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The use of standard series plans in designing unique buildings: the case of V. A. Pavlov’s residential house in Irkutsk

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The article analyzes the documents of the Ministry of Construction of Russia, which contain the methods for calculating the index of urban environment quality. It reveals the lack of the housing quality indicator in the sum of the indicators that compose this index. Rethinking of the experience of the standardized construction can be one of the ways to restore the balance of the quality of housing and public spaces. Using the example of V. A. Pavlov’s residential buildings in Irkutsk, the article shows a possibility to design high-quality modern dwelling, taking the basis of space-planning decisions for standard series as a starting point.
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The use of standard series plans in designing unique buildings: the case
of V. A. Pavlov’s residential house in Irkutsk
To cite this article: I Druzhinina 2020 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 880 012060
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ICRE-2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 880 (2020) 012060
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/880/1/012060
1
The use of standard series plans in designing unique
buildings: the case of V. A. Pavlov’s residential house in
Irkutsk
I Druzhinina1
1Department of architectural design, Irkutsk National Research Technical University,
83 Lermontov Street, Irkutsk 664074, Russia
E-mail: irk.allegro.id@gmail.com
Abstract. The article analyzes the documents of the Ministry of Construction of Russia, which
contain the methods for calculating the index of urban environment quality. It reveals the lack
of the housing quality indicator in the sum of the indicators that compose this index.
Rethinking of the experience of the standardized construction can be one of the ways to restore
the balance of the quality of housing and public spaces. Using the example of V. A. Pavlov’s
residential buildings in Irkutsk, the article shows a possibility to design high-quality modern
dwelling, taking the basis of space-planning decisions for standard series as a starting point.
In the framework of implementation of the national project “Dwelling and Urban Environment”, the
Ministry of Construction of Russia has worked out the methods for calculating the index of urban
environment quality. 36 indicators used for measuring living environment “make it possible to provide
a complex assessment of the condition of urban environment” [1]. The methods embrace a wide range
of parameters of the urban environment; however, the document lacks such crucial criteria of socially
important assessment of residential areas as design decisions and aesthetic attractiveness of residential
buildings. To evaluate the quality of housing, the Federal Project “Formation of the Comfortable
Urban Environment” considers six criteria: safety, comfort, environmental friendliness, identity and
diversity, modernity of the environment and management efficiency of authorities, but also pays no
attention to the aspects of space-planning decisions for housing. The lack of these indicators
significantly decreases the accuracy of the calculated index of urban environment quality. Taking into
account these methods, project designers put a priority on public spaces and urban land improvement,
while the quality of housing takes second place. A remote cause of today’s increased attention toward
the aesthetics of public spaces can also be the fact that for a long time the standardized house-building,
which managed to quickly provide housing for citizens during the industrialization period in the USSR
[2], produced public spaces with poor appearance. The mass construction of standardized series in
Oktyabrsky district and microdistricts of Irkutsk such as Yubileiny, Pervomaisky, Universitetsky,
Novo-Lenino and others confirm that. The issue of an individual’s comfort in standardized and
unitized architecture has been debated for a long time and is still topical nowadays. Russian and
foreign practices in adaptation of standardized housing are widely studied. For example, the authors
E. A. Repina and D. I. Rybakova pose questions about the role of the individual: “… can we say that
standardized architecture is beyond the individual?” [3, 4]. S. A. Makotina’s article features social
dwelling through the example of small-family hostels in Irkutsk and evaluates the historical and social
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IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 880 (2020) 012060
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/880/1/012060
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significance of the mass standardized housing of the 1970-80s. “The commune model of the 1980s
could have transformed into a Russian co-housing model” [5]. The evolution of town-planning
patterns of Irkutsk’s microdistrics and the principles of their development in the 1960-70s were
studied by P. Dorofeev in his master’s thesis [6]. Considering the above, the residents’ social and
psychological comfort and the investment attractiveness of the urban area depend not only on the
favourable public spaces, but, first of all, on the quality of dwelling. To achieve the greatest possible
comfort of the urban environment, it is necessary to balance these two characteristics.
