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Neoplastic seeding of breast cancer along the core biopsy tract

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Background Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer and pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) may be candidates for nonoperative clinical trials if residual invasive and in situ disease are eradicated. Methods This study analyzed 280 patients with clinical T1-2N0-1 HER2+ breast cancer who underwent NST followed by surgical resection to determine key characteristics of patients with pCR in the breast and lymph nodes compared with those with residual disease. Results Of the 280 patients, 102 (36.4%) had pCR in the breast and lymph nodes after NST, and 50 patients (17.9%) had residual ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the breast only. For 129 patients (46.1%), DCIS was present on the pretreatment biopsy, and NST failed to eradicate the DCIS component in 64.3%. Patients with residual disease were more likely to have hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors than those with negative tumors (73.4% vs. 50.8%; p < 0.0001). Radiologic response (odds ratio [OR], 5.62; p = 0.002) and HR+ status (OR, 2.56; p < 0.0001) were predictive of residual disease. Combined imaging methods after NST had a sensitivity of 97.1% and a negative predictive value of 70.6% for detection of residual disease. Patients with invasive disease and DCIS shown on the pretreatment core biopsy were less likely than those without DCIS to achieve pCR in the breast (31% vs. 43%; p = 0.038). Conclusion The study results delineate and identify unique characteristics associated with HER2+ breast cancers that are important in selecting patients for inclusion in clinical trials assessing nonoperative management after NST, and the low negative predictive value of imaging mandates image-guided biopsy for selection.
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Colocated seismic and pressure data are available at many seismic stations in the world. For frequencies approximately between 0.01 and 0.05 Hz, colocated data show evidence of strong coupling between the atmosphere and the solid Earth, especially when pressure is high. Coherence between vertical seismic data and pressure is often higher than 0.9. Such data provide information for shallow structure in the upper 50–100 m because they show how the Earth responds to surface pressure changes. We present the basic theory and an inversion scheme for shallow structure using surface observables η(f)=Sz/Sp where f is frequency and Sz and Sp are the power spectral densities of vertical seismic data and of surface pressure data. A vertically heterogeneous medium is assumed beneath a station where density, P wave velocity, and S wave velocity change with depth. We show that the integration of the minors for the equations of motion gives a fast algorithm to compute η(f). Using numerical differentiation, we derive depth sensitivity kernels for η(f) with which we invert η(f) for shallow structure, just like we invert phase velocity of surface waves for the Earth structure. Depth sensitivity kernels show that if we take density, bulk modulus, and rigidity as independent parameters, η(f) has no sensitivity to density structure, making it mainly a function of two elastic constants. We present examples of inversion based on this formulation.
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Purpose: To identify clinicopathologic, technical, and imaging features associated with neoplastic seeding (NS) following image-guided needle breast biopsy. Methods: We performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients presenting with a new diagnosis of breast cancer or suspicious breast findings requiring biopsy with subsequent diagnosis of NS. The time from biopsy to NS diagnosis was calculated. Histology, grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor (PR) status, HER2 status, T category, and N category were recorded. Biopsy guidance method, needle gauge, and number of passes were reviewed in addition to the mammographic and sonographic features of the primary tumors and the NS. Results: Eight cases of NS were identified in 4010 patients. The mean time from biopsy to NS diagnosis was 60.8 days. The most frequent histology was invasive ductal carcinoma (7/8). Six cases were grade 3 (75.0%). Five primary breast cancers were ER, PR, and HER2 negative (62.5%). Seven patients underwent biopsy with ultrasound guidance. Multiple-insertion, non-coaxial ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy was done in 6 cases. Mammographic presentation of NS was focal asymmetry (3/7 cases), mass (1/7), calcifications only (1/7), or occult (2/7). Sonographic presentation of NS was most often a mass (7/8) with irregular shape (5/7) and without circumscribed margins (6/7) and was occult in 1 case (1/8). NS distribution was subdermal and intradermal. Conclusion: High-grade, triple-negative breast cancers and multiple-insertion, non-coaxial biopsies may be risk factors for NS. NS should be suspected on the basis of the superficial and linear pattern of disease progression in these patients.
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To determine initial placement accuracy, long-term stability, and usefulness as a guide for wire localization for metallic marker clips placed percutaneously after stereotactic breast biopsy. One hundred forty-nine marker clips were placed percutaneously with a straight-needle or through-probe method, and clip positions were measured. The locations of 31 marker clips were followed up from deployment to first follow-up mammography. Thirty-six biopsy sites with marker clips were excised surgically and examined; 18 of these marker clips were targets for wire localization. The locations of 22 benign lesions were measured over time to calibrate the measurement system. Baseline variability was 8 mm. Initial marker clip deployment averaged 5 mm above baseline from the center of the target lesion (P < or = .01). Compared with baseline variability, marker clips remained in place from initial deployment to first imaging follow-up (mean, 8.6 months). Potentially clinically meaningful misplacement rates (deployment > 24 mm from target lesion center) were 7% for the through-probe method and 11% for the straight-needle method (not significantly different; P = .33). The marker clips appear to be useful targets for wire localization when the entire target lesion is removed at directional, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Upright, two-view mammography is recommended after deployment of the marker clip to document location.
