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Various marketing techniques have been used to capture consumers' attention. Among them is using Islamic attributes. This practice has led to various negative impacts on the consumers and the Islamic dignity itself. The aim of this study is to identify the misuse of Islamic attributes in food products' labelling and to investigate the extent to which the use of Islamic attributes impacts the consumer and the Islamic dignity. In order to achieve the objectives, library research was carried out to collect relevant information. The materials also include online materials gathered from Google search engine. The materials are not only limited to the English language but also cover Malay language materials. The qualitative data from the library study was analyzed using the content analysis method. There are various types of misuse; first, is Quran-related such as Ruqyah, secondly Sunnah-related such as using the term Prophetic foods or the word Sunnah itself, thirdly by using Islamic icons. Fourthly, by using Islamic act of worships such as prostration in prayers and the fifth category is using an Islamic or Muslim's name. The last category is by using Jawi writings or Arabic terms in the label or trademark. These marketing techniques may lead to numerous effects, among others degrading the authority of Sunnah, health concern and exploiting Islam for commercial gain. The findings may act as a starting point to the policymakers in proposing some guidelines on the use of Islamic attributes in food product labeling and marketing in Malaysia.
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MISUSE OF ISLAMIC ATTRIBUTES IN FOOD
PRODUCTS LABELLING AND MARKETING IN
MALAYSIA
Suraiya Osman
Faculty of Syariah and Law, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) Cum: Ph.D.
Candidate at Halal Research Product Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
Email: suraiya@usim.edu.my
Abdullaah Jalil
2Faculty of Economy and Muamalat, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Email: abdullaah@usim.edu.my
Suhaimi Ab Rahman
3Faculty of Economy and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Email: suhaimiabrahman@upm.edu.my
Date submitted: 15 December 2019; Date Revised: 25th March 2020 ; Date Accepted: 14 May 2020
ABSTRACT
Various marketing techniques have been used to capture consumers' attention. Among them is using Islamic attributes. This practice
has led to various negative impacts on the consumers and the Islamic dignity itself. The aim of this study is to identify the misuse of
Islamic attributes in food products’ labelling and to investigate the extent to which the use of Islamic attributes impacts the consumer
and the Islamic dignity. In order to achieve the objectives, library research was carried out to collect relevant information. The materials
also include online materials gathered from Google search engine. The materials are not only limited to the English language but also
cover Malay language materials. The qualitative data from the library study was analyzed using the content analysis method. There are
various types of misuse; first, is Quran-related such as Ruqyah, secondly Sunnah-related such as using the term Prophetic foods or the
word Sunnah itself, thirdly by using Islamic icons. Fourthly, by using Islamic act of worships such as prostration in prayers and the
fifth category is using an Islamic or Muslim’s name. The last category is by using Jawi writings or Arabic terms in the label or
trademark. These marketing techniques may lead to numerous effects, among others degrading the authority of Sunnah, health concern
and exploiting Islam for commercial gain. The findings may act as a starting point to the policymakers in proposing some guidelines
on the use of Islamic attributes in food product labeling and marketing in Malaysia.
Keywords: Food products, Islamic attributes, labelling, marketing, misuse.
INTRODUCTION
In 2017, a new trend offering a service for do’a or prayer in Mecca or known as Valet Do’a has emerged. These
packages vary according to the place and time the prayer to be performed. The customer who wants to use this
service must pay to the person or the service provider some amount of money. They alleged that prayers made
in Mecca would be accepted by Allah. This service has been condemned by a few Muftis, among others the Mufti
of Federal Territory Dato’ Sri Dr. Zulkifli Al-Bakri. He asserted that this service which contradicted with the
syariah principle was not practiced by the Prophet or his Companions. Valet do’a is a clear act of manipulation
and may deceive and confuse the public. Thus, this kind of service should be stopped (“Official Website Mufti
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of Federal Territory,” 2017). This opinion was supported by Tan Sri Dr. Abdullah Mohd Zin (previous advisor
of the Prime Minister) who asserted that Muslims should not indulge in a business that may deviate themselves
from the Islamic teachings. He also warned that religion should not be used as a mean to get rich or used for
political ends. (Zin, 2017). JAKIM also made a statement to caution the public not to engage with activities
relating to Valet do’a as this practice is prohibited in Islam. The Director, Tan Sri Othman Mustapha contended
that the packages offered can be considered as religious exploitation for personal profit. Islam encourages its
followers to pray wherever they are and not confined to specific places.
