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The development of biological dosimetry techniques for assessing non-uniform radiation exposure.

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... Since our initial study, it has been shown that the CBMN assay can readily detect the in vivo clastogenic effects of combined radiation (accumulated doses of 10 cGy) and contrast media in patients undergoing excretory urography (19). Wells et al. (20) confirmed that the CBMN assay can, indeed, readily detect exposures in patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy, with the MN index being directly related to the integral dose. As a result of the possible application of the CBMN assay in biological dosimetry after radiation accidents, several laboratories around the world have now established the dose-response parameters after exposure to various sources of ionizing radiation (3,4,6,7,(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)29). ...
... Wells et al. (20) confirmed that the CBMN assay can, indeed, readily detect exposures in patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy, with the MN index being directly related to the integral dose. As a result of the possible application of the CBMN assay in biological dosimetry after radiation accidents, several laboratories around the world have now established the dose-response parameters after exposure to various sources of ionizing radiation (3,4,6,7,(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)29). Furthermore, the Sobel's parallelogram concept of risk estimation (26) is also being implemented to determine the kinetics and extent of MN expression using the mouse as a model (27,28). ...
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The development of the cytokinesis-block (CB) technique has made the human lymphocyte micronucleus assay (MN) a reliable and precise method for assessing chromosome damage. Recent studies in our laboratory have confirmed that this method is a sensitive indicator of in vivo radiation exposure in patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy and rodents exposed to uniform whole-body irradiation, thus supporting the application of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay for biological dosimetry. To further define the use of this assay in biomonitoring, we have also undertaken extensive studies to determine the spontaneous level of MN in normal human populations and its relationship to various lifestyle factors. During the past year, we have also developed a new variation to the CBMN assay that enables the conversion of excision-repairable lesions to MN within one cell-cycle using cytosine arabinoside. With this method the slope of the in vitro dose-response curves was increased by a factor of 1.8 for X-rays, 10.3 for ultraviolet (254 nm) radiation, and approximately 40-fold for methylnitrosourea. Consequently, the CBMN assay can now be used not only to measure whole chromosome loss or chromosome breaks but also excision repair events. The versatility and simplicity of the CBMN assay together with new developments in automation should enable its successful application in monitoring exposed populations as well as identifying mutagen-sensitive individuals within a population.
... Since our initial study, it has been shown that the CBMN assay can readily detect the in vivo clastogenic effects of combined radiation (accumulated doses of 10 cGy) and contrast media in patients undergoing excretory urography (19). Wells et al. (20) confirmed that the CBMN assay can, indeed, readily detect exposures in patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy, with the MN index being directly related to the integral dose. As a result of the possible application of the CBMN assay in biological dosimetry after radiation accidents, several laboratories around the world have now established the dose-response parameters after exposure to various sources of ionizing radiation (3,4,6,7,(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)29). ...
... Wells et al. (20) confirmed that the CBMN assay can, indeed, readily detect exposures in patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy, with the MN index being directly related to the integral dose. As a result of the possible application of the CBMN assay in biological dosimetry after radiation accidents, several laboratories around the world have now established the dose-response parameters after exposure to various sources of ionizing radiation (3,4,6,7,(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)29). Furthermore, the Sobel's parallelogram concept of risk estimation (26) is also being implemented to determine the kinetics and extent of MN expression using the mouse as a model (27,28). ...
Article
The development of the cytokinesis-block (CB) technique has transformed the human-lymphocyte micronucleus assay (MN) into a reliable and precise method for assessing chromosome damage. Recent studies in our laboratory have confirmed that this method is a sensitive indicator of in vivo radiation exposure in (a) patients undergoing fractionated partial-body radiotherapy and (b) rodents exposed to uniform whole-body irradiation, thus supporting the application of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay for biological dosimetry. To further define the use of this assay in biomonitoring we performed extensive studies to determine the spontaneous level of MN in normal human populations and its relationship to various life-style factors. We have also developed a new variation to the CBMN assay that permits the conversion of excision-repairable lesions to MN within one cell-cycle using cytosine arabinoside. With this method the slope of the in vitro dose-response curves was increased by a factor of 1.8 for X-rays, 10.3 for ultraviolet (UV, 254 nm) radiation and approximately 40-fold for methylnitrosourea. Consequently the CBMN assay can now be used to measure not only whole chromosome loss or chromosome breaks but also excision-repair events. The versatility and simplicity of the CBMN assay together with new developments in automation should ensure its successful application in monitoring exposed populations as well as in identifying mutagen-sensitive individuals within a population.
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