ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Different international organizations and initiatives highlight the contribution of the traditional sporting games (TSGs) to favor the diversity of knowledge, values, and attitudes necessary for today’s society. TSG such as Marro trigger multimodal learning contexts (driving conducts, interpersonal and organic relationships), with great interest in the educational and sports initiation field. The purpose of two studies presented in this manuscript was to examine the 360° multimodal strategic intervention (decisional, relational, and organic) of two teams faced in a Marro game. For this study, a quasi-experimental design was used composed by a single test applied to two non-equivalent teams. Mixed methods were used with an observational methodology in Quadrant III: nomothetic, punctual, and multidimensional. Fourteen university students participated [mean (M) = 20.49, standard deviation (SD) = 2.18]. Three internal logic variables were studied: outcome, role, and subrole; and three variables referred to the dimensions of motor conduct: relationship, risk in the decision, and physical effort. A mixed ad hoc registration system was designed with acceptable margins of data quality. For Study 1, cross-tabulations and classification trees were applied, while for Study 2 strategic T-patterns were identified. The relevance of the scoreboard (p < 0.001; Effect Size = 0.386) and the realization of the role (p < 0.001; ES = 0.091) for the study of multimodal strategic chains in the Marro game were confirmed. The detection of regularities in specific interaction (Hunters against Hares) by Theme (p < 0.005) allowed for interpretation of the process of strategic conducts of both teams during the game. Knowing the strategic chains of playful coexistence among equals through a multimodal range of variables and approaches has revealed an unusual dynamic picture. The study provides scientific evidence for the physical education teacher on the dynamics of the game of Marro. The pedagogical application of these contributions must be made according to curricular interests.
Content may be subject to copyright.
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 1
published: 07 July 2020
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01384
Edited by:
Rubén Maneiro,
Pontifical University of Salamanca,
Reviewed by:
Antonio Hernández-Mendo,
University of Málaga, Spain
Michael Brill,
Julius Maximilian University
of Würzburg, Germany
Miguel Pic
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Movement Science and Sport
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Psychology
Received: 16 December 2019
Accepted: 25 May 2020
Published: 07 July 2020
Lavega-Burgués P,
Luchoro-Parrilla RA, Serna J,
Salas-Santandreu C, Aires-Araujo P,
Rodríguez-Arregi R,
Muñoz-Arroyave V, Ensenyat A,
Damian-Silva S, Machado L, Prat Q,
Sáez de Ocáriz U, Rillo-Albert A,
Martín-Martínez D and Pic M (2020)
Enhancing Multimodal Learning
Through Traditional Sporting Games:
Marro360. Front. Psychol. 11:1384.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01384
Enhancing Multimodal Learning
Through Traditional Sporting Games:
Pere Lavega-Burgués1, Rafael A. Luchoro-Parrilla1, Jorge Serna1,
Cristòfol Salas-Santandreu1, Pablo Aires-Araujo1, Rosa Rodríguez-Arregi1,
Verónica Muñoz-Arroyave1, Assumpta Ensenyat2, Sabrine Damian-Silva1,
Leonardo Machado2, Queralt Prat1, Unai Sáez de Ocáriz3, Aaron Rillo-Albert3,
David Martín-Martínez1and Miguel Pic4*
1Motor Action Research Group (GIAM), INDEST, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC), University
of Lleida, Lleida, Spain, 2Complex System Research Group, National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC),
University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain, 3Motor Action Research Group (GIAM), National Institute of Physical Education
of Catalonia (INEFC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 4Motor Action Research Group (GIAM), Institute of Sport,
Tourism, and Service, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia
Different international organizations and initiatives highlight the contribution of the
traditional sporting games (TSGs) to favor the diversity of knowledge, values, and
attitudes necessary for today’s society. TSG such as Marro trigger multimodal learning
contexts (driving conducts, interpersonal and organic relationships), with great interest
in the educational and sports initiation field. The purpose of two studies presented in
this manuscript was to examine the 360multimodal strategic intervention (decisional,
relational, and organic) of two teams faced in a Marro game. For this study, a quasi-
experimental design was used composed by a single test applied to two non-equivalent
teams. Mixed methods were used with an observational methodology in Quadrant III:
nomothetic, punctual, and multidimensional. Fourteen university students participated
[mean (M) = 20.49, standard deviation (SD) = 2.18]. Three internal logic variables were
studied: outcome, role, and subrole; and three variables referred to the dimensions
of motor conduct: relationship, risk in the decision, and physical effort. A mixed
ad hoc registration system was designed with acceptable margins of data quality.
For Study 1, cross-tabulations and classification trees were applied, while for Study 2
strategic T-patterns were identified. The relevance of the scoreboard (p<0.001; Effect
Size = 0.386) and the realization of the role (p<0.001; ES = 0.091) for the study
of multimodal strategic chains in the Marro game were confirmed. The detection of
regularities in specific interaction (Hunters against Hares) by Theme (p<0.005) allowed
for interpretation of the process of strategic conducts of both teams during the game.
Knowing the strategic chains of playful coexistence among equals through a multimodal
range of variables and approaches has revealed an unusual dynamic picture. The study
provides scientific evidence for the physical education teacher on the dynamics of the
game of Marro. The pedagogical application of these contributions must be made
according to curricular interests.
Keywords: observational methodology, physical education, T-pattern analysis, motor conduct, motor praxiology,
decision-making, motor interactions, physical effort
Frontiers in Psychology | 1July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 2
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
According to the Kazan action plan (UNESCO, 2017), TSGs are
a fundamental intervention area for the acquisition of basic life
skills; cognitive, social, and emotional skills; values; and attitudes
that define socially responsible citizens. In addition, TSG are
also important facilitators for sustainable development, inclusive
education of cultural diversity, and peace.
The TSG testify to the local culture that has been transmitted
over time, and their originality lies in the fact that they
are social manifestations, which are expressed through motor
action: body language. These are authentic cultural showcases
that contain values and distinctive factors of their society;
hence, UNESCO recognizes TSG as intangible cultural heritage
(Parlebas, 2001).
Despite this, the TSGs have an insufficient presence in the
university curricula and in the physical education classes, when
compared to Olympic sports. Scientific evidences confirm the
magnificent contribution of TSG to educate in values as necessary
as respect, equality, peaceful coexistence, sustainability, diversity,
and mutual help (Lavega et al., 2016).
The TSGs are based on a democratic pact, on a social
contract (Rousseau, 1973;Parlebas, 2001). This is the first social
lesson they give. In order to play a TSG, all participants
should respect the rights and prohibitions established
by rules. The observation of the application of the rules
affirms that each game has an internal logic or identity
card that tests its participants through different ways of
relating to other participants, space, materials, and time
(Parlebas, 2017a).
There is a large repertoire of TSG in which participants must
interact with their partners and adversaries. These sociomotor
games require the actors to have a constant dialogue with
other people, whether they are members of the same team
or rivals. Through these games, participants learn to enjoy
the pleasure of meeting others (Lavega et al., 2014b;Muñoz
et al., 2017). From the approach of social psychology, personal
connections and group dynamics have also been studied
(Graupensperger et al., 2019). The same sign of valence (Heider,
1946) used in TSG, guides the relationships of solidarity
(positive valence) or social conflict (negative valence) (Böhm
et al., 2018) within a given society. Although it should be
noted that the conflict prism from TSG is an abstraction of a
different nature, of great importance to act in the education
of values (Lee, 1988;Bredemeier, 1991;Gibbons et al., 1995;
Hernández-Mendo and Planchuelo-Medina, 2012).
The TSGs, like sports, are motor situations that have a system
of rules and establish a competition between the participants.
However, in the TSG, there is no presence of an institution
(national or international federation). It is the players themselves
who agree on the rules to be followed.
Under these conditions, each TSG has an internal logic.
That is, it activates a different motor and social adventure,
associated with original and varied rules according to the
time and geography in which they are played. Therefore, they
constitute an exuberant playful diversity (Parlebas, 2001) useful
for physical education.
The learning caused by TSG is aimed at acquiring the
motor competence that offers testimony through motor conducts
of knowing, knowing how to do, knowing how to be, and
knowing how to act (Parlebas, 2017a). That is, one learns
to agree, to cooperate, and to respect others through motor
action. For this reason, participants find themselves in real,
not imaginary, scenarios of contextual learning that allow the
different dimensions of their personality to be put into action.
It is about multimodal learning contexts (Ward et al., 2017).