Similarly, the use of Islamic attributes in marketing and labeling of food products is increasingly popular and
widespread in the Malaysian market. The producers use the terms such as Sunnah food, Ruqyah verses, Islamic
names and logos, and many others on their label, as well as making claims that 30 Juzu’ of Al-Quran verses have
been recited on the product. This is because currently, along with the rise of BMF campaign; the people have
high interest towards Islam. Whatever it is said as the efficacy of the Qur'an, so many believe that without prior
inspection (Ahmad, Yakub, Razzak et. al., 2015).
There are other examples where the Islamic names or affiliates have been used as trademark for dangerous
products, for instance, Kopi Al-Ambiyak and Kopi Pak Sheikh. In 2014, a man was found dead after drinking this
coffee. It was discovered that the coffee was banned by the Health Ministry for containing sildenafil and tadalafil,
which are often claimed to be able to increase sexual performance. The Ministry of Health has confirmed that
the coffee has been banned in early 2014 (Shagar, 2014). This case was upsetting since it uses Islamic attributes
as their trademark.
Recently in 2018, a product named Jus Sunnah has been found by the Ministry of Health to be dangerous as it
contains steroids (Md Denin and Kamarudin, 2018). This case may be an eye-opener to the public as to the danger
of using Islamic attributes in marketing of food products. The use of these marks must be controlled so as not to
deceive the consumers and to protect the maqasid Syariah or Syariah objectives.
METHOD OF THE STUDY
This study employs a qualitative method which is based on secondary data available in previous writings.
Therefore, the authors carry out library research in the form of content analysis of the relevant literature that
includes magazines, books, journals, newspapers and conference papers between 2013 and 2019 to collect
relevant information and data. The materials also include online materials gathered from Google search engine.
The materials are not only limited to English language but also covers Malay language materials. The authors
conducted thematic analysis which includes the following terms: ‘Prophetic Food,’ Sunnah food,’ Ruqyah,’
and ‘misuse of religion.’
CONSUMERS’ DEMAND FOR ISLAMIC FOOD PRODUCTS
The use of Islamic elements in marketing and labeling of food products is increasingly popular and widespread
in the Malaysian market. This is due to the high demand from the consumer owing to various factors such as the
rise of BMF campaign, and high interest of people towards Islam currently (Ahmad et al., 2015). The
consumption of sunnah food has become a trend (Basir and Othman, 2016) because products based on "sunnah
food" or ruqyah food and drink (being read al-Quran verses onto them) are often referred to as the best food.
They believe that these products may cure certain diseases (Zain, 2013a). The Malaysian Muslim community,
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are easily appeal when it comes to the advantages of practicing the sunnah as well as the health benefits obtained
from the consumption of sunnah food. This trend has also led to the dumping of sunnah food products in the
market (Ahmad et al., 2015).
A recent study by Khadher Ahmad, Mohd Yakub @ Zulkifli Mohd Yusoff, Monika @ Munirah Abd Razzak,
Mohd Azam Yakob, Raja Jamilah Raja Yusof, Nurulwahidah Fauzi, Khalijah Awang, 2015 observed that the
Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad has been misused in marketing and promotion of of sunnah products. Similarly,
Shukur et al., (2016) also found that these products are part of a marketing plan for some entrepreneurs to promote
the product. Similarly, producers tend to use these Islamic attributes to attract Muslim customers to buy their
products. More importantly, these attributes rationalize selling the products at higher prices (Zin, 2017 and Irwan
Zain, 2013b) (Shukur et al., 2016). Based on the perusal of literature, the authors have identified five (5) main
factors leading to the misuse of Islamic attributes in marketing and product labeling. The following figure lists
all the factors.
Figure 1: Five Main Factors for the Misuse of Islamic Attributes in Marketing and Product Labelling
FIVE MAIN TYPES OF MISUSE OF ISLAMIC ATTRIBUTES
Osman, Ahmad, & Jalil (2019) categorized the use of Islamic elements into five categories which are Quran-
related such as ruqyah where Quranic verses are claimed to be recited or written on specific products, Sunnah-
related such as “makanan Sunnahor Prophetic foods Islamic icons and pictures such as pictures of mosques.