Half a century of experience in designing and building series of standardized housing in Irkutsk has
formed a rich database of architectural and planning concepts for residential buildings. This is not only
of academic interest as a resource for studying the Soviet architecture, but can also be a starting point
for present-day designers. Standard series can be the basis for creation of unique architecture. In this
light it is noteworthy to consider several implementations of this task in the projects of a famous
Irkutsk architect V. A. Pavlov, such as residential buildings on Gorky, Kievskaya and Lermontov
streets in Irkutsk.
One of the first projects worked out by Vladimir Azarievich Pavlov in Irkutsk was an individual
project for a five-storey residential building of Irgiredmet and the CPSU District Committee at 1
Gorky Street (Figure 1). The building consists of two brick sections turned 90 degrees in relation to
one another with a “connection” between them. A medium-rise residential building included 20
apartments, 10 in each section. Since the order was fulfilled for the officers of the CPSU District
Committee, there are two apartments with improved layout on each floor. The area of these apartments
exceeds the standard that existed in that period. The storey height is 3 m, against the standard of 2.7 m
[7]. The building was designed at Irkutskgrazhdanproject in 1964, built in 1965 and put into operation
in 1966. The project was so successful that it was several times repeated for the party elite” in
different versions: at 9 Kievskaya St. (Figure 2) and 2-2a Gorky St. (built in 1972) (Figure 3), in
Akademgorodok at 295 and 295a Lermontov St. (built in 1977) (Figure 4) and at 295b Lermontov St.
(built in 1982). It should be noted that, despite maintaining common proportions and parameters,
every subsequent building had an individual appearance harmoniously integrated in the urban
surroundings. For example, architecture of the buildings at 2-2a Gorky St. was inspired by a trip to
Japan. The almost continuous glass ribbon of the façades with outstanding elements of the balcony
enclosures along the perimeter of the building, as well as bearing beams and pedestals discernible
through the piers in combination with the columns contribute Japanese features to the buildings’
appearance, while at the same time encompassing the five principles of Le Corbusier.
ICRE-2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 880 (2020) 012060
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/880/1/012060
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Figure 1. Residential building at 1 Gorky St.:
a) layout, b) standard floor plan, c) view from
Gorky St.
Figure 2. Residential building at 9 Kievskaya
St.: a) layout, b) photo of a facade fragment, с)
view from Kievskaya St.
Figure 3. Residential building at 22а Gorky
St.: a) layout, b), d), e) photo of a facade
fragment, c) view from Gorky St.
Figure 4. Residential buildings at 295, 295а,
295b Lermontov St.: a) layout, b), c) photo of a
facade fragment, d) view of a block of houses
V.A. Pavlov’s plans of the above-mentioned residential buildings have something in common with
the plans of standard row sections of series II-03 (Figure 5), which were widely used in construction of
3-5-storey brick residential buildings and series 11113560/1.2 (Figure 6). However, they also differ
significantly from each other. The arrangement of bathrooms in the spacing adjoining the stair flight
on two sides made it possible to unleash a light front along the perimeter of the building. It
significantly increased the living comfort in regards to the provision of natural light from three
cardinal directions and standard insolation in all dwelling units. This method allowed for unlimited
orientation of residential buildings both in the town-planning context and in the volumetric and spatial
composition. In its turn, it offered opportunities to use a wide range of structural solutions and
finishing materials. The aspect ratio of dwelling units provided a higher variability of furniture
arrangement. Besides, the master made provisions in his plan for the presence of utility spaces, which
are very important for the inhabitants of Siberia.
ICRE-2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 880 (2020) 012060
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/880/1/012060
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Figure 5. A diagram of a facade and a standard row section of series II-03
Figure 6. A diagram of a standard row section and a facade of series11113560/1.2
Regardless of the fact that “standardized architecture is always beyond the individual! It becomes
typical (and even one-type), standardized and unitized only because it is formed in accordance with a
standardized and unitized prototype of a customer” [4], it is a sort of information system (a database)
of space-planning decisions that serves for rethinking and formation of new architecture, which is, on
the one hand, no stranger to mathematically precise parameters and rational use of resources, and on
the other hand, oriented toward the individual.
In the Soviet period, the prevalence of standardization in architecture and the limitation of
opportunities caused progressive-minded architects to search for unique decisions, while using
standard elements. In that way, freely navigating in his architectural surroundings and basing on his
deep knowledge of related professions (structural arrangement, utility systems etc.) and his innovative
architectural and town-planning experience, V. A. Pavlov proposed forward-looking solutions, many
of which are still of great current interest.