Within each motor action (a pass, a displacement, a jump) can be
found a physical effort (organic dimension), decision (cognitive
dimension), emotion (affective dimension), and communication
(relational dimension).
For each person, this multimodal unitary intervention (which
we could call 360) is different. These are motor conducts
in which the external meaning (the observable part of motor
execution) and the internal meaning that the person gives to his
motor intervention are linked (Parlebas, 2001).
The research by Brasó and Torrebadella (2017) indicates
that Marro is a game with possible antecedents in ancient
Greece, known in many European countries with different
denominations: Barres or Le jour e la nuit in France, Prisoner’s
Bars or Prisoner’s Base in England, Giorno and notte, Paladini,
Barrierre, or Barre in Italy, Tag und nacht or Das Mattmachen
in Prussia and Germany, and Marro, Regate, Hurto del cuerpo,
Rescat, or Riscat in Spain. These authors affirm that throughout
history, this game has been practiced by people of different ages
and social classes. It reached its full popularity in the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries among young people in rural and school
contexts. Its incorporation into the school is very clear from the
seventeenth century. Later, in the nineteenth century, this game,
same as other TSGs, followed a process of pedagogization and
school institutionalization.
Marro Game Rules
Although it can be played in different ways, in this case, two
teams with the same number of players, placed in a protected
area (Home) behind a line at one end of a rectangular field, face
each other. Each player who leaves Home may chase and capture
(as a Hunter) all opposing players (playing as Hares) who have
left before him/her. In these circumstances, a player can play
the role of Hunter before his/her Hares. However, they should
know that if an adversary leaves his/her Home after him/her, the
latter will have “Marro” on him/her and will become a Hunter,
so that he/she will become a Hare. In that case, the person must
decide whether to continue chasing any of his/her Hares or flee
from his/her Hunter.
When a player catches a Hare, he/she takes it to the Prisoner
area, on a side 1.5 m away where it will be placed forming a
chain (holding hands) with the rest of his/her team’s Prisoners.
If a player away from Home (Hunter or Hare) manages to touch
a Prisoner of the chain, all those who are forming the chain are
free, although they can be captured again by any adversary before
returning Home. In some ways of playing, the team that first
captures all opponents or the team that, after a game time (e.g.,
8 min), has the highest number of captured Prisoners from the
opposing team wins.
Frontiers in Psychology | 2July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 3
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
The Internal Logic of Marro Encourages
Decision Motor Conducts
While knowing the code of rules of the game is necessary,
it is not enough to reveal the regularities that the
Marro game contains. Although each player makes their
own decisions, there is an underlying order that is the
same for all actors, regardless of their age, gender, or
cultural background.
The theory of motor action or motor praxiology
(Parlebas, 2005) has universal or operational models that
represent the basic structures (Levi-Strauss, 1963) of the
operation of a game. There are seven universals that reveal the
underlying order that contains the internal logic of any game.
To study decision-making, two key universals are identified:
the network of changes of sociomotor roles and the network of
changes of sociomotor subroles.
The Network of Changes of Sociomotor Roles
Through this model the importance of appropriate decision-
making in the game of Marro could be identified. A role
corresponds to the potential motor conducts referred to as the
limitations, rights, and prohibitions prescribed for one or more
players by the rules of the game (Parlebas, 2001). In the Marro,
there are three roles: Home (being in the protected area), Field
Player (alive), and Prisoner.
Unlike team sports, players’ decisions are conditioned by
an excellent management of the relationship with time, since
the “moment” of leaving creates the possibility of having
Marro (being a Hunter) or receiving Marro (being a Hare)
over rivals. In addition, it may be that a player is potentially
a Hunter (for a rival Hare) and a Hare (for a rival
Hunter who has left afterward) at the same time. In these
circumstances, players will decide what role they will play in
each game sequence.
The systematic observation of the game has allowed us to
identify three strategic roles associated with the role of a live
Hunter: player who has Marro on opponents who have
left “before” Home.
Hare: player who has left Home “before” one
or more opponents.
Neutral: player whose decisions do not have an intention
directed to the other participants.
Through observation, it also identifies another strategic
role in situations of disagreement:
– In Conflict: when two or more players stop playing to
discuss any disagreement during any sequence of actions
they have shared.
The dynamism of the game is associated with the transition
from one role to another, depending on the choices each player
makes. Representation based on graph theory (Berge, 1958)
identifies roles through points and role changes through lines.
Loops or lines on the same role show that given a possible
change from one role to another, some players may remain
in that same role.
The Network of Changes of Sociomotor Subroles
Each role contains different subroles considered as the minimum
unit of action loaded with strategic significance.
The internal logic predetermines the possible changes between
subroles allowing each player, according to their strategy, to
make different decisions corresponding to the transition between
different subroles. This, in turn, involves the transition between
different roles. The systematic observation of this game has
identified the following subroles:
Home (Hom)
– On hold (CEE): Player who is in the Home zone in a
passive attitude: standing, with crossed arms, with no
intention of leaving.
On alert (CEA): Player who is in the Home zone in an
active attitude, moving, running, feinting.
Leaving (CSL): Player leaving the Home zone.
Hunter (Hun)
Menacing (ZAM): Hunter who stands (without moving)
but in an active attitude, feinting, ready to attack.
Tracker (ZPS): Hunter who is chasing (running).
Catcher (ZCT): Hunter that is at the moment of capturing.
Conveyor (ZTL): Hunter who is moving his/her victim to
the Prisoners’ area.
Go to save (ZIS): Hunter who is in the process of going to
save but is not doing it yet.
– Rescuer (ZSV): Hunter who is currently saving his/her
fellow Prisoners.
Hare (Har):
On alert (LEA): Hare that stands (without moving)
but in an active attitude, feinting, prepared to
avoid being attacked.
– Provoker (LPV): Hare that is catching the attention of
Hunters. Fundamentally on the first play of the game.
Runaway (LHD): Hare escaping persecution or the
threat of Hunters.
Protector (LPT): Hare that protects his/her fellow Prisoners
and commits suicide.
Enter Home (LEC): Hare that passes from the living area
to the Home area.
Rescuer (LSV): Hare that, in his/her flight from the
Hunter, goes to the Prisoners’ area of his/her team to
try to save them.
Neutral (N)
On hold (NEE): Neutral player (in the living area) that is
wandering, standing, or moving, waiting to make another
more influential decision in the game.
– Returning Home without threat (NRG): Neutral player
(mainly Hares) who is returning Home quietly because
he/she no longer feels a threat from Hunters. That return
can be walking or running.
Frontiers in Psychology | 3July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 4
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
Prisoner (Pri)
Go to prison (PIP): Hare that is captured and moved to the
prison of the rival team.
On hold (PEE): Prisoner who waits, with whatever attitude,
to be released to adopt a new role in the game.
Conflict (F)
In conflict (EC): Players who, for whatever reason, do not
play. The stoppage of the game can be partial (players who
are in conflict, but the rest are still playing) or total (the
entire game is paralyzed). Whether it is total or partial, it
will be categorized “in conflict” until the moment the game
is restarted with the motor decision that is taking place at
that moment of restarting the game.
Adopting a subrole involves deciding a level of risk in the
intervention. Considering the consequences of being able to be
captured or not, the subroles can be classified as (see Table 1):
conservative (passive and risk-free decisions), risky (can be
captured), and neutral (in the live role it is an active decision
(e.g., back Home); in the Prisoner role, it means not having an
alternative choice).
The Internal Logic of Marro Encourages
Conducts of Interpersonal Relationship
The Marro game is a miniature society (Parlebas, 2001) in which
players share interpersonal relationships. The relational order of
the game can be revealed by two universals:
The motor communication network reveals the underlying
relational structure (Parlebas, 2002), that is, the type of motor
relationships that are to be activated.
Marro players are related through two options of motor
interaction (Parlebas, 2002): (a) motor communication or
positive communication corresponding to a transmission motor
relationship explicitly provided by the rule and which, in the case
of Marro, occurs with the transmission of a positive sociomotor
role (touching fellow Prisoners to release them); and (b) the
countercommunication or negative communication referred to
as motor interrelation of opposition between adversaries and
which, in the case of Marro, corresponds to the transmission
of a negative role (touching an opponent to turn him/her
into a Prisoner).
