ArticleLiterature Review

Food additive emulsifiers: a review of their role in foods, legislation and classifications, presence in food supply, dietary exposure, and safety assessment

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Abstract

Food additive intakes have increased with the increase in "ultra-processed" food consumption. Food additive emulsifiers have received particular research attention in recent years due to preliminary evidence of adverse gastrointestinal and metabolic health effects. In this review, the use of emulsifiers as food additives is discussed, and the current estimations of exposure to, and safety of, emulsifiers are critically assessed. Food additive emulsifier research is complicated by heterogeneity in additives considered to be emulsifiers and labelling of them on foods globally. Major limitations exist in estimating food additive emulsifier exposure, relating predominantly to a lack of available food occurrence and concentration data. Development of brand-specific food additive emulsifier databases are crucial to accurately estimating emulsifier exposure. Current research on the health effects of food additive emulsifiers are limited to in vitro and murine studies and small, acute studies in humans, and future research should focus on controlled human trials of longer duration.

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... Depending upon the body responsible for legislating food additives, there are between 63 and 261 emulsifiers added to foods throughout the world, with 66 in the UK as defined by both the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO and World Health Organisation (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (19) . However, there is a paucity of research regarding the foods in which emulsifiers are contained, and so the occurrence of food additive emulsifiers in the UK food supply is unknown (24) , in part due to the absence of a database of emulsifier content of foods that lists all UPFs and details all different types of emulsifiers. ...
... In the final count of eligible food products, the ingredients labels were extracted from supermarket database and manually reviewed for the presence of food-additive emulsifiers, and the details extracted. The list of 66 food-additives classified as emulsifiers was based on both JECFA and Codex Alimentarius classifications, and have been published elsewhere (19) , a list of which are provided for reference in Supplementary Table 1, including the International Numbering System code ("E number") and full name of the food additive emulsifier. ...
... This study was the first to explore the occurrence of all food-additive emulsifiers in a large sample of foods in the UK food supply. The EFSA attempts to estimate population exposure to food additives in the EU, but current estimates use the rudimentary approach of assuming that all food categories that are permitted to contain emulsifiers will contain emulsifiers (19) . ...
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Objective Ultra-processed foods (UPF), including those containing food-additive emulsifiers, have received research attention due to evidence implicating them in the pathogenesis of certain diseases. The aims of this research were to develop a large-scale, brand-level database of UPFs in the UK food supply and to characterise the occurrence and co-occurrence of food-additive emulsifiers. Design A database was compiled sampling UPF groups contributing to total dietary energy intake in the UK from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-2014). Every food in these UPF groups were identified from online supermarket provision from the ‘‘big four’’ supermarkets that dominate the market share in the UK, comprising Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Asda and Morrisons. Results A total of 32,719 food products in the UK supermarket food supply were returned in searches. Of these, 12,844 UPF products were eligible and manually reviewed for the presence of emulsifiers. Emulsifiers were present in 6,642 (51.7%) food products. Emulsifiers were contained in 95.0% of ‘‘Pastries, buns and cakes’’; 81.9% of ‘‘Milk-based drinks”, 81.0% in ‘‘Industrial desserts’’ and in 77.5% of “Confectionary”. Fifty-one percent of all emulsifier-containing foods contained multiple emulsifiers. Across emulsifier-containing foods there were a median of 2 emulsifiers (IQR 2) per product. The five most common emulsifiers were lecithin (23.4% of all UPF), mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (14.5%), diphosphates (11.6%), xanthan gum and pectin (8.0%). Conclusions Findings from this study are the first to demonstrate the wide-spread occurrence and co-occurrence of emulsifiers in UPF in the UK food supply.
... Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties exist in emulsifiers therefore they are known to decrease the interfacial tension between the oil and water phases, obstructing suspended droplets inside the emulsion from enduring the procedures. The emulsifiers consist of different chemical structures [29]. Although, emulsifiers are majorly categorized in three types: former is low-molecular-weight emulsifiers, then amphiphilic biopolymers and thirdly colloidal or solid particles [30]. ...
... This technique increases the stability and aid to control the release of dyes, antioxidants, flavorings, enzymes, nutrients, microorganisms and preservatives. The encapsulation of dyes focuses on protection of compounds from heat, light, oxidation and moisture, by increasing the stability and shelf life during processing [29]. The size of particle is varied during the process of microencapsulation, which can range from one micrometer to few millimeters. ...
... Various methods have been employed to produce microparticles. Those methods are classified into physical methods (freezedrying, spray chilling, spray drying, co-crystallization, extrusion, multi-hole centrifugal extrusion and fluidized bed coating), chemical methods (molecular incorporation by interfacial and complexation polymerization) and physiochemical methods (emulsion system, coacervation, liposome formation and organic phase separation) [29]. Out of the microencapsulation techniques, spray drying is the most extensively used technique. ...
Article
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In the contemporary day and age, the usage of food additives has predominantly expanded because of accelerated processed food’s requirement. Food additives comprises of preservatives, color dye, flavors, textural additives, antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, anti-caking additives, anti-foaming agents, emulsifiers and nutritional additives. Although, food additives assist in proving textural benefits, increased shelf life, color addition and flavor enhancer but limitations are also associated with the use of food additives such as reduction in shelf life, toxic behavior, reduced stability and controlled target release issues. Biopolymers, dominantly pervasive macromolecules are the prominent class of utilitarian materials which are convenient for valuable applications. Across the globe, professionals and researchers are highly interested in research on biopolymers due to its biocompatible and biodegradable prospect. The two major classifications of biopolymers include proteins and polysaccharides. Different types of biopolymers can also work as fat replacer and therefore offer prevention from coronary disease, obesity as well as diabetes. Food industry has been highly promoted and benefited from the use of biopolymers. The employment of biopolymers solves the issues related to food additives consumption. Therefore, this particular chapter elucidates about the biopolymeric conjugation with food additives for a perfect food design, importance of biopolymers and application of biopolymers in association with food additives.
... There are several ways to quantitate estimates of food additive intake. At a whole population level, methods include theoretical food consumption data and Maximal Permissible Level for the additive (Tier 1 Estimates), actual national food consumption data and Maximal Permissible Level for the additive (Tier 2 estimates) and actual national food consumption data and Maximal Permissible Level for the additive and actual use levels of the additive (Tier 3 estimates) [54]. To our knowledge, ours is one of only two studies that have attempted to quantify individual additive intake, outside of population studies. ...
... For example, in Australia, of the 1044 unique packaged foods consumed, 353 contained no additives. Japan, 20 years and older 0.0435 (adults) [63] 0.0320 (elderly)(T3) [63] Ireland, 18 to 90 years France, 18 years and older 1.05 (T1) [64] 0.62 (T2) [64] 0.28 (T3) [64] 0.000 [55] [54]; T3 = Tier 3 Estimates: Actual national food consumption data and Maximal Permissible Level for the additive and actual use levels of the additive in foods [54] * Converted from g/person to mg/kg body weight based on average weight in population of 74.5 kg. Theoretical food consumption data (food balance sheets, food production tables) and actual use level of the additives in foods (analytical studies) ** Actual food consumption data (purpose-designed questionnaire) and actual use levels (industry data) *** Analytical studies performed on some individual foods and extrapolated to similar foods. ...
... For example, in Australia, of the 1044 unique packaged foods consumed, 353 contained no additives. Japan, 20 years and older 0.0435 (adults) [63] 0.0320 (elderly)(T3) [63] Ireland, 18 to 90 years France, 18 years and older 1.05 (T1) [64] 0.62 (T2) [64] 0.28 (T3) [64] 0.000 [55] [54]; T3 = Tier 3 Estimates: Actual national food consumption data and Maximal Permissible Level for the additive and actual use levels of the additive in foods [54] * Converted from g/person to mg/kg body weight based on average weight in population of 74.5 kg. Theoretical food consumption data (food balance sheets, food production tables) and actual use level of the additives in foods (analytical studies) ** Actual food consumption data (purpose-designed questionnaire) and actual use levels (industry data) *** Analytical studies performed on some individual foods and extrapolated to similar foods. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Developing countries have experienced a rapid recent rise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) incidence and emerging evidence suggests processed foods and food additives may predispose one to the development and perpetuation of Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate processed food and food additive intake in CD patients and controls, in Australia (high CD incidence), Hong Kong (intermediate incidence) and mainland China (emerging incidence). (2) Methods: In 274 CD patients (CD), 82 first-degree relatives (FDR), 83 household members (HM) and 92 healthy unrelated controls (HC) from Australia (n = 180), Hong Kong (HK) (n = 160) and mainland China (n = 191) we estimated early life (0–18 years), recent (12 months), and current processed and food additive intake, using validated questionnaires and a 3-day-food diary. (3) Results: Early life processed food intake: Combining all regions, CD were more likely to have consumed soft drinks and fast foods than HM, more likely to have consumed processed fruit and snacks than their FDR, and more likely to have consumed a range of processed foods than HC. HK and China CD patients were more likely to have consumed a range of processed foods than HC. Recent food-additive intake (12-months): Combining all regions, CD patients had significantly higher intakes of aspartame and sucralose, and polysorbate-80, than HC, and more total emulsifiers, artificial sweeteners, and titanium dioxide than FDR and HC. HK and China CD patients had a higher intake of almost all food additives than all controls. Current additive intake (3-days): Australian and HK CD patients had higher total food-additive intake than FDR, and HK CD patients had a higher intake of total food-additives and emulsifiers than HM. (4) Conclusions: CD patients have been exposed to more processed food and food additives than control groups, which may predispose them to CD development and ongoing inflammation.
... 2.2.g Emulsifiers (includes emulsifier salts) -Emulsifiers are substances that modify surface tension of the dispersed phase of an emulsion and aid in forming and stabilizing emulsions (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2018c). They are especially important in fat reduced recipes and can extend shelf life (Cox et al., 2021). In packaged foods, synthetic emulsifiers are omnipresent (Partridge et al., 2019). ...
... There have been some reports linking use of emulsifiers with negative impact on intestinal health including changes in gut microbiota, increased inflammation and permeability, and possible role in Crohn's disease and Metabolic Syndrome. Studies are underway to understand the underlying mechanisms (Cox et al., 2021). To identify emulsifiers used in the selected packaged baked products, we identified PDs listed as emulsifiers and emulsifying salt in FDA's and Codex lists and other resources (Bakerpedia;Cox et al., 2021;Igoe, 2011). ...
... Studies are underway to understand the underlying mechanisms (Cox et al., 2021). To identify emulsifiers used in the selected packaged baked products, we identified PDs listed as emulsifiers and emulsifying salt in FDA's and Codex lists and other resources (Bakerpedia;Cox et al., 2021;Igoe, 2011). Several starches such as acid-, enzyme, bleached or oxidized starches are considered emulsifiers by Codex, however as per FDA, modified starches can be listed as such and do not require any differentiation on the label (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2020b). ...
Article
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Commercially packaged baked products such as breads and rolls, cookies, crackers, and pastry/doughnuts are an integral part of the American diet. However, there is general lack of information in scientific literature on the ingredients used in these foods. A prototype of IngID, a framework for parsing and systematically reporting ingredients used in commercially packaged foods, was recently developed, using ingredient statements of baked products mainly from USDA’s Global Branded Food Products Database. Our results show that baked products sold in the U.S. mainly use refined wheat flour, non-hydrogenated oils, nutritive sweeteners, and additive-type ingredients including emulsifiers, coloring agents, and fortificants. Only 5% of the top-selling baked products are wheat-free; hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils continue to be used; baked products use on average 16 additive-type ingredients (includes sweeteners and table salts) and majority use multiple sweeteners. Fortificants, lecithin, salt, sucrose, water, and wheat flour are the top co-occurring ingredients and the core of the ingredient network. Not all baked products are the same. For example, pastry/doughnuts have the highest proportions of use of refined grains, hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils, additive-type ingredients including coloring agents and emulsifiers. IngID enables characterization of what is in the food we eat in a systematic manner, beyond nutrient profiles.
