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Unleashing the potential of continuous improvement in teaching/learning requires an appreciation of the difference in spirit between assessment and evaluation. Assessment is frequently confused and confounded with evaluation. The purpose of an evaluation is to judge the quality of a performance or work product against a standard. The fundamental nature of assessment is that a mentor values helping a mentee and is willing to expend the effort to provide quality feedback that will enhance the mentee's future performance. While both processes involve collecting data about a performance or work product, what is done with these data in each process is substantially different and invokes a very different mindset. This paper first looks at what assessment is and the various aspects involving. Then attention will be turn to evaluation and its components. Furthermore, it will look at testing as a tool used by both assessment and evaluation, lastly, some differences between assessment and evaluation will be presented.
By: Tomás de Aquino Caluyua Yambi
1. Introduction
Unleashing the potential of continuous improvement in teaching/learning
requires an appreciation of the difference in spirit between assessment and evaluation.
Assessment is frequently confused and confounded with evaluation. The purpose of
an evaluation is to judge the quality of a performance or work product against a
standard. The fundamental nature of assessment is that a mentor values helping a
mentee and is willing to expend the effort to provide quality feedback that will
enhance the mentee's future performance. While both processes involve collecting
data about a performance or work product, what is done with these data in each
process is substantially different and invokes a very different mindset. This paper first
looks at what assessment is and the various aspects involving. Then attention will be
turn to evaluation and its components. Furthermore, it will look at testing as a tool
used by both assessment and evaluation, lastly some differences between assessment
and evaluation will be presented.
2. Epistemology of Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment and Evaluation are two different concepts with a number of
differences between them starting from the objectives and focus. Before we go into
details about these differences that set assessment and evaluation apart, let us first pay
attention to the two words themselves. According to the Webster Dictionary (2017),
assessment means appraisal. Then, according to the same dictionary, evaluation is
estimation or determining the value of something. So, these processes are used in the
field of education very often to test the quality of teaching and learning processes.
That is done to let the educational institutes find out what more can be done to
improve the education offered by those educational institutes.
3. What is Assessment
As stated above, and according to Brown, (1990) assessment refers to a related
series of measures used to determine a complex attribute of an individual or group of
individuals. This involves gathering and interpreting information about student level
of attainment of learning goals.
Assessments also are used to identify individual student weaknesses and
strengths so that educators can provide specialized academic support educational
programming, or social services. In addition, assessments are developed by a wide
array of groups and individuals, including teachers, district administrators,
universities, private companies, state departments of education, and groups that
include a combination of these individuals and institutions.
In classroom assessment, since teachers themselves develop, administer and analyze
the questions, they are more likely to apply the results of the assessment to their own
teaching. Therefore, it provides feedback on the effectiveness of instruction and gives
students a measure of their progress. As Brown (1990) maintains, two major functions
can be pointed out for classroom assessment: One is to show whether or not the
learning has been successful, and the other one is to clarify the expectations of the
teachers from the students (Brown, 1990).
Assessment is a process that includes four basic components:
1) Measuring improvement over time.
2) Motivating students to study.
3) Evaluating the teaching methods.
4) Ranking the students' capabilities in relation to the whole group evaluation.
3.1. Why Assessment is Important
First and foremost, assessment is important because it drives students learning
(Brown 1990). Whether we like it or not, most students tend to focus their energies on
the best or most expeditious way to pass their ‘tests.’ Based on this knowledge, we
can use our assessment strategies to manipulate the kinds of learning that takes place.
For example, assessment strategies that focus predominantly on recall of knowledge
will likely promote superficial learning. On the other hand, if we choose assessment
strategies that demand critical thinking or creative problem solving, we are likely to
realize a higher level of student performance or achievement. In addition, good
assessment can help students become more effective self-directed learners (Darling-
Hammond 2006). As indicated above, motivating and directing learning is only one
purpose of assessment. Well-designed assessment strategies also play a critical role in
educational decision-making and are a vital component of ongoing quality
improvement processes at the lesson, course and/or curriculum level.
3.2. Types and Approaches to Assessment
Numerous terms are used to describe different types to learner assessment. Although
somewhat arbitrary, it is useful to these various terms as representing dichotomous
poles (McAlpine, 2002).