The motor communication network represents players
through points (Figure 2) by roles (Figure 1). The continuous
lines that unite them show the relationship of cooperation
(solidarity) between the players, and the discontinuous ones
correspond to the relations of opposition (rivalry). The Marro
game corresponds to a team duel (two “collective actors” who
describe a zero sum, according to game theory, since what is
won on the one hand is lost on the other), symmetrical (equal
number of players and roles), exclusive (each player can only be
a companion or adversary of the other participants), and stable
(remains on the same team during the entire game). The network
is complete because each pair of vertices is connected to an edge
of positive or negative relationship (Parlebas, 2002).
Goal interaction network is a subset of the motor
communications network because it only examines the
TABLE 1 | Relation of roles, subroles, and their level of risk and decisional relationships.
Roles Strategic Sociomotor
Rules Roles Subroles
Name Name Cod Name Code # Risk decision-making Type relational decision-making
Home Home 1 On hold CEE 1 1 Conservative 3 Neutral
On alert CEA 2 1 Conservative 3 Neutral
Leaving CSL 3 2 Neutral 3 Neutral
Alive Hunter 2 Menacing ZAM 4 3 Risky 2 Opponent
Tracker ZPS 5 3 Risky 2 Opponent
Catcher ZCT 6 3 Risky o 2 Opponent
Conveyor ZTL 7 2 Neutral 2 Opponent
Go to save ZIS 8 3 Risky 1 Partner
Rescuer ZSV 9 3 Risky 1 Partner
Hare 3 On alert LEA 10 1 Conservative 3 Neutral
Provoker LPV 11 3 Risky 2 Opponent
Runaway LHD 12 3 Risky 2 Opponent
Protector LPT 13 3 Risky 1 Partner
Enter home LEC 14 2 Neutral 3 Neutral
Rescuer LSV 15 3 Risky 1 Partner
Neutral 4 On Hold NEE 16 1 Conservative 3 Neutral
Returning home without threat NRG 17 2 Neutral 3 Neutral
Prisoner Prisoner 5 Go to prion PIP 18 2 Neutral 3 Neutral
On hold PEE 19 2 Neutral 3 Neutral
Conflict 6 In conflict EC 20 2 Neutral 4 Conflict
Frontiers in Psychology | 4July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 5
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 1 | Network of sociomotor role changes in Marro.
FIGURE 2 | The motor communication network in Marro game.
interactions that “outcome” success or failure in the game
(Parlebas, 2001). In the case of Marro, each success is associated
with capturing an opponent (each Prisoner involves adding a
point, opposition relationship) and also releasing the partners
(it implies leaving the rival’s outcome to zero, cooperative
relationship). Unlike sports, whose brand interaction network
is of opposition – since they only score points through rivalry
relationships (scoring goal or basket on the opposite zone) – the
Marro game retains a mixed goal interaction network: success is
achieved by looking for both partners and opponents.
The twenty subroles or possible decisions of the Marro game
have also been grouped according to whether these subroles
indicate a relation with partners or with adversaries. Observation
has identified neutral relationships (being at Home, being in
prison) and conflict (when discussing a disagreement) (Table 1).
The Internal Logic of Marro Causes
Motor Conducts of Different Physical
Effort Intensity
This game corresponds to a team duel in which the intervention
of any player is conditioned by a constant decision-making
during the development of the game. As in other games
or team sports, the other participants carry out messages
associated with unforeseen events, an informational uncertainty
that translates into an acyclic and intermittent strategic
Frontiers in Psychology | 5July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 6
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 3 | Temporary events and regularities in a sequence of game (taken
from Casarrubea et al., 2015). The elimination of superfluous events on a
timeline is the procedure applied in Figures 5,6A,B. The bottom-line disorder
hides a specific order based on events and time distances (top line).
intervention. In these conditions, players must maintain
different intensities of physical effort with intermittent motor
actions of high intensity interspersed with moments of
recovery and pause (Bangsbo, 2000). In addition, that intensity
can change according to the outcome (score), the team’s
strategy, and the decision-making of each player, as well as
their possibilities, their way of understanding the internal
logic of the game, and their sports history or motivation
(Apostolidis et al., 2003).
The Need to Go Further
The review of the specialized literature confirms that the
investigation of traditional games in educational contexts is
scarce compared to the proliferation of studies on sport (cf.
Navarro and Triguero, 2009). The motor praxiology is a discipline
that focuses the attention on TSG as an object of study and that
has generated a considerable amount of research on the effects
of the TSG on emotional, relational, cognitive well-being, and
decision-making of the protagonists (cf. Lavega et al., 2016).
From the observational methodology, studies focusing on
traditional games have been essentially based on one or
two dimensions of study, using different statistical strategies
(generalized linear models, classification trees) (i.e., Lavega et al.,
2014a). As far as we know, no previous study has been performed
in order to interpret with a rigorous methodology an integrated
view of the intervention of players in a TSG from a systemic point
of view: decisional, relational, energetic, and various analysis
approaches, that is, a 360approach.
In the present study, this approach is a requirement imposed
to propose a new and unknown integral approach for the study of
team strategies in games or in team sports. The lack of approaches
based on T-pattern analysis or predictive models to identify
hidden strategic regularities is a new challenge. Therefore, it is
about trying to reveal part of the interactive process that occurs
during a game and facilitate the verification of evidence to be
applied in the educational field or sports initiation.
Based on this theoretical framework, the article focuses
its interest on identifying the 360multimodal strategic
development processes (decisional, relational, and organic)
of two teams that play under the regulatory framework
of the Marro game.
The study followed an associative strategy (exploring the
functional relationship between variables) and corresponded to a
comparative predictive design based on group comparison (Ato
et al., 2013). For this study, a quasi-experimental design was used
composed by a single test applied to two non-equivalent teams.
The study design (observational methodology) was nomothetic,
punctual, and multidimensional (Anguera et al., 2011). It was
nomothetic, because two collective units (teams) composed
of players were studied. When a single concrete action was
performed, it was considered punctual. A mixed system of field
format and E/ME category system was used. Therefore, it would
be a multimethod study (Teddie and Tashakkori, 2010;Anguera
et al., 2014;Anguera et al., 2018).
In this study, 14 players (seven per team) participated (10 male
and 4 female, age range = 18–26 years, Mage = 20.49 years,
SD = 2.18) of the first course of physical activity and sport
sciences at the University of Lleida, enrolled in the Theory and
Practice of Motor Game. The distribution between women and
men maintained the same proportion as in the class group, with
a predominance of the masculine gender over the feminine one.
The studied participants who developed a game of Marro were
chosen at random. This reduced number of players is justified
by the large amount of data (number of observations) recorded
and analyzed during 480 s. The sum of 480 s accumulated by
each player in interaction with their peers and rivals draws the
performance, for each variable, within their respective team.
All participants signed an express authorization authorizing
their filming (Declaration of Helsinki). In addition, the study
was review and approved by the Ethics Committee for Clinical
Research of the Catalan Sports Council [07/2019/CEICEGG].
Procedure and Materials
Six variables were used in the study. The relationships between
variables and categories are described below. Three variables
corresponding to the internal logic of the game:
(i) “Dynamic Score (Outcome).” The following coding was
used for the different outcomes (scores): draw (ZE), +1
(ON), +2 (TW), +3 (TH), +4 (FO), +5 (FI), -1 (NO), -2
(NT), -3 (OH), -4 (NFO), -5 (NFI).
(ii) “Role”: understood as categories of rights and prohibitions
that players have that allow them to take subroles or
minimum decision units (Table 1). Of the six possible
decision scenarios: strategic roles (HUN), Hare (HAR),
Home (HOM), Prisoner (PRI), in conflict and neutral,
Frontiers in Psychology | 6July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 7
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
special attention was paid to the roles of Hunter and
Hare, since they originate different strategic options in
the different dimensions: cognitive (subrole), decisional
risk (conservative, neutral, and risky), relational (looking
for a partner or adversary), and organic (sedentary, light,
moderate, and vigorous).
(iii) Subrole decision. Twenty decision subroles were identified
(see Table 1).
Three variables linked to the dimensions of motor conducts:
(i) “Relation.” N: neutral, when ambivalent or indistinct (N);
relationship with the opponent (A); relationship with the
partner (C); and when there is a conflict of interest between
the players (X).
(ii) “Decision Risk.” Risky decisions (RI), neutral decisions
(NE), and conservative decisions (CO).
(iii) “Energy” is an indicator of the intensity of physical effort
made by the players based on the data extracted from
the accelerometer record. The cut-off points proposed by
Troiano et al. (2008) to categorize the energy variable in
effor t intensity: Sedentary (S): 0–2 CPS (No. of frequencies
per second); Light (L): >2–34 CPS; Moderate (M): >34 to
100 CPS; Vigorous (V): >100 CPS.
Phase 1: Playing in Practice and Authorizations
The Marro game was carried out by the regular teacher of the area
during his regular class schedule, in a 42 m ×25 m artificial grass
outdoor sports court.
