All content in this area was uploaded by Shahzad Ali on Nov 10, 2020
Content may be subject to copyright.
All content in this area was uploaded by Shahzad Ali on Oct 27, 2020
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Linguistics
Volume 5, Number 2, November 2020
Prasasti Journal of Linguistics is published by Doctoral Study Program of Postgraduate Program of
Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta Indonesia. It is published twice a year, every April and November.
It accepts article about language and linguistic research, including applied linguistics, such as
translation and language teaching. The journal accepts any fields study for any language as the subject,
such as English, Indonesia, Arabics, as well as local languages in Indonesia. Prasasti: Journal of
Linguistics is indexed by Crossref with DOI prefix 10.20961, Google Scholar, ISJD (Indonesian
Scientific Journal Database), Mendeley, WolrdCat, One Search, Moraref, BASE, Sinta Dikti, Portal
Garuda (IPI), Academia.edu, Citeulike and ResearchBib.
Editor In Chief
Sumarlam (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Tri Wiratno (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Aji Adhitya Ardanareswari
Angga Cahyaning Utami
Aji Adhitya Ardanareswari
Cece Sobarna (Universitas Padjajaran Bandung)
Diah Kristina (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Djatmika (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Dwi Purnanto (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Ermanto (Universitas Negeri Padang)
Fazal Mohamed M. Sultan (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
Harun Joko Prayitno (Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta)
Joko Nurkamto (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Jufrizal (Universitas Negeri Padang)
Hendi Pratama (Universitas Negeri Semarang)
Juliane House (University of Hamburg)
M.R. Nababan (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Mohamed Zain Sulaiman (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
Riyadi Santosa (Universitas Sebelas Maret)
Robert Sibarani (Univeritas Sumatera Utara)
Syahrul R. (Universitas Negeri Padang)
Havid Ardi (Universitas Negeri Padang)
Linguistics (Doctoral Program)
Sebelas Maret University
Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A Kentingan,
Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
Telp. (0271) 632450
DAFTAR ISI Hal
Prakata Dari Redaksi iii
1. Lexical Impact for the Ideology in
Headline News: Indonesia Salt Import
Aniesa Haque Ayu, Nurul Chojimah,
Esti Junining 123
2. Spiritualitas Pada Tokoh Novae dalam
Novel Hipernova Karya Fariza Auliya
Ellif Shiffiyn Khairaa 134
3. An Analysis of Metonymy and
Metaphor in Selected News Articles
Related to Sports in The Jakarta Post
Indah Utami Chaerunnisah 152
4. Analisis Appraisal Teks Editorial
Pangudarasa dalam Majalah Panjebar
Kenfitria Diah Wijayanti 163
5. Persepsi Publik terhadap Tokoh Politik
dalam Debat Politik di Kanal Youtube
ISSN: 2503-2658 (cetak)
ISSN: 2527-2969 (online)
6. Ideologi dalam Struktur Tema-Rema
dan Transitivitas Lagu Campursari
Kristiandi, Teguh Sarosa,
7. Dibalik Alasan Nabi Muhammad
Dijadikan Wasilah dalam Berdoa:
Kajian Lingusitik Kognitif
Nailah Sa'diyatul Fitriah 207
8. Representasi Kesantunan Dalam Novel
Anne Of Green Gables: Kajian
Ratnaningtyas Lestari, M.R. Nababan,
9. Identifying Vocational Student’s
Familiarity with Vocabulary in
Academic Context in Abstract Writing
Satriya Bayu Aji; Eka Mutia Lubis 232
10. Language Barrier is the cause of Stress
among International Students of
Shahzad Ali, Nono Hery Yoenanto,
Duta Nurdibyanandaru 242
Guidelines for Contributors 257
Language Barrier is the cause of Stress among International
Students of Universitas Airlangga
Shahzad Ali 1, Nono Hery Yoenanto 2, Duta Nurdibyanandaru3
1,2,3 Developmental and Educational Psychology Department, Fakultas Psikologi
Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
1 email@example.com, 2 firstname.lastname@example.org,
Submitted Sept 14, 2020
Revised Sept 30, 2020
Accepted Oct 29, 2020
Published Nov 03, 2020
Advanced education system and globalization are attractive towards the
students to move a foreign country for achieving higher education.
Indonesia is a multicultural and multi-linguistic country where every
year hundreds of students coming to get higher education in Masters
and PhD in various disciplines of education which are taught in
Indonesian language. There are number of students joining Universitas
Airlangga for the purpose of higher education on different programs.
The current investigation defines the problem of language barrier is
causing of stress in regard of academics among international students.