... Emulsifiers are a type of food additive widely used in processed foods [1]. They are used in food production to enable the formation and maintenance of a homogenous mixture with immiscible liquids, such as oil and water [2]. A huge selection of both synthetic and natural emulsifiers is available in the market. ...
... A huge selection of both synthetic and natural emulsifiers is available in the market. A manufacturer's choice of emulsifier is largely dependent on the purpose of its use in food, whether for improving emulsion stability, thickening/texturing, increasing shelf life, or enhancing flavor [2]. Nearly 65 emulsifiers were identified in the literature for their common application in food [3,4]. ...
Article
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Emulsifiers are food additives commonly found in processed foods to improve texture stabilization and food preservation. Dietary emulsifier intake can potentially damage the gut mucosal lining resulting in chronic inflammation such as Crohn’s disease. This study investigates the feasibility of a low-emulsifier diet among healthy female adults, as no previous reports have studied the feasibility of such a diet on healthy participants. A quasi-experimental study for a nutrition education and counseling intervention was conducted over 14 days among healthy Saudi participants aged 18 years and over. Assessment of dietary intake using 3-day food records was conducted at the baseline and 2-week follow-up. Participants attended an online educational session using the Zoom application illustrating instructions for a low-emulsifier diet. Daily exposure to emulsifiers was evaluated and nutrient intake was measured. A total of 30 participants completed the study. At baseline, 38 emulsifiers were identified, with a mean ± SD exposure of 12.23 ± 10.07 emulsifiers consumed per day. A significant reduction in the mean frequency of dietary emulsifier intake was observed at the end of the intervention (12.23 ± 10.07 vs. 6.30 ± 7.59, p < 0.01). However, intake of macronutrients and micronutrients was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Good adherence to the diet was achieved by 40% of the participants, and 16.66% attained a 50% reduction of emulsifier intake. The study demonstrates that a low-emulsifier diet provided via dietary advice is feasible to follow and tolerable by healthy participants. However, the diet still needs further investigation and assessment of it is nutritional intake and quality before implementing it in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who are at high risk of poor nutritional intake.
... 4 5 In particular, emulsifiers are among the most commonly used additives in industrial foods owing to their emulsifying and thickening properties that improve texture and lengthen shelf-life. 6 Although no worldwide estimate of emulsifier use in the food industry exists, a recent descriptive study of the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study revealed that seven of the 10 most consumed food additives among French adults were classified as emulsifiers (total modified starches, lecithins, xanthan gum, pectins, monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, carrageenan, and guar gum), and modified starches were consumed by more than 90% of the participants. 7 Additionally, more than 53.8% of food or beverage industrial products contain at least one food emulsifier 5 as estimated from Open Food Facts, 8 a database that contains information and data on food products from around the world. ...
... Among the available food additives quantified from the participants' dietary records, we identified 61 food additives classified as emulsifiers or emulsifying salts from the 261 additives under the functional class "emulsifier" or "emulsifying salt" of Codex General Standard for Food Additives database, 32 or according to US or UK regulations when not included in Codex (eg, E404, E418, E468) 6 and considered the sum of intakes as intake of total emulsifiers (see table 2). In addition, we summed individual emulsifiers with similar chemical structures into eight groups: total phosphates (E339, E340, E341, E343, E450, E451, E452), total lactylates (E481, E482), total polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475, E476), total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (E471, E472, E472a-bc-e), total celluloses (E460, E461, E464, E466, E468), total carrageenans (E407, E407a), total alginates (E400, E401, E402, E404, E405), and total modified starches (generic European Union code for this category E14xx). ...
Article
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Objective To assess the associations between exposure to food additive emulsifiers and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting French NutriNet-Santé study, 2009-21. Participants 95 442 adults (>18 years) without prevalent CVD who completed at least three 24 hour dietary records during the first two years of follow-up. Main outcome measures Associations between intake of food additive emulsifiers (continuous (mg/day)) and risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease characterised using multivariable proportional hazard Cox models to compute hazard ratios for each additional standard deviation (SD) of emulsifier intake, along with 95% confidence intervals. Results Mean age was 43.1 (SD 14.5) years, and 79.0% (n=75 390) of participants were women. During follow-up (median 7.4 years), 1995 incident CVD, 1044 coronary heart disease, and 974 cerebrovascular disease events were diagnosed. Higher intake of celluloses (E460-E468) was found to be positively associated with higher risks of CVD (hazard ratio for an increase of 1 standard deviation 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.09, P=0.003) and coronary heart disease (1.07, 1.02 to 1.12, P=0.004). Specifically, higher cellulose E460 intake was linked to higher risks of CVD (1.05, 1.01 to 1.09, P=0.007) and coronary heart disease (1.07, 1.02 to 1.12, P=0.005), and higher intake of carboxymethylcellulose (E466) was associated with higher risks of CVD (1.03, 1.01 to 1.05, P=0.004) and coronary heart disease (1.04, 1.02 to 1.06, P=0.001). Additionally, higher intakes of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (E471 and E472) were associated with higher risks of all outcomes. Among these emulsifiers, lactic ester of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472b) was associated with higher risks of CVD (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10, P=0.002) and cerebrovascular disease (1.11, 1.06 to 1.16, P<0.001), and citric acid ester of monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c) was associated with higher risks of CVD (1.04, 1.02 to 1.07, P=0.004) and coronary heart disease (1.06, 1.03 to 1.09, P<0.001). High intake of trisodium phosphate (E339) was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (1.06, 1.00 to 1.12, P=0.03). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent associations. Conclusion This study found positive associations between risk of CVD and intake of five individual and two groups of food additive emulsifiers widely used in industrial foods. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03335644 .
... Emulsi ers might be implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including in ammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome. Food additive emulsi ers are classi ed into hydrophilic and hydrophobic (lipophilic) moieties, which can reduce the interfacial tension between the oil and water phases and incorporate physical force to form a stable emulsion 9 . Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80) induce intestinal in ammation and metabolic syndrome by thinning of the intestinal mucus layer and altering gut microbiota composition, increasing the gut epithelial permeability and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels 10 . ...
... However, not all emulsi ers are acknowledged by every organization (Fig. 1a-b). The discrepancies among emulsi er classi cations create a challenge for international translation of emulsi er research resulting in differing de nitions of a low-emulsi er diet across countries 9 . Presently, dietary exposure evaluations for emulsi ers that are commonly used in the population are lacking. ...
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Dietary emulsifiers have been linked to various diseases. The recent discovery of the role of gut microbiota-host interactions on health and disease warrants the safety reassessment of dietary emulsifiers through the lens of gut microbiota. Hydrophilic (lecithin (LEC), sucrose esters (SUC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) and lipophilic (mono- and diglycerides (MDG)) emulsifiers are common dietary emulsifiers with high exposure levels in the population. This study proved that SUC and CMC induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. MDG impaired circulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Both hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifiers changed the intestinal microbiota diversity and induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. Hydrophilic emulsifiers have no impact on mucus–bacterial interactions, whereas MDG tended to cause bacterial encroachment into the inner mucus layer and enhance inflammation potential by raising circulating lipopolysaccharide. Our findings demonstrated the safety concerns associated with using dietary emulsifiers, suggesting that they could lead to metabolic syndromes.
... On the other hand, dietary lifestyle has globally changed in the late 20th century, which is correlated with increased incidence of various chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, and food allergies [6,7]. This dietary change is characterized by a decreased consumption of unprocessed food consisting of natural components such as vegetables, fruits, and dietary fibers, and instead, by an increased intake of highly processed diets, such as cake mix, chocolate, and ice creams [8,9]. Among these highly processed diets, dietary emulsifiers are commonly used to stabilize texture, tastiness, and colors [10]. ...
... Among these highly processed diets, dietary emulsifiers are commonly used to stabilize texture, tastiness, and colors [10]. Acting as surfactants to avoid the separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of processed foods, their addition also extends the product's shelf life [9]. ...
Article
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The significant increase in food allergy incidence is correlated with dietary changes in modernized countries. Here, we investigated the impact of dietary emulsifiers on food allergy by employing an experimental murine model. Mice were exposed to drinking water containing 1.0% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or Polysorbate-80 (P80) for 12 weeks, a treatment that was previously demonstrated to induce significant alterations in microbiota composition and function leading to chronic intestinal inflammation and metabolic abnormalities. Subsequently, the ovalbumin food allergy model was applied and characterized. As a result, we observed that dietary emulsifiers, especially P80, significantly exacerbated food allergy symptoms, with increased OVA-specific IgE induction and accelerated type 2 cytokine expressions, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, in the colon. Administration of an antibiotic regimen completely reversed the emulsifier-induced exacerbated susceptibility to food allergy, suggesting a critical role played by the intestinal microbiota in food allergy and type 2 immune responses.
... However, several studies published in 2021, including preclinical and clinical studies, have suggested a potential effect of various food additives, such as emulsifiers, sweeteners and colorant, in the etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. [114][115][116] Many of these studies on UPFs in general-and on additives in particular-have suggested that the microbiota is involved in mediating the potential effects of these additives on human health. ...
... Food additive emulsifiers are widely used by the food industry to improve organoleptic properties and extend shelf-life, with the most commonly used being lecithin, monoglycerides and diglycerides, guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan, polysorbate-80, and carboxymethylcellulose. 114,115 Since 2015, dietary emulsifiers have received particular attention due to their possible role in the pathogenesis of IBD and metabolic dysregulations. 134,148 While investigating their effect on the development of chronic inflammatory disease, several studies revealed that the administration of carboxy methyl cellulose and polysorbate-80 to mice is sufficient to drive microbiota alterations in a way that increases its pro-inflammatory potential. ...
Article
Epidemiological studies have suggested a role for ultra-processed foods in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic syndrome. Preclinical and clinical studies are accumulating to better decipher the effects of various aspects of food processing and formulation on the aetiology of chronic, debilitating inflammatory diseases. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current data that highlight an association between ultra-processed food consumption and various chronic diseases, with a focus on epidemiological evidence and mechanistic insights involving the intestinal microbiota.
... PSs were approved as a food additive in the USA in 1960 and the EU in 1995 [33]. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable oral daily intake of PSs (e.g., PS 20, PS 60, PS 65, and PS 80) of 25 mg/kg by adults [34,35]. Recently, the pediatric safety of PSs in drug formulations has also been investigated [36]. ...
... Negligible systemic toxicity was observed when PS 80 (22 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to rats. In addition, liver or kidney dysfunction was not observed [34]. An in vivo rabbit eye model was used to evaluate the irritation effect of aqueous and oily solutions (Miglyol 812) of PS 20 and PS 80. ...
Article
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Polysorbates (PSs) are synthetic nonionic surfactants consisting of polyethoxy sorbitan fatty acid esters. PSs have been widely employed as emulsifiers and stabilizers in various drug formulations and food additives. Recently, various PS-based formulations have been developed for safe and efficient drug delivery. This review introduces the general features of PSs and PS-based drug carriers, summarizes recent progress in the development of PS-based drug formulations, and discusses the physicochemical properties, biological safety, P-glycoprotein inhibitory properties, and therapeutic applications of PS-based drug formulations. Additionally, recent advances in brain-targeted drug delivery using PS-based drug formulations have been highlighted. This review will help researchers understand the potential of PSs as effective drug formulation agents
... The accumulation of a substantial quantity of edible gums in human tissues leads to toxicity which poses health hazards. Nevertheless, natural edible gums outperform synthetic food additives in terms of safety (Cox et al., 2020). Since every nation has its system of laws governing food additives, a distinct list of permitted components, and safety levels, international standards are advocated to advance the food trade. ...
Article
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In recent years, the extraction, processing, and application of edible gums, in the food and healthcare sector has skyrocketed and extensively explored. Edible gums are derived from multiple sources such as plants/trees, animals, microorganisms, and seaweed. Edible gums are typically employed to perform certain functions including modification of rheology, gel formation, stability, encapsulation, and fat replacement. The unique interaction of edible gums with food molecules enables the achievement of desired characteristics of specific food products belonging to various sectors. This review delivers a comprehensive understanding of the classification and characterization of edible gums and their applications in the food industry. Despite several advantages offered by edible gums, there exist certain challenges that are encountered during commercialization by manufacturers and proposed strategies to overcome the hurdles, regulatory aspects, and safety of edible gums upon consumption have been highlighted in this review.
... Sodium benzoate is widely used as a food preservative and pickling agent, and its E number is E211. Calcium salicylate is used as a preservative and also for the treatment of cancer (Cox, et al, 2021). ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the ultraviolet absorption for some carboxylic acids and their salts of mono- and bivalent metals as organic UV filters by UV spectrophotometer, as well as, calculate the values of the sun protection factor (SPF) for these compounds. The solutions of organic UV filters are subjected to absorbance measurements in the range of 290 to 320 nm, with five nm intervals, using the ultraviolet spectrometer. The experiments have been carried out in three different solvents: H2O, MeOH, and EtOH. These salts included sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, calcium benzoate, and calcium salicylate. The calculated sun protection factor (SPF) of these solutions was evaluated using the Mansur equation. All organic filters showed some sunlight protection properties. The best-calculated SPF values were 47.0 for salicylic acid, followed by the sodium salicylate salt at 40.3 and then the calcium salicylate salt at 39.7. These salicylic acid salts showed a high ability of UV absorbance compared to benzoic acid salts which showed SPF values of 11.5. This study presented organic UV filters with high SPF values and high solubility in polar solvents such as water and ethanol. Sodium and calcium salicylates would be recommended for use in the manufacture of sunscreen formulations
... Traditionally, most emulsions consist of two phases: water or an aqueous solution, and the other is an organic phase that is immiscible with water, also called the water phase and oil phase, respectively [27][28][29][30]. In addition, the emulsifier is the essential component of the emulsion system, which can effectively reduce the surface energy of droplets, making one phase evenly dispersed in the other [31][32][33]. Typically, the oil phase can form an emulsion system with the water phase under the conditions of a suitable emulsifier, and be stably dispersed in the emulsion system in the form of tiny droplets. ...
Article
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High-performance polymers incorporating liquid lubricants can be exploited to fabricate sundry solid-liquid composites for self-lubricating parts in the frontier industries, while the limitations of traditional polymer processing methods generally result in shortcomings including the complex manufacturing process, high cost, and/or low comprehensive properties. In this paper, combining with the unique characteristics of vat photopolymerization three-dimensional (3D) printing, a novel strategy for one-step fabricating self-lubricating parts with microdroplets of oil filled in polymer, namely the vat photopolymerization 3D printing of microemulsion (microemulsion-3DP), is proposed, which realizes the incorporation of oil-droplets into the cyanate ester in a solo step. The self-lubricating properties investigated by friction tests reveal that the average coefficient of friction (COF) of the 3D printed cyanate eater with the lubricant PAO-40 one-step incorporated is decreased to ca. 0.069 from ca. 0.404 of the one without lubricant, 10 times folded nearly. As demonstrated, this innovative method of microemulsion-3DP readily achieves various self-lubricating parts, indicating the promising feasibility of fabricating parts with structures that are difficult to manufacture with traditional processing methods, which will enable a wide range of applications in aerospace, automobile manufacturing, and other cutting-edge fields.
... However, there are some technical challenges associated with enzymatic and chemical interesterification: (1) the activity and stability of enzymes can be affected by temperature, pH, and the presence of heavy metals; (2) chemical interesterification can cause some saponification of fats and oils, resulting in fats and oils depletion (Sivakanthan & Madhujith, 2020). The amount of food additive emulsifiers in use will be limited in view of safety (Cox et al., 2021). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess how branched‐chain fatty acid triacylglycerols (BCFA‐TAG) at different concentrations (1–10 g/100 g) affect palm oil‐based blend PO‐PS (palm olein/palm stearin = 7/3, wt/wt) crystallization and other related performance. The addition of BCFA‐TAG significantly affected the crystallization of PO‐PS by accelerating the onset of PO‐PS crystallization through promoting the nucleation of PO‐PS crystals while delaying the growth of the crystals as a whole. The reduction in t 1/2 provided good evidence of the delay, with the effect of high concentrations (10 g/100 g) being the most pronounced. Adding BCFA‐TAG to PO‐PS reduced its solid fat content (SFC), with a more significant effect at higher concentrations (5, 8, and 10 g/100 g). After 48 h of crystallization at 25°C, BCFA‐TAG induced a more compact and orderly crystalline network of PO‐PS with an increase in space‐filling, resulting in an increase in hardness. The crystal density of the higher concentration samples (PO‐PS + 10% BCFA‐TAG) decreased over storage time, suggesting a crystal dilution effect of high concentrations of BCFA‐TAG. The PO‐PS + 10% BCFA‐TAG sample maintained the β′ crystalline form throughout the 30 days of storage without conversion to the β crystalline form, thus showing a positive effect of BCFA‐TAG in alleviating the post‐hardness of the palm oil.
... Emulsions stabilization is reached by surface active compounds, which may unfortunately have adverse effects on human health and environment, especially those of synthetic origin [3][4][5][6]. As health and environment concerns are becoming priorities for consumers, greener products are formulated with natural ingredients. ...
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Cellulose is a promising renewable and biocompatible biopolymer for stabilizing Pickering emulsions (PEs). In the present study, PEs were produced by low-frequency ultrasounds with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and caprylic/capric triglycerides. Phase diagrams allowed to understand mechanisms of formation and long-term stabilization of PEs. Emulsion type, continuous phase viscosity, and yield of oil incorporation were studied after PEs formation. Droplet size, oil release, and stability were measured weekly up to 56 days of storage. Results showed that oil mass fraction above 70% w/w led to unstable W/O PEs. Lower oil mass fraction formed O/W PEs of stability depending on CNC content and oil mass fraction. Droplet size stability increased with CNCs/oil ratio. A very low CNCs/oil ratio led to phase separation and oil release. High CNC content stabilized oil droplets surface, increased aqueous phase viscosity, and prevented creaming. Highly stable PEs were produced for CNC content above 3% (w/w) and oil mass fraction below 50% (w/w). Mechanisms for PEs formation and stabilization were proposed for various CNC contents and oil mass fractions.
... Regarding antioxidants, their importance and safety need to be further acknowledged. Furthermore, the harmonization of antioxidant legislation worldwide is still a challenge [11,72]. Given the growing concerns about food safety, society should be educated about safer crop cultivation and livestock rearing, choosing balanced diets, and safer cooking methods. ...
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The increasing demand for food to feed an exponentially growing population, the fast evolution of climate changes, how global warming affects soil productivity, and the erosion of arable lands, create enormous pressure on the food chain. This problem is particularly evident for fresh fruits and vegetables that have a short shelf life. For this reason, food safety precautions are not always a priority and they are often overused to increase the productivity and shelf life of these food commodities, causing concerns among consumers and public authorities. In this context, this review discusses the potential of microextraction in comparison to conventional extraction approaches as a strategy to improve the survey of food safety requirements. Accordingly, selected examples reported in the literature in the last five years will focus on the detection and quantification of pesticides, antibiotics, hormones, and preservatives in fresh fruits and vegetables using different extraction approaches. Overall, the use of microextraction techniques to survey the presence of contaminants in the food chain is very advantageous, involving simpler and faster protocols, reduced amounts of solvents and samples, and consequently, reduced waste produced during analysis while conserving a high potential for automation. Additionally, this higher greener profile of the microextraction techniques will boost a progressive substitution of conventional extraction approaches by microextraction processes in most analytical applications, including the survey of food chain safety.
... Dietary emulsifiers are, by definition, compounds that enable the homogenization of immiscible compounds, which are commonly present in foodstuffs as they are used to improve texture and extend shelf life [5]. They are defined in the Codex Alimentarius as additives that form or maintain a uniform emulsion of two or more phases in a food, possess hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties and lead to reductions in the interfacial tension between oil and water phases in foodstuffs [6]. They are broadly characterized in three classes (low molecular weight emulsifiers, amphiphilic biopolymers and solid/colloidal particles), with each one encompassing different molecules and overall characteristics. ...
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Carboxymethyl cellulose use in industry is ubiquitous. Though it is recognized as safe by the EFSA and FDA, newer works have raised concerns related to its safety, as in vivo studies showed evidence of gut dysbiosis associated with CMC’s presence. Herein lies the question, is CMC a gut pro-inflammatory compound? As no work addressed this question, we sought to understand whether CMC was pro-inflammatory through the immunomodulation of GI tract epithelial cells. The results showed that while CMC was not cytotoxic up to 25 mg/mL towards Caco-2, HT29-MTX and Hep G2 cells, it had an overall pro-inflammatory behavior. In a Caco-2 monolayer, CMC by itself increased IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α secretion, with the latter increasing by 1924%, and with these increases being 9.7 times superior to the one obtained for the IL-1β pro-inflammation control. In co-culture models, an increase in secretion in the apical side, particularly for IL-6 (692% increase), was observed, and when RAW 264.7 was added, data showed a more complex scenario as stimulation of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and IFN-β) cytokines in the basal side was observed. Considering these results, CMC may exert a pro-inflammatory effect in the intestinal lumen, and despite more studies being required, the incorporation of CMC in foodstuffs must be carefully considered in the future to minimize potential GI tract dysbiosis.
... There has not yet been any published research related to the possible effects of food additives and non-nutritional chemicals, such as nanoparticles, emulsifiers and flavor enhancers including glutaminase and monosodium glutamate, on the ocular surface. These compounds have been increasingly associated with various negative health effects in the human body [163][164][165]. Future studies should examine whether they have a role in ocular surface disease. ...
Article
Nutrients, required by human bodies to perform life-sustaining functions, are obtained from the diet. They are broadly classified into: macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and water. All nutrients serve as a source of energy, provide structural support to the body and/or regulate the chemical processes of the body. Food and drinks also consist of non-nutrients that may be beneficial (e.g., antioxidants) or harmful (e.g., dyes or preservatives added to processed foods) to the body and the ocular surface. There is also a complex interplay between systemic disorders and an individual's nutritional status. Changes in the gut microbiome may lead to alterations at the ocular surface. Poor nutrition may exacerbate select systemic conditions. Similarly, certain systemic conditions may affect the uptake, processing and distribution of nutrients by the body. These disorders may lead to deficiencies of micro- and macro-nutrients that are important in maintaining ocular surface health. Medications used to treat these conditions may also cause ocular surface changes. The prevalence of nutrition-related chronic diseases is climbing worldwide. This report sought to review the evidence supporting the impact of nutrition on the ocular surface, either directly or as a consequence of the chronic diseases that result. To address a key question, a systematic review investigated the effects of intentional food restriction on ocular surface health; of the 25 included studies, most investigated Ramadan fasting (56%), followed by bariatric surgery (16%), anorexia nervosa (16%), but none were judged to be of high quality, with no randomized-controlled trials.
... Dietary additive emulsifiers are widely used in bakery, confectionary, dairy, ice cream, sauces, butter, gum, beverages, chocolate, and convenient food industries. The major food additive emulsifiers include lecithin, mono-and diglycerides of FA, guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan, celluloses, and polysorbates (Cox et al., 2021;Partridge et al., 2019). Dietary emulsifiers decreased gut microbiota diversity, decreasing anti-inflammatory genera Akkermansia and Lupinus, promoting proinflammatory genera Escherichia, Roseburia, Bradyrhizobium, and Turicibacter, and developing dysbiosis . ...
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Dysfunction of gut barrier is known as “leaky gut” or increased intestinal permeability. Numerous recent scientific evidences showed the association between gut dysfunction and multiple gastrointestinal tract (GI) and non‐GI diseases. Research also demonstrated that food plays a crucial role to cause or remedy gut dysfunction related to diseases. We reviewed recent articles from electronic databases, mainly PubMed. The data were based on animal models, cell models, and human research in vivo and in vitro models. In this comprehensive review, our aim focused on the relationship between dietary factors, intestinal permeability dysfunction, and related diseases. This review synthesizes currently available literature and is discussed in three parts: (a) the mechanism of gut barrier and function, (b) food and dietary supplements that may promote gut health, and food or medication that may alter gut function, and (c) a table that organizes the synthesized information by general mechanisms for diseases related to leaky gut/intestinal permeability and associated dietary influences. With future research, dietary intervention could be a new target for individualized disease prevention and management. This review summarizes current literature, mainly from PubMed, on the mechanisms of gut barrier and function, including food and dietary supplements or medications that promote or alter gut health. It also provides a comprehensive and clear table about basic mechanisms for disease‐related leaky gut/increased intestinal permeability with associated dietary influences.
... Otros aditivos que se destacan y que son potentes antioxidantes son el ascorbato de sodio SIN301 y el ácido ascórbico SIN300 también conocido como vitamina C, ambos aditivos ampliamente usados Dentro del grupo 'Varios' (Figura 2) se encuentran aditivos con diferentes funciones tecnológicas, en el que sobresale el cloruro de colina (SIN1001iii) que se utiliza como emulsionante. En los últimos años, las sustancias emulsionantes han sido de interés para la investigación, debido a informes sobre efectos desfavorables gastrointestinales y en la salud metabólica, pero existen limitaciones en su estudio debido a la heterogeneidad de las sustancias de este grupo (Cox et al., 2020). ...
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Additives are necessary substances to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties and the shelf life of processed food. In addition, their use is regulated, and it must be declared on the food labels. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the frequency of food additives in processed baby products in Cochabamba metropolitan area (Bolivia). Data were collected by label reading and a frequency analysis was performed by additives and by functional group. 26 baby products were found where 41 food additives were identified with an occurrence of 256 times, and a mean of 9,8 additives per product. Moreover, the functional groups most widely used are antioxidants and colorants. Finally, the most frequent additives are mostly harmless, except for sodium nitrate and copper sulfate.
... Due to the large internal phase, HIPEs could provide high drug loading and specific rheological properties, which have attracted considerable interest in the delivery system of active pharmaceutical ingredients that are sensitive to light, temperature, or oxygen. [6] Considering the environmental and safety challenges [7,8], HIPEs used in pharmaceutical delivery systems are stabilized mostly by natural polymeric surfactants, such as proteins [9], starches [10], gelatin [11], cellulose [12], chitosan [13], and lignin [14]. In particular, as a natural surfactant with outstanding UV protection and bioavailability, lignin displays effective protection for UV-sensitive medicines (e.g., antibiotics, sedatives, diuretics, antihistamines, sulfonamides, and azole antifungal drugs) used in drug-loaded HIPEs systems [15,16]. ...
Article
As an emulsifier, lignin exhibits excellent UV resistance on drug-loaded emulsion systems for drug delivery. However, due to the structural variation and complexity of lignins from various origins, their UV shielding performance varies with the techniques for lignin extraction, which impacts properties and the protection efficiency of lignin-based HIPEs (high internal phase emulsions). In this work, lignin nanoparticles, prepared from three lignin preparations of eucalyptus, were used in HIPEs delivery systems to protect curcumin from degradation by UV radiation. Structures of the lignin preparations were characterized using 2D HSQC (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 31P NMR, and GPC (gel permeation chromatography). The residual curcumin level after 36 h UV exposure in the nanolignin-based HIPEs was over 72 %, much higher than that (< 10 % after 24 h UV exposure) in the oil phase without lignin,indicating that the nanolignin-based HIPEs with enhanced UV shielding ability protect curcumin better. Of the three lignin preparations, AL (alkali lignin), with the lowest molecular weight, highest contents of phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and highest S/G ratio, displayed the best anti-UV radiation ability and the most uniform nanoparticle size.
... Emulsifiers are commonly added to UPFs, such as sauces, industrial bread and pastries, and meat substitutes, to increase the stability, shelf-life, and palatability of food products (39,40). Different studies have shown that emulsifiers can have an effect on each of the components of the intestinal barrier and thereby play a role in the development of IBD (41). ...
Article
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and the exact pathogenesis is still unclear. It is believed that IBD develops in response to a complex interaction between the microbiota, environmental factors, and the immune system, in genetically predisposed individuals. Identifying these environmental factors will offer more insight in the development of the disease, and reveal new therapeutic targets for IBD patients. One of the environmental factors that has gained more interest over the last years is our diet. The prevalence of IBD has increased significantly and this increase is thought to be associated with a ‘Western diet', characterized by high intake of fats, added sugar, meat, and ultra-processed foods (UPFs). The UPFs now account for almost 50% of the energy intake in Westernized countries and are therefore an important characteristic of this Western diet. UPFs are characterized by higher amounts of salt, fat, sugar and the presence of different food additives. Epidemiological studies have found associations between UPF intake and a range of non-communicable diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that non-nutritive ingredients and additives, present in UPFs, can negatively affect different components of the intestinal barrier, such as the microbiota, the mucus layer, the epithelium, and the immune cells in the lamina propria. Disruption of this barrier can cause the immune system to encounter an increased bacterial exposure, leading to an aberrant immune response. In this article, the available evidence on the possible role of UPFs and their components in the increasing incidence and prevalence of IBD is reviewed. These findings can be translated to the clinic and may be helpful to consider when giving dietary advice to IBD patients. A better understanding of the role of UPFs may lead to less restrictive diets for patients with IBD, hence increasing the dietary compliance and efficacy of exclusion diets.
... Gum Arabic (GA) is a natural exudate from Acacia Senegal and/or Acacia seyal trees (9)(10)(11). It is considered a safe additive dietary fiber since the 1970s, approved by FDA and JECFA (12). The chemical structure is composed mainly of polysaccharides with galactopyranosyl residues (11), which are rich in calcium, zinc, magnesium, and potassium salts (11). ...
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Background: Down-regulation of the lung inflammatory response seems to preserve pulmonary functions and improve survival in COVID-19. The key factor in overcoming the cytokine storm caused by COVID-19 by immunomodulation, rather than immunosuppression. Identifying the right mechanism to manipulate the immune regulatory networks in the lung—with minimal side effects—represents one of the many challenges in the treatment of COVID-19 disease. Immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and gut-regulatory activities are the most significant properties of prebiotics. Therefore, it could be beneficial to consider them as an adjuvant dietary intervention among COVID-19 patients. Understanding the exact mechanism of prebiotic defense against infection and regulation of immune processes involved in COVID-19 are crucial for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Several studies considered Gum Arabic (GA) as a potent prebiotic with cytoprotective properties. This review aims to discuss and display the possibility of utilizing the beneficial effects of GA to modulate COVID-19 pathogenesis.Keywords: COVID-19, Gum Arabic, Immunomodulation, dietary intervention, Gut microbiota, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant
... Another cause of staling is the retrogradation of starch, a process that occurs in gelatinized starch as it moves from an initial amorphous state to a more ordered or crystalline state, resulting in an unacceptable increase in the firmness of foodstuffs [16]. Mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E471) may be used to overcome bread staling since they create emulsified complexes with amylose, ensuring a soft crumb structure during the storage, in addition to acting as preservatives [17]. Whey proteins, apart from being highly nutritious, are useful food ingredients in cakes [18,19]. ...
Article
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Oleogels (defined as structured solid-like materials with a high amount of oil entrapped within a three-dimensional network of gelator molecules) represent a healthy alternative to fats that are rich in saturated and trans fatty acids. Given its fatty acids composition (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids), olive oil is an excellent candidate for the use of oleogels in the food industry. In this study, a D-optimal mixture design was employed to optimize the replacement of butter with olive oil-based oleogel in a type of sponge cake formulation: the plum cake. In addition, emulsifiers and whey proteins were used as recipe ingredients to extend the product's shelf life by delaying staling phenomena and mold growth. In the experimental design, oleogel, emulsifier, and whey protein variables were set as the ingredients that change in specific ranges, while hardness, porosity, water activity, and moistness were used to characterize the obtained formulations. The experimental data of each response were fitted through polynomial regression models with the aim of identifying the best plum cake formulation. The results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation containing 76.98% olive oil-based oleogel, 7.28% emulsifier E471, and 15.73% whey protein. We stored the optimized plum cake for 3 months at room temperature and then checked for any hardness and moistness changes or mold spoilage.
... Most stabilizers are food additives, some of which have been demonstrated to have effects in the brain leading to memory, behavioral, cognitive, and locomotive dysfunctions [30]. A growing number of studies have shown that food additives may have negative long-term health effects on humans [31][32][33][34]. Most food additives, such as stabilizers, are often added to the industrial production of yogurt to improve its texture and taste. ...
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Previous studies on consumer yogurt preferences have mainly focused on added sugar, nutrient content, and health claims, leaving several knowledge gaps that should be filled through in-depth research. In this study, a more complete multi-attribute preference model was developed using the number of probiotic types, type of milk source, presence of edible gels (GEL), and usage of health food labels as the main yogurt attributes. A choice experiment (CE) was then conducted to investigate the relationship between multiple attribute preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP). A total of 435 valid questionnaires were collected by the convenience sampling method. The results show that (1) respondents highly value the health food label (HEA), followed by the number of probiotic types (PRO); (2) the highest WTP in the conditional logit (CL) model was New Taiwan Dollar (NTD) (USD 10.5 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 1.0 for 100% milk powder (MLK2); (3) in the random-parameter logit (RPL) model, the highest WTP was NTD 14.6 for HEA, and the lowest was NTD 2.8 for GEL; (4) the most preferred attribute combination of yogurt was “8 or more probiotic types”, “a blend of raw milk and milk powder”, “the absence of edible gels”, “the presence of a health food label”, and “a price premium of NTD 6–10”; (5) married respondents with children were more willing to pay extra for yogurt products with a higher number of probiotic types and a health food label. The results may help the food industry understand and pay attention to consumer needs, which will, in turn, provide a reference for future product development and marketing strategies.