Next is, Islamic performance of worships such as prostration in prayers, and the last category is Islamic or Muslim
names such as masjid, Sunnah, and Ahmad
Quran related
There is an understanding that Ruqyah”, which refers to recitation of certain Quranic verses into a product,
renders the product to the best food (Shukur et al., 2016), while some believed that the product is more blessed
compared to other ordinary product.. Ruqyah, by terminology is a form of protection for those affected by the
disease, as well as the Quranic verses which are recited to them due to various illnesses in anticipation of healing.
In the etymology of the Shariah, ruqyah is a prayer and reading which contains the blessing of Allah’s help and
protection to prevent or prevent disease and illness.( Berita Harian Online, 2016). Ruqyah refers to prayer therapy
recited by practitioners during treatment sessions (Deuraseh, 2007). In practice, it contains various types of
recitation selected verses of Quran, prayers as recorded in the hadiths, undefined source of prayers, or even spells.
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However, the term ruqyah specifically refers to finding a cure using verses from the Qur’an or prayers taught by
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). On the other hand, finding cure from genies, spells and other types of sorcery is
known as jampi (chants) or pukau (hypnotic) or santau (a form of black magic) in the Malay and Muslim
community (Ahmad et.al, 2015).
Healing through Ruqyah (incantation) especially using the Qur’anic verses, recitation of du`a (prayer) and
Ruqyah (incantation) with Mu`awwidhat (protector) verses are among the most widely and popular traditional
practices intended to afford protection and healing of diseases caused by Jinn and devil in Malay-Muslim society
(Deuraseh, 2007). It is undeniable that mysterious diseases do happen, thus people opt for alternative medicine,
i.e., water that has been read ruqyah verses on it. This practice has caught the attention of the previous head
Imam of the National Mosque Datuk Hassan Mahmud, who acknowledged certain parties who used the Qur'an
with the intention of leveraging their products. Consumers are advised not to be easily influenced by the sale of
products that use Qur'anic texts to leverage the business. It is also worried that it may lead to syirk as the power
to heal only belonged to Allah. The consumer should not buy the product merely because of the label, fearing
that it may deceive the consumer (Zain, 2013a). Khader et al. (2015) discuss certain guidelines on the
permissibility of Ruqyah, according to Islam. Among them are language, technique, and implementation, the
person implementing it and most importantly it must not lead to syirk or deviation from Allah.
Sunnah and Hadith related
There are a lot of food products, especially healthcare products using the term Sunnah food on their packaging
to indicate that it contains certain ingredients and to denote that the product is ‘better’ and more Islamic than
other ordinary products. This practice is also to attract Muslim customers to buy their products (Utusan Online,
2017; Zain, 2013a). The meaning of Sunnah food has been discussed by Ahmad et al.,(2015) Basir et.al, (2016)
and Shukur et al., (2016) as the best food, the food that meets the body's healthcare criteria, the food mentioned
in the revelation (based on the Qur'an and hadith), and the food that the Prophet (peace be upon him) once took.
Ahmad et al. (2015) identify four views regarding the definition of "sunnah food"; [First view]: Malaysians
define "sunnah food" as all foods derived from the Qur'an and al-Hadith. [Second view]: Academicians state that
all foods that bring goodness and maslahah to humans are either mentioned in the Qur'an, al-Hadith, or are
mentioned in both, are referred to as "sunnah food." The second argument came from the Qur'anic verse:
Translation: "O mankind, eat the lawful and good of what is on earth, and do not follow the steps of the devil;
because the devil is indeed real enemy to you [al-Baqarah (2): 168]. [Third view]: Some members of society
perceive "sunnah food" as dates, pomegranates, honey, raisins, and al-Sawda '. In simple terms, those who have
the following perceptions arise due to the limited information on sunnah food and only understand the definition
of sunnah food in parallel through the influence of advertising on television glass and radio funnel. [Fourth view]:
This group thinks "sunnah food" is obtain by way of making and practicing parallel to the Sunnah with respect
to procedural matters such as ensuring the workers to cover their aurat, abide by having the ablution at all times,
as well as reciting the Qur'an during the process.