There were 70 international students contributed in current study. The
study finds 68% of participants suffering with the stress of language
barrier in academics for international students. The findings of current
study indicated the mainstream of international students experiencing
in adopting the language barrier which is becoming the cause of stress
for them. This study also suggested to the administrative stack-holders
of Universitas Airlangga to pay attention this issue and need to
overcome this major problem by organizing some events within the
campus with local students. Such recommendations will help to cope this
issue among international students by learning in a lenient and practical
Nono Hery Yoenanto
Developmental and Educational Department, Fakultas Psikologi
Jl. Airlangga, Gubeng, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Globalization is the coin in which nations across the world are emerging and all
sectors of the life including education, (Sawir, 2005). Being foreign students in other
countries generate various advantages,(Lillyman, S., & Bennett, 2014). According to
(Warring, 2010), being as foreign student create wonderful opportunities in interacting to
local students and teachers of the institution that can help to grow the confidence level
among international students. Moreover, because of studying abroad, students may get the
opportunity to be employee universally and privileged personality in their
country,(Campbell, 2010). Whereas students has some advantages, at the same host
institution get numerous advantages on having number of foreign students,(Perry, 2012).
Especially in the sector of finance which is very beneficial for host institution. Current
study was conducted to elaborate the serious concerns related to the stress of language
barrier among international students who currently enrolled in Universitas Airlangga.
Number of researches has been conducted on the topic of adjustment problems on
students that take stay in foreign country for the purpose of education, in this new
environment they have to face several issues regarding culture and customs of the host
country. The mainstream of students go through in struggling by facing sufficient
stressors, one of the major stress they face is language barrier, (Poyrazli, S., & Grahame,
2007). The other stressors faced by international students are loneliness, (Sawir, E.,
Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., & Ramia, 2008), homesickness (Ali, S., Yoenanto, N.
H., & Nurdibyanandaru, 2020), cultural shock (Constantine, M. G., Anderson, G. M., Berkel,
L. A., Caldwell, L. D., & Utsey, 2005); (Reynolds, A. L., & Constantine, 2007), economic
issues (Poyrazli, S., Arbona, C., Bullington, R., & Pisecco, 2001), perceived discrimination
(Karuppan, C. M., & Barari, 2010), less social support (Pedersen, 1991).
The stressors are stated above shows that the major stressors has been faced by
international students is language barrier, (Mori, 2000). A significant variable being as
stressor in a host country’s culture is language barrier, (Yeh, C. J., & Inose, 2003). A
number of studies proven the strong correlation between academic achievement and
proficiency in language of host country. Several researches has resulted in that language
barrier is major stress that is faced by international students in regards of their academic
performance, (Lin, J.C.G., & Yi, 1997);(Fatima, 2001). International students experienced
problems in paying attention while communicating with locals because of not having
enough information of host country social norms, poor vocabulary, and hard work for
meeting their writing skills in academics as per the requirement,(Sawir, E., Marginson, S.,
Forbes-Mewett, H., Nyland, C., & Ramia, 2012). A study conducted by (Brown, L., &
Holloway, 2008) on linguistic competency resulted in the participants of this study having
stress because of language barrier in their academics. The researchers of the study
investigated the international students by using the expressions of “ashamed”,
“embarrassed”, “nervous”, “not confident”, and “scared” to investigate the international
student’s emotions in concern of language skill and ability. Students having less confidence
about language skills might avert in participation and can also present their shunning
behaviour, (Natowitz, 1995).
A study conducted by (Liu, M., s & Redfern, B. (1997), investigated the problems
experienced by international students while looking or searching the books in library in
the United States. International students do not have enough confidence because of
language barrier and their skills in speaking English to looking for help by staff in library
and they ask help from their friends. Such experiences of international students elaborate
the effect of language barrier by not visiting the library on regular basis. Another study by
(Ishimura, Y., Howard, V., & Moukdad, 2007), talked about this issue in his study on
Japanese students that are studying in different universities in Canada. He mentioned in
his study, Japanese students very rarely visits library in the universities because of not
having enough confidence in their language skill. (Zhang, 2006)stated that, this problem
happened because of basic difference for communicating among West and East (low
context vs high context), so such variations effects the erudition skills in students.
There are couple of questions related to language stress have to discussed. First
one is, what is language stress? And how it is significant to learn and speak host country
language? Another question is, why new language generate the stress as compare to native
language? Language stress will describe by two methods; first one is, this language stress
trigger the sentiment of human which can bring several factors of arrangements regarding
situation, (Purcell-Gates, V., McIntyre, E., & Freppon, 1995). Supposed that, a student who
have shy personality can face stress on asking for talking on a topic in front of class,
(Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., 1986). The second one is, because of uniqueness in
experiencing of new language learning is the cause of making an individual stress or
nervous. Such feelings of stress and nervousness limited situation in learning of new
language, this become the cause of peculiar or particular stress. According to its
specification, psychology differentiate it as specific stress by mentioning individuals of
having situational stress face this stress,(Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., 1986). Generally,
language stress is an extra experiment for the learner of new language and teachers as
Moreover, another challenge for international students is facing remoteness with
class-fellows and interaction with lecturers because of language barrier. A study by (Terui,
2012), indicated that, number of foreign scholars who are studying in the United States of
America struggling in communicating with local people by ways of “ethnography” because
of low proficiency in English. Another study by (Beoku-Betts, 2004) has found that,
international female students who were enrolled in science faculties in different
universities in region of Western experiencing that lecturers of those universities are less
supportive and questioning to those female students by criticizing their English accent.