Since none of the participants knew Marro, the game was
explained in a previous class, it was put into practice for several
minutes to favor its understanding, and tests were made for its
filming at the same time as doubts raised by the players were
solved. Once all doubts were dispelled, participants were invited
to play after 2 days in this experience. Before starting the game,
the participants performed a series of exercises adapting to the
intensity of the physical effort of the game.
To make the recording, two Sony DCR-SX21 model cameras
located at both ends of the game track were used. The recording
time was continuous, without interruptions, until completing
about 480 s. All shots were recorded far enough to ensure the
anonymity of the players.
Triaxial accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X +accelerometer;
ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, United States) were used to
record the intensity of the effort. The accelerometers were placed
laterally at the waist of the players and fastened with an elastic
band. Accelerometers were programmed to record movement at
a frequency of 60 Hz.
Phase 2: Registration Tool and Data Quality
For the analysis of the data from the filming, an ad hoc
registration tool was designed with exhaustive and mutually
exclusive categories (Chacón-Moscoso et al., 2019). This
allowed the use of ludograms (Parlebas, 2001) to record the
driving strategy of the players in the different dimensions,
corresponding with: sequence of roles and subroles, decisional
risk, relationships, and physical effort assumed by a player in each
second during game development.
The mixed system created for this purpose was used because
it takes advantage of a field format and a category system. On the
other hand, there was the flexibility of the field format adapted to
new and unexpected playful events of the game, from categories
initially identified deductively, according to the theoretical bases
used. Categories were also exploratory or inductively identified
as a result of the observation made by the observer’s team.
The rigor of the category system was guaranteed by relying
on the theoretical foundation of the science of motor action
(Parlebas, 2001, 2017a).
The data were sequential (Chacón-Moscoso et al., 2019)
since in each observation there could only be a single category.
The type of parameters was secondary since the data were
derived from a registry of primary indicators (role, subrole, and
energy) that subsequently gave rise to different categories of risk,
relationship, and energy intensity.
To address the quality of the data, different methodological
strategies were followed. First, the observers had at least
2 years of experience in the observational methodology and its
application. All of them were members of the GIAM research
group, interested in the motor action. The observation tool
was described and agreed by GIAM following the subroles
(categories) and roles (criteria) of the Marro game.
After using the registration tool, it was implemented with
different modifications and improvements, in order to ensure the
quality of subsequent registrations.
The monitoring game action made by the observers was focal,
that is, player by player. Thus, an independent record of each
player was obtained. When the mixed system of consensual
and definitive registration was reached, an observer manual was
prepared, describing the categories (determination of roles and
subroles) with the respective degree of freedom of the categories.
Next, although five observers were trained, just two of
them were selected to code all players from both teams for
the whole duration of the game, intra- (coder 1_coder 1)
and interobserver (coder 1_coder 2) reliability by applying
the Generalizability Theory (Cronbach et al., 1972;Ysewijn,
1996;Cardinet et al., 2010;Blanco-Villaseñor et al., 2014;
Hernández-Mendo et al., 2016).
A match of the Marro game in which 14 players participated
was analyzed: Two teams of seven players each and a duration of
the game of 8 min. The results showed that the variability of the
instrument was associated with the categories (93.7%) and with
the categories/observer interaction (6.3%). The overall analysis
of the relative and absolute G coefficient (0.98) revealed that the
accuracy of the results was optimal.
Phase 3: Preparation of Two Databases for Analysis
All observed events are associated with a series of seconds
between which that variable or that set of variables is activated
in each player. Thus, the union of these players in their respective
organizations forms the team unit.
The data collection had two procedures:
The observational procedure, carried out by a team of
five observers allowed the recording of data of the variables
outcome, role/subrole, risk in the decision and relation from the
Frontiers in Psychology | 7July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 8
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
visualization of the videos, and the second-to-second record of
the ludic events developed by the players.
The data recorded by the accelerometers (energy variable)
were downloaded and analyzed using the ActiLife 6.0 software
(ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, United States). The data were
integrated in periods of 1 s obtaining 480 s per participant. The
intensity of the effort expressed quantitatively by means of the
magnitude vector in counts per second was transformed into a
categorical variable using the cut-off points indicated above.
Each player intervened for 480 s, coinciding with the
number of rows in Microsoft Office v.2010 Excel, also used to
transform the magnitude of movement variable (quantitative)
into categorical (sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous).
In order to carry out Study 2, the database was prepared
to apply the package Theme (2017) software, with the aim
of detecting T-patterns strategic Marro360chains. Thus, those
sequences of repeated variables were eliminated so that, on the
one hand, the database became lighter and faster to analyze and,
on the other, greater dynamics of the variables were achieved.
Through the programming language Phyton v 3.7, a script
or command file was designed to eliminate the sequences of
repeated variables (more than once in a row). That is, each time
a type combination appeared (ZE, APS, A, RI, M) it was included
for the analysis, but if this same combination was repeated next,
then it was eliminated. Thus, the cumulative duration (number
of seconds) of the sequences was available, and type IV data were
obtained (Sackett, 1978). This procedure was applied exclusively
for T-pattern analysis. It is of crucial importance to recognize
that the internal logic of the game establishes a dynamic of
action in which leaving before or after the adversary identifies a
“when” of the playful event, with direct impact on the outcome
(capturing an adversary or saving a Prisoner). This temporal
dynamic guides the driving strategies of the social fabric that
is the Marro game.
Phase 4: Data analysis
Phase 4.1: Data analysis in study 1
This study corresponds to a mixed methods design
(Chacón-Moscoso et al., 2019). Using the IBM SPSS Statistics,
v. 25 (2017) statistics analysis tool. Cross-tabulations (Pearson’s
Chi-square test) were carried out with special attention to
adjusted residuals (ARs) >1.96 or <–1.96 (Gómez et al.,
2019), and decision trees. For both analyses, levels of statistical
significance were started (p<0.05). The effect sizes were
calculated using the Cramer’s V test. The interpretation was
based on: 0.10 = small effect, 0.30 = medium effect, and
0.50 = large effect (Cohen, 1988). In order to elaborate the most
representative figures of the Hunter and Hare roles, the sets
of variables equal to or greater than 2% in the blue and red
teams were selected. This selection was represented exclusively
in Figures 7,8, with a total of 1,072 occurrences (70.4%) in both
roles and teams.
To determine the interaction between the variables, the
multivariate QUEST classification technique (Quick, Unbiased,
Efficient, Statistical Tree) was used. This was a fast-running
binary procedure compared to other models already used in TSGs
(Pic et al., 2019) to execute the ramifications. The tree used
was due to a supervised learning algorithm, used in artificial
intelligence to know the predictive capacity of the model when
analyzing the performance of both teams.
The following requirements were assumed for the
construction of the QUEST model: (i) a restriction of five
levels of maximum tree depth, (ii) minimum cases (=100) in
parent Node, and minimum cases (=50) in child Node, (iii)
significance level for splitting nodes (p<0.05); and (iv) the
validation was approached by means of split sample, being
used (randomized) 80% of the cases for the training, and 20%
in the final test.
Phase 4.2: Data analysis in study 2
Following the mixed methods (Chacón-Moscoso et al., 2019) and
a quasi-experimental approach, the implications of the temporal
dimension in the Marro game, together with the ambition to
apply a 360approach of whole variables, made the use of a
multivariate technique known by THEME (Casarrubea et al.,
2015, 2019a,Aiello et al., 2020) pertinent. THEME is an algorithm
that reveals temporal regularities, selected when examining the
chains of variables, including in the analyses of the temporal
distribution of events. Therefore, according to Magnusson (2000,
p. 94–95) “if A is an earlier and B a later component of the
same recurring T-pattern, then, after an occurrence of A at
t, there is an interval [t +d1, t +d2] (d2 d1 d0)
that tends to contain at least one occurrence of B more often
than would be expected by chance.” The search parameters
of T-patterns included for the assessments were significance
levels (p<0.005) and a minimum of four occurrences.
A comparison was made between the results obtained (real
data) with their randomization to validate the analyzes proposed
(Brill and Schwab, 2019).