From the practical aspect, consumers must practice basmalah, eating with right hands as claimed by Islam. These
definitions are more comprehensive to show the Malaysian consumer’s perspective. However Shukur et al.,
(2016) added new categories where the weak Hadith of Prophet (Hadith Dhoif) has been exploited to leverage
the product, for example products based on goat’s milk, dates, honey, and habbatusssawda’. There are also cases
where producers put the hadith on the packaging just for commercial purposes to indicate that it has some benefits
but did not specify how the Prophet took the products. Even though there is no doubt that dates, honey, goat’s
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milkhave their benefits, however, it should be clarified that the term Sunnah food is not limited to these food
only since the Holy Prophet also ate other food such as bread and meat. In other instances, the food producer
claimed specific ingredients in the product, eventhough the quantity is very small. For example ‘Milo Zam Zam’
drink in which the quantity of Zam-zam water is so small compared to other ingredients. Thus, it is feared that
the claim only acts as a marketing strategy of the producer (Shukur et al., 2016).
Islamic icons
Some products used Islamic icons such as Mosque, Al-Quran as their trademark or logo. For example, Bihun
Cap Masjid’ (Mee with the picture of Mosque as its trademark) and Beras (rice) Cap Masjid. However, it was
later figured out that the producer is not a Muslim, thus raising a question on the motive of using such icon as
their trademark (Jalil, A. & Osman, S., 2018).
Islamic performance of worships
Some products display the actof Muslim worship in their packaging, such as the act of prostration or rising hand
for dua’ or prayers. This act is clearly a sign of Muslim worship. This practice has been forbidden by the Mufti
of Kelantan, who says the practice of selling drinking water which has been performed tawaf upon it and another
kind of worship should not be commercialized to increase its price (Utusan Online, 2017).
Islamic or Muslim names
It is common and permissible for a product to use the owners’ name as its trademark. However, in some cases,
Muslim name has been used for non-halal foods. One of the major outcries in Malaysia was the misuse of a
Muslim’s icon name and a well-known halal brand to promote a pork burger. This case took place in 2016 where
a local burger joint known as “Ninja Joe” naming its pork burger as “P.Ramly” (Palansamy, 2016). After a series
of conflicts between the outlet owner and Ramly Mokni, the founder of Ramly Burger, Ninja Joe, has finally
agreed to change their restaurants’ name into another name (Ida Lim, 2016; Lim, 2016).
These are some instances of the misuse of Islamic attributes in food product’s labeling in Malaysia. Since this
issue continues to occur and keep increasing, it is crucial that special attention is given to regulate this practice.
Figure describes all the five types of misuses.
Figure 2: Main Types of Misuse of Islamic Attributes
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Malaysian Islamic Authorities Response to the Misuse of Islamic Attributes in Marketing and Product
Labeling
In response to the use of ayat Ruqyah and Quranic verses, as product labeling, the Muzakarah Majlis Fatwa
Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia decreed that this scenario is very dangerous to the religious
belief since it may lead to shirk (disbelief in Allah). It is important to note that the products and chants have no
power to heal except Allah (Berita Harian Online 2016). Muslims need to carefully manage their lives so they
do not deviate from the established grounds. Religion should not be a channel for wealth and political gain, thus
people need to reject such exploitations (Zin, 2017). On 27th February 2016, JAKIM had made a press statement
disallowing company and Malaysia Halal Certificate’s applicants from using the terms 'ruqyah verses', 'sunnah
food,' and the like on their labeling, advertising, and promotion of products applied for halal certification.
Director-General of the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) Datuk Othman Mustapha
caution against buying those products labeled with such terms are often used as a marketing plan, but it was
feared that might invite fraud on consumers who believe that products as more effective compared to other
products ( Basir, and Othman, 2016).
Due to these worrying scenarios, the Islamic Development Department Malaysia JAKIM has made a move to
regulate this matter. In particular, companies and applicants of the Malaysian Halal Certification are not allowed
to use the term 'ayat ruqyah,' 'sunnah food,' and the like on labeling, advertising, and promotion of products that
are seeking or halal certification. This prohibition is stated in the circular on the regulation which was enforced
on 15th Feb 2016 after the Trade Descriptions (Halal Certification and Marking) Order 2011 (Mutalib, 2016).
However, this prohibition is not exhaustive since itt only confines the prohibition on the use of the word Sunnah
food and ruqyah, while the usage of other Islamic attributes are still open to various interpretation.
