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Employee leave management system combine number of processes and systems to automate and easily manage employee data, leave request, track and grant leave. In many institution staff are entitled to different types of leave, these leave are granted according to institution policy. Administrative department is mostly responsible for managing and granting leave request. To this end, most institution used conventional method of requesting, granting and managing leave. In conventional method, leave is manually request by writing letter to head of department. The head of department minutes and forward the request to higher staff for approval. This method is time consuming, prone to error, require more paper work and difficult to manage. Hence the need for an automated leave management system that is faster, error free, less paper work and easy to manage. The system was achieved by developing an automated employee leave management system using the three tier software architectural model. The System is implemented using web based technologies which include CSS, JS, HTML, MySQL, PHP and runs on Windows operating system. . The overall functionality of the system shows that it work satisfactory and the result obtained shows that the system is error free, faster and allows staff to request for leave in a timely manner. Hence the system can be used by both academic staff and administrative department of an institution for effective and efficient management of employee leave.
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FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
4
No.
2,
June,
2020,
pp
86
-
91
86
EMPLOYEE LEAVE… Adamu A. FJS
FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS)
ISSN online: 2616-1370
ISSN print: 2645 - 2944
Vol. 4 No. 2, June, 2020, pp 86 - 91
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2020-0402-162
EMPLOYEE LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Adamu A.
Department of Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger state, Nigeria
Corresponding Authors’ Email: aadam@ibbu.edu..ng, dotab2003@yahoo.com, +2348034533333
ABSTRACT
Employee leave management system combine number of processes and systems to automate and
easily manage employee data, leave request, track and grant leave. In many institution staff are entitled to
different types of leave, these leave are granted according to institution policy. Administrative department
is mostly responsible for managing and granting leave request. To this end, most institution used
conventional method of requesting, granting and managing leave. In conventional method, leave is
manually request by writing letter to head of department. The head of department minutes and forward the
request to higher staff for approval. This method is time consuming, prone to error, require more paper
work and difficult to manage. Hence the need for an automated leave management system that is faster,
error free, less paper work and easy to manage. The system was achieved by developing an automated
employee leave management system using the three tier software architectural model. The System is
implemented using web based technologies which include CSS, JS, HTML, MySQL, PHP and runs
on Windows operating system. Performance evaluation of usability, conveniences and speed of
developed system was compared with existing method using 150 staff. The results shows that 94% of
responded agreed that the developed system is easy to use,
95% agreed that is most convenient and 98% agreed that it can deliver service in timely manner. The
overall functionality of the system shows that it work satisfactory and the result obtained shows that the
system is error free, faster and allows staff to request for leave in a timely manner. Hence the system can be
used by both academic staff and administrative department of an institution for effective and efficient
management of employee leave.
Keywords: Employee, Leave Management System, Leave Request, Institution
INTRODUCTION
An employee leave management system is a platform
that enables staff and admin of an organization or
institution to easily apply, correctly allocate, track and grant
leave (Chugh,
2014). In many institutions, staff are entitle to different kind
of leave; study leave, sick leave, annual leave, leave without
pay, research leave and maternity leave. These leave are been
taken and recorded according to institution policy. The
administrative department is mostly considered as one of the
most important assets in every institution. It is a part of
administrative department function to keep all the records of
employee. Every institution administrative department is
information driven, and the admin staff drives and carry out
day to day activities. In most institutions, conventional
method of requesting and managing leave is been used.
In conventional method, academic staff is required to
manually write and submit leave application to
administrative department through the Head of
Department (HOD). The head of department minutes and
forward the request to higher staff in charge, who approve
or reject the request. This method is time consuming,
prone to error, required more paper work and tedious to
maintain. Hence the need for an automated method that is
faster, error free, with no paper work and easy to manage.
Employee leave management is a web based application that
can be easily accessible by staff
and management of an institution. It makes it easy for
an employee to request and track their own leave.
Administrative department of an institution on the other
hand can easily allocate, grant and manage all leave
requests. Employee leave management system automatically
reflect the request to the relevant superior officer for
approval. If the superior officers reject the leave, a reason
for rejecting the leave must be entered into the system and
the employee who requested the leave will be notified and if
the leave request requires a higher superior officer for
approval before notifying the employee, the respective
officer will be notified. The system will also notify other
members of staff that are required to know. This will enable
administrative department to administer leave or note to the
next applicant, to track and manage the employee leave. For
every leave requested by an employee, the system will
automatically deduct the applicant leave from total leave and
notify all parties involve the total leave taken, the
remaining balance and when next the leave will be
taken according to policy of an institution.