Results: Study 1
The Outcome (Score) of Both Teams
Differences were found in their respective outcomes (p<0.001;
ES = 0.386). Both teams shared most of the game the ZE(0)
draw outcome (blue and red: n= 1,288; 19.2%). Blue was mainly
with ON (+1) outcome (n= 672; AR = 5.9; 10%) and NT (–
2) (n= 504; AR = 15.1; 7.5%). The red team participated mostly
with the score NO (–1) (n= 672; AR = 5.9; 10%) and TW (+2)
(n= 504; AR = 15.1; 7.5%). The TH (+3) outcome was developed
exclusively by the red team (n= 266; AR = 15.1; 4%).
Comparison of Outcomes Exclusively in the Hunter
and Hare Roles
Significant differences were found when selecting two
determining roles in Marro game (p<0.001; ES = 0.353).
The red team obtained a higher number of records (n= 841;
55.3%) than the blue team (n= 681; 44.7%). The greatest
differences in order, following the AR, were under an NT (–2)
outcome in blue team (n= 104; AR = 7.2; 6.8%) and red team
(n= 38; AR = –7.2; 2.5%).
Frontiers in Psychology | 8July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 9
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
In the second position, with a TW (+2) outcome the red
team registered the following values (n= 134; AR = 6.9; 8.8%),
different from the blue team (n= 33; AR = –6.9; 2.2%). Similar
ARs were found OH (–3) exclusively in the blue team (n= 37;
AR = 6.8; 2.4%) versus the red team (n= 0; AR = –6.8; 2.4%). The
outcomes were favorable to the blue team, following the AR in
ON (+1) (AR = 2.0) and ZE (0) (AR = 1.5) while higher outcomes
by the red team were observed in NO (–1) (AR = 3.4) and TH
(+3) (AR = 6.5).
Roles in both teams
The Marro’s game lasted for 6,720 s (resulting from the
intervention of 14 players during 8 min). All observation
periods were concatenated, player by player. Based on the
characterization offered through the six strategic roles (p<0.001;
ES = 0.091) (Home, Hunter, Hare, Prisoner, Conflict, and
Neutral), the two teams were mostly at Home (n= 266900; 39.7%;
red n= 134000; AR = 0.7; 20.1% and blue n= 132000 ; AR = –
0.7; 19.6%), then Prisoner (n= 119700; 17.8%; (blue n= 69300 ;
AR = 6; 10.3% and red n= 50400; AR = –6; 7.5%), neutral
(n= 110300; 16.4%; (blue n= 57100 ; AR = 1.3; 8.5% and red
n= 53200; AR = –1.3; 7.9%).
When attention was paid to the Hunter and Hare roles it
was found that the intervention in the Hunter (HU; n= 97000 ;
14.42%) and Hare (HA; n= 52200; 8.23%) roles was developed
during 1,522 s (22.65%). Significant differences were found in the
intervention of the two teams in the role of Hunter and Hare. The
red team spent more time in the role of Hunter (red n= 52600;
AR = 2.9; 7.8% and blue n= 44400; AR = –2.9; 6.6%) and also in
the role of Hare (red n= 31500; AR = 3.5; 4.7% and blue n= 23700 ;
AR = –3.5; 3.5%).
Subroles in both teams
The game mainly showed decisions at Home (CEA, on alert
n= 2,35500; 35%), Prisoner on hold (PEE, n= 90600 ; 13.5%),
Hunter chasing (ZPS n= 63100; 9.4%), Neutral on hold (SEN
n= 575; 8.6%), Returning Home without threat (NRG n= 52800;
7.9%) and Hare fleeing (LHD n= 42300; 6.3%). Finally, Prisoner
go to prison (PIP n= 29100; 4.3%). Subsequently, in conflict (EC
n= 22900; 3.4%), at Home (CSL leaving n= 22100 ; 3.3%), Hunter
conveyor (ZTL n= 16200; 2.4%), at Home (CEE on hold n= 9300 ;
1.4%), and Hare on alert (LEA n= 7400; 1.1%).
Differences were found between the subroles of the Hunter-
Hare roles (p<0.001; ES = 0.155) of both teams. The subroles
over 5% of the total and two ARs (positive or negative) were
selected. Thus, the most used subroles were ZPS (n= 63100;
41.5%), with lower frequencies the blue team (n= 29000; AR = 0.8;
19.1%) than the red team (n= 34100; AR = –0.8; 22.4%).
The red team (n= 23800; AR = 0.5; 15.6%) exceeded the blue
team (n= 18500; AR = –0.5; 12.2%) in LHD (27.8%) and similar
records in both teams using ZTL (10.6%) were found in the red
team (n= 8200; AR = –1.3; 5.4%) and blue team (n= 8000 ; AR = 1.3;
5.3%). In the last subroles selected by percentage in both ZAM
teams (n= 7700; 5.1%), being in red (n= 3700 ; AR = –1.3; 2.4%)
was similar to the blue team (n= 4000; AR = 1.3; 2.6%). Based on
the differences, in terms of AR, in LPV (n= 1900; 1.2%) the red
team exceeded (n= 1900; AR = 3.9; 1.2%) the blue team (n= 000 ;
AR = –1.2; 0%). However, the results were reversed in LPV since
the blue team (n= 2400; AR = 2.7; 1.6%) exceeded the red team
(n= 1200; AR = –2.7; 0.8%).
Still regarding the Hunter and Hare roles, no especially
relevant differences were found when examining the level of risk
of the players’ decisions (p<0.068; ES = 0.59). Although it could
be reported that more neutral decisions were found in the blue
team (n= 10400; AR = 2.1; 6.8%) than in the red team (n = 9800 ;
AR = –2.1; 6.4%).
Motor relationships in both teams
Statistically, the teams were different (p<0.001; ES = 0.070)
although both mainly showed neutral relations (n= 5,07900;
75.6%). Subsequently, the relations were oriented toward the
adversary (n= 1,34400; 20.0%). There were few conflicting
relationships (n= 22900; 3.4%). Relationships toward team
partners were very scarce (n= 6800; 1.0%).
In neutral relations, the blue team surpassed the red team (blue
n= 2,63600; AR = 5.5; 39.4%; red n= 244300 ; AR = –5.5; 36.4%). The
red team showed more relations with the adversary (blue = 605;
AR = 4.1; red = 739 AR = –4.1), more conflict relations (blue
n= 95; AR = —2.6; 1.4%; red n= 134; AR = 2.6 2.0%), and also
more relationships with teammates (blue n= 24; AR = –2.4; 0.4%;
red n= 44; AR = 2.4; 0.7%).
By segmenting records with Hunter and Hare roles
exclusively, no significant effects could be found (p= 0.249;
ES = 0.043), and the differences disappeared.
Physical effort in both teams
Based on all roles, the following statistical relevance was found
(p<0.001; ES = 0.051). The participation in the Marro game
involved a mostly moderate energy (n= 2,30200; 34.3% of the
time recorded) and also vigorous (n= 1,95700; 29.1%). Sedentary
(n= 1,33300; 19.8%) and light interventions (n= 1,12800; 16.8%)
reached lower values. The two teams showed similar sedentary
conduct values (blue: n= 67200; AR = 0.3; 10.00%; red: n= 66100 ;
AR = –0.3; 9.8%).
The blue team showed a mostly moderate conduct (blue:
n= 1,219; AR = 3.5; 18.10%; red: n= 1,08300; AR = –3.5; 16.1%).
The red team was more vigorous (blue: n= 95200; AR = 1.4; 14.2%;
red: n= 100500; AR = –1.4; 15.0%) and light (blue: n= 51700 ;
AR = –3.1; 7.7%; red: n= 61100; AR = 3.1; 9.1%).
Exclusively in the Hunter and Hare roles, there were no
significant differences in the level of effort between teams
(p= 0.359; ES = 0.046).
Predictive capacity of variables on the conduct of both teams
Through the decision tree, the predictive capacity of the internal
logic variables (Outcome, Role) and the different dimensions of
the participants motor conducts (risk in the decision, type of
relationship, level of physical effort) were studied (Figure 4).
The roles included for the analysis were Home, Prisoner,
Hunter, and Hare. The last two roles were associated with great
variability in decision options, relationship, and level of physical
effort. The proportion of cases correctly classified was 64.1%, the
estimated risk of misclassification (0.359), and the standard error
of classification (0.015) were calculated.
Frontiers in Psychology | 9July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 10
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 4 | Classification tree (QUEST) to identify the predictive capacity of different variables that explain the Strategic Conduct of the Blue and Red Teams.
At all levels of the tree, some variables of the internal logic of
the game appeared, such as the outcome (in the first three) and
the role (in the last three). In addition, in the first three predictive
levels, the outcome was the first explanatory variable.