3.3. Formative vs. Summative Assessment
Formative assessment is designed to assist the learning process by providing
feedback to the learner, which can be used to identify strengths and weakness and
hence improve future performance. Formative assessment is most appropriate where
the results are to be used internally by those involved in the learning process
(students, teachers, curriculum developers). Summative assessment is used primarily
to make decisions for grading or determine readiness for progression. Typically
summative assessment occurs at the end of an educational activity and is designed to
judge the learner’s overall performance. In addition to providing the basis for grade
assignment, summative assessment is used to communicate students’ abilities to
external stakeholders, e.g., administrators and employers (Darling-Hammond, 2006).
3.4. Informal vs. Formal Assessment
With informal assessment, the judgments are integrated with other tasks, e.g.,
lecturer feedback on the answer to a question or preceptor feedback provided while
performing a bedside procedure. Informal assessment is most often used to provide
formative feedback. As such, it tends to be less threatening and thus less stressful to
the student. However, informal feedback is prone to high subjectivity or bias. Formal
assessment occurs when students are aware that the task that they are doing is for
assessment purposes, e.g., a written examination. Most formal assessments also are
summative in nature and thus tend to have greater motivation impact and are
associated with increased stress. Given their role in decision-making, formal
assessments should be held to higher standards of reliability and validity than
informal assessments (McAlpine 2002).
3.5. Continuous vs. Final Assessment
Continuous assessment occurs throughout a learning experience (intermittent
is probably a more realistic term). Continuous assessment is most appropriate when
student and/or instructor knowledge of progress or achievement is needed to
determine the subsequent progression or sequence of activities (McAlpine 2002).
Continuous assessment provides both students and teachers with the information
needed to improve teaching and learning in process. Obviously, continuous
assessment involves increased effort for both teacher and student. Final (or terminal)
assessment is that which takes place only at the end of a learning activity. It is most
appropriate when learning can only be assessed as a complete whole rather than as
constituent parts. Typically, final assessment is used for summative decision-making.
Obviously, due to its timing, final assessment cannot be used for formative purposes
(McAlpine 2002).
3.6. Process vs. Product Assessment
Process assessment focuses on the steps or procedures underlying a particular
ability or task, i.e., the cognitive steps in performing a mathematical operation or the
procedure involved in analyzing a blood sample. Because it provides more detailed
information, process assessment is most useful when a student is learning a new skill
and for providing formative feedback to assist in improving performance (McAlpine
2002). Product assessment focuses on evaluating the result or outcome of a process.
Using the above examples, we would focus on the answer to the math computation or
the accuracy of the blood test results. Product assessment is most appropriate for
documenting proficiency or competency in a given skill, i.e., for summative purposes.
In general, product assessments are easier to create than product assessments,
requiring only a specification of the attributes of the final product (McAlpine 2002).
3.7. Divergent vs. Convergent Assessment
Divergent assessments are those for which a range of answers or solutions
might be considered correct. Examples include essay tests. Divergent assessments
tend to be more authentic and most appropriate in evaluating higher cognitive skills.
However, these types of assessment are often time consuming to evaluate and the
resulting judgments often exhibit poor reliability. A convergent assessment has only
one correct response (per item). Objective test items are the best example and
demonstrate the value of this approach in assessing knowledge. Obviously,
convergent assessments are easier to evaluate or score than divergent assessments.
Unfortunately, this “ease of use” often leads to their widespread application of this
approach even when contrary to good assessment practices. Specifically, the
familiarity and ease with which convergent assessment tools can be applied leads to
two common evaluation fallacies: the Fallacy of False Quantification (the tendency to
focus on what’s easiest to measure) and the Law of the Instrument Fallacy (molding
the evaluation problem to fit the tool) (McAlpine 2002).
3.8. Approaches to Assessment
In approaches to assessment, two central tendencies emerge which are relevant
to language as subject. One places emphasis on the assessment of learning where
reliable, objective measures are a high priority. The focus here is on making
summative judgements which in practice is likely to involve more formal
examinations and tests with marks schemes to ensure that the process is sound
(McAlpine 2002). An alternative approach is to change the emphasis from assessment
of learning to assessment for learning, implying a more formative approach where
there is much more emphasis on feedback to improve performance. The approach
here might be through course work and portfolio assessment in which diverse
information can be gathered which reflects the true broad nature of the subject
(McAlpine 2002).