Several literatures exists in leave management
system; Hridita, et al., (2018) documents an internship report
on leave management system but due to time factor,
confidentiality of organizational data and resources
limitation, only few details of the system were described.
Mishal et al., (2017) developed an intranet based leave
management system that can be
FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
4
No.
2,
June,
2020,
pp
86
-
91
87
EMPLOYEE LEAVE…
Adamu A.
FJS
accessed within an organization. The system can be used to
request, approve and generates reports of leave but only on
works on intranet. Manish et al., (2015) developed leave and
pay roll management system for requesting, viewing of
history and granting/rejecting of leave request. Rushitha et
al., (2019) developed android based leave management
system for effective and efficient management of staff leave
request and approval/rejection. Although the system can
manage staff leave efficiently, it can only work on
android operating system platform as such cannot be
used as web based application. Isaac et al., (2018)
developed prototyped of cloud based employee management
information system for African small and medium
enterprises consisting of four modules; leave management,
payroll management, staff appraisal and record
management. Though the system was designed to cover
all aspect of human resources in African small and
medium enterprises, only prototype of the proposed system
was developed at the time of carrying out this research.
Vikrant et al., (2017) developed an intranet based
student leave management system that automates the work
flow of leave approval and rejection. Stephen et al., (2018)
developed algorithm for scheduling leave in Nigeria
university system for academic staff. The system processes
service delivery by determining staff mix by rank and
lecture-to- student ratio. Due to the drawback of the existing
research aforementioned, this paper presents employee
management system specifically for managing staff leave
with simplicity, conveniences and ease of use by both
academic and non academic staff of an institution. The
system serves as improvement in staff
management, maintain accuracy, transparency and highlight
the need to integrate advance technology in employee record
and welfare management in higher institution.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Employee leave management system is designed using three
tier architecture model because of its performance, horizontal
scalability and each part of the tier can be develop
concurrently by different programmers, coding with different
programming languages. The three tier architecture runs on
client/server model and the web server. Tier one also known
as presentation tier consists of the client, display
the Graphical User interface (GUI) designed using Hyper
Text Markup language (HTML), Cascading Style Sheet
(CSS) and Java script. All HTML forms or content which
displayed on client browser are all in tier one. The CSS is
deployed through a web browser which communicates
with business tier and data through Application Program
Interface (API) calls. Tier two which is the middle and also
known as business logic tier is made up of application
server designed using java programming language and
web server. It contains the business logic and performs
the actual processing of data and communicates with the data
tier. Tier three which is the data tier is designed using
MySQL and consists of method and classes which deal
with storing and passing of data to the database (storage
layer). Search procedures or queries are used to access the
data and other operations in the database. Data passed by
presentation tier are also stored in the database and manages
all read and write to the database. The architecture
of the three tier architecture and the use case diagram of
the software application is shown in Figure 1 and
2 respectively.
Tier
1
Presentation
Tier
My
Account
Admin
Login
Tier
2
Middle
Tier
Tier
3
DataTier
Higher
Management
Create
Account
According
to
Category
Change
Password
Leave
Request
DatabaseServer
Select
Type
of
Leave
Employee
Approve/Reject
Leave
A
A
A
pppplliiccaattiioonnSSeerrvveerr
Administrato
r
Track
Leave
Generate
Leave
History
Clients
Log
out
Figure 1: Three Tier Diagram of the System Figure 2: Use Case Diagram of System
FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
4
No.
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June,
2020,
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EMPLOYEE LEAVE…
Adamu A.
FJS
Figure 1 shows the components of the three tier architecture;
the presentation tier, the application tier and data tier.
The application tier bridges gap between the underlying
database and user interface hiding technical details from the
users. It interacts with the database by retrieving and storing
data, and communicates with the presentation tier.