ICRE-2020
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 880 (2020) 012060
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/880/1/012060
5
References
[1] The Government Of The Russian Federation march 23, 2019 No 510-r Method of formation of
the quality index of urban environment
[2] Meerovich MG 2017 October 1917 in the history of architecture and fine art of Siberia Selected
theses of the All-Russian Scientific Conf., timed to the centenary of the October Revolution of
1917 Ed Garkusha DD, Orlova EYu, Dukhanov SS Published: Novosibirsk State University
of Architecture, Design and Arts (Novosibirsk) pp 88-93
[3] Repina EA, Rybakova DI Human and neighborhood: Problems 2016 Innovative Project. Vol 1
No2 70-1 DOI: 10.17673/IP.2016.1.02.9
[4] Meerovich MG 2016 Man and neighbourhood: History of Khrushchev reforms in the USSR
Innovative project Vol 1 No4 pp 8-12
[5] Makotina SA 2018 Morphology of household hostels of the 70-80th years in Irkutsk Actual
problems of architecture, urban planning and design: Theory, practice, education Materials
of the Int. Scientific Conf. Ed by N.V. Ivanov Published: Volgograd State Technical
University (Volgograd) pp 65-9
[6] Dorofeev P 2014 Neighbourhoods structures of the 1960s and 1970s in Irkutsk project baikal
No 3940 pp 23051
[7] Buh VF, Grigorieva EI 2010 Vladimir Pavlov. Architecture of Soviet Modernism. Masters
Yekaterinburg TATLIN Publishers p134
[8] Grigorieva E, Tkacheva M 2013 Public spaces and their systems in Irkutsk: Destruction and
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project baikal No 35 pp 526
[9] Kosolapova A R, Antonov A V 2019 20-th session International Baikal Winter University of
urban planning: updated methodology of research and design sessions Proceedings of
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[10] Bannoud Ghaleb 2019 Features of the historic urban living environment in the city of Aleppo
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[11] Makotina S A, Daggers T, Karepova A I 2019 Population mobility in a contemporary near-
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This article is a study of neighbourhood construction during the 1960's – 1980's. These neighbourhoods are presented as self-dependent structures; this being valuable not only in terms of their complex conceptual content but also socially and culturally. The planning decisions aesthetically reveal the cultural potential of each district. This is an illustration of some qualitative characteristics of the Irkutsk micro-district spaces.
  • M G Meerovich
Meerovich MG 2017 October 1917 in the history of architecture and fine art of Siberia Selected theses of the All-Russian Scientific Conf., timed to the centenary of the October Revolution of 1917 Ed Garkusha DD, Orlova EYu, Dukhanov SS Published: Novosibirsk State University of Architecture, Design and Arts (Novosibirsk) pp 88-93
Morphology of household hostels of the 70-80th years in Irkutsk Actual problems of architecture, urban planning and design: Theory, practice, education Materials of the Int. Scientific Conf
  • S A Makotina
Makotina SA 2018 Morphology of household hostels of the 70-80th years in Irkutsk Actual problems of architecture, urban planning and design: Theory, practice, education Materials of the Int. Scientific Conf. Ed by N.V. Ivanov Published: Volgograd State Technical University (Volgograd) pp 65-9
Vladimir Pavlov. Architecture of Soviet Modernism
  • V F Buh
  • E I Grigorieva
Buh VF, Grigorieva EI 2010 Vladimir Pavlov. Architecture of Soviet Modernism. Masters Yekaterinburg TATLIN Publishers p134
Public spaces and their systems in Irkutsk: Destruction and creation. Dialog between the architect and the culturologist during a walk around the city project baikal
  • E Grigorieva
  • M Tkacheva
Grigorieva E, Tkacheva M 2013 Public spaces and their systems in Irkutsk: Destruction and creation. Dialog between the architect and the culturologist during a walk around the city project baikal No 35 pp 52-6
Population mobility in a contemporary nearwater city (on the example of the cities of Amsterdam and Irkutsk) Proceedings of Universities
  • S A Makotina
  • T Daggers
  • A Karepova
Makotina S A, Daggers T, Karepova A I 2019 Population mobility in a contemporary nearwater city (on the example of the cities of Amsterdam and Irkutsk) Proceedings of Universities. Investment. Construction. Real estate 9(4) pp 842-857