4. Between Assessment and Evaluation
After collecting data from students there is then the need for assigning
students with numbers or others symbols to a certain characteristic of the objects of
interest according to some specified rules in order to reflect quantities of properties.
This is called measurement and can be attributed to students’ achievement,
personality traits or attitudes. Measurement then is the process of determining a
quantitative or qualitative attribute of an individual or group of individuals that is of
academic relevance. A test will serve as the vehicle used to observe an attribute
whether in a written test or an observation or an oral question or an assessment
intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities. Then if the test is
the vehicle then the test score is the indication of what was observed through the test
and can also be quantitative and qualitative in nature.
A good test should possess not only validity and reliability but also
objectivity, objective basedness, comprehensiveness, discriminating power,
practicability, comparability and also utility (Shohamy 1993). Objectivity is when a
test is to be said objective if it is free from personal biases in interpreting its scope as
well as in scoring the responses. It can be increased by using more objective type test
items and the answers are scored according to model answers are provided. Objective
basedness is that a test should be based on pre-determined objectives. And a test setter
should have definite idea about the objective behind each item (Shohamy 1993).
Comprehensiveness is that the test should cover the whole syllabus, due importance
should be given all the relevant learning materials, and a test should cover all the
anticipated objectives. Validity is the degree to which test measures what it is to
measure. Reliability is of a test refers to the degree of consistency which it measures
what is intended to measure. A test may be reliable but need not be valid. This is
because it may yield consistent scores but these scores need not be representing what
is exactly measured what we want to measure (Shohamy 2001). Discriminating power
of the test is its power to discriminate between the upper and lower groups who took
the test. The test should have different difficulty level of questions. Practicality of the
test depends on administrative, scoring, interpretative ease and economy.
Comparability is when a test possesses comparability when scores resulting from its
use can be interpreted in terms of a common base that has a natural or accepted
meaning. Then lastly the utility, a test has utility if it provides the test condition that
would facilitate realization of the purpose for which it is mean.
Educators believe that every measurement device should possess certain
qualities. Perhaps the two most common technical concepts in measurement are
reliability and validity (Weir 2005). Any kind of assessment, whether traditional or
"authentic," must be developed in a way that gives the assessor accurate information
about the performance of the individual (Weir 2005). At one extreme, we wouldn't
have an individual paint a picture if we wanted to assess writing skills. A test high
validity has to be reliable also for the score will be consistent in both cases. A valid
test is also a reliable test, but a reliable test may not be a valid one (Shohamy 2001).
5. What is Evaluation
Evaluation is determining the value of something. So, more specifically, in the
field of education, evaluation means measuring or observing the process to judge it or
to determine it for its value by comparing it to others or some kind of a standard
(Weir & Roberts, 1994). The focus of the evaluation is on grades. It is rather a final
process that is determined to understand the quality of the process. The quality of the
process is mostly determined by grades. That is such an evaluation can come as a
paper that is given grades. This type of paper will test the knowledge of each student.
So, here with the grades, the officials come try to measure the quality of the
programme. Furthermore, Evaluation is comparing a student's achievement with other
students or with a set of standards (Howard & Donaghue 2015). It refers to
consideration of evidence in the light of value standards and in terms of the particular
situations and the goals, which the group or individuals are striving to attain.
Evaluation designates more comprehensive concept of measurement than is implied
in conventional tests and examination. The emphasis of evaluation is based upon
broad personality change and the major objectives in the educational program
(Howard & Donaghue 2015).
Evaluation can, and should, however, be used as an ongoing management and
learning tool to improve learning, including five basic components according to
Kizlik (2010):
1) Articulating the purpose of the educational system.
2) Identifying and collecting relevant information.
3) Having ideas that are valuable and useful to learners in their lives and
4) Analyzing and interpreting information for learners.
5) Classroom management or classroom decision making.
Well-run classes and effective programs are those that can demonstrate the
achievement of results. Results are derived from good management. Good
management is based on good decision making. Good decision making depends on
good information. Good information requires good data and careful analysis of the
data. These are all critical elements of evaluation.