Apart from receiving and translating of data, it also
dispatches and gives feedback to both presentation and data
tier. The application tier also uses sets of rules to interpret
request coming from the presentation tier (user interface)
into actions. The data tier is responsible for storing needed
information, optimization of data access and modeling of
the system. The data tier also house the data needed by
the application tier and stored information needed by the
entire system to carry out some functions. The System is
implemented using web based technologies which include
CSS, JS, HTML, MySQL, PHP and runs on Windows
operating system. HTML coupled with CSS and JavaScript
were used for developing graphical user interface and form
validation. HTML specifies the layout and style of the
documents which creates the information been displayed
in the pages. The CSS improves the look and feel by
separating layout such as color and fonts of document
contents which helps to provide more control, flexibility in
specification and accessibility of the content. The JS enable
ease of communication asynchronously between the clients,
interprets its source code, and executes scripts step by step
and control the browser documents content. PHP is used for
the total programming of the system. When an
employee invokes a leave request after successful login into
the system, web server sends the request to PHP to access the
required data from the database. The web server controls the
retrieval and request of all information. The minimum
hardware requirement depicted in Figure 1, include
network of computers with Intel P4 or equivalent multi
processor, 4GB RAM and100 GB hard disk capacity for
clients side. A minimum of 2x1.6 GHz CPU processor, 3.5
GB RAM and 80
GB hard disk capacity for the basic medium virtual machine
configuration of the web server.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The login form is the first graphical user interface displayed
when the employee leave management application is launch.
Figure 3 shows the home page of employee leave
management system, staff and admin can log in using staff
number as user name and an eight digit password of
their
choice.
Figure 3: Home Page of Employee Leave management System Showing Admin and Staff Login
The first stage require admin to login into the system using his/her user name and password, then create all users according to
their hierarchy as shown in figure 4.
FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
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No.
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EMPLOYEE LEAVE…
Adamu A.
FJS
Figure 4: Creating Users on Employee Management System by Admin
When a staff login into the system for the first time, he/she will be required to change the password before any request can be
carried out. After successfully login in with the new password, user can navigates to the next page as shown in figure 5.
Figure 5: User Leave Request Page on Employee Leave Management System
Figure 5 shows the leave request page on employee leave management system, staff is required to select type of leave, enter
start date and end date from the drop down menu. Staff can also add additional information using the remark portion of the
page. After completing the form, the staff is required to submit the request by clicking of the request leave button. After
successful submission, the leave request automatically reflect on the superior officers account for approval or rejection as
shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Superior Officers Page for Approving or Rejecting Leave Request
FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
4
No.
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June,
2020,
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EMPLOYEE LEAVE…
Adamu A.
FJS
If the superior officer rejects the leave, a reason for rejecting the leave must be entered and the applicant will be notified. If
the leave requires a higher superior officer for approval before notifying the employee or members of staff in the
same department, the add notification button can be used to select the superior officers and department to be notified.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
This work was compared with conventional method of employee leave management system. The system was tested
and compared with the manual method, evaluated for speed, usability and conveniences for efficient management of staff
leave through the perception of assessments of these qualities by both academic and non academic staff of Ibrahim
Badamasi Babangida University (IBBU) Lapai. Data were collected inform of questionnaire after responded used the manual
method of employee leave management and the developed leave management system. A well structured questionnaire to
assess the Speed, usability and conveniences factors were administered to each respondents. A total of 150 questionnaires
were distributed to both academic and non academic staff of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University (IBBU) Lapai for
assessing the manual method and the developed system for requesting, generating report and approval/rejection of
leave requests using speed, usability and conveniences to influence the assertion that the developed system have capacity to
efficiently manage staff leave in conveniently and timely manner than the existing method. Three performance
evaluation metrics; speed, usability and conveniences were measured and the results are shown in Table 1 and figure 7.
Table 1: Users Perception on Manual Method and Developed Employee Leave Management System
User Perception Manual Method Developed System
1. Usability 6% of responded agreed that the 94% of respondent agreed that the
manual method is easy to use developed system is easy to use
2. Conveniences 5% of responded agreed that the 95% of respondent agreed that the
manual method is most convenient developed system is the most
Convenient
3. Speed 2% of responded agreed the 98% of respondent agreed that the
manual method is faster developed system can deliver service
in efficient and timely manner
Findings from usability revealed that 94% of respondent agreed that the developed system is easy to use compared to the
existing method as shown in Table 1 and Figure 7. 98% of respondents agreed that the system can deliver service in timely
manner compared to the existing system. The findings of convenience assessments revealed that 95% agreed that the
developed
system offers convenience service to both academic and non academic staff of the university compared to the existing
method.