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF MISUSE OF ISLAMIC ATTRIBUTES IN MARKETING AND PRODUCT
LABELING
The misuse of Islamic attributes has led to several undesirable implications. This paper discusses three
undesirable implications in the following sub-sections.
Degrading the sanctity of al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah
There are various negative impacts of the unregulated usage of Islamic attributes in food product labeling. Shukur
et al. (2016) highlight the need for regulatory intervention to curb various attempts to exploit the hadith of the
Prophet PBUH as a marketing strategy. This prohibition is because if the product does not give benefit to the
consumer, the risk of the hadith of the Prophet (s) will be denounced. Thus, producers need to be responsible for
the use of the "sunnah product" label because it risks the negative impact on sunnah's position as the second
source of authority in Islam. This has also been voiced out by the Mufti of Kelantan Dato’ Mohammad Syukri,
who contended that this phenomenon has becoming a trend to put the term sunnah among producer without
providing authenticity of the justification. He added that Islam considers any production that adheres to the
halalan toyyiban concept which is in line with the Prophet’s teaching as Sunnah ((Utusan Online 2017).
Shukur et al., (2016) highlight a good point to ponder where massive presence of Sunnah food has degraded the
sanctity of Islam, which shows that Muslims practice Sunnah in food consumption only while neglecting the
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Sunnah in other aspects of life. More importantly, it is feared that the use of Hadith to support the product could
be regarded as lies towards the Prophet. On the practice of printing Quranic verses or hadith on the product’s
packaging, the former Chief Imam of National Mosque, Dato’Hassan has warned that the practice should be
banned as Quranic verses and Hadith are sacred and should be preserved attentively. With regard to the practice
of ruqyah or recitation of Quranic verses on certain products, he added that it is feared that this belief may lead
to syirk (disbelief in Allah) as the power to heal only belongs to Allah, and not on the product. (Zain, 2013b).
Health Misconception
On the other hand, in some cases, these sunnah foods might not be suitable for certain health conditions. For
example Sunnah food such as dates and raisins, which are high in sugar might not be suitable for a diabetic
person. It may cause harm instead of curing the person. Thus, a comprehensive scientific research should be
conducted on the production, handling, the efficacy of Sunnah food, as well as safety and quality control on all
Sunnah based food (Ahmad et al., 2015; Tamizi, 2014). It is possible that the mixture of sunnah food with other
ingredients has changed the chemical composition and nutritional value compared to the original material. Is it
fair to make a claim that the food product as sunnah food? Similarly, the quantity of a specific type of food
product should also be taken into account. The easiest example is the dates juice which may also contain added
sugar, is it good for health? (Basir, and Othman, 2016). Tamizi (2014) states that dates and raisins cannot be
mixed based on Hadith of Prophet. He proposed that the preventive stance to avoid consuming raisins and dates
mixed in a drink as an important precautionary step to maintain the health of human body. However, it is
forbidden to drink dates or raisins that have entered 2-3 days since the fermentation process has started, thus it
will turn to inedible liquor drink (Radhiah & Nazirah, 2018).
Tarnishing the reputation of Islam
It is worrying trend where manufacturers use the basis of Sunnah food to achieve commercial value per se by
totally ignoring the impact on health. Not to mention the duplication by explicitly incorporate into a product
added sugar, non- dairy creamer and malt, then labeled as Sunnah food (Basir et al., 2016). Although Sunnah
food could always be seen as permissible and lawful (Halal), the safety, health and quality aspect of mixing them
with other food ingredients which are suspicious (mashbuh) and hazardous (madharrah) in the production line
is still ignored. Scientific perspectives of the implementation of standard policies and guidelines concerning the
issue of Sunnah food ingredients, technology, and processing in beverage industry in Malaysia are still scarce
(Radhiah & Nazirah, 2018). The utmost concern is towards the opportunists who exploit Islamic attributes to
create more income. For instance, there is currently no authority to verify the claim that the products have been
recited 30 juzu’ of Quranic verses is true or not. There may be an opportunist that only plays a recording tape of
Quranic verses on the food product without the knowledge of the customers (Berita Harian Online, 2016).