5.1. Functions of evaluations
Evaluation refers to a periodic process of gathering data and then analyzing or
ordering it in such a way that the resulting information can be used to determine how
effective your teaching or program is, and the extent to which it is achieving its stated
objectives and anticipated results (Howard & Donaghue (2015). Teachers can and
should conduct internal evaluations to get information about their programs, to know
who passes and who fails so that they can make sound decisions about their practices.
Internal evaluation should be conducted on an ongoing basis and applied
conscientiously by teachers at every level of an institution in all program areas. In
addition, all of the program's participants (managers, staff, and beneficiaries) should
be involved in the evaluation process in appropriate ways. This collaboration helps
ensure that the evaluation is fully participatory and builds commitment on the part of
all involved to use the results to make critical program improvements (Howard &
Donaghue 2015).
Although most evaluations are done internally, conducted by local
stakeholders, there is still a need for larger-scale, external evaluations conducted
periodically by individuals from outside the program or institution. Most often these
external evaluations are required for funding and accreditation purposes or to answer
questions about the program's long-term impact by looking at changes in
demographic indicators such as graduation rate, changes n economy and other levels.
In addition, occasionally a teacher may be observed by an external stakeholder with
purpose of assessing programmatic or operating problems that have been identified
but that cannot be fully diagnosed or resolved through the findings of internal
evaluation (Weir & Roberts, 1994).
5.2. Principles of Evaluation
Here are some principles to consider for your own classroom summarised
from (Weir & Roberts, 1994; Howard & Donaghue 2015; (Kellaghan & Stufflebean
Ø Effective evaluation is a continuous, on-going process. Much more than
determining the outcome of learning, it is rather a way of gauging learning
over time. Learning and evaluation are never completed; they are always
evolving and developing.
Ø A variety of evaluative tools is necessary to provide the most accurate
assessment of students' learning and progress. Dependence on one type of tool
to the exclusion of others deprives students of valuable learning opportunities
and robs you of measures that help both students and the overall program
Ø Evaluation must be a collaborative activity between teachers and students.
Students must be able to assume an active role in evaluation so they can begin
to develop individual responsibilities for development and self-monitoring.
Ø Evaluation needs to be authentic. It must be based on the natural activities and
processes students do both in the classroom and in their everyday lives. For
example, relying solely on formalized testing procedures might send a signal
to children that learning is simply a search for “right answers.”
6. Assessment vs. evaluation
Depending on the area of study, authority or reference consulted, assessment
and evaluation may be treated as synonyms or as distinctly different concepts. In
education, assessment is widely recognized as an ongoing process aimed at
understanding and improving student learning. Assessment is concerned with
converting expectations to results. It can be a process by which information is
collected through the use of test, interview, questionnaire observation, etc. For
example, having your students to write on a given topic your are collecting
information, this is what we mean here by assessment (Kizlik 2010; Richards and
Schmidt 2002; Weir & Roberts, 1994).
Evaluation on the other hand, is recognized as a more scientific process aimed
at determining what can be known about performance capabilities and how these are
best measured. Evaluation is concerned with issues of validity, accuracy, reliability,
analysis, and reporting. It can therefore be seen as the systematic gathering of
information for purposes of decision-making, using both quantitative methods (tests)
and qualitative methods (observations, ratings and value judgments) with purpose of
judging the gathered information. In other words, when the teachers receive written
assignment from students, some kind of correction and/or response and a possible
mark will be given. Thus we are in presence of evaluation. However, assessment and
evaluation are similar in that they both involve specifying criteria and collecting
data/information. In most academic environments, they are different in purpose,
setting criteria, control of the process, and response. For example, an instructor can
use the results of a midterm exam for both assessment and evaluation purposes. The
results can be used to review with the students course material related to common
mistakes on the exam (i.e. to improve student learning as in assessment) or to decide
what measurement or grade to give each student (i.e. to judge student achievement in
the course as in evaluation) (Howard & Donaghue 2015).