Users Perception in
%
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
Usability
Convenieces
Speed
Users
Perception
in
%
Figure 7: Users Perception on Employee Management System
FUDMA
Journal
of
Sciences
(FJS)
Vol.
4
No.
2,
June,
2020,
pp
86
-
91
91
EMPLOYEE LEAVE…
Adamu A.
FJS
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Employee leave management system for managing staff
leave in higher institution has successfully been
developed. The system was developed in line with three
tier architecture software model and implemented
using web based technologies which include CSS, JS,
HTML, MySQL. The system serves as improvement in
staff management, maintain accuracy, transparency and
highlight the need to integrate advance technology in
employee record and welfare management in higher
institution. The developed system enables the employees in
academic institutions to request and track their leave at
their own convenient time in timely manner. Superior
officers of the institution and administrative department can
create leave policies, check transparency and plan activities
ahead of time. Further researchers can integrate Unstructured
Supplementary Service Data (USSD) into the System to
manage employees leave and emergency welfare.
REFERENCES
Chugh, R. (2014). Role of Human Resource Information
System in Educational Organization. Journal of
Advanced Management Science. 2(2)
Hridita, A. (2018). Employee leave Management System in
Metlife Bangladesh. An Intenship Report on Meltlife.
Isaac, U.O., Sanjay, M., Robertas, D. and Rytis, M. (2018).
Cloud Based Simple Employee Management Information
System: A Model for African Small and Medium
Enterprises. Proceedings of International Conference on
Information Technology & Systems, Advace in Intelligent
System and Computing 721. Pg 115
Rushitha, E., Preethi, G., Harshita, N.M., Manisha, R.R. and
Veena, M. (2019). Android Leave Management System.
International Research Journal of Computer Science. 06(6).
Manish, S., Prachi, S., Rohil, Shubham, S. and Shiwani, S.
(2015). Leave and Payroll Management System.
International Conference on Computing and Virtualization,
Thakur, India.
Mishal, R., Prity, S., Prachir C. and Arhant, C. (2017).
Employee Leave Management System. International Journal
of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education.
03(05).
Stephen, B.U. and Chukwudebe, G.A., Dike, D.O.
and Chukwuchewa, N. (2018). Improved Leave
Schedulling Algorithm for Improved Service Delivery
in Nigeria University System. Nigerian Journal of
Technology. 4(37). Pg 1039.
Vibrant, K.K., Arjun, K.G., Ashish, K., and Abhishek,
P. (2017). Student Leave Management System.
International Journal of Advance Research and
Innovative Ideas in Education. 03(05). Pg 124
Zehra, A.B. (2014). Human Resources Management and Its
Importance for Todays Organization. 1(2).
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... Another area in which USSD can be applied in higher educational institutions includes staff welfare, attendance, and leave management system. Employee leave management system is a platform that enables staff and administrators of an institution or organization to easily request, track, accurately allocate and manage employee leave [2]. Several types of leaves exist and their usage depends on educational institution policies. ...
... Furthermore, the achievement of institutional success is through ingenious strategic direction, objectives, strategies, as well as effective implementation and communication strategies [11]. As inferred by [42] and [43] institutions achieve their strategic direction through their strategic plan, vision and mission"s statements as well as their value statements. A strategic direction is employed to define goals for the workers and is usually linked with the mission statement of the organization. ...
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Employee leave Management System in Metlife Bangladesh
  • A Hridita
Hridita, A. (2018). Employee leave Management System in Metlife Bangladesh. An Intenship Report on Meltlife.
Android Leave Management System
  • E Rushitha
  • G Preethi
  • N M Harshita
  • R R Manisha
  • M Veena
Rushitha, E., Preethi, G., Harshita, N.M., Manisha, R.R. and Veena, M. (2019). Android Leave Management System. International Research Journal of Computer Science. 06(6).
Student Leave Management System
  • K K Vibrant
  • K G Arjun
  • K Ashish
Vibrant, K.K., Arjun, K.G., Ashish, K., and Abhishek, P. (2017). Student Leave Management System. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education. 03(05). Pg 124
Human Resources Management and Its Importance for Todays Organization
  • A B Zehra
Zehra, A.B. (2014). Human Resources Management and Its Importance for Todays Organization. 1(2).