Problem regarding language problem among international students are mostly
have seen in Australia, the United States of America and the United Kingdom, students
experienced problems in verbal, oral and writing in these countries,(Robertson, M., Line,
M., Jones, S. and Thomas, 2000);(Singh, 2005). As per the investigation of (Hellstén, M., &
Prescott, 2004), concluded that problems regarding language is also enforce time
pressure, for example; recording the lectures, listening these recordings again and again,
pressure of academic achievement by completing the study tasks on the time. A number of
students have difficulties in pronouncing the host country language, (Singh, 2005).
According to the study of (Stoynoff, 1997), proficiency in language is significantly
interlinked with academic performance of foreign students.
A study by (Campbel, N., & Zeng, 2006) on Chinese students in Australia and New
Zealand has find that, Chinese students do not have much domestic friends in host
countries and they feel developing friendship with domestic students is hard than making
friends with other international student group who are studying in same institution, as per
the findings they also mention the causes of this problem among Chinese students is
linguistic barrier, not mutual concerns and lifestyles. That’s why they preferred to live in
Chinese community than making friendship in host community, this is all because Chinese
students facing language barrier and are not able to speak English fluently. Though,
several studies has proven that local students feels hesitant and less confident in
communicating to foreign students because of having linguistic barrier, different culture
and different origin, (Harrison, N., & Peacock, 2010); (Kimmel, K., & Volet, 2012). Another
study by (Barger, 2004) has concluded that healthy communication among both domestic
and foreign students may transfer mutual friendly relationship and can have good effect in
transferring linguistic, culture and academic experiences.
The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the language barrier problem is
a cause of stress in foreign students who are studying in a quite well established and well
organized Universitas Airlangga.
THEORY AND METHODS
There are number of researches that has resulted in, foreign students face multiple
challenges in a hosting country such as adjustment problem, unfamiliar about culture and
people, not socialization, and language barrier,(Gautam, C., Lowery, C. L., Mays, C., &
Durant, 2016). A study by (Wright, C., & Schartner, 2013), which is conducted among
foreign students who are enrolled in multiple universities and colleges in the United
Kingdom, exposed that foreign students experiencing frustration and stress while
interacting with natives, faculty members and adaptation of culture. (Park, S.S., & Son,
2011), conducted a study with focus of difficulties of language and adopting the culture.
Other than language and culture adaptation problems, international has to face economic
and socialisation problems which also a great challenge to them, it bring the stress and
feeling of loneliness among foreign students.
International students face number of experiments in their academics while
studying in host country. One of them is language barrier which play key role in
communication and achieving good academic grades, (Galloway, F. J., & Jenkins, 2009).
Current study main focus is language barrier effects on academic attaining among
international students which also leads toward stress in learning. A study by (Robertson,
M., Line, M., Jones, S., & Thomas, 2000), institution staff relationship with international
students has indicated that, staff of institution does not show concern of language barrier
problem facing by international students by stating, international students should have to
bring advancement in learning new language. Numerous researches has resulted in favour
international students experiencing language barrier. In a study by (Liu, 2011), she shared
her personal experience of surviving while studying in Canada.
Attaining higher education in abroad is full of challenges, previous studies has
proved that foreign scholars face number of challenges while adjusting new environment
which they never experienced before and it may affect academics of them because of
language barrier. At the other hand, institutions play role in serving to foreign students by
supporting them and arranging some events for them to overcome such issues but there
are still problems has experiencing by international students in adjustment and learning
language in new culture,(Wu, H. P., Garza, E., & Guzman, 2015). It is all because of cultural
shock and foreign students cannot run away or neglect the reality of this cultural shock,
these all are the part of acculturating process while adjusting in new country. This process
resulted in changing in biological, physiological, establishing new contact/relationships in
host society, and behavioral or psychological changes in international students, ,(Berry, J.
W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, 1987).
Hence, hosting institutions should make a setting in which foreign students can
make their interaction with a supportive environment in regard of attaining their goal for
what they have migrate to the host institution and country, (Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui,
2010). They also identified adjusting problems regarding culture, less interaction with
domestic mates and language in international students.
The belief of having foreign education acquaintance being as international
students is enhancing gradually from last couple of decades, (Ali, S., Yoenanto, N. H., &
Nurdibyanandaru, 2020). As far as the expectedness of foreign educational acquaintance
lies at one side, at the other side the language is important factor to achieve this dream.
Same as like, Indonesian education system have its own educational system which is
taught in Bahasa Indonesia. In last one decade the number of international students is
enhancing year by year in Indonesian universities through various educational programs
such as Kemitraan Negara Berkembang (KNB) scholarships and Dharmasiswa language
Either such programs are beneficial for the foreign students in context of learning
basic level of Bahasa Indonesia but at the same time it is a cause of stress among
international students in Indonesia. The reason is, Bahasa Indonesia is not an international
language and the students who are joining Indonesian education system each year have
their previous education in English or their local language. So, this is language barrier is a
cause of stress for a limit.
As national language of Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia is widely spoken across the
Indonesia. At the other side, it is a language barriers for international students and
precise it as stress or face nervousness while communicating the local people. Sometimes
the feel “mental block” while practicing Bahasa Indonesia that cause of stress too. It is
apparent naturally from the learners of new language and discovered as greatly observed
variable in education and psychology,(Hashemi, 2011). Stress bring into being hinder by
several ways of learning, however association with erudition called as “foreign or second
language” and coined as language stress. Language barrier is also a cause of experiencing
difficulties among foreign students Universities,(Robertson, M., Line, M., Jones, S. and
Thomas, 2000). One of the difficulties that language barrier generate is lack of
socialization, that could be head towards several unhelpful results. Several research
investigators correlate it with feeling of stress, anxiety and facing asocial challenges in
host country, (Trice, 2004). Such difficulties might lead towards adjustment in academics
that is new for a student.
Students from trans-border enrolled in the Universitas Airlangga to pursue
advanced education in the Republic of Indonesia, should have to learn the Bahasa
Indonesia. Hence, having amount of international student’s enrolment in Universitas
Airlangga, Bahasa Indonesia is new language for them, and number of international
students stated their major problem while learning and staying in Indonesian society is
Foreign students in same university belong to different countries may create their
own group on nation basis because of afraid of being isolated in new environment.
Institution can play a vital role in avoidance of such sub-cultural groups based on nations
and may bring harmony among international students for bot experiencing isolation and
stress in foreign students,(Rienties, B., Beausaert, S., Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., &
Kommers, 2012). Education institution considered as main location for all foreign
students, where international students learn not for only adaptation in academics but
cultural, social and linguistic adaptation also in regard of avoiding the space of isolation
among international students,(Biserova, G. K., & Shagivaleeva, 2019).
1.1. Psychological effects on socio-cultural adjustment
There are two phases of adjustment that international students faces while
adopting new environment (i) psychological adjustment and (ii) socio-cultural
adjustment, both are take process to some extent in adjustment, (Berry, 2006). Evolving
with process about coping stress, satisfaction and wellbeing are related with psychological
adjustment, (Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, 1984). Individual difference is matter also in this
adjustment because it also relate with personality (Zhang, J., & Goodson, 2011), which
means to identify the difference between host culture and home culture,(Playford, K., &
Safdar, 2007). In previous studies it has shown that international students suffering with
language barrier with this psychological and socio-cultural adjustment which resulted in
stress and effect their academic performance,(Aune, R. K., Hendreickson, B., & Rosen,
2011). There is other factor that international students face is discrimination, as per the
study of, (Smith, R. & Khawaja, 2011) international students in Canadian institution
experience serious stress about discrimination on having language barrier.
Communication between people from different cultural background may swing
into progress of language learning and overcoming language barrier that can also help in
developing social exchange, contacts, communication and relationship between
individuals having different cultural background by sharing. Communication among
foreign and local students can help too in developing joint working environment that
would help in overcoming stress of being discriminated in host country,(Berry, 2006); (Li,
A. & Gasser, 2005). A study by (Hickey, T., O’Reilly, A. & Ryan, 2010) investigated that
support from the host country community is helping to international students to reduce
their feelings of stress and being alone, and helping them to adjusting culture of host
From last one decade, each year scholars are moving to other countries like The
United States of America, European countries, Canada, Australia and Asia for attaining
higher education in multiple fields of education. This experience by scholars or students
are not only earnest good education but having an international cultural experience by
staying these regions and they experience various new culture which they never
experienced before such as learning new languages of different ethnic groups on host
countries, (Chen, H., & Zimitat, 2006); (Qun, W., Syhabuddin, Mulyati, Y., Damaianti, 2018).
While living in new culture and education system, international students not only achieve
their academics but go through with the survival of acculturation of the living country;
learning customs, values, norms and language of the community where they are living,
Though, while living in host culture foreign students go through with stress while
learning, such as academic learning methods and barrier of language because of
acculturation of the society,(Qun, W., Syhabuddin, Mulyati, Y., Damaianti, 2018). Either
they already have in their mind or ready to experience new changes in abroad, still these
changes might resulted in cultural shock for students,(Xiaoqiong, 2008). Recent
researches grounded on foreign students indicated that international students are facing
cultural shock in regard of living in host country and make come recommendations for the
hosting institution in adjustment in new culture, (Snoubar, Y., & Celik, 2013); (Shieh,
Adopting a new cultural works as addition in socialization but to some extent
establishing the communication between two different culture, nations, and communities,
(Bierwiaczonek, K., & Waldzus, 2016). One of the serious concern about international
students is assertion in any foreign educational institution. Low assertion can be cause of
“interpersonal conflict”, such as stress, anxiety and difficulties in academics that may affect
profession in future and rise of unfriendliness attitude in individual, (Chirkov, V.,
Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, 2007). The mutual problems that number of foreign
scholars are experience is language barrier, new academic system, psychological and
cultural adaptation, (Biserova, G. K., & Shagivaleeva, 2019);(Ecochard, S., & Fotheringham,
2017);(Zakirova, A. F., & Volodina, 2018).
1.2. Definition of Stress
It is a state of mind where an individual have faced unpredictable challenges and
struggle to deal with such challenges that might linked with personal, job, financial crisis,
environmental factors, cultural adaptation and so on, (Fink, 2016).
1.3. Types of stress
It is a type of stress that might face by an individual for a short-time and have a
peculiar purpose related to any subject. For example, having a task for a limited time
duration and compression for a specific condition. Like students have a time frame to
complete their assignments in a due time, (Bryant, 2017).
Episodic Acute Stress
This type of stress have been face acute stress often by an individual. An individual
who live currently in a constant causes of stress. People who often face “acute stress”
might have unstable life. Such individuals all the time in a crisis of psychological pressure,
Chronic stress involved in demands that are currently ongoing, this type of stress
can be psychological damage for an individual mental condition. Sometimes, individuals
going through with this but they do not bring into their conscious state of mind, (Marin, T.
J., Martin, T. M., Blackwell, E., Stetler, C., & Miller, 2007).
For achieving the aim of this study, the researcher used self-developed
questionnaire in regard of finding the language issues between international students
belong to different cultural background, studying in Universitas Airlannga. Alongside this,
current investigation using previous studies literature review as analysis, primary and
The researchers “personal data sheet” which covers (nationality, residing time
duration in Indonesia, language class course). The self-developed questionnaire based on
two sections; language barrier and adjustment in academics for obtaining their higher
education in Universitas Airlangga.
The key concentration from the researchers were foreign students are currently
studying and residing from last two years in Univeristas Airlangga. There were 70
participants who participated in this study. The foreign students belongs to 3 continents,
Asia, Africa and Europe.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table1 shows the significant result by using the chi square test.
Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
N of Valid Cases
a. 8 cells (57.1%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.29.
The result in Table1 indicating the language barrier is linked with stress among
international students with Pearson Chi-Square significance .0001 and Linear-by-linear
Association significance results .007 in Table1. Further, as per the study of (Jones, 2004),
he stated that having cultural reasons and new language which they never heard before is
very hard to understand that may cause of generating the stress among international
students because of this language barrier, his study supporting the current study results
that shows in Table1. Learning the guest country language and problem in speaking,
understand and communicating appeared by way of foundation of stress for international
I found Bahasa Indonesia very hard to understand.
I found Bahasa
Indonesia very hard to
There were 70 participants who responded of this item, the number of students
who says “yes” is 41 by the mean 1.31 with standard deviation .47. That indicates majority
of the students are experiencing this language barrier problem and cause if stress among
international students. A study was conducted in Kazan University Russia by (Ibragimova,
E. R., & Tarasova, 2018), they found the similar results in their study. In that study the
same question was asked by international students who were studying in Kazan
University, majority of the participants shows their concern of facing stress because of
language barrier. As per the supporting results of previous study are forwarding the
current study results which is quite majority of international students are concerning the
Language sometimes make me low mood in the class?
Language sometimes make
me low mood in the class?
Table 3 results are highly concerned with response of 48 out of 70 respondents of
stress because of language barrier by indicating the mean 1.39 and standard deviation
with .49. Forty eight students shows their stress and how it is affecting their academics.
The results in Table 3 indicating that the respondents are experiencing the strict
language barrier environment of the classroom is becoming the cause of lowering their
interest in academics. However, such observations should be consider as an indicator
institution and university professors should pay attention to the concerns that are causing
of less interest in academics among international students. The current results are has
been supporting by the study of (Ohata, 2005), in his study, he found that strict classroom
environment regarding language and teachers are not focusing the anxiety among
international students because of not fixing with themselves in English.
I missed some important information because of language barrier?
I missed some important
information because of
Table 4 is indicating that the international students facing stress because of
language barrier. Mainstream of the respondents are 58 whose express their problem by
selecting “Yes” are missing important information in their academics with the mean 1.39
and standard deviation .49, which is clearly showed language barrier stress for academics.
A study was conducted in the Aberystwyth University United Kingdom by(Foley, 2010),
concluded that 60.3% participants of the study indicated that the language barrier is very
hard for them to manage their academics because of language barrier of English in
Aberystwyth University, which is supporting the current study findings and the researcher
come to the point after the analysis of study by(Foley, 2010), students in Universitas
Airlangga facing this language barrier stress too and missing some important information
which is indirectly affecting their academics.
The investigators found that language barrier is serious and concerned problem
among international students of the Universitas Airlangga, and they are experiencing this
barrier in their academics. In the table 1 the overall results of current study highly
concluded by showing the significant results of Chi-Square test .01 and Linear-by-linear
Association significance results .007 of 70 international students respondents who are
currently studying in the Universitas Airlangga. From the table 2 results, students are
facing problem while understanding and communicating with peer groups, teachers and
staff because of the language barrier and it is cause of arisen the stress among
international students of the Universitas Airlangga. The reason is that before enrolling in
Universitas Airlangga they were not able to speak and understand a single word of Bahasa
Indonesia. The majority of teachers and students in the same class are unable to speak
English and academic classes in Bahasa Indonesia too in the campus.
Table 3 and table 4 are about to the academics problems that also showing the
international students experiencing poor skills in class participation and in academics
which become the cause of lowering their interest in studies and they missed some
important notes regarding their subjects because of the language barrier and it generating
stress among international students of Universitas Airlangga. In the class while delivering
the lectures by teachers the language they used is Bahasa Indonesia which is unable to
understand and make them low mood in the class participation. Language barrier is also a
cause of not showing their interests in class participation and other work. International
students missed some important information and they do not take serious their
assignments in a proper way in the comparison of local Indonesian classmates who
participate the class participation openly. At the other hand this might generate sense of
aloofness among international students of the Universitas Airlangga.
Because of less scope of Bahasa Indonesia language for other countries, the newly
learners of Indonesian language experienced language stress while learning, that is not a
positive sign for them especially competency of communication, (Kusumaningrum, 2016).
As per the study of (Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, 2002), stated that international students are
not feeling comfortable while communicating in Bahasa Indonesia because they are facing
pressure of making mistakes while speaking that trigger the stress among international
Studies by (Grebennikova, 2011); (Bekker, I. L., & Ivanchin, 2015) resulted in there
are multiple internal and external factors involved in adapting new culture for
international students, some psychological (internal factors) such as language and
communication skills should have key importance from the host institution in learning
these skills by providing friendly teaching environment which can motivate them in taking
personal attention towards learning language that would help international students in
their academics and establishing social relationship in the host community for learning the
For overcoming such issues, the authorities of the Universitas Airlangga should
have to take some serious steps toward solution. First, they should increase the time
duration of language learning classes from 6 months to 1 year for international students.
Secondly, administration should have to ask their professors and staff to learn English
language because of importance in the world. Thirdly, teachers should have to cooperate
with international students in their work that can make them able to feel relax in concern
of their academics.
Language Centre of the Universitas Airlangga should have to organize number of
events half of year regularly that can create the platform where international students
may interact with old learners of Bahasa Indonesia that can share their experiences and
techniques for learning to overcome language barrier stress in newly enrolled
international students. Administration of the university should organized some
competition environment among new learners by using the way of reinforcement and
distribute the rewards for winners. This can be cause of generating motivation in learning
Bahasa Indonesia and with this way they can interact with authorities of the Universitas
Airlangga which can be a positive gesture for international students.
In this period of globalization, it becomes very essential for host institution and
professors of the institution should have to adjust or adopt an environment where foreign
students may able to feel easy in interacting with faculty members and other staff of
institution that can also help to international students to overcome their problem that
they are experiencing by living in host institution and culture, this would help also in
attaining good academic score in international students. The major problem that
experience by foreign students is language barrier in host country academic culture. Such
modification should bring as per the views of foreign students.
Authors suggests too to the authorities of the Universitas Airlangga, they should
have establish a research focus which can be specific to conduct the surveys or interviews
in concern of international students to know their current situation.
For lessening these issues among international students need to engage healthy
and skilful communication in both foreign and local students, and for achieving this
purpose, host institution can play a vital role in developing positive relationships.
Additionally, there is further space to investigate the problems of international
students in the Universitas Airlangga. Authors highly recommended to the researchers to
conduct such researches to identify the other problems among international students.
All authors of this study highly appreciate all participants who participated in the
study without having any objection. Special thanks to the Fakultas Psikologi Universitas
Airlangga to allowing the authors for conducting this research.
Ali, S., Yoenanto, N. H., & Nurdibyanandaru, D. (2020). Acculturative Stress among
International Students at Airlangga University-. Society, 8(1), 123–135.
Aune, R. K., Hendreickson, B., & Rosen, D. R. (2011). An analysis of friendship networks,
social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of international students.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 281–295.
Barger, S. S. (2004). The impact of international students on domestic students in United
States institutions of higher education (Doctoral dissertation, The University of
Bekker, I. L., & Ivanchin, S. A. (2015). Problems of adaptation of international students to
the educational process of the Russian university (on the example of Penza State
University). Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. The Volga Region. Humanitarian
Sciences, 4(36), 247–257.
Beoku-Betts, J. (2004). African women pursuing graduate studies in the sciences: Racism,
gender bias, and third world marginality. NWSA Journal, 116–135.
Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative
stress. International Migration Review, 21(3), 491–511.
Berry, J. W. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity and adaptation. Applied
Psychology, 55(03), 303-332.
Bierwiaczonek, K., & Waldzus, S. (2016). Socio-cultural factors as antecedents of cross-
cultural adaptation in expatriates, international students, and migrants: A review.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47((6)), 767–817.
Biserova, G. K., & Shagivaleeva, G. R. (2019). Socio-psychological adaptation of
international students to learning and professional activities. Space and Culture,
India, 6(5), 99–114.
Brown, L., & Holloway, I. (2008). The initial stage of the international sojourn: excitement
or culture shock? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 36(1), 33–49.
Bryant, R. A. (2017). Acute stress disorder. Current opinion in psychology. Current Opinion
in Psychology, 14, 127–131.
Campbel, N., & Zeng, J. (2006). Living in the West: A study of Chinese international
students’ adaptation. Communication Journal of New Zealand, 7(1).
Campbell, A. (2010). Developing generic skills and attributes of international students:
The (ir) relevance of the Australian university experience. Journal of Higher
Education Policy and Management, 32(5), 487–497.
Chen, H., & Zimitat, C. (2006). Understanding Taiwanese students’ decision-making factors
regarding Australian international higher education. International Journal of
Educational Management, 20(2), 92–100.
Chirkov, V., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, M. (2007). The role of self-determined
motivation and goals for study abroad in the adaptation of international students.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(2), 199–222.
Constantine, M. G., Anderson, G. M., Berkel, L. A., Caldwell, L. D., & Utsey, S. O. (2005).
Examining the cultural adjustment experiences of African international college
students: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 57.
Ecochard, S., & Fotheringham, J. (2017). International students’ unique challenges–Why
understanding international transitions to higher education matters. Journal of
Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 5(2), 100–108.
Fatima, N. (2001). International Female Graduate Students’ Perceptions of Their Adjustment
Experiences and Coping Strategies at an Urban Research University.
Fink, G. (2016). Stress: concepts, definition and history. Change.
Foley, O. (2010). An Investigation into the barriers faced by international students in their
use of a small Irish academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Aberystwyth University).
Galloway, F. J., & Jenkins, J. R. (2009). The adjustment problems faced by international
students in the United States: A comparison of international students and
administrative perceptions at two private, religiously affiliated universities. NASPA
Journal, 46(4), 661–673.
Gautam, C., Lowery, C. L., Mays, C., & Durant, D. (2016). Challenges for global learners: A
qualitative study of the concerns and difficulties of international students. Journal of
International Students, 6(2), 501–526.
Grebennikova, I. A. (2011). The process of adaptation of international students: the
mechanism and key factors. Humanitarian Research in Eastern Siberia and the Far
East, 3, 98-100.
Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E. K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and
non‐anxious language learners’ reactions to their own oral performance. The Modern
Language Journal, 86(4), 562–570.
Harrison, N., & Peacock, N. (2010). Cultural distance, mindfulness and passive xenophobia:
Using Integrated Threat Theory to explore home higher education students’
perspectives on ‘internationalisation at home’. British Educational Research Journal,
Hashemi, M. (2011). Language stress and anxiety among the English language learners.
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30.
Hellstén, M., & Prescott, A. (2004). Learning at University: The international student
experience. International Education Journal, 5(3), 344–351.
Hickey, T., O’Reilly, A. & Ryan, D. (2010). The Psychological Well-being and Sociocultural
Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland. Journal of College Student
Development, 51(5), 584–598.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & C. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern
Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.
Huang, Y. (2014). Constructing intercultural communicative competence framework for
English learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 10(1), 97–101.
Ibragimova, E. R., & Tarasova, A. N. (2018). Language-related problems of international
students of Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University. Revista ESPACIOS, 39(2).
Ishimura, Y., Howard, V., & Moukdad, H. (2007). Information literacy in academic libraries:
Assessment of Japanese students’ needs for successful assignment completion in two
Halifax universities. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 31(1), 1–26.
Jones, J. F. (2004). A cultural context for language anxiety. English Australia Journal, 21(2),
Karuppan, C. M., & Barari, M. (2010). Perceived discrimination and international students’
learning: an empirical investigation. Journal of Higher Education Policy and
Management, 33(1), 67–83.
Kimmel, K., & Volet, S. (2012). University students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards
culturally diverse group work: Does context matter?. Journal of Studies in
International Education, 16(2), 157–181.
Kusumaningrum, Y. I. (2016). The Effect of Aptitude toward the Adaptability in Social
Interaction. In Ninth International Conference on Applied Linguistics (CONAPLIN 9).
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer Publishing
LeBlanc, V. R. (2009). The effects of acute stress on performance: implications for health
professions education. Academic Medicine, 84(10), 525–533.
Li, A. & Gasser, M. (2005). Predicting Asian international students’ sociocultural
adjustment: A test of two mediation models. International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 29(5), 561–576.
Lillyman, S., & Bennett, C. (2014). Providing a positive learning experience for
international students studying at UK universities: A literature review. Journal of
Research in International Education, 13(1), 63–75.
Lin, J.C.G., & Yi, J. K. (1997). Asian international students’ adjustment: Issues and program
suggestions. College Student Journal, 31(4), 473–480.
Liu, L. (2011). An international graduate student’s ESL learning experience beyond the
classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 77–92.
Marin, T. J., Martin, T. M., Blackwell, E., Stetler, C., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Differentiating the
impact of episodic and chronic stressors on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical
axis regulation in young women. Health Psychology, 26(4), 447.
Mori, S. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal
of Counseling and Development, 78(2), 137–144.
Natowitz, A. (1995). International Students in US Academic Libraries: Recent Concerns
and Trends. Research Strategies, 13(1), 4–16.
Ohata, K. (2005). Language anxiety from the teacher’s perspective: Interviews with seven
experienced ESL/EFL teachers. Journal of Language and Learning, 3(1), 133–155.
Park, S.S., & Son, J. B. (2011). Language difficulties and cultural challenges of international
students in an Australian university preparation program. In A. Dashwood (Ed.),.
Language, Culture and Social Connectedness, 35–55.
Pedersen, P. B. (1991). Counseling international students. The Counseling Psychologist.
Perry, C. J. (2012). Comparing international and American students’ challenges: A
literature review. Journal of International Students 2016, 6(3), 712–721.
Playford, K., & Safdar, S. (2007). Various conceptualization of acculturation and the
prediction of international students adaptations. In A. Chybicka, & M. Kazmierczak
(Eds.),. Appreciating Diversity: Cultural and Gender Issues, 37–66.
Poyrazli, S., & Grahame, K. M. (2007). Barriers to adjustment: Needs of international
students within a semi-urban campus community. Journal of Instructional Psychology,
Poyrazli, S., Arbona, C., Bullington, R., & Pisecco, S. (2001). Adjustment issues of Turkish
college students studying in the United States. College Student Journal, 35(1), 52–52.
Purcell-Gates, V., McIntyre, E., & Freppon, P. A. (1995). Learning written storybook
language in school: A comparison of low-SES children in skills-based and whole
language classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 659–685.
Qun, W., Syhabuddin, Mulyati, Y., Damaianti, V. S. (2018). ). Perceiving and Dealing with
Culture Shock: The Study of Chinese Indonesian-language Students. Indonesian
Journal of Education, 11(1), 18–28.
Reynolds, A. L., & Constantine, M. G. (2007). Cultural adjustment difficulties and career
development of international college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 15(3),
Rienties, B., Beausaert, S., Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., & Kommers, P. (2012).
Understanding academic performance of international students: The role of ethnicity,
academic and social integration. Higher Education, 63(6), 685–700.
Robertson, M., Line, M., Jones, S., & Thomas, S. (2000). International students, learning
environments and perceptions: A case study using the Delphi technique. Higher
Education Research & Development, 19(1), 89–102.
Robertson, M., Line, M., Jones, S. and Thomas, S. (2000). International students, learning
environments and perceptions: A case study using the Delphi technique. Higher
Education Research and Development, 19(1), 89–102.
Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., & Ramia, G. (2008). Loneliness and
international students: An Australian study. Journal of Studies in International
Education, 12(2), 148–180.
Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Forbes-Mewett, H., Nyland, C., & Ramia, G. (2012). International
student security and English language proficiency. Journal of Studies in International
Education, 16(5), 434–454.
Sawir, E. (2005). Language difficulties of international students in Australia: The effects of
prior learning experience. International Education Journal, 6(5), 567–580.
Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. H. (2010). International students: A vulnerable student
population. Higher Education, 60(1), 33–46.
Shieh, C. J. (2014). Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning
satisfaction of mainland china students studying in Taiwan. Revista Internacional de
Sociología, 72(2), 57–67.
Singh, M. (2005). Enabling transnational learning communities: Policies, pedagogies and
politics of educational power. Internationalizing Higher Education.Springer,
Smith, R. & Khawaja, N. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international
students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699–713.
Snoubar, Y., & Celik, G. (2013). Cultural Differences of International Students in Turkey
and problems they experience. Science Direct, 106, 759–766.
Stoynoff, S. (1997). Factors associated with international students’ academic achievement.
Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24(1), 56.
Terui, S. (2012). Second language learners’ coping strategy in conversations with native
speakers. Journal of International Students, 2(2), 168–183.
Trice, A. G. (2004). Mixing it up: International graduate students’ social interactions with
American students. Journal of College Student Development, 45(6), 671–687.
Warring, S. (2010). Facilitating independence amongst Chinese international students
completing a Bachelor of Applied Business Studies Degree. Innovations in Education
and Teaching International, 47(4), 379–392.
Wright, C., & Schartner, A. (2013). ‘I can’t… I won’t?’International students at the threshold
of social interaction. Journal of Research in International Education, 12(2), 113–128.
Wu, H. P., Garza, E., & Guzman, N. (2015). International student’s challenge and adjustment
to college. Education Research International, 1–9.
Xiaoqiong, H. (2008). The culture shock that Asian students experience in immersion
education. Changing English, 15(1), 101–105.
Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social
support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress.
Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15–28.
Zakirova, A. F., & Volodina, Y. N. (2018). Trends and Prospects in Educational
Modernisation: A Hermeneutic Approach. The Education and Science Journal, 20(9),
Zhang, J., & Goodson, P. (2011). Predictors of international students’ psychosocial
adjustment to life in the United States: A systematic review. International Journal of
Intercultural Relations, 35(2), 139–162.
Zhang, L. (2006). Communication in academic libraries: an East Asian perspective.
Reference Services Review.