... Emulsifiers are essential for preparing stable emulsions, including synthetic emulsifiers (e.g., Tween 20 and Span 85) and naturally occurring emulsifiers (e.g., protein and lecithin) based on their sources, of which natural ones have received increasing interest in recent years, due to the increased concerns over the safety of certain synthetic ones (Dammak et al., 2020). Indeed, previous studies have suggested that polysorbate-80 (i.e., Tween 80) could induce low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome, and also promote robust colitis in mice (Chassaing et al., 2015;Cox et al., 2021). ...
Article
Background Studies on peptide-based emulsifiers in the field of foods have progressed rapidly in the last decade, due to the higher anti-oxidative activity, faster adsorption to the interfaces, reduced allergenicity and higher nutritional values, compared to proteins used as emulsifiers. Peptides therefore have the potential for broader applications in emulsion-based foods. Scope and approach This paper provides an update on the current knowledge of the surface behavior of surface-active peptides and peptide assemblies. Factors affecting physical and oxidative stability of peptide-stabilized emulsions and the fabrication and utilization of peptide-associated conjugates in emulsions have also been summarized. The potential applications of peptide-stabilized emulsions in the food industry are finally discussed. Key findings and conclusions Peptides with different primary and secondary structures show different surface behavior. Surface-active peptides with facial amphiphilicity can orient horizontally at the interfaces, while those with half hydrophobic-half hydrophilic residues orient perpendicularly at the interfaces. In addition, peptide assemblies with supermolecular structures can embed in the oil/water interfaces. The long-chain peptides with molecular weights of higher than 5 kDa usually exhibit better emulsifying capacity than short-chain peptides, and many factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and ionic strength) can influence the physical stability of peptide-stabilized emulsions. Moreover, the presence of peptides can improve the oxidative stability of emulsions by repulsing or chelating metals. The fabrication of peptides into conjugates with polysaccharides, flavonoids, or phenols can further improve their emulsifying capacity. Finally, peptide-stabilized emulsions have been reported to be used as encapsulation materials or stabilizers/antioxidants in real emulsion-based food systems.
... The abuse and illegal addition of food additives, such as synthetic dyes, nitrates, optical brighteners, etc., pose a huge threat to human health. Relevant laws that strictly regulate the types and dosages of food additives have been passed (Wu L. Cox et al., 2021). For use in the sample analysis step before the product leaves the factory, researchers try to prepare monolithic columns with different functional monomers to optimize the detection efficiency based on the complexity of the sample components. ...
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The chromatographic column is the core of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, and must have excellent separation efficiency and selectivity. Therefore, functional modification materials for monolithic columns have been rapidly developed. This study is a systematic review of the recently reported functionalized monolithic columns. In particular, the study reviews the types of functional monomers under different modification conditions, as well as the separation and detection techniques combined with chromatography, and their development prospects. In addition, the applications of functionalized monolithic columns in food analysis, biomedicine, and the analysis of active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicines in recent years are also discussed. Also reviewed are the functionalized monolithic columns for qualitative and quantitative analysis. It provided a reference for further development and application of organic polymer monolithic columns.
... The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) represents the international scientific expert committee administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the WHO. It proposes an international numbering system to name food additives, including emulsifiers [20]. The E-number (i.e., E-171) must be indicated after having specified the technological function of the food-additive emulsifiers. ...
Article
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The use of emulsifiers in processed foods and the rapid epidemic development of metabolic syndrome in Western countries over the past 20 years have generated growing interest. Evidence for the role of emulsifiers in metabolic syndrome through gut microbiota has not been clearly established, thus making it challenging for clinical nutritionists and dietitians to make evidence-based associations between the nature and the quantity of emulsifiers and metabolic disorders. This narrative review summarizes the highest quality clinical evidence currently available about the impact of food emulsifiers on gut microbiota composition and functions and the potential development of metabolic syndrome. The state-of-the-art of the different common emulsifiers is performed, highlighting where they are present in daily foods and their roles. Recent findings of in vitro, in vivo, and human studies assessing the effect of different emulsifiers on gut microbiota have been recently published. There is some progress in understanding how some food emulsifiers could contribute to developing metabolic diseases through gut microbiota alterations while others could have prebiotic effects. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding daily consumption amounts and the synergic effects between emulsifiers’ intake and responses by the microbial signatures of each individual.
... They can act as gelling agents and surfactants via the fat molecules in food, adsorbing to the hydrophobic end of the emulsifiers and water adsorbing to the hydrophilic end. Common emulsifiers include carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polysorbates, carrageenan, etc., [129][130][131]. ...
Article
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During the 21st century, the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising globally. Despite the pathogenesis of IBD remaining largely unclear, the interactions between environmental exposure, host genetics and immune response contribute to the occurrence and development of this disease. Growing evidence implicates that food additives might be closely related to IBD, but the involved molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Food additives may be categorized as distinct types in accordance with their function and property, including artificial sweeteners, preservatives, food colorant, emulsifiers, stabilizers, thickeners and so on. Various kinds of food additives play a role in modifying the interaction between gut microbiota and intestinal inflammation. Therefore, this review comprehensively synthesizes the current evidence on the interplay between different food additives and gut microbiome alterations, and further elucidates the potential mechanisms of food additives–associated microbiota changes involved in IBD.
... Food additives are natural or synthetic substances widely used in modern food industry during processing, packaging, and transportation. They can improve food quality, stability, and durability, or adjust the color, smell, and flavor (Wang et al. 2020;Wu et al. 2021;Cox et al. 2021). Suitable amounts of additives are essential; however, excessive additives usually pose negative impacts on food quality, potentially affect human health (Obaidi et al. 2018), and worsen the stability of economic and social development (Tajik et al. 2021). ...
Article
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With portable capacitative sensors, a universal method has been established to analyze different organic compounds from real samples. Firstly, the object compounds serve as templates in the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The resulted polymers are promising materials to fabricate highly sensitive and highly selective sensors for the templates. Low mass transfer resistance in the cryogenically synthesized MIPs makes it very convenient to remove interfering substances, just by rinsing the chromatographic column-like sensors with an eluant. Five food additives were selected to testify the portable detection platform. Good linear ranges are obtained for sunset yellow (8.60 × 10⁻¹⁰–3.11 × 10⁻⁴ mg), sodium cyclamate (9.10 × 10⁻¹⁰–5.61 × 10⁻⁴ mg), citric acid (3.40 × 10⁻¹⁰–1.12 × 10⁻³ mg), benzoic acid (5.50 × 10⁻¹¹–3.56 × 10⁻⁵ mg), and glyceryl monostearate (2.35 × 10⁻⁸–6.56 × 10⁻³ mg). In turn the detection limits are 4.79 × 10⁻¹⁰ mg, 2.63 × 10⁻¹⁰ mg, 1.34 × 10⁻¹⁰ mg, 3.24 × 10⁻¹¹ mg, and 3.71 × 10⁻⁹ mg respectively. Finally “interference-free” analysis has been accomplished for the additives in various food samples from local markets.
... Emulsifiers consist of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components that reduces interfacial tension between oil and water phases (Cox et al., 2021). Food proteins, including whey proteins, caseins, and ovalbumin, are commonly used as natural emulsifiers due to their strong capacity in forming viscoelastic films at the interface (Jayasundera et al., 2009). ...
Article
This study aims to understand impact of sodium alginate addition on binary whey/pea protein-stabilised emulsions at various pH. The properties and stability of binary whey/pea protein-stabilised emulsions were characterised by microstructural analysis, droplet size, creaming index in comparison to sole proteins. Protein composition at oil/water interface was examined via SDS-PAGE. Alginate incorporation reduced the droplet sizes and enhanced the emulsion stability at pH 6.6. At pH 11.0, protein only-stabilised emulsion was stable for 21 days, while alginate addition resulted in phase separation in the binary whey/pea protein-stabilised emulsions. The presence of alginate promoted protein adsorption at all pH with both proteins present at the interface. Whey protein displaced pea protein in the binary whey/pea protein-stabilised emulsions over time, whereas alginate addition prevented pea protein from being replaced by whey protein during storage, enhancing their stability. Binary whey/pea proteins with sodium alginate are promising emulsifiers with potential application for liquid creamers.
... Emulsifiers are materials used in food industries as stabilizers, foams, tissue modifiers and product life enhancers (130). Commonly used types include lecithin, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polysorbate-80 (P80), polyglycerol ester (PGE), sorbitan ester (SOE), glycerol monostearate-DMG 90, poly glycerol poly ricinoleate (PGPR) and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (131). Clinical studies have shown that emulsifiers affect the immune system, including dysbiosis, movement of bacteria through the mucosal barrier and increased pro-inflammatory potentials that make people vulnerable to diseases such as Covid-19 (132). ...
Article
Due to the lack of definite therapy and prevention protocols for Covid-19, nutrition and exercise are considered preventative measures in dealing with the epidemic. Healthy diets, dietary supplements and exercises boost the immune system. These factors can be effective in improving functions of the immune system. The current study investigated immune-enhancing characteristics of exercises, dietary supplements (proteins, vitamins, minerals, oils, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), probiotics, ginseng, antioxidants and Chlorella vulgaris) and food additives (titanium dioxide, sodium nitrite, monosodium glutamate, tartrazine, sweeteners and emulsifiers). The current study investigated functions of dietary supplements and exercises in strengthening the immune system, as well as assessing roles of food additives in illness prevention, particularly Covid-19, when combined with a balanced nutrition strategy. Light exercises, healthy lifestyles and nutritional supplements have been shown to boost the immune system.
... Additives are widely used in the food industry to improve the nutritional profile, safety, shelf life, and aesthetic appeal of foods (Cox, Sandall, Smith, Rossi, & Whelan, 2020). Food additives may be assembled from natural or chemically-synthesized components . ...
Article
Background: Nanomaterials are being explored in the food and agricultural industries for their potential applications in improving the safety, quality, health, and sustainability of the food supply. Numerous kinds of food-grade substances have been converted into nanoenabled food additives (such as colorants, flavors, antimicrobials, vitamins, and nutraceuticals) or advanced packaging materials (such as smart or active coatings/films). Scope and approach: For these applications, it is important to understand how nanomaterials interact with other components in foods. Moreover, it is important to ensure that these nanomaterials do not have any unintended adverse health consequences, which also depends on an appreciation of their interactions with other food ingredients. In particular, nanomaterials can undergo various transformations in their properties in food matrices and the human gut that can alter their properties and behavior. Key findings and conclusions: The aggregation state, interfacial composition, and electrical charge of nanoparticles may change when they interact with macronutrients or micronutrients in foods, which may then alter their gastrointestinal fate. This article reviews the interactions of food-grade nanomaterials (especially inorganic ones) with proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and phytochemicals in foods and their potential impacts on their functionality and behavior.
Article
Over the past few decades, food scientists have investigated a wide range of emulsifiers to manufacture stable and safe emulsion-based food products. More recently, the development of emulsifiers with multi-functionality, which is the ability to have more than two functions, has been considered as a promising strategy for resolving rancidification and microbial contamination in emulsions. Erythorbyl fatty acid esters (EFEs) synthesized by enzymatic esterification of hydrophilic erythorbic acid and hydrophobic fatty acid have been proposed as multi-functional emulsifiers since they simultaneously exhibit amphiphilic, antioxidative, and antibacterial properties in both aqueous and emulsion systems. This review provides current knowledge about EFEs in terms of enzymatic synthesis and multi-functionality. All processes for synthesizing and identifying EFEs are discussed. Each functionality of EFEs and the proposed mechanism are described with analytical methodologies and experimental details. It would provide valuable insights into the development and application of a multi-functional emulsifier in food emulsion chemistry.