In the fourth level, in addition to the Role, the variable
Relationship was found. At the last level, Role and Energy
variables emerged again. The risk type variable in the decision
was not found as an explanatory variable of the conduct of the
two teams. Most of the data (69%) corresponded to the prediction
on the outcome ZE (0), no (–1), TW (+2), and TH (+3) (node 2).
Draw Outcome (ZE; Node 11 and Following)
The predictive variables were associated with the Role, which
distinguished the intervention in Prisoner (node 17) and the role
of Hare (node 22), in both cases more present in the red team
than in the blue team. In contrast, the Hunter role was slightly
higher in the blue team (node 22).
Unfavorable Outcomes
With the NO outcome (–1; node 12 and following). It appeared
as a novelty that at Home, Hunter, and Hare roles (node 20)
predicted the type of physical involvement of the teams (nodes
23 and 24), which distinguished light (node 23) from the rest of
intensities of effort (node 24). In these cases, the red team was
superior to the blue one. With the rest of unfavorable outcome
(score), no more predictive variables were identified.
Favorable Outcomes
With the ON outcome (+1, next node 4) the same prediction
of the role (distinction of the role of Prisoner from the
rest) was originated to identify the strategic conduct of both
teams. However, the roles HOM, HUN, and HAR predicted
the relationship variable, differentiating the neutral relationship
(node 15, higher in the blue team) from the adversary and partner
relationship (node 16, slightly higher in the red team). With
the rest of the favorable outcomes (scores), no more predictive
variables were identified.
Results: Study 2
The results shown below respond to three complementary
approaches. In the first two sections, the number of T-patterns
found exceeded the proposed randomization, and this approach
would be validated. Free interaction between Hunters and
Hares as a whole during the game (section “Strategic Temporal
Regularities in the Hunter and Hare Roles in the Marro
Game”) was between Hunters and Hares of both teams (section
“Interaction Between the Hunters of a Team and the Hares
of the Rival Team”) and finally, the strategic forms between
Hunters and Hares in their own team (section “Areas of
Multimodal Strategic Chains”). This specificity approach, by
studying the most decisive roles within the dynamics of the game,
is unprecedented.
Strategic Temporal Regularities in the Hunter and
Hare Roles in the Marro Game
Figure 5 shows the roles of Hunter and Hare while playing. Two
large groups of strategic chains were observed:
(a) Draw outcome and superiority, two points favorable
a.1 Draw outcome. The first subgroup corresponded to the
draw outcome. Two chains were identified (ze, zps, a, ri,
Frontiers in Psychology | 10 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 11
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 5 | Dendrogram of temporal regularities between Hunters and Hares.
m; ze, zps, a, ri, m), after that double sequence it was
followed (ze, lhd, a, ri, v).
a.2 With favorable outcome (+2): (tw, zps, a, ri, v
tw, zps, a, ri, v).
(b) Draw outcome (score)
b.1 The first subgroup was composed of two strategic chains
(ze, zps, a, ri, v ze, lhd, a, ri, v).
b.2 The second subgroup was composed of two chains. The
first was made up of two strategic chains (ze, zps, a, ri,
m; ze, zps, a, ri, v): the sequence of strategic regularities
360could be expressed as follows: ((((ze,zps,a,ri,m
ze,zps,a,ri,m) ze,lhd,a,ri,v)(tw,zps,a,ri,v))((ze,zps,a,ri,v
ze,lhd,a,ri,v)(ze,zps,a,ri,m ze,zps,a,ri,v))).
Interaction Between the Hunters of a Team and the
Hares of the Rival Team
This section considers the interaction of the Red Hunters with
the Blue Hares (Figure 6A) and of the Blue Hunters with the Red
Hares (Figure 6B).
In general, in both dendrograms, there was some regularity in
the use of ze, zps, a, ri, v (Draw-Chasing-Risky-Rival-Vigorous),
but each team offered its own particularities. Specifically, to the
left of the image, an unfavorable outcome in three units belonged
to blue team with Hares trying to escape from adversary (Chain
C1). This first chain was associated with the red team through
two chains related to the Hunter in pursuit actions in a draw, and
in moderate effort (C2) and vigorous (C3). In turn, the strategic
chain (C2) and chain (C3) were closely linked.
On the other hand, the right side of the image revealed
less variability than the previous dendrogram, given that only
“Energy” presented changes. Thus, the strategic chain (ze, zps, a,
ri) invariably appeared in the strategic sets, while the intensity
of the effort changed between (C1) and (C2) from light to
vigorous, respectively.
Areas of Multimodal Strategic Chains
In addition to the analyses performed, Figures 6,7
were constructed to identify the frequency areas of 360
multimodal strategic chains of each team in the Hunter
and Hare roles.
Figure 7 shows the strategic chains most used by the teams
(=2% intra-role: Hunter) in the game of Marro360.
The Marro360chain (ze, zps, a, ri, v) was the most used by
the Hunters of both teams. Although the blue team surpassed
(n= 81) the red team (n= 61), however, while the blue team
obtained the second position (n= 45) (on, zps, a, ri, v), it was
instead the strategic set (n= 54) (tw, zps, a, ri, v) achieved
by the red team in the same second position. Within this last
strategic set, the blue team was inferior (n= 11). Contrary
to what happened with the Hare role, it was not possible to
verify the exclusivity toward one of the teams, that is, both
obtained some frequency.
However, the most used strategic chain in the second position
by the blue team was registered with the On outcome (+1, n= 45)
(on, zps, a, ri, v), while for the red team its second chain was
identified with the outcome Tw (+2, n = 54, tw, zps, a, ri, v).
In general, regarding the differences between both teams, it
could be seen that the red team was more active in the Hunter
role (n= 40). These differences were found primarily in five sets
equal to or greater than 12 units. While three sets of variables
were found in the blue team (n= 12; nt, zps, a, ri, v) (n= 13;
Frontiers in Psychology | 11 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 12
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 6 | (A) left; (Red Hunters-Blue Hares) and (B) right; (Blue Hunters-Red Hares). Dendrogram of the temporal regularities the interaction between the hunters
of a team and the hares of the rival team.
FIGURE 7 | Marro360strategic chains used by the two teams in the role of Hunter.
ze, zps, a, ri, v) (n= 13; ze, ztl, a, ne, m), two sets were
identified in the red team (n= 20; no, ztl, a, ne, m) and (n= 43;
tw, zps, a, ri, v).
Figure 8 shows the strategic forms of both teams. The sets
of variables (frequencies) most used by the teams (=2% intra-
role: Hare).
Frontiers in Psychology | 12 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 13
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
FIGURE 8 | Marro360strategic chains used by the two teams in the role of Hare.
The more characterizing Marro360strategic chains differed
by teams. While the blue team (n= 41) used the first position
(on, lhd, a, ri, v), in the red team it occupied the second position
(n= 43). These few differences increased when comparing the two
most used Marro360strategic chains (ze, lhd, a, ri, v) by the red
team (n= 70) against the blue team (n= 40). Other strategic forms
Marro360didn’t appear in the red team (n= 14) (ze, lpv, a, ri, m).
As in the Hunter role, the most active Hares were found in
the red team (n= 54). When selecting the differences equal to or
greater than 12 units, four sets were found, three favorable to the
red team (n= 14; ze, lpv, a, ri, m) (n= 28; tw, lhd, a, ri, v) (n= 30;
ze, lhd, a, ri, v) and one to the blue team (n= 13; nt, lhd, a, ri, v).
This research has responded to the objective of the two studies
to determine the Marro360multimodal strategic intervention
(decisional, relational, and organic) of two teams that face
each other in a Marro game based on the outcome and the
roles of the game.
By participating in any TSG (and also in a sport), players
try to respond to the problems proposed by the internal logic
of that activity (Parlebas, 1988, 2001, 2017b) through motor
conducts that testify to a decisional, relational, and energetic
intelligence. Therefore, the effect of two independent variables
from the game were studied: the score and the subroles associated
with the Hunter and Hare roles on the dependent variables
represented by Marro360strategic chains. Each of these chains
was simultaneously integrated by the type of response according
to the decision risk (risk in the decision), the relationship, and
the energy intensity (Reimers et al., 2018). It is unavoidable
to mention that the methodological approach used by the
present study became feasible, since the integration of different
variables (dynamic score, role, subrole, relation, decision risk,
energy) was addressed.