CONCLUSION
Preventing the misuse of Islamic elements is in line with the first and main Shariah objective of protecting the
religion (hifz al-din). Regulation on food branding and marketing using Islamic elements is necessary to protect
the sanctity and reputation of Islam. It is time for the regulators, particularly JAKIM (Department of Islamic
Development Malaysia) and HDC (Halal Development Corporation) to come up with a comprehensive standard
that provides guidelines on the use of Islamic elements in food branding and marketing, especially products with
Halal logo and certification.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish to thank the Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) for the research grant to complete the
project entitled “The use of Islamic Elements in Marketing: Syariah and Legal Analysis,” of which this paper is
part of the output.
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... The recognition of halal's importance to consumers has caused producers to use the concept of halal as a form of marketing. Several local product brands have appeared to the public as Islamic-related brands through their packaging and labelling (Osman & Ab Rahman, 2020). The halal status is written using the expressions 'halal', 'Muslim product', 'Muslim food' and so on. ...
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Perkembangan sains dan teknologi telah memberi kesan terhadap pelbagai urusan transaksi manusia. Ia memudahkan urusan para pengguna di samping dapat menjimatkan masa dan kos. Umpamanya, jual beli tiket penerbangan pada hari ini telah menggunakan kaedah jual beli atas talian secara meluas. Walaupun begitu, transaksi yang dilakukan telah menimbul pelbagai isu. Antaranya kekeliruan dalam pengiklanan, wujudnya caj tambahan yang bersifat tersembunyi dan manipulasi harga. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini membincangkan tentang konsep yang diguna pakai dalam jual beli tiket penerbangan serta isu-isu yang berlaku di samping isu-isu syariah yang berkait rapat dengan urusan jual beli tersebut. Bagi mencapai objektif tersebut, pengkaji menggunakan kajian kepustakaan dan lapangan (temu bual) bagi mengumpulkan data. Data kualitatif daripada kajian kepustakaan dianalisis menggunakan kaedah analisis kandungan manakala data temu bual dianalisis dengan menggunakan kaedah deskriptif. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa dalam transaksi jual beli tiket penerbangan atas talian terdapat beberapa isu yang timbul dan berdasarkan analisis perspektif syariah, wujudnya unsur gharar pada beberapa keadaan. Justeru, bagi mencapai tahap patuh Syariah dalam proses jual beli tiket penerbangan secara atas talian, unsur tersebut perlu ditangani sebaiknya oleh pengendali syarikat penerbangan.
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Sunnah Food refers to the food from natural resources mentioned in the Quran and Hadith for example honey, dates, and raisin. Muslims put a high level of trust in sunnah food due to its health benefits and is viewed as a way to follow the conduct of Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. As a result, many products labeled as sunnah food are produced and marketed in Malaysia. On 27th February 2016, JAKIM had made a press statement disallowing the labeling of products as sunnah food. This attracts public concerns which lead to discussions on legal issues in sunnah food labeling.This paper will outline the legal issues which have arisen such as the law that governs labeling, quality and standard of sunnah food, adulterated food, as well as the legal provisions which regulate the issue of food safety. This paper aims to promote innovation in the form of sunnah food but at the same time stresses on the importance of maintaining the food safety as required by law.
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Abstrak Kesetiaan pelanggan adalah penentu kepada kelangsungan sesebuah perniagaan. Personaliti usahawan merupakan faktor yang dapat mengukuhkan kesetiaan pelanggan. Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti pengaruh personaliti usahawan Islam berteraskan sifat siddiq, amanah, tabligh dan fatonah dalam konteks kesetiaan pelanggan. Kajian tinjauan keratan rentas dijalankan terhadap komuniti institusi pendidikan di negeri Kedah dan Perlis yang membeli produk berkaitan komputer di premis perniagaan komputer yang diusahakan oleh usahawan Islam. Seramai 295 responden dipilih berdasarkan gabungan teknik persampelan bertujuan dan persampelan rawak bersistematik. Analisis Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) digunakan untuk menguji model hipotesis kajian. Hasil analisis mendapati personaliti usahawan Islam memberi pengaruh langsung yang signifikan terhadap kepercayaan dan mempengaruhi secara tak langsung terhadap komitmen dan kesetiaan pelanggan. Kesimpulannya, personaliti usahawan yang dibina berdasarkan sifat berkenaan mampu menjamin kelangsungan perniagaan jika dilaksanakan dengan baik oleh usahawan Islam. Kata kunci: Sifat Nabi Muhammad SAW, Usahawan Islam, Kesetiaan Pelanggan, PLS-SEM.