Article
Purpose: This study was designed to present the secondary imaging endpoints of the trial for evaluating mammogram (MMG), ultrasound (US) and image guided biopsy (IGBx) assessment of pathologic complete response (pCR) in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Methods: Patients with T1-3, N0-3, M0 triple-negative or HER2-positive BC who received NAC were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, clinical trial. Patients underwent US and MMG at baseline and after NAC. Images were evaluated for residual abnormality and to determine modality for IGBx [US-guided (USG) or stereotactic guided (SG)]. Fine-needle aspiration and 9-G, vacuum-assisted core biopsy (VACBx) of tumor bed was performed after NAC and was compared with histopathology at surgery. Results: Forty patients were enrolled. Median age was 50.5 (range 26-76) years; median baseline tumor size was 2.4 cm (range 0.8-6.3) and 1 cm (range 0-5.5) after NAC. Nineteen patients had pCR: 6 (32%) had residual Ca2+ presurgery, 5 (26%) residual mass, 1 (5%) mass with calcifications, and 7 (37%) no residual imaging abnormality. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US, MMG, and IGBx for pCR were 47/95/73%, 53/90/73%, and 100/95/98%, respectively. Twenty-five (63%) patients had SGBx and 15 (37%) had US-guided biopsy (USGBx). Median number of cores was higher with SGBx (12, range 6-14) than with USGBx (8, range 4-12), p < 0.002. Positive predictive value for pCR was significantly higher for SG VACBx than for USG VACBx (100 vs. 60%, p < 0.05). Conclusions: SG VACBx is the preferred IGBx modality for identifying patients with pCR for trials testing the safety of eliminating surgery.
Article
Early reports demonstrated the diagnostic advantage of large-core (14-gauge) biopsy over fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable lesions of the breast without apparent significant increase in morbidity. A case of malignant seeding of the needle track after a large-core biopsy of a mucinous carcinoma of the breast is documented. The potential for increased risk of tract seeding of malignancy must be considered.
Article
To assess accuracy and usefulness of placement of a localizing clip after stereotactic, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. Retrospective review was performed of 57 lesions that underwent placement of a localizing clip after stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy with an 11-gauge (n = 42) or 14-gauge (n = 15) probe. The clip was placed when images obtained after stereotactic biopsy suggested that the lesion seen at mammography was removed. Coordinates of the clip on stereotactic images obtained after placement were compared with lesion coordinates determined before biopsy. Surgery was performed in 25 cases. Mammographic and histopathologic findings were reviewed. The distance from clip to lesion site was less than 1 cm in 40 (95%) of 42 lesions that underwent clip placement with the 11-gauge probe versus 11 (73%) of 15 lesions that underwent clip placement after 14-gauge biopsy (P < .04). The biopsy site was identified in the surgical specimen in 19 (100%) lesions with clips after 11-gauge biopsy and five (83%) of six lesions with clips after 14-gauge biopsy. No complications occurred. A localizing clip can be placed in proximity to the stereotactic biopsy site through an 11-gauge probe. Clip placement can enable accurate localization for surgical excision.
Article
Early mammographic detection of nonpalpable breast lesions has led to the increasing use of stereotactic core biopsies for tissue diagnosis. Tumor seeding the needle tract is a theorectical concern; the incidence and clinical significance of this potential complication are unknown. We report three cases of subcutaneous breast cancer recurrence at the stereotactic biopsy site after definitive treatment of the primary breast tumor. Two cases were clinically evident and relevant; the third was detected in the preclinical, microscopic state. All three patients underwent multiple passes during stereotactic large-core biopsies (14 gauge needle) followed by modified radical mastectomy. Two patients developed a subcutaneous recurrence at the site of the previous biopsy 12 and 17 months later; one had excision of the skin and dermis at the time of mastectomy revealing tumor cells locally. In summary, clinically relevant recurrence from tumor cells seeding the needle tract is reported in two patients after definitive surgical therapy (without adjuvant radiation therapy). Often, the biopsy site is outside the boundaries of surgical resection. Since the core needle biopsy exit site represents a potential area of malignant seeding and subsequent tumor recurrence, we recommend excising the stereotactic core biopsy tract at the time of definitive surgical resection of the primary tumor.
Article
A 51-year-old woman underwent stereotactic core biopsy of suspicious microcalcifications in the upper outer left breast with subsequent metallic clip deployment. Postprocedure mammograms demonstrated accurate placement of the clip. However, mammography 10 months later revealed movement of the clip 4 cm medially in the breast.
Article
The latest advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for breast cancer have provided valuable technological breakthroughs. Yet the long-term consequences of these modern methods are still quite unclear. Such is the case for stereotactic or ultrasound-guided histologic needle biopsy and skin-sparing mastectomy. We report on three patients who presented with multicentric breast cancer diagnosed by stereotactic needle biopsy and treated by skin-sparing mastectomy. All three patients developed recurrence at the core needle entry site. Records of 58 patients with breast cancer who were treated by skin-sparing mastectomy followed by immediate reconstruction (with transverse rectus abdominis muscle [TRAM] flap or tissue expander) at the Breast Diseases Division of Buenos Aires British Hospital between December 1999 and December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Eleven of these patients were diagnosed by histologic needle biopsy. The mean follow-up was 28 months (range 5-60 months). Three (skin or subcutaneous) local recurrences at the needle entry site, diagnosed in a mean time of 23.6 months (16, 22, and 23 months), were reported. The three patients underwent complete resection with clear margins, radiation therapy to the "neobreast," and tamoxifen. All three patients are disease free with a mean postrecurrence follow-up of 24.3 months (30, 23, and 22 months). Based on the evidence of displacement of tumor cells and the potential nonresection of such tumor seeding at the time of skin-sparing mastectomy, as well as the poor probability of postoperative radiation therapy, we recommend surgical resection of the needle biopsy tract, including the dermal entry site, at the time of mastectomy.