7. Key Differences Between Assessment and Evaluation
The significant differences between assessment and evaluation are discussed
in the points given below summarized from (Weir & Roberts, 1994; Howard &
Donaghue 2015; (Kellaghan & Stufflebean 2003):
1. The process of collecting, reviewing and using data, for the purpose of
improvement in the current performance, is called assessment. A process of
passing judgment, on the basis of defined criteria and evidence is called
2. Assessment is diagnostic in nature as it tends to identify areas of
improvement. On the other hand, evaluation is judgemental, because it aims at
providing an overall grade.
3. The assessment provides feedback on performance and ways to enhance
performance in future. As against this, evaluation ascertains whether the
standards are met or not.
4. The purpose of assessment is formative, i.e. to increase quality whereas
evaluation is all about judging quality, therefore the purpose is summative.
5. Assessment is concerned with process, while evaluation focuses on product.
6. In an assessment, the feedback is based on observation and positive &
negative points. In contrast to evaluation, in which the feedback relies on the
level of quality as per set standard.
7. In an assessment, the relationship between assessor and assessee is reflective,
i.e. the criteria are defined internally. On the contrary, the evaluator and
evaluatee share a prescriptive relationship, wherein the standards are imposed
8. The criteria for assessment are set by both the parties jointly. As opposed to
evaluation, wherein the criteria are set by the evaluator.
8. Conclusion
An effective, goal-oriented, teaching-learning sequence contains clearly
understood objectives, productive classroom activities, and a sufficient amount of
feedback to make students aware of the strengths and weaknesses of their
performances. Assessment and evaluation are related to both instructional objectives
and classroom learning activities and are indispensable elements in the learning
process. They are useful for gathering data/information needed into various interests.
The data can be used to make decision about the content and methods of instruction,
to make decisions about classrooms climate, to help communicate what is important,
and to assign grades. Among other techniques to do evaluation and assessment, The
teachers can use tests to evaluating and assessing, starting from the small one,
incorporating evaluation into the class routine, setting up an easy and efficient record-
keeping system, establishing an evaluation plan, and personalizing the evaluation
9. References
Bachman, L. F. (1995). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Brown, D. H. (1990). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices.
London: Longman
Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Assessing teacher education: The usefulness of
multiple measures for assessing program outcomes. Journal of Teacher
Education, 57(2), 120-138.
Kellaghan, T., & Stufflebean, D.L. (Eds) (2003). International Handbook of
educational evaluation. Dordrecht: Klüver Academic Publisher
Kizlik, B. (2010). How to Write an Assessment Based on a Behaviorally Stated
Objective. [online Document] Available at Accessed on September 15, 2017.
McAlpine, M. (2002). Principles of Assessment. Glasgow: University of Luton.
Available at!
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2017). New York, NY:
Richards, C. and Schmidt 2002. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and
Applied Linguistics. (3rd edition). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.
Shohamy, E. (1993). The Power of Tests. The Impact of Language Tests on Teaching
and Learning. Washington, DC: NFLC Occasional Papers..
Shohamy, E. (2001). The Power of Tests: A Critical Perspective on the Uses of
Language Tests. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Weir, J. C. (2005). Language testing and validation: Evidence-based approach. New
York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Weir, J. C., & Roberts, J. (1994). Evaluation in ELT. Oxford: Blackwell
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During the pandemic, the Department of Education used Self-Learning Modules (SLMs) for modular distance learning. The descriptive-evaluative design was used to assess the effectiveness of the SLMs of Grade 8 STE classes in Calbayog City's public junior high schools. Respondents were 8 th-grade STE students at public high schools offering STE. A survey questionnaire was used to evaluate the SLM in eight dimensions: learning outcomes, content, resource materials, assessment, learning activities, clarity, cohesion, and feedback. Most STE students were female, at the right grade level, used online learning, and performed well in add-on subjects. SLMs were deemed effective learning materials. Age, sex, and first-quarter performance on SLMs like learning outcomes, learning activities, and assessment showed no significant differences. The evaluation showed no significant differences between learning modalities and SLM dimensions. In contrast, school is not a predictor of SLM's perceived effectiveness among students. Only age and sex correlated to SLM learning outcomes, assessment, cohesion, and resource materials. Since the SLM was evaluated as an effective learning material for add-on subjects in both learning modalities, the researcher recommends that teachers use the SLMs and that DepEd personnel like EPS in Science, school heads, teachers, and the Quality Assurance team continue assessing the SLMs in the STE program to ensure their effectiveness and quality. The researcher proposed a training design on teacher-made SLMs in the STE program using the ADDIE model as a capacity-building activity for teachers in developing and validating SLMs.
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Successful implementation of continuous assessment in schools depends on effective and efficient use of a variety of assessment techniques to determine students’ learning outcomes. Among these various techniques are the peer assessment technique (PAT), teacher assessment technique (TAT) among others. This study examined relative effectiveness of PAT in enhancing secondary school students’ academic achievement and interest in Economics. Six research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a quasiexperimental research design. 1,750 SS II students in twelve (12) secondary schools in Delta North Education Zone (Ministry of Education, Exams and Standard, Asaba) comprised the population of the study. The sample of this study comprised 107 (49 males and 58 females) SSII students who offered Economics from two co-educational secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area, Delta North Education Zone of Delta State. The instruments for data collection were Economics Achievement Test (EAT) and Economics Interest Inventory (EII). The EAT and EII were validated by subject specialists and measurement and evaluation experts. The reliability coefficients of EAT and EII were 0.95 and 0.81 respectively. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed among others that the mean achievement scores of students exposed to TAT is higher than that of those exposed to PAT and the difference in their mean achievement scores is significant. Students exposed to TAT have more interest than those exposed to PAT but the difference in their mean interest scores is not significant. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that secondary school authorities should use only TAT for assessment of secondary school students’ academic achievement in all secondary schools. Keywords: Academic Achievement, Interest, Peer Assessment Technique, Teacher Assessment Technique
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Ang artikulo na ito ay may paksa tungkol sa “Makabagong Pamamaraan ng Pagtuturo ng Filipino sa Bagong Kadawyan”. Naglalaman ito tungkol sa pamamaraan na maaaring magamit ng mga guro sa birtwal na klase. Magbabasa rin dito ang mga danas ng isang guro sa pagtuturo ngayong panahon ng pandemya kung paano natin patuloy na makukuha ang interes ng mga mag-aaral sa ating mga talakayan. Makakapulot din ng mg ideya tungkol sa mga laro na maaari nating gawin sa talakayan nang sa gayon ay magkaroon ng masayang interaksyon ang bawat estudyante. Sa kabila ng mga kinakaharap nating problema ngayon patuloy pa rin na ibinibigay ng mga guro ang kanilang buong husay sa pagbabahagi ng mga kaalaman sa klase.
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Productive strategies for evaluating outcomes are becoming increasingly important for the improvement, and even the survival, of teacher education. This article describes a set of research and assessment strategies used to evaluate program outcomes in the Stanford Teacher Education Program during a period of program redesign over the past 5 years. These include perceptual data on what candidates feel they have learned in the program (through surveys and interviews) as well as independent measures of what they have learned (data from pretests and posttests, performance assessments, work samples, employers’ surveys, and observations of practice). The article discusses the possibilities and limits of different tools for evaluating teachers and teacher education and describes future plans for assessing beginning teachers’ performance in teacher education, their practices in the initial years of teaching, and their pupils’ learning.
This paper is rooted in an expanded view of construct validity, whereby the role of testers does not end in the development phase of the language tests they employ. Rather, testers need to follow the uses of these tests and examine issues of utility, relevance, ethics, and interpretation. The studies reported here focused on three national language tests, and examined their impact on teaching and learning in the school context. The three tests were: a test of Arabic as a second language for seventh, eighth, and ninth grades; an English-as-a-Second-Language oral test; and first-language reading comprehension test for fourth- and fifth-grade students. Data were collected through class observation, questionnaires, interviews, and analyses of documents. The impact of all three tests was complex, occurring in a number of directions, and dependent on the nature and purpose of the test. All tests diverted attention to areas that had not been explicitly taught previously. In terms of the test effect, in all three cases, instruction became testlike. Other findings involved tests as de facto curriculum, conflict between teachers and bureaucrats with regard to the use of test results, and the use of tests for purposes different from those that were initially intended. (Contains 14 references.) (JP)
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