Article
The aim of this study is to optimize the esterification of nanofibers with caproyl/lauroyl chlorides at different substitution degrees' (DS) and to investigate the usage of nanofiber derivatives in model emulsions. First, cellulosic material was obtained and milled into nanofibers using a micro‐fluidizer. Then, these nanofibers were esterified with caproyl/lauroyl chlorides in a solvent of DMAc/LiCl with DMAP as an acid scavenger. The esterification of nanofibers with caproyl/lauroyl chlorides was optimized for fatty acid chloride mole and reaction time. Esterification reactions were carried out at 80°C with various molar ratios of acyl chlorides (3–15 moles) versus anhydroglucose unit of nanofibers and for various time durations (30–360 min). The hydrophobic derivatives with DS in the range of 0.34–2.77 were successfully obtained. Using the data obtained as a result of the optimization, nanofiber‐fatty acid esters with different DS (0.50–2.75) were produced and characterized. Analyzes showed that the esterification process was successful and as the degree of esterification increased, the crystallinity index and thermal stability of the derivatives decreased. Then, the nanofiber‐caproate/laurate esters with different DS were used as emulsifier (0.5 wt%) in an oil‐in‐water model emulsion containing 25 wt% oil and the emulsions were analyzed. The nanofiber caproate/laurate esters with a DS of 0.50–1.25 were suitable for o/w emulsions, while samples with a DS of 2.00 and above were not found suitable. Emulsions prepared by using nanofiber derivatives with 1.25 DS had higher G ′ and G ″ and viscosity values and lower droplet sizes than those of other group.
Article
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Repairing genetic defects using exogenous DNA is a major challenge the science is currently facing. This requires the design of vectors that can effectively encapsulate, protect and target nucleic acids to specific cells safely and precisely. Here we have designed silica-based physiologically responsive particles to encapsulate, store, and transfer DNA. Unlike existing vectors (e.g., viral or lipidic particles), these DNA@SiO 2 systems are very stable at room temperature. We also demonstrate how they protect the encapsulated DNA from exposure to different biological and physicochemical stresses, including DNase, denaturation temperatures (>100 C), or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, upon cellular uptake , these vectors dissolve safely unpacking the DNA and transfecting the cells. The versatility of the design is such that it can encapsulate genes without gene/size restrictions, in single or multiple layers of silica, so different genes can be expressed sequentially. This allows the time-controlled transcription of several genes, mimicking viral gene expression cascades, or even "fine-tun-ing" gene expression in transfected cells on demand. In addition, the method is easily scalable, reproducible , and inexpensive, enabling large-scale production and batch-quality testing, all of which are important for the personalized therapeutics industry. The high stability of these DNA vectors allows for easy and low-cost transport from the point of production to virtually any destination, making them unique as gene delivery tools.
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Repairing genetic defects using exogenous DNA is a major challenge the science is currently facing. This requires the design of vectors that can effectively encapsulate, protect and target nucleic acids to specific cells safely and precisely. Here we have designed silica-based physiologically responsive particles to encapsulate, store, and transfer DNA. Unlike existing vectors (e.g., viral or lipidic particles), these DNA@SiO2 systems are very stable at room temperature. We also demonstrate how they protect the encapsulated DNA from exposure to different biological and physicochemical stresses, including DNase, denaturation temperatures (>100 °C), or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, upon cellular uptake, these vectors dissolve safely unpacking the DNA and transfecting the cells.The versatility of the design is such that it can encapsulate genes without gene/size restrictions, in single or multiple layers of silica, so different genes can be expressed sequentially. This allows the time-controlled transcription of several genes, mimicking viral gene expression cascades, or even “fine-tuning” gene expression in transfected cells on demand. In addition, the method is easily scalable, reproducible, and inexpensive, enabling large-scale production and batch-quality testing, all of which are important for the personalized therapeutics industry. The high stability of these DNA vectors allows for easy and low-cost transport from the point of production to virtually any destination, making them unique as gene delivery tools.
Chapter
Food additives (FAs) are defined as substances not normally found in foods. These compounds have been used to improve the nutritional value, flavor, and texture of foods, or to preserve them. There is a wide list based on natural (NFAs) and synthetic (SFAs) food additives used as preservatives. Nowadays, the search for natural alternatives has been stimulated by a change in the food consumption habits of consumers. Concretely, more people prefer foods free from SFAs, which has led to an increase in the consumer demand for healthier food products with a clean label over the last few years. Based on the literature, SFAs can be associated with the development of human diseases, and therefore NFAs have promising food applications. However, most NFAs are highly unstable when applied to foods, and could alter food taste and smell. This chapter deals with the importance of using FAs and provides a comprehensive review of the additive classification, focusing on the use of NFAs versus SFAs and their adverse reactions in humans.
Chapter
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic relapsing and remitting diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and are associated with significant morbidity. Symptoms may result from gastrointestinal inflammation as well as the commonly coexistent extra-intestinal manifestations. Current standard of care relies on immune suppression to control active disease and maintain remission, and while effective, this comes at the cost of side effects and the risk of adverse events. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to be caused by the interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and intestinal microflora, resulting in an abnormal mucosal immune response and a compromised gut epithelial barrier function. One of those environmental factors is diet. In this article we will explore the associations between diet and nutrition and the risk of developing IBD, the influence diet has on disease activity, common nutritional deficiencies and how these can be identified and managed. Lastly, proposed methods to manipulate the diet to manage active disease are discussed.
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In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) blends reinforced by cellulose microfibrils (MFC) were produced from the molten state through co-rotational twin-screw extrusion. A major technological challenge for the production of polymer blends with nanocelluloses is their pre-processing drying without irreversible MFC agglomeration. Therefore, it was proposed a mixing methodology of MFC with a low molecular weight copolymer, in which the copolymer coats the surface of the MFC, preventing agglomeration during the oven-drying process. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the coating of MFC by the copolymer occurs due to hydrogen bonding between the terminal copolymer hydroxyls with the hydroxyls on the MFC surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that part of the copolymer coats the MFC and part migrates to the interfacial region between the PCL droplet and with PLA matrix. For the PLA/PCL blends preparation, the influence of the extrusion order, screw rotation speed at 50, 100, and 150 rpm, MFC content at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 w%, and copolymer content of 60:40 and 40:60 w% in the MFC-copolymer mixture was investigated on morphology and tensile and unnotched Izod mechanical properties of the blends. The blends produced in joint components extrusion with screw rotation at 150 rpm, 2.5 w% of MFC and MFC-copolymer mixture in the 40:60 w% proportion showed deformation at break of 42 %, the maximum tensile strength of 46 MPa and Izod impact strength of 57 J.m-1, while the PLA/PCL blend without reinforcement presents 1.3%, 33 MPa, and 15 Jm-1, respectively. These results suggest that the copolymer that does not bound to MFC occupies the interfacial region between PCL and PLA, promoting interaction between both phases and increasing the contribution of the PCL ductile phase in the matrix. While the MFC disperses forming a support network that gives greater traction and impact resistance to the blend. The increase in these properties allows the biodegradable PLA/PCL blend reinforced by MFC to be an alternative to polymers from petrochemical sources. Aiming to generate greater value for the blend, the first in vitro biodegradation tests of the PLA/PCL/MFC blend were carried out with the fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium brasilianum and Penicillium citrinum in order to bioprospecting secondary metabolites of commercial interest produced by fungi in the presence of the polymer blend. The putative analysis of metabolites separated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and identified using the GNPS platform data bank showed that the fungi produced molecules analogous to 5-Methoxyflavone, Brasiliamide E, Methyl Orsellinate, Andrastin A, Chrysin and Roquefortine. Some molecules seem to have increased production by fungi in the presence of the blend. The reinforcement by MFC in PLA/PCL blends significantly modified their mechanical properties, and the bioprospection studies showed that there is immense commercial potential in this activity.
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Applying natural food additives extracted from plants is a sustainable development trend in the food industry. Compared with synthetic food additives, plant-based food additives have garnered considerable attention owing to their advantages such as green safety, health, and environmental protection. Therefore, the development and utilization of plant-based food additives is becoming the most active field and future direction for the development of food industry. However, there are several problems associated with large-scale production and application, and more studies are required to evaluate their potential side effects and safety level. In addition, it is necessary to adopt multiple technologies to overcome the shortcomings of natural additives and develop plant-based composite food additives and functional food additives to industrialize natural resources and maximize benefits. This review focuses on the grouping of food additives according to the scope of Food and Drug Administration, including preservation, flavoring agents, coloring agents, texturing agents, nutritional additives, and miscellaneous agents. The application, safety, and major challenges of typical natural food additives extracted from plants are discussed. In addition, it provides a theoretical basis for the development of safer and effective plant-based food additives in the future.
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Diet is a key environmental factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and, at the same time, represents one of the most promising therapies for IBD. Our daily diet often contains food additives present in numerous processed foods and even in dietary supplements. Recently, researchers and national authorities have been paying much attention to their toxicity and effects on gut microbiota and health. This review aims to gather the latest data focusing on the potential role of food additives in the pathogenesis of IBDs through gut microbiota modulation. Some artificial emulsifiers and sweeteners can induce the dysbiosis associated with an alteration of the intestinal barrier, an activation of chronic inflammation, and abnormal immune response accelerating the onset of IBD. Even if most of these results are retrieved from in vivo and in vitro studies, many artificial food additives can represent a potential hidden driver of gut chronic inflammation through gut microbiota alterations, especially in a population with IBD predisposition. In this context, pending the confirmation of these results by large human studies, it would be advisable that IBD patients avoid the consumption of processed food containing artificial food additives and follow a personalized nutritional therapy prescribed by a clinical nutritionist.
Chapter
Flavors and food additives represent over a quarter of the global food market and are usually synthesized chemically or extracted from natural sources. Although chemical synthesis tends to be cheaper, potential health risks associated with this process remain a concern. Enzymatic production of these compounds has received much attention as it offers notable advantages over the chemical processes. Although several enzymes have been reported to be effective for the biosynthesis of flavors and food additives, industrial production of these compounds using enzymes remains unpopular. Therefore, this chapter focuses on enzyme technology as a promising and commercially viable option to produce a broad range of natural flavors and food additives. Also, the applications of these compounds in food manufacturing processes are discussed.
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Food flavors are volatile compounds that impact the human sensory perception profoundly and find extensive applications in various food products. Because of their volatility and high sensitivity to pH, temperature, oxidation, and external conditions, they require adequate protection to last for a longer duration. Encapsulation plays a critical role in preserving food flavors by enhancing their thermal and oxidative stability, overcoming volatility limitations, and regulating their rapid release with improved bioavailability in food products. The current review focuses on the recent developments in food flavor encapsulation techniques, such as electrospinning/spraying, cyclodextrin inclusion complexes, coacervation, and yeast cell micro-carriers. The review also comprehensively discusses the role of encapsulants in achieving controlled flavor release, the mechanisms involved, and the mathematical modelling for flavor release. Specific well-established nanoencapsulation techniques render better encapsulation efficiency and controlled release of flavor compounds. The review examined specific emerging methods for flavor encapsulation, such as yeast cell encapsulation, which require further exploration and development. This article provides readers with up-to-date information on different encapsulation processes and coating methods used for flavor encapsulation.
