assessed streams with one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic-life benchmark were very similar between the two decades for agricultural (69% during 1992-2001 compared to 61% during 2002-2011) and mixed-land-use streams (45% compared to 46%). Urban streams, in contrast, increased from 53% during 1992-2011 to 90% during 2002-2011, largely because of fipronil and dichlorvos. The potential for adverse effects on aquatic life is likely greater than these results indicate because potentially important pesticide compounds were not included in the assessment. Human-health benchmarks were much less frequently exceeded, and during 2002-2011, only one agricultural stream and no urban or mixed-land-use streams exceeded human-health benchmarks for any of the measured pesticides. Widespread trends in pesticide concentrations, some downward and some upward, occurred in response to shifts in use patterns primarily driven by regulatory changes and introductions of new pesticides.
Article
Twenty percent of the water run-off from China’s land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1–5 μg/g), pesticides (11–284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5–224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4–430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River’s average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m3/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m3 of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary, the annual amounts flushed by the Yangtze River into the East China Sea were 2.9 × 106 tons of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC), 369 tons of PAHs, 98 tons of pesticides, 152 tons of pharmaceuticals, and 273 tons of household and industrial chemicals. While the concentrations seem comparably moderate, the pollutant loads are considerable and pose an increasing burden to the health of the marine coastal ecosystem.
The concentrations and loadings of herbicides were investigated in paddy fields (40.5ha) located around Lake Biwa from May to October in 2005 and 2006. The herbicide losses from the basin determined from the cumulative load from May to July and the application amount determined by the questionnaire method by Japan Agricultural Cooperatives (JA) were estimated in 2005 and 2006, respectively, to be 26.3% and 36.5% for Daimuron, 24.5% and 30.8% for Bomobutide, 21.5% and 18.6% for Simetryn, 15.7% and 9.30% for Benfresate, 9.14% and 11.3% for Pretilachlor, 5.49% and 5.33% for Mefenacet, and 0.32% and 0.84% for Esprocarb, and in 2005 to be 5.52% for Thenylchlor and 4.74% for Cafenstrol. A Simple model was developed to estimate herbicide losses by multiple regression analysis. The specific loss, which is calculated from the total loss and the average discharge on nonrainy days, was used as the criterion variable. The water solubility, Henry's law constant and soil adsorption constant were used as explanatory variables. The most important contributor to herbicide losses is the adsorption constant of soil. The specific losses calculated from the result of multiple regression analysis were consistent with the observed values. The errors between the observed and calculated values were within ± 0.5% for four herbicides and almost ± 1.0% for five herbicides.
The concentrations and loadings of herbicides were investigated in three paddy field basins (4.7, 4.7 and 9.3 ha) from May to August 2002. The herbicide losses from the basins determined from cumulative load and application amount gathered by the questionnaire method were estimated to be 1.6% and 26% for Bromobutide, 8.9∼27% for Cafenstrol, 0.1% for Dimepiperate, 1.1∼2.0% for Mefenacet, 10.2∼25% for Simetryn, 0.9% and 14% for Thenylchlor, and 0.1∼1.6% for Thiobencarb. One of the important factors attributed to the differences in herbicide loss among the basins was water discharge from the basins. To generalize them, specific herbicide losses were calculated from herbicide losses and the height of daily dry weather flow. The specific herbicide losses suggested that transport with percolated water is the main factor for Cafenstrol and Simetryn losses, although other factors such as interaction with soil and degradation in soil may have also contribute to Bromotutide, Mefenacet, Thenylchlor and Thiobencarb losses from the paddy field basins.
Article
This study was designed to examine the environmental exposure of surface- and groundwater pollution in remote mountainous regions of northern Vietnam. In 2008, we monitored the loss of four commonly applied pesticides (imidacloprid, fenitrothion, fenobucarb, dichlorvos) from paddy rice farming systems to a receiving stream on the watershed scale and quantified groundwater pollution. For the entire monitoring period, runoff loss of pesticides from the watershed was estimated to range between 0.4% (dichlorvos) and 16% (fenitrothion) of the total applied mass. These losses were correlated well with the octanol–water partition coefficient and water solubility of pesticides (r2 = 0.78–0.99). In the groundwater collected from eight wells, all target pesticides were frequently detected. Maximum measured concentrations were 0.47, 0.22, 0.17, and 0.07 µg L−1 for fenitrothion, imidacloprid, fenobucarb, and dichlorvos, respectively. Our results strongly indicate that under the current management practice pesticide use in paddy fields poses a serious environmental problem in mountainous regions of northern Vietnam.
Article
Behavior of the herbicide bromobutide, (RS)-2-bromo-N-(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide, in paddy water and soil after application to paddy fields was investigated to evaluate the degradation to bromobutide-debromo, N-(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide, and runoff of the herbicide. The respective maximum concentrations of bromobutide and the metabolite were 1,640–2,230 and 11.1–15.8 μg/L in the paddy water, and 2,210–4,140 μg/kg dry and 74–119 μg/kg dry in the paddy soil, respectively. The runoff ratios of the applied bromobutide from the paddy fields were calculated as 28 ± 16%. The respective mean values of the half-lives of bromobutide in the paddy water and the soil were 2.7 ± 0.34 days and 6.9 ± 2.6 days, respectively.
Article
This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment. The compounds most frequently detected were atrazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin of the herbicides, diazinon, parathion methyl of the insecticides and lindane, endosulfan and aldrin of the organochlorine pesticides. Rivers were found to be more polluted than lakes. The detected concentrations of most pesticides follow a seasonal variation, with maximum values occurring during the late spring and summer period followed by a decrease during winter. Nationwide, in many cases the reported concentrations ranged in low ppb levels. However, elevated concentrations were recorded in areas of high pesticide use and intense agricultural practices. Generally, similar trends and levels of pesticides were found in Greek rivers compared to pesticide contamination in other European rivers. Monitoring of the Greek water resources for pesticide residues must continue, especially in agricultural regions, because the nationwide patterns of pesticide use are constantly changing. Moreover, emphasis should be placed on degradation products not sufficiently studied so far.
Degradation of pesticides by chlorination on the process of water treatment for drinking
  • Watanabe