Frontiers in Psychology | 13 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 14
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
From this perspective, the study has revealed how two
teams with antagonistic interests, subject to the same rules of
the game, reveal a specific collective intelligence, through the
analysis of individual motor responses (individually considered
variables) but, above all, complex strategic chains Marro360
(decisional, relational, and energetic) capable of characterizing
the participation of each team.
Knowing the internal logic of the game has led us to
follow a consistent design of mixed methods (observational)
(Camerino et al., 2012;Preciado et al., 2019), which has allowed
expert observers to build a consensual registration system, viable
in practice and reliable. Thus, the experiences of the teams
have been recorded from a rigorous and ecological approach,
capable of capturing the interactive spontaneity (Parlebas, 1988)
of the context (Guerreiro et al., 2019). According to Marro’s
internal logic, the timeline of events (Hancock and Block,
2012;Timoszyk-Tomczak and Bugajska, 2018) acquires special
relevance unlike other traditional games or sports in which the
temporal relationship is not so crucial to modify the outcome.
The deep knowledge of the internal logic of Marro makes it
possible to state with severity that the ability of teams to calculate
and manage time is a distinctive feature of the motor conducts of
the participants.
The Marro360strategy of the game reaches its zenith in
making decisions for the Hunter and Hare roles because they
are the ones who can unbalance the scoreboard (capturing
opponents or saving teammates). The study identifies the
frequency of strategic chains for these roles (Figures 7,8),
as well as their temporal recurrence through dendrograms.
The observation of each player, also explored in other
ecological contexts of traditional and sports games (Araújo
et al., 2014), has enriched the understanding of the strategic
conduct of both teams.
The ambition of this study has been to address the analysis of
the process of formation of Marro360strategic chains in both
teams from a multifaceted approach to the motor conducts of
their players. This has been possible thanks to the use of mixed
methods that have also been effective in other studies (Johnson
et al., 2007;Anguera et al., 2018;Casal et al., 2019).
In a first overview of the game, the different types of
statistical analyses (cross tables, classification tree, and the first
dendrogram: Figure 5) show that the draw outcome (ZE) is
a relevant variable of the strategic framework in the Marro
game. In situations of equality on the outcome is when both
teams generate greater numbers of T-patterns (Casarrubea et al.,
2016, 2019b). This finding suggests a clear pedagogical transfer:
teachers should teach students how to manage Marro360
strategies with the draw outcome, both at the start of the game
and during the confrontation.
In this global perspective of the game, in the dendrogram,
two key outcomes were observed: in a draw (ZE) and favorable
outcome +2 (TW) with the emergence of T-patterns (Casarrubea
et al., 2018;Magnusson, 2020) of Marro360in terms of temporal
chains (((((ze, zps, a, ri, m ze, zps, a, ri, m) ze, lhd, a, ri, v) (tw,
zps, a, ri, v tw, zps, a, ri, v)) ((ze, zps, a, ri, v ze, lhd, a, ri, v) (ze,
zps, a, ri, m ze, zps, a, ri, v)))). These chains integrate the risky
subroles (ri) Hunter-chasing (zps) and Hare-fleeing (lhd) of high
rivalry relation directed to the adversaries (a), associated with a
moderate-to-vigorous energy intensity (m-v).
This photograph of the temporal regularities of the game of
Marro360, although it did not distinguish the teams, shows
the teacher the complexity of the strategic time management
that emerged from the game, that is to say, the class group.
However, we went further trying to interpret the Marro360
strategic intervention of both teams during the game. This
challenge was specified when both teams participated in the roles
of Hunter and Hare.
Marro360Intervention of the Red
Hunters on the Blue Hares (Figure 6A)
It should be noted that, in the Marro game, the Hunter and Hare
roles are essentially operational procedures (Parlebas, 2019) that
are decisive for modifying the outcome, although playing these
roles does not imply winning the game directly. By including
the outcome variable in the analysis, through crossed tables,
differences in the outcome (p<0. 001) of both teams were
observed when participating under Hunter and Hare roles. With
the outcome on disadvantage NT (–2), both teams show an
unfavorable situation, although with a different proportion: blue
team (n= 104; AR = 7.2; 6.8%) and red team (n= 38; AR = –
7.2; 2.5%). When the outcome was favorable TW (+2), the
red team (n= 134; AR = 6.9; 8.8%) exceeded the blue team
(n= 33; AR = –6.9; 2.2%). In addition, in the dendrogram two
T-patterns (Magnusson, 2020) were detected when the blue team
intervened before an unfavorable outcome (ON = –1, lhd = flee,
a = rival, ri = risky, v = vigorous). This chain was predictive (T-
prediction) and more present in the blue team than in the red
one, as shown in the second dendrogram (Figure 6A) (n= 5,
length = 3), which confirms a situational advantage (Gómez
et al., 2017) for the red team. This dendrogram was relevant
since it offers a greatest complexity of temporal regularities
between red team Hunters and blue team Hares, with similar
analyses used in previous studies (Pic et al., 2018). Although other
T-patterns were found in 70% of the records (as in Figure 6A),
none of the following strings in the example were predictive
(n= 5, length = 3) [tw, zps, a, ri, v (nt, lhd, a, ri, v tw,
zps, a, ri, v)].
In relation to the role of Hunter, the results show that the red
team exceeds the blue in frequency of strategic Marro360chains.
For the red Hunters, the Marro360chain that best represents
them is given with the outcome in advantage for an additional
2 points (TW = +2, zps = Hunter-chasing, a = rival, ri = risky,
v = vigorous). In addition, the classification tree has shown that
the TW (+2) outcome was a key variable to predict the difference
in the strategic behavior of both teams (node 13, red: n= 88;
blue: n= 20).
On the other hand, despite the constant variability
of the outcome in this game, the second-most frequent
Marro360chain of the red team was identified with an
unfavorable outcome (NO = –1, ztl = Hunter-transfer, a = rival,
ne = neutral, m = moderate).
Therefore, although it can be affirmed that, in general, in the
role of Hunter the red team was superior to the blue one, it
Frontiers in Psychology | 14 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 15
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
is also true that, in some sections of the game, the blue team
acquired superiority over its rival. This test confirms once again
the originality of this study against other precedents, when trying
to reveal the process of the game, that is, the analysis of the
strategic use of time in the sociomotor dynamics that originate
the plays in the Marro game.
Marro360Intervention of the Blue
Hunters on the Red Hares (Figure 6B)
The third dendrogram (Figure 6B) showed little variability when
blue Hunters faced red Hares. Marro360chains appeared with
the tie outcome (ZE), and only the energy intensity variable (light
or vigorous) was modified [ze, zps, a, ri, l (ze, zps, a, ri, v ze,
zps, a, ri, v)].
The interpretation of this finding may lead to several
reflections. First, it is likely that from the moment the blue team
Hunters vary their outcome they change the way they act and,
therefore, no other combinations or outcome were observed.
Sometimes, players start the game little concentrated or, facing
too much novelty, they are less active as shown by the intensity of
light energy. However, they become active quickly (vigorously) to
get to hunt rival Hares.
As to why no T-patterns have been found between the red
Hares and the blue Hunters, as was the case with the analogous
dendrogram (Figure 6A), although with great caution, we are
inclined to consider that surely these Hares offered more variety
of responses than the answers offered by blue Hares since, if
the blue team Hunters have been temporarily regular, some
temporary regularity should also have been revealed. On the
other hand, it could also be due to the great predominance of
the blue team in Hunters, since a search was made of all the
T-patterns (length = 3), and only the participation of the red team
(Hares) was found in a dendrogram of all six found.
This finding suggests a direct transfer to the educational
field: the educator should educate toward the coding and
decoding of strategic messages. That is, teachers should
stimulate in their students the creation (coding) of varied,
unpredictable strategic messages that hinder the detection of
Marro360chains. In parallel, students should be encouraged to
detect (decode) temporary regularities in the strategic action plan
of the opposing team.
An unexpected finding in this game has been the non-
detection of Marro360chains aimed at saving partners, even
though the Marro game allows one to gain an advantage on
the outcome by saving teammates or capturing opponents. It
has been observed that both teams used primarily regularities
with opposition relations (capture) in the face of intra-team
cooperation. The reason may be due to a poor strategic approach.
It could be thought that the majority of the participants have
a “sports footprint” as a result of their background in team
sports in which victory is achieved through motor relations
projected exclusively on the opponent (insert the ball into the
goal or rival zone).