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Food additives (E-numbers) are allowed in foods, but many consumers have a negative perception of them. The objective was to study the opinion of food experts about the causes and ways to reduce consumer distrust about E-numbers. Thirteen food experts from universities, research institutes, the government, food industry organisations, media, a nutrition information organisation, a consumer association and two other non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were interviewed with a semi-structured topic list, based on a model of risk perception. Interviews were transcribed, coded by an open-coding approach and analysed. Results indicated that, according to food experts, consumer distrust of E-numbers arose from negative communication by traditional media, social media and books. Food experts suggested that the information sources and the reliability of E-number information are important for consumers. Food experts also suggested reducing consumer distrust by avoiding negative label claims and making collective agreements with all parties about honest and transparent communication. According to interviewed food experts, food companies need to explain clearly and honestly why they use E-numbers in food. A nutrition information organisation and the government were often mentioned as appropriate parties to undertake action. The interviews suggested that consumers had no confidence in the food industry.
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Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient sources added to Food (ANS) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) as food additives. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) ‘not specified’ was allocated by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) for E 440i and E 440ii. Pectin and amidated pectin would not be absorbed intact, but extensively fermented by intestinal microbiota in animals and humans; products formed from pectins in the gastrointestinal tract are similar to manufactured pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS). There is no indication of genotoxicity for pectin and amidated pectin, although the available data were limited. No adverse effects were reported in a chronic toxicity study in rats at levels up to 5,000 mg pectin/kg bw per day, the highest dose tested. No treatment-related effects were observed in a dietary one-generation reproductive toxicity study with pAOS in rats at up to 6,200 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day, the highest dose tested. The Panel did not consider E 440i and E 440ii as having allergenic potential. A dose of 36 g/day (equivalent to 515 mg/kg bw per day) for 6 weeks in humans was without adverse effects. Exposure to pectins from their use as food additives ranged up to 442 mg/kg bw per day for toddlers at the 95th percentile (brand-loyal scenario). The Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the use of pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin (E 440ii) as food additives for the general population and that there is no need for a numerical ADI.
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Pickering emulsion, a kind of emulsion stabilized only by solid particles locating at oil–water interface, has been discovered a century ago, while being extensively studied in recent decades. Substituting solid particles for traditional surfactants, Pickering emulsions are more stable against coalescence and can obtain many useful properties. Besides, they are more biocompatible when solid particles employed are relatively safe in vivo. Pickering emulsions can be applied in a wide range of fields, such as biomedicine, food, fine chemical synthesis, cosmetics, and so on, by properly tuning types and properties of solid emulsifiers. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from Pickering emulsions, morphology of solid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.
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BACKGROUND: Carrageenan is a very common food additive in Western diets, but predictably causes inflammation in thousands of cell-based and animal experiments. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of carrageenan exposure on the interval to relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial was conducted to assess if patients with ulcerative colitis in remission would have a longer interval to relapse if they followed a diet with no carrageenan. All participants were instructed in the no-carrageenan diet and were randomized to either placebo capsules or carrageenan-containing capsules. The carrageenan in the capsules was less than the average daily carrageenan intake from the diet. Relapse was defined as an increase of two or more points on the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and intensification of treatment for ulcerative colitis. Participants were followed by telephone calls every two weeks until relapse or one year of participation. The occurrence of relapse and inflammatory biomarkers were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Twelve patients completed study questionnaires. Three patients who received carrageenan-containing capsules relapsed, and none of the patients who received placebo-containing capsules relapsed (p = 0.046, log-rank test). Laboratory tests showed increases in Interleukin-6 (p = 0.02, paired t-test, two-tailed) and fecal calprotectin (p = 0.06; paired t-test, two-tailed) between the beginning and the end of study participation in the carrageenan-exposed group, but not in the placebo-group. CONCLUSION: Carrageenan intake contributed to earlier relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. Restriction of dietary carrageenan may benefit patients with ulcerative colitis.
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Dietary exposure assessment using food consumption data and ingredient use level is essential for assessing safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared to safe intake levels, such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect-level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota. Because no published dietary exposure estimates for commonly used emulsifiers exist for the United States population, the current investigation focused on the estimation of dietary exposure to seven emulsifiers: CMC, P80, lecithin, mono- and diglycerides (MDG), stearoyl lactylates, sucrose esters, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Using maximum use levels obtained from publicly available sources, dietary exposures to these emulsifiers were estimated for the United States population (aged 2 years and older) for two time periods (1999-2002 and 2003-2010) using one- and two-day food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 10-14 day food consumption data from NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends-Nutrient Intake Database. Our analyses indicated that among the emulsifiers assessed, lecithin and MDG have the highest mean exposures at ~60 and ~80 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, whereas the exposure to CMC is one-half to one-third of lecithin or MDG; and the exposure to P80 is approximately one-half of CMC. The review of available safety information such as ADIs established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, in light of our updated dietary exposure estimates for these seven emulsifiers, did not raise safety concerns at the current specified levels of use. Additionally, by examining two time periods (1999-2002) and (2003-2010), it was concluded that there is no evidence that exposure levels to emulsifiers have substantially increased.
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The Scientific Committee (SC) reconfirms that the benchmark dose (BMD) approach is a scientifically more advanced method compared to the NOAEL approach for deriving a Reference Point (RP). Most of the modifications made to the SC guidance of 2009 concern the section providing guidance on how to apply the BMD approach. Model averaging is recommended as the preferred method for calculating the BMD confidence interval, while acknowledging that the respective tools are still under development and may not be easily accessible to all. Therefore, selecting or rejecting models is still considered as a suboptimal alternative. The set of default models to be used for BMD analysis has been reviewed, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) has been introduced instead of the log-likelihood to characterise the goodness of fit of different mathematical models to a dose–response data set. A flowchart has also been inserted in this update to guide the reader step-by-step when performing a BMD analysis, as well as a chapter on the distributional part of dose–response models and a template for reporting a BMD analysis in a complete and transparent manner. Finally, it is recommended to always report the BMD confidence interval rather than the value of the BMD. The lower bound (BMDL) is needed as a potential RP, and the upper bound (BMDU) is needed for establishing the BMDU/BMDL per ratio reflecting the uncertainty in the BMD estimate. This updated guidance does not call for a general re-evaluation of previous assessments where the NOAEL approach or the BMD approach as described in the 2009 SC guidance was used, in particular when the exposure is clearly smaller (e.g. more than one order of magnitude) than the health-based guidance value. Finally, the SC firmly reiterates to reconsider test guidelines given the expected wide application of the BMD approach.
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The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host-microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects. Moreover, they suggest that the broad use of emulsifying agents might be contributing to an increased societal incidence of obesity/metabolic syndrome and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
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Food additives and substances considered “generally recognized as safe” must not be allowed in food unless there is a reasonable certainty in the minds of competent scientists that the substance is not harmful under the intended conditions of use. Scientists determine safety by ensuring that the expected exposure is less than the acceptable daily intake. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides guidance documents to assist safety assessors in this analysis. A November 2011 workshop sponsored by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Institute of Food Technologists, and the journal Nature reviewed the agency's exposure assessment approaches. More than 70 experts from government (including FDA), industry, academia, and public interest organizations examined the principles underlying dietary exposure assessments for substances added to human food, and responded to questions about current methods. FDA's approach was seen as serving the agency reasonably well, but participants identified opportunities for improvement. Although reaching a consensus was not a goal, general agreements emerged that FDA should develop a science-based framework to prioritize and reassess prior safety decisions, and conduct more extensive postmarket monitoring. Participants discussed the possibility of harmonizing different approaches to assess dietary exposure. They generally agreed that collaboration, communication, and exchanging scientific information between agencies and stakeholders would help assessors use the most current information to make better decisions. Participants identified data gaps and opportunities to fill the gaps using new tools and technologies. Participants generally agreed on the need to consider all dietary sources in a cumulative dietary exposure assessment.
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The aim of this study was to assess the dietary exposure of 13 priority additives in four European countries (France, Italy, the UK and Ireland) using the Flavourings, Additives and Contact Materials Exposure Task (FACET) software. The studied additives were benzoates (E210-213), nitrites (E249-250) and sulphites (E220-228), butylated hydroxytoluene (E321), polysorbates (E432-436), sucroses esters and sucroglycerides (E473-474), polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475), stearoyl-lactylates (E481-482), sorbitan esters (E493-494 and E491-495), phosphates (E338-343/E450-452), aspartame (E951) and acesulfame (E950). A conservative approach (based on individual consumption data combined with maximum permitted levels (Tier 2)) was compared with more refined estimates (using a fitted distribution of concentrations based on data provided by the food industry (Tier 3)). These calculations demonstrated that the estimated intake is below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nine of the studied additives. However, there was a potential theoretical exceedance of the ADI observed for four additives at Tier 3 for high consumers (97.5th percentile) among children: E220-228 in the UK and Ireland, E432-436 and E481-482 in Ireland, Italy and the UK, and E493-494 in all countries. The mean intake of E493-494 could potentially exceed the ADI for one age group of children (aged 1-4 years) in the UK. For adults, high consumers only in all countries had a potential intake higher than the ADI for E493-494 at Tier 3 (an additive mainly found in bakery wares). All other additives examined had an intake below the ADI. Further refined exposure assessments may be warranted to provide a more in-depth investigation for those additives that exceeded the ADIs in this paper. This refinement may be undertaken by the introduction of additive occurrence data, which take into account the actual presence of these additives in the different food groups.
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Carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide that is widely used as a food additive, induces inflammatory responses in animal models and human cells. The carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascades involve toll-like receptor (TLR)4- and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL)10-dependent activation of NF-κB, leading to increased IL-8 production. Translocations involving BCL10 in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB. This report presents a mechanism by which carrageenan exposure leads to prolonged activation of both BCL10 and NF-κB in human colonic epithelial cells. Study findings demonstrate that nuclear RelA and RelB bind to an NF-κB binding motif in the BCL10 promoter in human colonic epithelial NCM460 and HT-29 cells. In vitro oligonucleotide binding assay, non-radioactive gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicate binding of RelA and RelB to the BCL10 promoter. Prolonged inflammation follows activation of the BCL10-NFκB inflammatory loop in response to carrageenan, shown by increased BCL10, RelA, and IL-8 for 36 to 48h and increased RelB for 24h following withdrawal of carrageenan after 12h. In contrast, exposure to dextran sulfate sodium, which does not cause inflammation through TLR4 and BCL10 in the colonic epithelial cells, did not provoke prolonged activation of inflammation. The carrageenan-enhanced BCL10 promoter activity was blocked by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and MB-132 which inhibit NF-κB activation. These results indicate that NF-κB binding to the BCL10 promoter can lead to prolonged activation of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascade by a transcriptional mechanism involving an NF-κB-BCL10 loop.
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Crohn's disease is common in developed nations where the typical diet is low in fibre and high in processed food. Primary lesions overlie Peyer's patches and colonic lymphoid follicles where bacterial invasion through M-cells occurs. We have assessed the effect of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) and food emulsifiers on translocation of Escherichia coli across M-cells. To assess effects of soluble plant fibres and food emulsifiers on translocation of mucosa-associated E coli isolates from Crohn's disease patients and from non-Crohn's controls, we used M-cell monolayers, generated by co-culture of Caco2-cl1 and Raji B cells, and human Peyer's patches mounted in Ussing chambers. E coli translocation increased across M-cells compared to parent Caco2-cl1 monocultures; 15.8-fold (IQR 6.2-32.0) for Crohn's disease E coli (N=8) and 6.7-fold (IQR 3.7-21.0) for control isolates (N=5). Electron microscopy confirmed E coli within M-cells. Plantain and broccoli NSP markedly reduced E coli translocation across M-cells at 5 mg/ml (range 45.3-82.6% inhibition, p<0.01); apple and leek NSP had no significant effect. Polysorbate-80, 0.01% vol/vol, increased E coli translocation through Caco2-cl1 monolayers 59-fold (p<0.05) and, at higher concentrations, increased translocation across M-cells. Similarly, E coli translocation across human Peyer's patches was reduced 45±7% by soluble plantain NSP (5 mg/ml) and increased 2-fold by polysorbate-80 (0.1% vol/vol). Translocation of E coli across M-cells is reduced by soluble plant fibres, particularly plantain and broccoli, but increased by the emulsifier Polysorbate-80. These effects occur at relevant concentrations and may contribute to the impact of dietary factors on Crohn's disease pathogenesis.
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Carrageenan is a high molecular weight sulfated polygalactan used to improve the texture of commercial food products. Its use increased markedly during the last half century, although carrageenan is known to induce inflammation in rheumatological models and in intestinal models of colitis. We performed studies to determine its direct effects on human intestinal cells, including normal human intestinal epithelial cells from colonic surgeries, the normal intestinal epithelial cell line NCM460, and normal rat ileal epithelial cells. Cells were treated with high molecular weight lambda-carrageenan at a concentration of 1 mug/ml for 1-96 h. IL-8, IL-8 promoter activity, total and nuclear NF-kappaB, IkappaBalpha, phospho-IkappaBalpha, and Bcl10 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, ELISA, and cDNA microarray. Increased Bcl10, nuclear and cytoplasmic NF-kappaB, IL-8 promoter activation, and IL-8 secretion were detected following carrageenan exposure. Knockdown of Bcl10 by siRNA markedly reduced the increase in IL-8 that followed carrageenan exposure in the NCM460 cells. These results show, for the first time, that exposure of human intestinal epithelial cells to carrageenan triggers a distinct inflammatory pathway via activation of Bcl10 with NF-kappaB activation and upregulation of IL-8 secretion. Since Bcl10 contains a caspase-recruitment domain, similar to that found in NOD2/CARD15 and associated with genetic predisposition to Crohn's disease, the study findings may represent a link between genetic and environmental etiologies of inflammatory bowel disease. Because of the high use of carrageenan as a food additive in the diet, the findings may have clinical significance.
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The sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan (CGN) induces activation of NFkappaB and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in human colonic epithelial cells through a pathway of innate immunity mediated by Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10). In this report, we identify Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the family of innate immune receptors, as the surface membrane receptor for CGN in human colonic epithelial cells. Experiments with fluorescence-tagged CGN demonstrated a marked reduction in binding of CGN to human intestinal epithelial cells and to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, following exposure to TLR4 blocking antibody (HTA-125). Binding of CGN to 10ScNCr/23 mouse macrophages, which are deficient in the genetic locus for TLR4, was absent. Additional experiments with TLR4 blocking antibody and TLR4 small interfering RNAs showed 80% reductions in CGN-induced increases in Bcl10 and IL-8. Transfection with dominant-negative MyD88 plasmid demonstrated MyD88 dependence of the CGN-TLR4-triggered increases in Bcl10 and IL-8. Therefore, these results indicate that CGN-induced inflammation in human colonocytes proceeds through a pathway of innate immunity, perhaps related to the unusual alpha-1,3-galactosidic linkage characteristic of CGN, and suggest how dietary CGN intake may contribute to human intestinal inflammation. Because CGN is a commonly used food additive in the Western diet, clarification of its effects and mechanisms of action are vital to issues of food safety.
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Ice cream is a multiphase frozen food containing ice crystals, air cells, fat globules, and partially coalesced fat globule clusters dispersed in an unfrozen serum phase (sugars, proteins, and stabilizers). This microstructure is responsible for ice cream's melting characteristics. By varying both formulation (emulsifier content and overrun) and processing conditions (dasher speed), the effects of different microstructural elements, particularly air cells and fat globule clusters, on ice cream melt‐down properties were studied. Factors that caused an increase in shear stress within the freezer, namely increasing dasher speed and overrun, caused a decrease in air cell size and an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Increasing emulsifier content, especially of polysorbate 80, caused an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Both overrun and fat destabilization influenced drip‐through rates. Ice creams with a combination of low overrun and low fat destabilization had the highest drip‐through rates. Further, the amount of remnant foam left on the screen increased with reduced drip‐through rates. These results provide a better understanding of the effects of microstructure components and their interactions on drip‐through rate. Practical Applications Manipulating operating and formulation parameters in ice cream manufacture influences the microstructure (air cells, ice crystals, and fat globule clusters). This work provides guidance on which parameters have most effect on air cell size and fat globule cluster formation. Further, the structural characteristics that reduce melt‐down rate were determined. Ice cream manufacturers will use these results to tailor their products for the desired quality attributes.
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Emulsions, i.e., the dispersion of liquid droplets in a nonmiscible liquid phase, are overwhelmingly present in food products. In such systems, both liquid phases (generally, oil and water) are separated by a narrow region, the oil-water interface. Despite the fact that this interface is very thin (in the nanometer range), it represents a large surface area and controls to a great extent the physicochemical stability of emulsions. This review provides an overview of the aspects that govern the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of interfaces in food emulsions, taking into account the complexity of such systems (presence of numerous surface-active molecules, influence of processing steps, and dynamic evolution due to chemical changes). We also review methods that have conventionally, or recently, been used to study liquid-liquid interfaces at various scales. Finally, we focus on the link between interfacial properties and the physical, chemical, and digestive stability of emulsions at different levels and point out trends to control stability via interfacial engineering. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 9 is March 25, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques, Second Edition introduces the fundamentals of emulsion science and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied to better understand and control the appearance, stability, and texture of many common and important emulsion-based foods. Revised and expanded to reflect recent developments, this second edition provides the most comprehensive and contemporary discussion of the field of food emulsions currently available. It contains practical information about the formulation, preparation, and characterization of food emulsions, as well as the fundamental knowledge needed to control and improve food emulsion properties. New features include updates of all chapters, a critical assessment of the major functional ingredients used in food emulsions, and reviews of recent advances in characterizing emulsion properties.
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Consumers in industrialized countries are nowadays much more interested in information about the production methods and components of the food products that they eat, than they had been 50 years ago. Some production methods are perceived as less “natural” (i.e. conventional agriculture) while some food components are seen as “unhealthy” and “unfamiliar” (i.e. artificial additives). This phenomenon, often referred to as the “clean label” trend, has driven the food industry to communicate whether a certain ingredient or additive is not present or if the food has been produced using a more “natural” production method (i.e. organic agriculture). However, so far there is no common and objective definition of clean label. This review paper aims to fill the gap via three main objectives, which are to a) develop and suggest a definition that integrates various understandings of clean label into one single definition, b) identify the factors that drive consumers' choices through a review of recent studies on consumer perception of various food categories understood as clean label with the focus on organic, natural and ‘free from’ artificial additives/ingredients food products and c) discuss implications of the consumer demand for clean label food products for food manufacturers as well as policy makers. We suggest to define clean label, both in a broad sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by assumption and through inference looking at the front-of-pack label and in a strict sense, where consumers evaluate the cleanliness of product by inspection and through inference looking at the back-of-pack label. Results show that while ‘health’ is a major consumer motive, a broad diversity of drivers influence the clean label trend with particular relevance of intrinsic or extrinsic product characteristics and socio-cultural factors. However, ‘free from’ artificial additives/ingredients food products tend to differ from organic and natural products. Food manufacturers should take the diversity of these drivers into account in developing new products and communication about the latter. For policy makers, it is important to work towards a more homogenous understanding and application of the term of clean label and identify a uniform definition or regulation for ‘free from’ artificial additives/ingredients food products, as well as work towards decreasing consumer misconceptions. Finally, multiple future research avenues are discussed.
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Scope: The objective of this study was to interrogate two mechanisms by which commercial Carrageenans (E407) (CGN) may adversely affect human health: [i] Through modification of gastric proteolysis and [ii] Through affecting gut epithelial structure and function. Methods and results: Three commercial CGN samples with distinct zeta-potentials (stable at the pH range of 3-7 and varied with physiological levels of CaCl2 ) were mixed with milk, soy or egg protein isolates, then subjected to a semi-dynamic in vitro digestion model and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. This revealed varying levels of interference with gastric digestive proteolysis and a significant decrease in pepsin activity. Further, a Caco-2 cell model was used to explore various effects of physiologically digested CGN (pdCGN) on various epithelial cell functions and characteristics. Samples of pdCGN (0.005-0.5 mg/mL) affected the epithelial barrier function, including redistribution of the tight-junction protein Zonula Occludens (Zo)-1, changes in cellular F-actin architecture and increased monolayer permeability to the transfer of macromolecules. Moreover, pdCGN induced elevation in the levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 receptor CXCR1. Conclusion: This work raises the possibility that CGN may reduce protein and peptide bioaccessibility, disrupt normal epithelial function, promote intestinal inflammation and consequently compromise consumer health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Ice Cream, 7th Edition focuses on the science and technology of frozen dessert production and quality. It explores the entire scope of the ice cream and frozen dessert industry, from the chemical, physical, engineering and biological principles of the production process to the distribution of the finished product. It is intended for industry personnel from large to small scale processors and suppliers to the industry and for teachers and students in dairy or food science or related disciplines. While it is technical in scope, it also covers much practical knowledge useful to anyone with an interest in frozen dessert production. World-wide production and consumption data, global regulations and, as appropriate, both SI and US units are provided, so as to ensure its relevance to the global frozen dessert industry. This edition has been completely revised from the previous edition, updating technical information on ingredients and equipment and providing the latest research results. Two new chapters on ice cream structure and shelf-life have been added, and much material has been rearranged to improve its presentation. Outstanding in its breadth, depth and coherence, Ice Cream, 7th Edition continues its long tradition as the definitive and authoritative resource for ice cream and frozen dessert producers. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights are reserved.
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The interactions between a hydrophobic emulsifier (polyglycerol polyricinoleate) and pectin at the oil–water interface were studied using drop shape tensiometry, and the results were related to the emulsifying behavior of these ingredients in water-in-oil emulsions. High methoxyl pectin (HMP) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) were used as model polysaccharides, because of their differences in interfacial activity. Pectins were added to the aqueous phase in the absence and presence of PGPR in the oil phase. SBP was shown to further decrease the interfacial tension when added simultaneously with PGPR. In the presence of PGPR, SBP or HMP caused the formation of a weakly elastic interfacial film. Water-in-oil emulsions containing PGPR (2–6%) showed improved stability when containing SBP or HMP (0.1%), compared to water alone. This work highlights the potential for reducing the amount of PGPR added to water-in-oil emulsions by creating interacting films with polysaccharides at the oil–water interface.
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Colloids comprise a very broad class of materials. Their basic structure consists of a dispersion of one phase into another one, in which the dispersed phase possesses a typical length scale ranging from a fewmolecular sizes up to several microns. Some colloids are thermodynamically stable and generally form spontaneously, whereas others are metastable, requiring energy for preparation and specific properties to persist. Metastable colloids are obtained by two main distinct routes: one is nucleation and growth, including precipitation, and the other is fragmentation. In both cases, as a consequence of the intrinsic off-equilibrium nature of this class of colloids, specific surface properties are required to prevent recombination. Surfaceactive species are generally employed to stabilize freshly formed fragments or growing nuclei, as they are expected to provide sufficient colloidal repulsive forces.
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Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip‐through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip‐through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum TM descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip‐through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip‐through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high‐fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip‐through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties.
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The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).