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Pertumbuhan pesat industri halal turut memberi kesan terhadap hadith Nabi SAW. Selain dakwaan produk berasaskan sunnah Nabi Muhammad SAW, terdapat juga penyalahgunaan hadith dhaif dan palsu bagi melariskan jualan produk. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini akan membincangkan tentang penyalahgunaan hadith Nabi SAW dalam produk pengguna di pasaran. Pengkaji akan menyenaraikan beberapa hadith yang sering digunapakai oleh pengeluar produk berkenaan, misalnya produk berasaskan susu kambing, kurma, madu dan habbatus sawda'. Sedangkan proses pengkomersialan dan pengeluaran produk tersebut tidak berdasarkan kepada cara yang dimakan oleh Nabi SAW. Sikap mengeksploitasi hadith Nabi SAW sebagai pelaris jualan produk perlu ditangani oleh pihak berwajib. Ini kerana sekiranya produk tersebut tidak memberi kesan manfaat kepada pengguna, risiko hadith Nabi SAW diperlekehkan akan wujud. Justeru, pengeluar perlu bertanggungjawab dalam penggunaan label "produk sunnah" kerana berisiko mendatangkan kesan negatif terhadap kedudukan sunnah sebagai sumber autoriti kedua dalam Islam.
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The rapid development of the food and beverage industry in Malaysia resulted in various ideas of product innovations among the producers for the purpose of commercializations. Sunnah drinks are a phenomenon in today's market which is said to have many benefits to human health. Although Sunnah food could always be seen as permissible and lawful (Halal), the safety, healthy and quality aspect of mixing them up with other food ingredients which are suspicious (mashbooh) and hazardous (mudhorrah) in the production line is still disregarded. Yet, the implementation of standard policies and guidelines concerning on the issue of Sunnah food ingredients, technology, and processing in beverage industry from scientific perspectives in Malaysia are still scarce. This concept paper is aimed to review and correspond to the abovementioned issues as an efforts in securing the authenticness of Sunnah food from being jeopardized in the future. There are four key principles discussed; Halalan Toyyiban and Islamic dietary guidelines in Beverage; Islamic Manufacturing Practices (IMP); Food Safety, Hygienec and Quality Issue via HACCP; Standard Identification and Claiming on food Labeling which could act as the backbone of the efforts. Thus, the exploitation of Sunnah foods could be resolved effectively and immediately.
Kriteria Dalam Penilaian Terhadap Istilah Pemakanan Sunnah: Antara Realiti dan Pengamalan Dengan Fakta Berasaskan Fiqh Daripada Nas
  • K Ahmad
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  • M M Abd Razzak
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  • R J Raja Yusof
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Ahmad, K., Mohd Yusoff, M.Y.Z., Abd Razzak, M.M., Yakob, M.A., Raja Yusof, R.J., Fauzi, N., Awang, K., Othman, R. and Md. Ariffin, M. F. (2015). Kriteria Dalam Penilaian Terhadap Istilah Pemakanan Sunnah: Antara Realiti dan Pengamalan Dengan Fakta Berasaskan Fiqh Daripada Nas. In Irwan Subri (Ed.), Prosiding Seminar Fiqh Semasa (SeFis) 2015 (pp. 53-64). Nilai: Usuli Faqih Research Centre. Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/drive/u/2/folders/1UPibOQBFz5AsCR2D_0I4bQ0Eo_AhaEhP
Lawyers: 'P. Ramly' name does not mean that burger is halal
  • Ida Lim
Ida Lim. (2016). Lawyers: 'P. Ramly' name does not mean that burger is halal. Malay Mail.
A Shariah Analysis on the Use of Islamic Elements in Foods Branding and Marketing
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Jalil, A. & Osman, S. (2018). A Shariah Analysis on the Use of Islamic Elements in Foods Branding and Marketing. In S. A. Aziz (Ed.), International Halal Management Conference 2018. Nilai, N.Sembilan: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.
Jangan salah guna nama Islam bagi lariskan produk
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Utusan Online (2017), Jangan salah guna nama Islam bagi lariskan produk. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.utusan.com.my/mobile/berita/nasional/jangan-salah-guna-nama-islam-bagi-lariskan-produk-1.441801