The theoretical procedures and the methodological design
of mixed methods employed have allowed us to identify the
strategic intervention of both teams, as well as finding T-patterns
(Magnusson, 2000) based on outcome. This multifaceted vision
allows an interpretation of the process followed during a game in
the confrontation of two teams. The two groups were different
because their 360strategic chains were uneven. The risk in the
subrole, the type of relationship, and the intensity of energy used
have been different in both teams. Situational variables (Gómez
et al., 2017) asks for managing time as a faithful ally and focusing
on the dynamics of the interactive collective process (Gonçalves
et al., 2016;Parlebas, 2019) of the intervening teams.
It has been observed that the red team was more active than
the blue team in the roles of Hunter and Hare, which could
explain its superiority. However, that reading should be done
with caution, since, being a game with such a variable outcome,
the momentary advantage could be changed to an unfavorable
situation. It seems reasonable to interpret that when the Hare of
any team intensified its activity, it was due to an emergency not
chosen in that situation, in which the rival team had a domain or
advantage over the subsequent options in the Marro game.
Deeply understanding the keys of the Marro game without
referring to its temporal dimension would be a complex task,
provided that the interactive process is considered relevant for
the study of the game. Leaving Home “after” an adversary grants
a strategic advantage. In addition, the time to make decisions is
reduced, and the decision options are numerous and changing
(Parlebas, 2010). Thus, choosing the right time to change roles
(leaving Home, moving from Hunter to Hare, deciding whether
to chase or flee, save or capture) is a key aspect of multimodal
strategic intervention. There is scientific evidence that shows that
Marro’s game relationships go from binary strategic relationships
(Parlebas, 2019) in players aged 7–8 to relationships that increase
in complexity (Morin, 1990) in adults. While a player is chasing
an adversary (binary relationship), he/she is being chased by
another rival (tertiary relationship), which in turn can be harassed
by a partner (quaternary relationship).
Among the most notable limitations, the increase in
participants would be advisable to know the aprioristic strategic
plans of the players before starting the game, and their subsequent
comparison would be a future line of suggestive exploration
by research groups, as well as the used of test-posttest designs
to find out specific T-patterns for each player. On the other
hand, studying the emotional state of the players, as well as
the personality traits of the participants, would offer great
opportunities to get to know the player better and thus establish
better curricular plans in the future. In this study, the scarcity
of specific literature used mostly in discussion, responded to the
small group of papers in line with the objectives of the study.
Therefore, it was complex to establish direct comparisons with
other groups and research studies.
The study reveals direct transfers in the educational field.
The traditional game in general, and the Marro game in
particular, offer an extraordinary setting to develop fundamental
learning of physical education (Parlebas, 2017a, 2019). Educating
strategies based on the outcome, especially when teams draw,
trying to identify in the opposing team temporary T-patterns
of multimodal 360chains, as well as avoiding being predictable
for rivals, are some pedagogical examples that emerge based on
this experience.
Frontiers in Psychology | 15 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 16
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
The most relevant strategic chains in the Marro game have
been specified from different variables and approaches. It is
a game that made driving conducts of decision, relationship
(Heider, 1946) (positive and negative valences), and physical
effort emerge, which activate multimodal learning of motor skills
in its participants (Parlebas, 2017a;Ward et al., 2017). Through
Marro the participants developed values of coexistence necessary
for current society, recognized by different official international
initiatives of UNESCO (e.g., Kazan 2017 action plan, 2030
Agenda, Berlin Declaration, and the International Charter of
EF, AF, and Sport).
This study has deepened on a 360multimodal vision, rather
unknown in studies around TSGs and sports. The variables
and strategic forms (multimodal chains of Marro360variables)
used by two teams depending on the outcome, aligned with the
temporal transience (T-patterns) and the sociomotor dynamics of
the process rather than the final result, revealed the educational
potential of this game (Parlebas, 2019). The internal logic of the
Marro game asks the protagonists to intervene in a systemic
(multimodal) way, activating at the same time the decision,
the relationship, and the intensity of energy according to their
strategic interests (Lavega et al., 2016).
The analysis made by using the classification tree confirmed
the great relevance of the outcome and role variables and,
to a lesser extent, energy and relation, as predictive factors
of the conduct in both teams. More specifically, the Hunter
and Hare roles were decisive for the study of Marro, since
the dominance of the red team over the blue team nested on
favorable outcomes, but also on the role, with greater exposure
and development of the most decisive roles. This suspected
predominance was intensified when the Hunters in the blue
team and the Hares in the red team generated a dendrogram
with a more favorable outcome (score) for the team of the
Hares (belonging to the red team). However, in the homologous
dendrogram, no T-patterns were identified for Hares in the
red team (Figure 6B). This finding could be related to the
high decision variability of the role of Hare in the red team,
or due to the scarcity of actions by Hunters belonging to the
blue team and/or their limited strategy. Therefore, playing is
not neutral. The physical education teacher has evidence on
(multimodal) development in the game of Marro360. Knowing
hosted information about players and strategic roles (decisional,
relational, and organic) can help teachers make better decisions
in their daily tasks.
The datasets generated for this study are available on request to
the corresponding authors.
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and
approved by the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research of
the Catalan Sports Council. Generalitat de Catalunya. The
patients/participants provided their written informed consent to
participate in this study.
PL-B, CS-S, JS, MP, and AE: substantial contribution to
study conception and design. PL-B, US, AR-A, VM-A, and
QP: preparation of the document for approval by the ethics
committee. PL-B, QP, VM-A, SD-S, AE, LM, PA-A, and CS-S:
preparation and participation in the empirical work. RL-P, CS-S,
PA-A, RR-A, and JS: observational analysis, manual observational
preparation, strategic chain analysis of the players. AE, LM,
and DM-M: download and analysis of all accelerometry data.
MP, VM-A, AE, RL-P, CS-S, JS, and PL-B: preparation of the
temporary database (all variables). MP, PL-B, VM-A, SD-S, JS,
RL-P, AR-A, DM-M, and PA-A: database revision. MP, PL-B, DM-
M, RR-A, US, PA-A, JS, RL-P, CS-S, and AE: discussion of data
analysis strategies. PL-B, MP, AE, LM, US, AR-A, RR-A, CS-S, JS,
DM-M, VM-A, and QP: writing of the manuscript. All authors
contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
This work was supported by the National Institute of Physical
Education of Catalonia (INEFC).
Aiello, S., Crescimanno, G., Di Giovanni, G., and Casarrubea, M. (2020). T-patterns
in the study of movement and behavioral disorders. Physiol. Behav. 215:112790.
doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112790
Anguera, M. T., Blanco, A., Hernández-Mendo, A., and Losada, J. L. (2011).
Observational designs: their suitability and application in sports psychology.
Cuad. Psic. Dep. 11, 63–76.
Anguera, M. T., Camerino, O., Castañer, M., and Sáchez-Algarra, P. (2014).
Mixed methods in physical activity and sport. Rev. Psicol. Dep. 23,
Anguera, M. T., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Losada, J. L., Sánchez-Algarra,
P., and Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2018). Revisiting the difference
between mixed methods and multimethods: is it all in the
name? Qual. Quant. 52, 2757–2770. doi: 10.1007/s11135-018-
Apostolidis, N., Nassis, G. P., Bolatoglou, T., and Geladas, N. D. (2003).
Physiological and technical characteristics of elite young basketball players.
J. Sport. Med. Phys. Fi. 44, 157–163.
Araújo, D., Silva, P., and Ramos, J. P. (2014). Affordance-based decisions guide
team synergies during match performance. Res. Phys. Edu. Sport. Health. 3,
Ato, M., López, J. J., and Benavente, A. (2013). A classification system for research
designs in psychology. Anal. Psicol. Spain 29, 1038–1059. doi: 10.6018/analesps.
Bangsbo, J. (2000). “Physiology of intermittent exercise,” in Exercise and Sport
Science, eds W. E. Garrett, and D. T. Kirkendall (Philadelphia: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins), 53–65.
Frontiers in Psychology | 16 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 17
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
Berge, C. (1958). Theory of Graphs and its Applications. París: Dunod.
Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Castellano, J., Hernández-Mendo, A., Sánchez-López, C. R.,
and Usabiaga, O. (2014). Application of GT in sport for the study of the
reliability, validity and estimation of the sample. Rev. Psicol. Deporte 23,
Böhm, R., Rusch, H., and Baron, J. (2018). The psychology of intergroup conflict:
a review of theories and measures. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.
Brasó, J., and Torrebadella, X. (2017). The game prisoner’s bar: a research on their
educational backgrounds. Rev. Dialect. