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Understanding Generation Z expectations for effective onboarding



Purpose Organizations have long recognized that focusing on the onboarding experience is vital to the success of the employee and the organization. Organizations are confronted with inter-generational issues as they prepare to accommodate Generation Z in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expectations of Generation Z from the onboarding program so that the organizations are better equipped to welcome the new cohort. Design/methodology/approach The study adopts the interpretive approach to understand the subjective opinions, thoughts and conversations of the respondents. The study adopted an interpretive research approach for two main reasons. First, in the absence of empirical evidence, such a type of approach is helpful when the study aims to understand the subjective experience of individuals, and often can help in theory construction. Second, the approach helps uncover unknown facts and relevant research questions for further research. Findings The results from the study can help organizations to fine-tune the onboarding program that meets the needs of Generation Z. The study identified six essential variables that could be addressed in the onboarding enabling the new hires to quickly onboard the organization. Research limitations/implications Data were collected from the students who are pursuing final year of masters in business administration. Since the respondents are business students findings cannot be generalized to the rest of the cohort as these respondents had a fair idea of what to expect from the organizations. Practical implications The study presents six important themes for designing and managing an effective onboarding program for Generation Z. It is important to note that the inter-generational differences are natural, and organizations have to live with it. HR professionals have to bear in mind that this is also an opportunity to revisit, redesign and readjust their onboarding programs to suit the new employees. Originality/value The literature on Generation Z is at a nascent stage. Empirical studies on Generation Z were conducted to understand their expectation, beliefs and attitude. However, studies related to their expectations during the new hire orientation programs are absent. The present study could be one of the first studies in helping both managers and the HR function in understanding the expectations of Generation Z.
Understanding Generation Z
expectations for
effective onboarding
Bharat Chillakuri
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade - Kolkata Campus, Kolkata, India
Purpose Organizations have long recognized that focusing on the onboarding experience is vital to the
success of the employee and the organization. Organizations are confronted with inter-generational issues as
they prepare to accommodate Generation Z in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the
expectations of Generation Z from the onboarding program so that the organizations are better equipped to
welcome the new cohort.
Design/methodology/approach The study adopts the interpretive approach to understand the subjective
opinions, thoughts and conversations of the respondents. The study adopted an interpretive research approach
for two main reasons. First, in the absence of empirical evidence, such a type of approach is helpful when the
study aims to understand the subjective experience of individuals, and often can help in theory construction.
Second, the approach helps uncover unknown facts and relevant research questions for further research.
Findings The results from the study can help organizations to fine-tune the onboarding program that meets
the needs of Generation Z. The study identified six essential variables that could be addressed in the
onboarding enabling the new hires to quickly onboard the organization.
Research limitations/implications Data were collected from the students who are pursuing final year of
masters in business administration. Since the respondents are business students findings cannot be
generalized to the rest of the cohort as these respondents had a fair idea of what to expect from the
Practical implications The study presents six important themes for designing and managing an effective
onboarding program for Generation Z. It is important to note that the inter-generational differences are natural,
and organizations have to live with it. HR professionals have to bear in mind that this is also an opportunity to
revisit, redesign and readjust their onboarding programs to suit the new employees.
Originality/value The literature on Generation Z is at a nascent stage. Empirical studies on Generation Z
were conducted to understand their expectation, beliefs and attitude. However, studies related to their
expectations during the new hire orientation programs are absent. The present study could be one of the first
studies in helping both managers and the HR function in understanding the expectations of Generation Z.
Keywords Generation Z, Inter-generational issues, Onboarding, Interpretive research
Paper type Research paper
Millennials and the research on new millennials have taken center stage for quite some time.
The cohort millennialsare described as young, educated, assertive and outgoing (Strauss
and Howe, 2003:Howe and Strauss, 2009). While the research on millennial continues, a new
cohort, Generation Z,has begun to draw the attention of various stakeholders business
leaders, entrepreneurs, colleges, parents and the human resources practitioners in particular.
A joint study by a Network of Executive Women (NEW) and Deloitte (2019) predicts that
Generation Z surpasses the millennials with more than one-third of the population identifying
themselves as Generation Z, therefore, understanding the new cohort and devising strategies
to accommodate the new generation into the workplace assumes significance. Every cohort
distinguishes itself from the rest of the generations concerning expectations, experiences,
values, education, family, lifestyle and work ethics (Williams and Page, 2011;Grow and Yang,
2018), context, and behavior (Francis and Hoefel, 2018), significantly affecting the industry
and the organization. Therefore, understanding the differences in the cohort and what
differentiates Generation Z from the remaining cohort can help organizations successfully
onboard the new generation.
Generation Z
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
Received 28 February 2020
Revised 4 May 2020
31 May 2020
Accepted 19 June 2020
Journal of Organizational Change
© Emerald Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/JOCM-02-2020-0058
Organizations have long recognized that focusing on the onboarding experience is vital to
the success of the employee and the organization. Prior research studies (Acevedo and
Yancey, 2011;Smart, 2012;Ellis et al., 2017) have established that the new hires leave the
organization early during the first three months of the employment, and thus the current
research focuses on creating effective onboarding strategies for Generation Z. The argument
was further supported by industry research report as Bersin, an HR consulting firm, in their
survey found out that 79% of the business leaders feel like effective onboarding is an urgent
and essential priority (Bersin, 2014). As Generation Z starts entering the workforce, they are
compared to the earlier cohorts in terms of their expectations, values, anticipations and how
they would disrupt the workforce. The literature on Generation Z has been limited to
understanding their attitudes, preferences and behaviors (Scholz, 2014;Turner, 2015;Bencsik
et al., 2016;Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018) with very little research on organizations
readiness to accommodate the new cohort. Organizations are confronted with inter-
generational issues, as they start recruiting Generation Z in the workplace (Dwivedula et al.,
2019). Therefore, the study assumes importance as Generation Z presents unique challenges
for managers and organizations, and thus calls for a well-established onboarding program to
successfully onboard the new cohort.
The study makes several contributions to both theory and practice. First, the study
advances the understanding of the Generation cohort theory. Second, by studying the
expectation of Generation Z from the onboarding, the study adds to our knowledge, the
support Generation Z requires in the early days of their career. Third, the study investigates
the expectations of Generation Z with the extant literature, thereby fulfilling the criteria of
conformability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Finally, the study helps organizations understand
the differences in the generation, thus making them ready to accommodate Generation Z into
the workplace. Besides, the study contributes to the onboarding literature, thereby
establishing the need for effective onboarding.
Literature review
Generation Z is the cohort group born after 1995 (Lanier, 2017;Chillakuri and Mahanandia,
2018) comprises 32% of the global population (Miller and Lu, 2019). Research on defining
characteristics of Generation Z is still at a nascent stage (Dwivedula et al., 2019) due to the
difference of opinions among the scholars. Several researchers have attempted to understand
the generational traits and studied generational differences among the cohorts (Laz
anyi and
Bilan, 2017;Lanier, 2017;Grow and Yang, 2018). Hoxha and Zeqiraj (2019) argue that
developments and changes that occurred over the past few decades manifest in the
characteristics of a cohort. Thus, each generation is unique and has to be understood
differently. Generation Z stands out from other generations in at least one aspect that these
cohorts have never seen the world without the Internet. The absence of empirical studies
investigating the traits and characteristics and a lack of understanding adds more confusion.
For instance, Howe (2014) and Crunch (2015) argue that Generation Z is concerned more about
job security, while Bernier (2015) surveyed 50,000 members and opined that Generation Z is
worried about job fit that suits their skills than job security, thereby underlying the need for
further research in understanding Generation Z.
Despite the difference of opinions among the scholars, it is widely accepted that
Generation Z shares qualities of millennials (Wiedmer, 2015;Kebritchi and Sharifi, 2016;
Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018;Schroth, 2019) but also differs from them in many aspects.
Generation Z is considered to be early starters prefer working while studying as they can
learn and earn simultaneously (Cameron and Pagnattaro, 2017); entrepreneurial and outcome
orientation (Lanier, 2017;Christensen et al., 2018); tech-savvy, being raised with the
smartphones and Internet from an early age (Opris and Cenusa, 2017;OBoyle et al., 2017;
Francis and Hoefel, 2018); independent they are confident and do not rely much on the
parents (Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018;Francis and Hoefel, 2018;Robertson, 2018;
Dwivedula et al., 2019); prefers autonomy at work (Wiedmer, 2015).
Extant literature on Generation Z focused on studying the inter-generational differences
(Lanier, 2017;Grow and Yang, 2018), values towards achieving goals (Bencsik et al., 2016;
Gutfreund, 2016;Christensen et al., 2018;Grow and Yang, 2018;Berge and Berge, 2019),
education and learning styles (Iorgulescu, 2016;Chicca and Shellenbarger, 2018;Pousson and
Myers, 2018;Berge and Berge, 2019), career expectations (Loveland, 2017;Grow and Yang,
a and Kirchmayer, 2018;Dwivedula et al., 2019;Berge and Berge, 2019), the
impact of social media on Generation Z (Turner, 2015;Wo
zniak, 2016;Duffett, 2017;
Dwivedula et al., 2019), use of technology (Bencsik et al., 2016;Chillakuri and Mahanandia,
2018;Sung and Choi, 2018;Dwivedula et al., 2019) and expectations at the workplace
(Bohdziewicz, 2016;Fratri
a and Kirchmayer, 2018;Grow and Yang, 2018;Dwivedula et al.,
2019). At the same, studies were conducted to understand their buying behaviors (Gutfreund,
2016;Puiu, 2016;Priporas et al., 2017;Hoxha and Zeqiraj, 2019;Ismail et al., 2020). However,
studies related to their onboarding expectations were notably absent, and the present study
addresses this gap.
The literature on Generation Z is at an emerging phase. While there are studies on
understanding their values, learning styles, the impact of social media, technology adoption,
expectations at the workplace, studies relating to onboarding Generation Z, and the
organizations readiness in managing the inter-generational differences are significantly
absent. The present study is an attempt to understand their expectations in the initial days of
Generation Z joining the workplace. Every new hire in the organization has a set of new
expectations that impact their attitudes, feelings, and behaviors, and Generation Z is no
exception (Sherman and Morley, 2015). The relationship between the employee and the
organization is bidirectional as organizations expect employees to work hard, develop new
skills, and follow organizational goals. In contrast, the employees expect the organization to
treat employees fairly, provide opportunities for training, development, promotion, provide
real-time feedback, and performance-based pay (Schroth, 2019). Against this background, the
study attempts to gain an understanding of Generation Z and their onboarding expectations,
thereby enabling organizations to address their expectations in the initial days of employees
joining the organization.
Recruiting talent is very critical for the success of any organization as the competition for
skilled employees is precipitous (Edwards, 2009). Employers invest a significant amount of
time, money, and energy on recruiting the best hires, and thus the organizations need to
design a top-grade onboarding program in a way that employees are up and functioning as
early as possible (Becker, 2010;Becker and Bish, 2019). The onboarding process varies from
organization to organization, differs in procedures, techniques, style, and often depends on
the size and level of the employees. Onboarding is a process of introducing new hires into the
new job, acquainting them with the organizations goals, values, rules, responsibilities,
procedures, and socializing the employee into an organizational culture (Bauer et al., 2007;
Bauer, 2010;Watkins, 2016), thereby helping the new employees adjust to social and
performance aspects of the new job. Onboarding new hires is a critical activity that allows the
employee to integrate with the organization, culture, and access to information, helping them
to be effective in their day-to-day jobs (Becker and Bish, 2019). A well-designed onboarding
program can help the new hires reduce anxiety and uncertainty, and provide clarity and
understanding to their role (Schroth, 2019). Organizations treat the onboarding as a strategic
program as the impression that is created during the initial days of the new hires will have a
Generation Z
lasting effect on the careers of the individuals. As a result, the typical onboarding process
starts from the day an offer is made and continues up to six to twelve months upon the
individual joining the organization (Fyock, 2012). Whatever be the onboarding model and the
duration, the underlying fact is that faster a new hire is absorbed into the organization, sooner
the employee would be able to contribute to the organization. The design of the onboarding
program should include a definite focus on the importance of the new employee, transparent
and open communication, performance measurement, and aligning new hires to strategies
that support the mission and goals of the organization (Bauer, 2010;iCIMS, 2016).
Moreover, prior research studies (Allen et al., 2004;Harris et al., 2007;Bauer et al., 2007;
Meyer and Bartels, 2017) established that effective onboarding results in increased
performance, job satisfaction, and loyalty to an organization, and therefore the
organizations must provide the necessary input for the new hires to be successful. As part
of their work, employees might need to coordinate with different processes within the
organizations, and unfamiliarity with the procedures, and people could be daunting.
Organizations have realized the importance of the initial experience, and thus have well-
established onboarding programs serving mainly three purposes increasing the confidence
of the new hires, helping employees become fully productive more quickly, and build a
mutually positive association with the organization and the employees (Guðmundsd
ottir and
ottir, 2016). However, the expectation of the new hires seems to be different, and
thus, there is a wide gap between Generation Zs expectations vs. what is delivered.
Generation Z wants to start working as soon as they are onboard, as they are career
ambitious, and prefer real-time feedback (Gale, 2015). Therefore, the present study focuses on
welcoming and integrating Generation Z into organizations equipping them with the
necessary information and skills to work effectively.
The term onboarding is recent, but the concept of new onboarding is not a new
phenomenon, as the HR practitioners referred to the process as orientation (Klein and Heuser,
2008;Daskalaki, 2012). Extant literature indicates several onboarding models. Van Maanen
and Schein (1979) argue that organizational socialization is the underpinning theory from
which onboarding emerged, and therefore the majority of the scholars derived their models
based on socialization theory. For instance, Van Maanen and Schein (1979) proposed six
tactical dimensions of onboarding based on socialization. Klein and Heuser (2008) developed
a model with 12 content areas contributing to adequate socialization. To support the model,
they later developed an Inform-Welcome-Guide (IWG) model to identify critical onboarding
areas. Bauer (2010) developed a 4Cs model comprising four levels (lowest to highest), namely
compliance, clarification, culture and connection. Meyer and Bartels (2017) further
investigated the 4Cs model noted that all these levels are necessary and reported that new
hires who have received all the levels, including connections, reported higher perceived
organizational support, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. All these models
highlight the importance of learning in all the onboarding process, establishing the need for
effective onboarding leading to organizational commitment, and job satisfaction.
Considering Generation Z as the new cohort joining the organization, their expectations
from the onboarding process have to be studied. These are a new generation that has not seen
the world without the Internet, considered as the first digital natives; they are very
comfortable in collecting the information and integrating virtual and offline experiences
(Francis and Hoefel, 2018). Besides, they expect to access information and use them before
they make a decision. Therefore, the onboarding experience has to start even before they
enter the organizations. In the age of digital disruption, if the onboarding process is still a
paper-based and begins on the joining day of the employees, they likely perceive the
organization lacks digital thinking (Deloitte, 2019). As a result, Generation Z might be
preferring competitive organizations that offer digital thinking and digital onboarding
experience. While a majority of the organizations provide a digital onboarding experience,
there are specific processes that are still paper-based; as a result, the onboarding process is
slow. Therefore, the present study understands their expectations, so that the HR
professional can redefine, and readjust their onboarding program to make it as effective as
The study adopts the interpretive research using qualitative methods on the lived experience
of the respondents. Interpretive research is an approach that embraces a voluntaristic view of
human experiences in a way that the individuals are not acted upon by the external world
instead of behaving proactively (Ozanne and Hudson, 1989). This approach is popular in
social sciences and information systems research (Klein and Myers, 1999;Livari, 2018);
however, it is applied in management discipline also. A wide range of studies has been
proposed in the literature. For example, Jansen (2018) used interpretive research to explore
how management accounting research can be practically applicable in shaping an
intervention. The interpretive approach is often used to explore studies related to
performance management (Cunha et al., 2018), leadership (Felix et al., 2019), organizational
work-life balance practices (Nwagbara, 2020), sustainable human resource management
(Podgorodnichenko et al., 2020). The study adopted an interpretive research approach for two
main reasons. First, in the absence of empirical evidence, such a type of approach is helpful
when the study aims to understand the subjective experience of individuals and often can
help in theory construction (Smith and Bowers-Brown, 2010). Second, the approach helps
uncover unknown facts and relevant research questions for further research (Lincoln and
Guba, 1985).
Moreover, such an investigation is helpful in theory construction in areas of insufficient a
priori theory. Interpretive research involves using qualitative methods; a critical aspect in
interpretive research is seeking meaning in context, combining social, historical and cultural
contexts impacting the subject matter, which cannot be ignored (Klein and Myers, 1999;
Maroun, 2012). Hirschman and Holbrook (1986) argue that interpretive research does not
reject quantitative approaches; instead, view them as measures based on one aspect at one
point in time. An essential element of interpretive researchers is studying the phenomena
from the perspective of those participants involved with the phenomena rather than
participants as part of the physical world (Szmigin and Foxall, 2000). Qualitative and
interpretive research does not generalize the findings; however, it provides an insight into the
studied phenomenon (Maroun, 2012), and therefore our aim is not to generalize results to a
population but to understand the expectations of Generation Z as they prepare to enter the
workplace. Moreover, interpretive research offers the potential to interact with practical
implications. Opinions, thoughts, and suggestions by the respondents with certain
limitations may be incorporated by the organizations to ensure that Generation Z is
appropriately welcomed into the organization.
Sample and procedure
The most commonly used technique of data collection in interpretive research is interviews
that can be facilitated through face-to-face, telephonic, or focus group discussions (Lincoln
and Guba, 1985). Besides interviews, another technique that is followed is direct observation,
where the researcher can be either a passive external observer or an active participant
sharing their inputs about the phenomena being studied. Therefore, taking a cue from the
interpretive research, the study adopted interviewing and participant observation techniques
to elicit information from the respondents. The inclusion and exclusion criteria for selecting
the respondents were followed through a two-step process. First, the respondents should
Generation Z
belong to the Generation Z cohort, and hence, participants are chosen from three educational
institutions, who are pursuing final year masters program (business students). As an
introduction, the participants were explained about the different cohorts, Generation Z, and
the objective of the study. A pilot study with one focused group was conducted to test and
organize the interview schedule. Initial conversations with the participants helped in
modifying the sample size, as few of the students did not belong to the Generation Z cohort.
The group consisted of participants who had prior work experience, and few of them did not
have any work experience. It was observed that the participants who had work experience
were sharing their expectations, while others were quiet. A key criterion to interpretive
research is that the participants should have first-hand knowledge about the phenomena
being studied (Gioia et al., 2013).
Therefore, in the subsequent discussions, we have selected participants only who had
completed a minimum of two summer internships. The second criterion was critical for this
study as the participants during the internships had the first-hand experience and knew what
to expect from their organization. During the internships, they are generally not exposed to all
the HR practices in the organizations. However, these participants understand organizational
functions and the way employee relations are handled. The interview ranged from 4050 min,
with each discussion having 710 participants. We conducted 15 group discussions covering
136 participants (see Table 1 for details) with the following questions: First, what should be
the duration of the new hire orientation/onboarding? Second, what are the key topics new
hires are interested to know during the onboarding? Third, what are some of the specific
topics that must be covered in the onboarding?
The study adopted an inductive approach complemented with Gioia methodology (Gioia
et al., 2013) in analyzing the findings. Inductive reasoning is an approach that starts with
observations and searches for the development of patterns and theories. Such an approach is
appropriate when exploring participantsperceptions, perspectives and behaviors (Mueller
and Lovell, 2015). Before conducting the interviews, each of the participants was requested to
mention five key topics that they must know as they join the organization. Thus, the total
number of responses were 680 (136 35); the data was analyzed carefully and arrived at 18
key themes. Table 1 presents the first-order model with 18 concepts (n5136). The study
Group No. of participants Male Female
Group 1 7 4 3
Group 2 9 4 5
Group 3 9 5 4
Group 4 8 4 4
Group 5 7 5 2
Group 6 8 4 4
Group 7 8 5 3
Group 8 9 5 4
Group 9 10 6 4
Group 10 8 4 4
Group 11 10 5 5
Group 12 8 4 4
Group 13 9 5 4
Group 14 8 4 4
Group 15 9 5 4
Table 1.
Participant details
followed Gioia et al. (2013) two-step process of first-order and second-order concepts for data
analysis. The Gioia methodology assesses participants as knowledgable agents, and the
researcher as a knowledgable person, who can link participant knowledge to the extant
literature. Following the Gioia methodology, the first step was to record all the conversations
with the participants. The conversations were decoded, and the team arrived at 18 emerging
topics, which we considered as first-order concepts. Subsequently, in the second step, the 18
emerging concepts were discussed again with the participants to identify the overlapping
themes. Since the study did not rely on any single group, measures were taken to record all the
conversations, and subsequently, the interviews were coded. Consistency of coding was
maintained throughout the interviews. In the third step, the researchers arrived at second-
order themes basing on the number of responses against each theme. Table 3 presents the
number of responses against each theme. The second-order themes were limited to six
categories as the difference between the sixth and seventh themes was large. Table 4 presents
the second-order categories.
Generation Z is a new cohort who have started joining the workforce recently. While
academic literature on Generation Z is still at a nascent stage, key findings of this study reveal
much more about their interests and their expectations from the workplace. Table 1 details
the number of focused group discussions and the number of participants in each group.
Table 2 provides insights into the duration of the onboarding program. Forty-one percent of
the respondents opined that a two-week onboarding program would address the majority of
the concerns associated with the new hires.
In comparison, 28% responded that a five-day onboarding program would be sufficient.
Table 3 lists the various topics they would like to know during the onboarding program. To
judge the rigor of interpretive research, Lincoln and Guba (1985) presents four-step criteria,
where dependability and conformability are very essential. Dependability refers to
authenticity, wherein different researchers assessing the same phenomenon arrive at the
same conclusions. Credibility refers to the inferences to be believable. The credibility of
interpretive research can be extended by providing evidence of earlier studies. Therefore, the
study, while interpreting the analysis, compared to the previous findings on Generation Z,
thereby fulfilling the conformability criteria (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). Results revealed that
the present findings resonate with the research earlier concerning Generation Z.
Second order
Meaningful work
Performance management
Work-life balance
Personal connect
Bigger picture at work
Learning and development
No. of days No. of participants
2 Days 14
5 Days 38
2 Weeks 56
30 Days 28
Table 4.
Second order themes
Table 2.
Duration of
onboarding program
Generation Z
One of the fundamentals of interpretive research is the ability of the researcher to have clarity
on the subject and write clearly. Besides, the researcher should be able to explore the
phenomena from different angles and make a meaningful contribution. Therefore, all
interviews with the participants are recorded and decoded. The conversations and the
recordings allowed to elicit respondents experiences, perceptions and narratives. The
conversations in the recording, which are relevant to the subject matter, are carefully
examined, and few of the excerpts are mentioned in the discussion section to strengthen our
arguments. The study followed the four-step criteria of dependability, credibility,
conformability and transferability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) to establish authenticity and
rigor to the interpretive research. Transferability, the last step in the criteria, refers to the
extent to which the findings can be generalized. Such a study requires the researcher to
provide detailed descriptions and assumptions. The results in the form of six categories from
the focus group interviews are presented in the findings and discussion section.
Findings and discussion
Meaningful work
Managing expectations of Generation Z is an uphill task for the organizations as they have an
idealistic picture that the work assigned to them is meaningful and exciting and that their
ideas will be implemented by their managers (Schroth, 2019). Employees often feel their job
boring, repetitive and mundane when the work does not energize them; as a result, their
contribution to the organization may decline. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the
managers to help employees understand the contribution and how their work is significant to
the success of the organization (Pradhan and Jena, 2019). Prior studies indicated that
meaningful interactions with colleagues, managers and clients have a positive effect on the
innovative behavior of the employees leading to innovative and creative work solutions
(Zhou and Shalley, 2003;Pradhan and Jena, 2019). As employees derive meaning from their
work, they feel connected to the mission and purpose of the organization. In todays business
world, the work is less strictly defined. Hence, it becomes challenging for the organization to
discuss the work in the onboarding orientation program, as jobs in the organizations often
First order No. of responses
Meaningful work 114
Performance management 81
Work-life balance 78
Personal connect 76
Bigger picture at work 64
Learning and development 56
Rewards and recognition 29
Innovation 28
Career development 28
Diversity and inclusion 26
Organizational culture 21
Internal mobility 18
Corporate social responsibility 16
HR policies 15
Core values 15
Leadership 12
Supportive team 2
Office events 1
Total 680 (136 35)
Table 3.
expectations (N5136)
undergo changes. Many, at times, the nature of the job depends on the clients requirements
and business needs. Participants mentioned that when the purpose of the work is known,
their contribution goes beyond the financial gains. On the contrary, when their work is not
explained, they are not motivated to do, even though it is a small task:
As new hires, we may start with low-value tasks. If there is a way to automate the redundant tasks,
we would love to give a try. Just because we are new hires, we cannot be taken granted to get
unnecessary jobs done. We would like to know why a particular activity is executed and its impact
on the client and to the organization.
Generation Z wants to have a clear understanding of the organizationsvalues, vision and
strategic goals. Therefore, the initial onboarding has to set the stage in helping the new hires
understand the values and objectives of the organizations and need to reinforce the values, so
they are aligned to organization values. Unlike the previous cohorts, Generation Z values
ethics, practices and the social impact that the organization creates. In a survey by Network of
executive women (NEW) and Deloitte, 77% of Generation Z responded that they choose
organizations not based on their innovative products and resources but based on the
organizationsvalues and ethics that reflect their values. The survey also highlights that
Generation Z likes to have an understanding of the other social initiatives and opportunities
they get to participate apart from their daily routine. Therefore, to attract the right talent,
organizations need to highlight their efforts towards social activities, and the values have to
be manifested in the onboarding program. It is evident from the conversations that these
cohorts think differently from the previous generations, while they prefer job security,
financial security (Iorgulescu, 2016;Laz
anyi and Bilan, 2017;Lanier, 2017); they like to do
what energizes them and take up work that has a sense of purpose. A participant commented:
If the work is explained in detail, I will be much more motivated to complete the assignment. We are
more interested in creating an impact from an ethical perspective. For instance, I would like to work
for non-profit organization clients. While the nature of the work may be similar to commercial clients,
I feel more motivated working for non-profit or charitable organization clients.
The findings from the study are in line with Fratri
a and Kirchmayer (2018). In their
research on Generation Zs motivation observed that uninteresting nature of work, work
overload, working with no sense of purpose are the barriers of motivation. Similarly, they
identified that career advancement, career growth, and continuous learning act as motivating
factors. The findings resonate with the thoughts of Bruce Tulgan (2013), the CEO of
Rainmaker Thinking, that the structured and defined responsibilities with a sense of meaning
enable Generation Z to work and succeed.
Performance management
Generation Z is engaging and prefers instant feedback (Lanier, 2017;Chillakuri, 2018). In a
survey by Inc. (Jenkins, 2019), 60% of the respondents indicated that they would like to
receive feedback frequently. They are also described as a cohort that does not have patience
(Opris and Cenusa, 2017). As digital natives, they want to obtain real-time feedback and
prefer in-person feedback (Laz
anyi and Bilan, 2017;Lanier, 2017) rather than through
workplace communications. The present study also corroborates with the previous research,
wherein 66% of the respondents suggested to have instant and real-time feedback. Frequent
and meaningful conversations with the managers help Generation Z understand the priorities
and provide appropriate direction (Chillakuri, 2020). Moreover, they believe that timely
feedback about their performance is essential to learning so they can focus on the
improvement areas instead of waiting for the year-end review (Chillakuri, 2018). Participants,
while emphasizing the need for instant feedback, also underlined the need for candid
feedback. A participant mentioned:
Generation Z
We take up a job not just for salary but to contribute to the organization. We want managers to
appreciate the good things we do; similarly, we want them to give us candid feedback where we have
gone wrong. Instant feedback will help us to overcome mistakes and help us not to repeat in the
new work.
Organizations realized the importance of frequent discussions the employees have with their
managers. Therefore, multinational companies Accenture, Deloitte, KPMG, Microsoft, Adobe
scrapped the existing bell curve approach of performance management and moved to a new
system that is future-oriented than mere assessing the past performance (Chillakuri, 2018).
Generation Z would like to know where they stand in reaching their goals and what it takes to
reach the next level. As mentioned earlier, Generation Z values in-person, timely feedback, at
the same time, they are career ambitious and likes to know opportunities for career
advancement. A participant mentioned:
I would like to know more about the promotion process and what it takes to move to the next level, so
I can start preparing from day one. I feel tenure should not be the criteria for the promotion, and if a
two-year tenured professional is doing a job a manager, he or she should be promoted to manager. In
fact, it will be a big motivator for others to perform well.
The respondents opined that they would like to have a deeper understanding of the
performance management system in the organization so that they can develop their goals
aligning with the system. Generation Z takes shortcuts and leverages technology to achieve
these goals; however, in terms of performance and career progression, they want to make sure
that they complete all the requirements for the next level. They have grown up during the
recession and economic uncertainty. At the same time, they spend money on the bills, travel,
and other interests, they are equally cautious about building wealth for the future earlier and
thus expect to have high salaries (Deloitte, 2019). Unlike the previous generations, they are
career hungry, eager to learn, and questions the status quo as to why does it take so many
years to move to a particular level(Bencsik et al., 2016;Laz
anyi and Bilan, 2017;Lanier,
2017). Moreover, they often feel that they are ready for promotion within a few months.
Therefore, the organizations need to discuss performance management and outline the career
path during the initial days of Generation Z joining the organization.
Work-life balance
As a generation, who had witnessed the great recession, they are more concerned about the
salary, perks, and job security (Iorgulescu, 2016;Laz
anyi and Bilan, 2017;Lanier, 2017);
however, they are equally vocal about work-life balance and flexibility in the workplace.
Work-life balance is incredibly important not just for Generation Z, but for all the employees,
and this generation values greater flexibility and work-life balance at the workplace (Opris
and Cenusa, 2017;Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018;Dwivedula et al., 2019;Berge and Berge,
2019). In fact, Generation Z believes that it is a mandate for the organizations to provide
flexibility as it only increases productivity and efficiency (Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018),
and such a flexible work arrangement should be open and unreserved for all levels of
employees. Frequent discussions with the managers build a strong foundation of trust,
enabling them to operate flexible working arrangements. Flexibility could include flexible
working ranging from the different start and finish times, staggered shifts and the denial of
flexible work arrangement could have the impression that their managers do not trust them.
Lanier (2017) defines Generation Z as more pragmatic, in a way that as long as work is not
getting affected, there should be no reason for rejecting flexibility. A participant responded,
stating that she would not like to spend her personal time for office work. In her words:
I want to work as much as I can in the office. But once I step out of the office, I just want to unplug
from the office work. I would straightaway say no if my manager asks me to work on a weekend. It is
important to balance both personal and professional lives. When I am in the office, I do not want to
think about home, and when I am at home, I do not like work bothering me.
Contrary to this, a report by Priceline work-life balance (Priceline, 2019) that surveyed 1,000
full-time employees reported that 24% of Generation Z feel guilty taking any time off work as
they fret that taking time off would provide an opportunity for others to judge their work.
They are also under pressure to check emails and notifications, even on holiday. As a result,
they like to avail of flexibility than taking a day-off as they end up doing some office work
during vacation. They want to be independent yet collaborative when required, and as digital
natives, they know how to connect with colleagues seamlessly (Ozkan and Solmaz, 2015).
They are ready to relocate to any region for a career of their choice; however, expect equal
flexibility on the part of the employers. There exists a difference of opinion among the
researchers; however, the present study shows that Generation Z wants flexible work
arrangements. People are productive at different times of the day, and therefore they
appreciate the opportunity to flex their schedule to meet their personal obligations. In the
words of a participant:
We understand that it is important to show up on time in office, but it is equally important to strike a
balance between professional and personal life. By providing flexibility, we are not shying away
from work. It is just that we are doing the work from a different place at a different time.
Our findings corroborate with the existing literature citing Generation Z values flexibility
and work-life balance. Further, Morahan (2019) surveyed 1,000 Irish graduates, in which
more than 60% reported that they place more value on work-life balance over career
progression. The study also highlighted the different scores across disciplines with the
medicine graduates (67%) rating work-life balance as a top priority. Therefore, the
organizations must provide flexibility and allow employees to balance professional and
personal life.
Personal connect
In todays business world, organizations change with the environment it operates.
Digitalization and collaboration tools made it easier for employees and managers to
connect from anywhere in the world. As a result, there is an increase in remote work (Felstead
and Henseke, 2017;Bathini and Kandathil, 2020) aimed to provide flexibility in terms of time,
space, and practice. It is beyond doubt that new ways of work allow an employee to strike a
balance between personal and professional targets. However, the participants emphasized
the need for personal connect with the managers and team members in the initial years of
their career; that way, they can be absorbed in the organization quickly. In fact, they need
human connections more and perform when they are engaged in intensive working
relationships (Tulgan, 2013). Technology often overshadows the personal experience that the
new hire can have through in-person discussions with the colleagues and the leaders. They
view that personal connect with colleagues, managers, and leaders are more valuable in
career advancement (Grow and Young, 2018). When inquired about why they prefer personal
connect, a participant responded:
I expect my peers, seniors, and managers to help me understand the organization, culture, and work.
I would like to have frequent connect with my reporting manager and preferably a face to face
conversation than a videoconference or a skype call. I want to go to the office every day in the initial
days until I believe I can do work from home. Personal connect with the team members will allow me
to settle comfortably in the job.
Drawing upon the discussions, it may be suggested that organizations can conduct a
department-wise new hire orientation session, during which the new hires get a chance to
interact with senior leadership of their respective practice. Expectations from the managers
Generation Z
are on the rise; they are expected to coach, guide the new hires, thereby helping Generation Z
to be successful in their jobs. Gen Z prefers collaborative learning than a tellingapproach,
and this would be successful only when the managers relate to employees in such a way that
maximizes their engagement, well-being, and performance (Schroth, 2019). A participant
I believe a personal connect with my manager will result in increased psychological and workplace
well-being. If my managers understand my personality, style of work, it will be easy for us as a team
to be more collaborative,
The discussions are in line with the previous studies on Generation Z. Laz
anyi and Bilan
(2017) studied the impact of earlier cohorts on the new entrants and identified that Generation
Z values in-person connect. Gupta (2018) suggests that lack of interpersonal relationships
could potentially lead to attrition; therefore, organizations should focus on establishing
interpersonal relationships. Although this cohort wants autonomy and values greater
flexibility, work-life balance, the organizations need to create opportunities to connect with
other cohorts in the workplace.
Understanding the bigger picture
It is but natural that the new hires in any organization are assigned tasks by their seniors and
managers. Most often than not, these tasks are small, redundant and low value-added tasks.
Unlike other cohorts, Generation Z is more tech-savvy, and feel that low-value work can be
automated, reducing the human errors besides guaranteeing the quality. Their dependence
on technology gives them first-hand experience, and involvement in the learning process
makes them active learners. A study by Barnes and Noble College (2018) surveyed 1,300
middle and high school students in the US reported that 89% of the respondents rated college
education as valuable.
Further, they do not like to sit in the class just for attendance or merely showing up in the
class; instead, they want to be fully engaged in the class and be part of the learning process.
The study also reported that 40% of Generation Z take up careers that suit their specific
interests, and one-third of them either have their own business or plan to have in the future
reflecting their entrepreneurial identities. Due to their entrepreneurial orientation (Singh
Ghura, 2017;Christensen et al., 2018), they prefer transparency and honesty over anything.
Participants shared their opinion:
Everyone in the organization is an employee, and I feel everyone works for the success of the
organizations. I do not see any merit in managers hiding important information from the juniors. The
more they hide, the excitement level increases. Knowing the bigger picture of the project would help
us to understand the subtle nuances.
Generation Z is a lot more ambitious than the other cohorts and generally do not settle for the
status quo (Bencsik et al., 2016;Chillakuri and Mahanandia, 2018). They like to take up
challenging work, as they are self-confident, self-directed, and reliant on self-learning
(Bencsik et al., 2016;PeopleMatters, 2019). Despite being self-confident and hard-working
generations, they experience more anxiety about work expectations. In a survey by SHRM
(Wilkie, 2019), 44% in Canada, 40% in the U.S., and the United Kingdom reported that their
anxiety is holding them back from job success. Therefore, the leaders need to set the stage
right during the onboarding program, the expectations and the details associated with their
day-to-day work. Another participant expressed that knowing about the job and the
necessary information is very critical for the success of the job.
Knowing the bigger picture of the work helps us to contribute better. We want to put into practice
what we have learned in our academics. During our internships, we were not exposed much,
probably because managers might have felt that we are there for only two months. Now that we are
ready to take up full-time jobs, we want to contribute to the organization, and that only happens
when we are equipped with the necessary information.
Based on the observations and the conversations, it can be inferred that Generation Z values
transparency, and therefore want their leaders to be transparent in their dealings. This
particular finding corroborates with Bencsik et al. (2016) studies, where the scholars defined
Generation Z as ambitious, detail-oriented, and therefore they would like to have all the
details before they start the work.
Learning and development
Generation Z is high on self-learning and prefers self-directed and independent learning,
leveraging technology. As part of their graduate studies, they undergo internships, showing
an appreciation for the need to bring practical skills as they begin their full-time careers.
Being the first digitally native generation, they learn the much-desired skills relevant to their
jobs and know that keeping up with technology requires ongoing learning. While they are
keen on acquiring additional skills, they also expect the new employer to equip them with the
necessary training, so they start contributing from day one. When asked about the type of
information, they would like to receive during the onboarding, a participant responded
I feel organizations should invest in our learning. It could be in the form of classroom training or
e-learning. The more we are equipped with the new tools, processes, and technologies, the more we
are prepared to take up any new task. Once we have the necessary information, we would not like to
depend on others; instead, we would like to work independently.
Soft skills such as communication, collaboration, time management, mentoring, coaching
should be honed, and therefore, they require extra support (Grow and Yang, 2018). They prefer
working in a collaborative group as they desire hands-on participation rather than listening to a
lecture (Seemiller and Grace, 2016;Adamson et al.,2018). To meet the learning styles of
Generation Z, organizations need to adapt to technology, provide hands-on experience, offer
self-learning courses, and be comfortable with this tech-savvy and on the go group. Besides,
they like to prefer virtual teamwork over the offline meeting and wish to engage in teamwork
only under compelling situations (Bencsik et al.,2016). Wiedmer (2015) highlights that
Generation Z values autonomy at work; they do not want to depend on colleagues or team
members, and therefore they like to have complete knowledge about the work. They are also
uncertain of the future requirements, and a participant was quick in sharing that they would
want to be associated with an organization that provides learning opportunities.
We want a stable job, and in this uncertain economy, we need to master skills that keep us going. We
were told that smaller organizations do not focus much on learning and development. I want to be
part of any organization that encourages learning and provides opportunities to learn skills apart
from what is required in my job.
The respondents conversations are in line with previous studies. In one of the first studies on
the work motivation of Generation Z employees, Fratri
a and Kirchmayer (2018) observed
that opportunities for learning and professional development are a motivating factor in the
workplace. Therefore, organizations need to focus on providing learning opportunities as
continuous learning is perceived as the essential skill for career advancement and growth.
The findings also corroborate with the studies of Iorgulescu (2016), wherein Generation Z,
have a low proclivity to work in a start-up or small organization; instead, they want to be
associated with stable organizations.
The findings of the study have implications for both academics and practitioners. First, the
study extended the understanding of cohort theory (Meredith and Schewe, 1994). The focus of
Generation Z
the study was not to compare the inter-generational differences, and so efforts were not made
in that direction; however, the study presented a detailed literature review and investigated
Generation Z and their traits and characteristics. Second, the study presents an
understanding of Generation Zs expectation at the workplace, precisely from the
onboarding/new hire orientation programs. The study advances the previous research by
responding to understanding their expectations at the workplace (Schroth, 2019). Third, the
study contributes to the HRM literature by adopting a Generation Z lens, reconfirming that
onboarding is a very crucial aspect of human resource management function. In addition to
the HRM literature, the study also contributed to Generation Z literature. Fourth, the study
presents six important themes for designing and managing an effective onboarding program
for Generation Z. It is important to note that the inter-generational differences are natural, and
organizations have to live with it. HR professionals have to bear in mind that this is also an
opportunity to revisit, redesign, and readjust their onboarding programs to suit the new
New hires bring talent, experience, skills and newer perspectives to the job. Therefore,
investing in the new hires through effective onboarding programs ensures employees meet
their potential, thereby contributing to employeremployee success. It is essential for the
organizations to be ready in meeting the demands of the new hire, and designing a well-
structured onboarding program starting with understanding the new hiresexpectations,
values, attitudes, thinking, behaviors, and why they behave as they do. The onboarding
solutions that the organizationsdesign has to be consistent, personalizing, and should
provide a positive new hire experience. Employeesexperience of an organization starts from
the day they give the interview, and therefore managers need to provide a realistic view of
what job entails. In a survey by Glassdoor, 61% of the respondents indicated that the reality
of the job was different from the expectations set during the interview process (Mackay,
2018). Unlike other cohorts, Generation Z would not like to do a job for which they are not
hired. Such employees tend to leave the organization during the initial months of joining the
organization. There are certain expectations that both the organization and the employees
need to fulfill; therefore, they should engage in a psychological contract (Schroth, 2019), and
the violation of such an arrangement leads to poor performance and high turnover.
Organizations that know how to engage this group are bound to be successful.
Strategies mentioned in the study would be helpful for HR managers to integrate
generation Z into the workplace successfully. As outlined above, empirical studies on
Generation Z is still at an emerging phase. While the current research detailed the
expectations from organizations, there are certain limitations as the respondents were
primarily business students. Future research can look into a diversified set and see if the
expectations from the current study still hold good. Moreover, the study adopted interpretive
research, and as such, there might be a higher degree of subjectivity. Therefore, future
research can look at other methodologies to empirically establish objectivity.
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About the author
Bharat Chillakuri is an Assistant Professor at the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT). Currently, he
teaches organizational behavior, human resource management to MBA graduates. Before joining, he has
spent 12 years in Industry in varied roles Human Capital Consulting, Performance Management, Talent
Development, Client Account Management, and MarketResearch. He is also a visitingprofessor at various
business schools in India, teaching general management and change management. His research interests
include Strategic Human Resource Management, Sustainability Development, Corporate Social
Responsibility, and Sustainable Strategies. Bharat is a recipient of the Santander Doctoral Scholarship
Generation Z
for the year 2015; one of the 22 outstanding doctoral students across the world who were invited to
participate in the Santander International Summer School at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He
has published research articles in Emerald, Sage, Inderscience, and Elsevier Journals. Bharat Chillakuri
can be contacted at:
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... Dolayısıyla, Y kuşağını iş değiştirmeye iten özellikler Z kuşağında da fazlasıyla mevcuttur. Bu kuşak da öncülü gibi iş yerinde bağımsız, özgüvenli ve özerkliği ön planda tutan bir profil çizmektedir (Chillakuri, 2020;Wiedmer, 2015). Hatta Stillman ve Stillman'a (2017) göre Z kuşağı bağımsızlık ve bireycilikte Y kuşağını geride bırakmaktadır. ...
... Bu kuşağın önemli bir özelliği de yaptığı işte bir anlam bulma ihtiyacıdır. Hayata dair değerlerini iş hayatında da sürdürmek ister ve çalıştığı örgütün değerlerinin kendi değerleriyle uyumlu olmasını bekler (Chillakuri, 2020;Chillakuri ve Mahanandia, 2018). Bu değer uyumu gerçekleşmediğinde, bulunduğu ortamı kolaylıkla terk edebilir (Goux, 2015;Horsley, 2018). ...
... Research into effective strategies for harnessing the potential of Generation Z employees has highlighted several key considerations. Scholars such as Fratričová and Kirchmayer (2018), Črešnar and Nedelko (2020), Nabahani and Riyanto (2020), Chillakuri (2020), Bieleń and Kubiczek (2020), Pandita et al. (2023), and Naim (2021) collectively underscore the significance of creating a positive work environment, aligning organizational goals with Gen Z's ambitions, tailoring management strategies to their unique characteristics and preferences, and integrating diverse generational values. Their insights emphasize the need for tailored leadership and talent development practices, sustainable strategies, and intergenerational value integration across various industries and global contexts. ...
... Revealing the critical factors influencing organizational commitment, Nabahani and Riyanto (2020) highlight the pivotal role of job satisfaction and work motivation in retaining Gen Z employees. Chillakuri (2020) delves into the design of onboarding programs tailored to Gen Z, encompassing elements such as socialization, training, feedback, mentoring, job clarity, and a culture attuned to the needs of this cohort. To bridge the research gap, further investigation is required to understand how organizations can implement sustainable strategies in maximizing Gen Z's talent on a global scale and across diverse industries. ...
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Amidst the transformative landscape brought about by COVID-19 and rapid technological advancements, organizations are undergoing profound shifts in work culture, goals, and strategies. This transformation significantly influences the intricate dynamics within the workforce, particularly in relation to Generation Z employees. This qualitative study delves into the vantage point of leadership, investigating how leaders respond to the distinctive work values of Generation Z employees. Employing the Upper Echelon Theory (UET) framework by Hambrick (2016) as a lens, this study addresses the research question: "How does organizational leadership respond to Gen Z work values and what impact does this response have on organizational evolution?" Through an extensive literature review and qualitative research approach, a multinational company case study is examined. Diverse leaders were selected as participants, and self-designed guidelines were employed. The synthesis of the Upper Echelons Theory with this investigation enables a nuanced examination of the intricate interplay between organizational leaders and Generation Z within the workplace, offering actionable insights to enhance these interactions. Key findings underscore that leaders' perceptions of Gen Z work values are inherently moulded by their emotions, which are influenced by their individual backgrounds. Leadership responses manifest dynamically across micro, meso, and macro levels. At the micro level, leaders align with Gen Z's inclinations through practices of openness and recognition. Meso-level strategies, including the provision of flexible arrangements, cater adeptly to Generation Z's quest for autonomy. Notably, the macro level reflects a transformed organizational culture, driven by Generation Z's innovative perspectives that necessitate heightened adaptability. While navigating the delicate equilibrium between innovation and established norms poses challenges, successful adaptation yields enhanced commitment, performance, and organizational evolution. The study's conclusions underscore the imperative of aligning practices with the evolving needs of the workforce, thereby facilitating talent attraction, retention, and the cultivation of an adaptable organizational culture.
... They integrate social media into every aspect of their lives, including conversations, learning assessments, work and play (Barhate and Dirani, 2022;Madden, 2019). Entrepreneurs can employ digital technology as a knowledge access and recombination source for actualising their growth aspirations (Chillakuri, 2020;Silinevica and Meirule, 2019). ...
... According to a survey, over half of Generation Z worldwide indicated an interest in self-employment and starting their own company." Generation Z entrepreneurs can employ technology to aid them in their knowledge for success as entrepreneurs (Chillakuri, 2020;Silinevica and Meirule, 2019;. They rarely experience their world without the Internet, computers and mobile phones. ...
Purpose The current research aimed to investigate the external enablement role of Digital Infrastructures (DI) in the interplay of entrepreneurial cognitions and innovation. Design/methodology/approach Data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) were used for analyses. This yielded a sample of 8,601 Generation Z entrepreneurs operating in 25 European countries. Findings Applying hierarchical moderated regressions showed that socio-cognitive components of an entrepreneurial mindset (self-efficacy, risk propensity, opportunity identification) affect innovation among Generation Z entrepreneurs. More importantly, DI plays an external enablement role in the interplay of cognitions and innovation among Generation Z entrepreneurs. Originality/value This study contributes to the socio-cognitive theory of entrepreneurship by integrating an external enablement perspective into the study of cognitions and entrepreneurial outcomes (here, innovation). It contributes to the digital technology perspective of entrepreneurship by connecting the conversation about the socio-cognitive perspective of entrepreneurship regarding the role of cognitions in innovation to the conversation in information systems (IS) regarding technology affordances and constraints. This study extends the application of the external enabler framework to the post-entry stage of entrepreneurial activity and integrates a generational perspective into it.
... Generation Z, or Gen Z, is a unique demographic cohort born between the mid-1990s and early 2010s, following the Millennials and preceding Generation Alpha (Chillakuri, 2020). As the first generation to grow up in a fully digital and connected world, the Internet and social media have played a central role in their lives from an early age, shaping their attitudes, behaviors, and expectations (Haddouche and Salomone, 2018). ...
... However, other studies have found a preference for authentic, in-person experiences among Gen Z individuals. A study by Chillakuri (2020) found that Gen Z individuals prefer to experience things first hand, and are more likely to engage with products and services that they can touch and feel. Similarly, Kumar and Gilovich (2016) found that people derive more pleasure and satisfaction from real experiences compared to simulated ones. ...
Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the implicit and explicit attitudes of Generation Z (Gen Z) individuals toward the experience of visiting and getting to know traditional or virtual museums. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were conducted. The first study assesses the implicit attitudes of Gen Z individuals through Implicit Association Tests (IAT) toward the experience of visiting traditional versus virtual museums. Considering the results of the study one, the second study proposes and validates a conceptual model through PLS-SEM approach about the explicit attitudes of this generation toward virtual museums. Findings In the first study, it was found that virtual museums are more successful at engaging and immersing participants than traditional museums for Gen Z. The second study emphasized the significance of meeting Gen Z expectations and ensuring effortless access to information in virtual experiences as this can lead to increased satisfaction and inspiration among this generation. Originality/value The originality of this study lies in its focus on Gen Z's attitudes toward virtual museums and the use of both implicit and explicit attitude measures to gain a comprehensive understanding of these attitudes. An interesting aspect emerges from the implicit attitudes displayed by Gen Z, indicating their preference for virtual museums as more captivating compared to traditional ones.
... Generation Z is more sensitive to the use of technology, all activities are supported by technology, use social media, is informative, and responds to new products, which is more aggressive so it becomes consumptive. Chillakuri (2020), that differences in behavior between generations are reasonable. This is an opportunity for business people to redesign their marketing strategy so that it can be implemented in various ways and forms. ...
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This study aims to determine the factors that are considered in consuming bakery products and changes in different generation's behavior. This research uses a descriptive qualitative approach. Data collection techniques using observation, interviews, and documentation. Check the validity of the data using source triangulation. The results showed that shopping behavior and methods were different for each generation. Each generation has its characteristics or characteristics in determining purchasing decisions. These characteristics are influenced by their lifestyle and mindset along with the times. Generation Y and Z have far differences from previous generations, not a problem with age differences but more on the way they perceive the world, mindset, self-concept, attitudes, and behavior. This is influenced by the presence of technology when this generation begins to enter adolescence and adulthood. Information technology has become an essential part of their lives and difficult to release in their lives. The results showed that the factors considered in consuming are price, brand image, choice of product variants, convenience, and service factors.
... They are pragmatic in e.g. length of working time, work-life balance, values of the organization, quick carrier development (Chillakuri & Mahanandia, 2018;Chillakuri, 2020) To explore the publications on ethics, and more specifically on ethical leadership among Generation Z, we use of a large, reliably high-quality database, which gives us a good chance to learn about publications and research trends on a given scientific topic. For this purpose, the internationally known and recognized Web of Science database was examined. ...
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To achieve the sustainable development goals, it is recommended that organizations worldwide set and adhere to ethical and governance standards. Workplace ethics is an expression of the values an organization holds towards its employees, and therefore includes the behavior of managers and their leadership style and practices. The young generations' perceptions of ethical leadership are worth exploring because they will be the decision-makers of the future. In our research, we interviewed Hungarian university students - mainly studying economics - about ethical leadership and work ethics who have had work experience (N=143). We developed our hypotheses based on Starratt's three-dimensional ethical model and conducted SEM analysis using SmartPLS4 software. We found that the Ethics of Justice factor influences the Ethics of Critique and Ethics of Care factors. Our results also show that achieving greater social justice is important to them in their decision-making. The surveyed Generation Z in Hungary considers the interests of both the individual and the community to be important for workplace ethics. Our research contributes to young people's understanding of ethics in the workplace and ethical leadership.
Purpose This paper aims to propose a decision-making framework by investigating the impact of perceived risk and computer self-efficacy on the intention to use online stock trading. Furthermore, it demonstrates the mediation effect of attitude and perceived risk as well as the moderating effect of financial literacy. Design/methodology/approach An integration of two popular models, technology acceptance model (TAM) and theory of planned behaviour (TPB), is used to provide a sound theoretical base and enhance the understanding of investors’ behaviour towards online trading platforms. The proposed hypothesised model was examined using structural equation modelling. Findings The results obtained from this study indicate that all variables, except subjective norms, had a significant impact on investors’ intention to trade online. Perceived risk was found to be a partial mediator between computer self-efficacy and the intention of investors. Finally, financial literacy was also found as a significant moderator for online trading intention of investors. Practical implications This study shows the significance of using the TAM and TPB together to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence an investor’s behaviour in adopting and using technology for online trading. The hybrid approach of TAM and TPB could be considered for a more nuanced and complete understanding of technology adoption and usage in risky affairs like investment decisions. Again, the significant moderating role of financial literacy provides a lance to look into the scope for improvements in investment decision-makings. Originality/value The paper develops an assessment framework for analysing the variables based on the hybrid approach for online trading intention in the context of a developing country.
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The impact of aggressive capitalist approaches on social, economic and planet sustainability is significant. Economic issues such as inflation, energy costs, taxes and interest rates persist and are further exacerbated by global events such as wars, pandemics and environmental disasters. A sustained history of financial crises exposes weaknesses in modern economies. The Great Attrition, with many quitting jobs, adds to concerns. The diversity of the workforce poses new challenges. Transformative approaches are essential to safeguard societies, economies and the planet. In this work, we use big data and machine learning methods to discover multi-perspective parameters for multi-generational labour markets. The parameters for the academic perspective are discovered using 35,000 article abstracts from the Web of Science for the period 1958–2022 and for the professionals’ perspective using 57,000 LinkedIn posts from 2022. We discover a total of 28 parameters and categorized them into five macro-parameters, Learning & Skills, Employment Sectors, Consumer Industries, Learning & Employment Issues and Generations-specific Issues. A complete machine learning software tool is developed for data-driven parameter discovery. A variety of quantitative and visualization methods are applied and multiple taxonomies are extracted to explore multi-generational labour markets. A knowledge structure and literature review of multi-generational labour markets using over 100 research articles is provided. It is expected that this work will enhance the theory and practice of artificial intelligence-based methods for knowledge discovery and system parameter discovery to develop autonomous capabilities and systems and promote novel approaches to labour economics and markets, leading to the development of sustainable societies and economies.
The modern era is characterized by rapid technological advancements, globalization, and societal changes. In today's fast-paced and constantly changing world, traditional leadership approaches are often insufficient to navigate the complexities of the modern business landscape. In recent years, the rise of the millennial generation has transformed the landscape of leadership in various industries. The millennial generation has emerged as a dynamic force reshaping the global workforce and leadership landscape. As this generation continues to move into leadership roles, there is a growing need to identify and understand the essential skills and characteristics that enable them to thrive in these positions. This chapter explores the key skills and characteristics required for millennials to excel as leaders, highlighting the unique challenges and opportunities they face in today's rapidly evolving business environment.
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Purpose The purpose of this empirical study is to develop an understanding of how human resource (HR) managers employed by organizations with an explicit sustainability agenda view employees as stakeholders, and to explore how such views are operationalized in HR policies and practices. Design/methodology/approach An interpretive approach using data from 35 semi-structured interviews was adopted for this study. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the Gioia methodology. Findings Comparison of approaches to sustainable human resource management (HRM) revealed three distinctive conceptualizations of employees with respect to the sustainability agenda – employees as a driving force for sustainability, employees as consumers of HR practices and employees as members of a community. Strong levels of integration between the HRM and sustainability agendas were only evidenced in those organizations where an attempt had been made to address all three roles simultaneously. Findings suggest that engagement with a sustainability agenda widens the remit of the HRM function, underscoring the importance of employees' roles as consumers of HR practices and as members of wider communities. Practical implications By addressing the integration of HRM with a sustainability agenda, this article helps practitioners recognize diversity among employees' roles and the varying associated needs. Examples of policy and practice initiatives that effectively address these needs are provided. Originality/value HRM has been widely criticized for overemphasizing shareholder value, thereby lacking in attention to the needs of other stakeholders, including employees. Findings from this study suggest the holistic approach advocated by a sustainability agenda can effectively quell these concerns.
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Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between brand engagement in self-concept (BESC), value consciousness (VC) and brand loyalty among Generation Z consumers. In addition, the study aims to segment the Generation Z consumers based on BESC and VC and examine the differences between the segments. Design/methodology/approach A self-administered questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 346 undergraduate students in Malaysia. The hypothesized structural models are tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study also uses cluster analysis to segment the Generation Z consumers. Findings The results reveal that among Generation Z consumers both BESC and VC have a positive effect on brand loyalty. Additionally, the mediation analysis established that BESC plays a mediating role in the relationship between VC and brand loyalty. The study also identified four consumer groups – attentive group, dedicated group, prospective group and switchers group. Furthermore, consumer classification according to BESC can be used by marketers and managers in marketing strategy development. Originality/value The study has originality and value in developing and testing a new model linking BESC with VC and brand loyalty. Further, market segmentation on the basis of BESC and VC has been rarely studied. Even less, has been studied among Generation Z consumers and this study fills this important gap.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between operations of organization control and workers’ response to them in case of telework, a technology-embedded new way of working. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted an interpretive approach to explore control and home-based teleworkers’ response in the Indian information technology industry. Interviews and non-participant observations were analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Findings The discourse of “telework as a privilege” served as a basis for normative control, helping managers exercise increased technocratic control. Combined with the discourse of “self-responsibility to client”, it led teleworkers to self-subjugate to long/unsocial work hours. However, the simultaneous exercise of technocratic and normative controls resulted in an inconsistency, creating space for teleworker’s resistance to technocratic control. Nonetheless, resistance to technocratic control ironically reinforced normative control. Originality/value The authors contribute to the recent discussion on compatibility and coherence of multiple control modes, and their relationship to resistance. The authors show how workers’ selves can be compatible with one control mode while being incompatible with other modes. The authors argue that when workers’ experience incoherence between control modes, they can appropriate the logic underlying compatible control mode(s) to resist incompatible control mode(s). Further, the authors demonstrate how resistance to incompatible control mode(s) can ironically reinforce compatible control mode(s), and thus explicate the micro-processes of control-resistance dialectic. Advancing the emergent understanding of resistance, the authors show that resistance is an exercise of strategic counter-power that seeks to exploit incoherence between control modes and inconsistencies between actions and rhetoric.
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The current study serves two purposes. First, to clear the confusion regarding the findings related to transformational leadership’s influence on employee’s innovative work behaviour. Second, to investigate the mediating role of meaningful work in explaining the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior. Data were collected from two samples, Sample I (349 executives) and Sample II (539 executives) working in two different manufacturing organizations in Eastern India. The results of both the samples confirm that transformational leadership significantly influences employee’s innovative work behavior. Also, the study (both Sample I & Sample II) finds meaningful work to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ innovation. In order to lend further credibility to our mediation finding, we carried out sobel test and bootstrapping technique to strengthen our assertion. This study replicates previous empirical investigations by exploring the relationship between transformational leadership and employee’s innovative behaviour at work in Indian manufacturing context. The study also strives to enrich the extant literature by testing the mediating role of meaningful work in explaining the relationship between transformational leadership and employee innovation.
Purpose This paper examines the relationship between the institution’s organizational work-life-balance (WLB) policies and practices and subsequent challenges faced by Nigerian workers. The paper argues that institutions shape WLB practices (and policies), and thus, constitute WLB challenges. Design/methodology/approach Relying on qualitative, interpretive approach, and the institution-based view of organizational practice, the study investigates the relationship between institutions, WLB practices/policies, and subsequent challenges that female workers undergo, using 25 semi-structured interviews. Findings The findings reveal Nigeria’s unique institutional context frames and foster challenges for female workers. Also, it was identified that institutional and sociocultural pressures on female employees demonstrate that consequent challenges, while common to female workers in other countries, are more intense and challenging in Nigeria because of its peculiar institutions and context. Research limitations/implications This study offers an opportunity to unpick how institutions are important in understanding organizational practices as part of wider social structures, which influence organizational realities, including WLB. The qualitative, exploratory approach undertaken can limit generalizing the findings. Originality/value This study contributes to the emerging concept of WLB discourse from the developing countries’ perspective. It also reveals how WLB discourse differs from nonwestern context and emphasizes previously identified challenges that female workers experience based on WLB practice. The study also sheds light on how institutions shape organizational practice.
Onboarding provides an opportunity to realize a return on investment from hiring processes, and to ensure that new employees meet their full potential. Therefore, designing and managing effective onboarding is an important human resource management function. Discussion of onboarding emerged from the psychology literature and has focused heavily on socialization. In this paper, we offer a new framework of onboarding from a learning theory perspective. This framework contributes to the onboarding literature by identifying two additional and critical considerations. First, we demonstrate that learning theory provides a new lens through which to view onboarding, and we examine how the specific concept of unlearning could be applied in this context. In addition, we argue that it is critical to recognize the unique learning needs of specific talent segments to design appropriate onboarding. We conclude with key considerations for future research to enhance the onboarding experience for newcomers and optimize organizational outcomes.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact that Generation Z has on the real estate industry of Kosovo. By studying the behaviors and characteristics of Gen Z the stakeholders in the real estate industry can gain advantages and opportunities in getting to comprehend their preferences, their perspective and their decision to buy real estate in Kosovo. Design/methodology/approach The present study used a quantitative research method. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire with close-ended questions is used. The questionnaire used for this study is a self-evaluation and self-administrated questionnaire. The study included 200 people, mainly Albanian speakers who participated in the questionnaire. All participants of the questionnaire were strictly members of Generation Z that were born in the time period of 1995–2012. In this questionnaire the participants were provided with full anonymity, since none of their identity data were requested during this process. Findings The findings of this study indicate that Gen Z and their different characteristics will have an impact on the real estate industry. Research limitations/implications This study can be utilized as a landmark for agents of real estate on understanding how they can use the characteristics and behaviors of Gen Z in their favor, by pointing out the prominence of those characteristics and behaviors in realizing the needs and desires of the potential buyers and the influence they have on the decision to buy property. Furthermore, through this study, the real estate agencies will be provided with multiple reasons that substantiate the necessity to perform the proper research about differences between generations. Originality/value The study is the first quantitative study that studies the linkage between behaviors and characteristics of Generation Z and their intention to purchase real estate.
Despite the lack of empirical evidence to support generational differences in workplace training, some authors, corporate trainers, and popular theorists assert that generational stereotypes based on historical events and trends in the learners’ formative years are important. This article argues that it is better to train based on learner similarities across employee ages. It argues further that it is major economic shifts in the workplace that change what is needed from educational institutions and from workplace learning and development.
Gen Z (1997-2013) is just now entering the labor market and employers need to be prepared for their arrival. While Gen Zers shares many traits with the Millennial Generation, they also bring in new patterns of behavior. Managers today not only have to understand how to best manage youthful, inexperienced employees, but also the unique characteristics of the generation shaped by their experiences. Every generation has its doubts about the younger generation’s culture and technologies. Understanding their behavior and the distinct needs that they have in the workplace will lead to better integration of the new employees and mutual success.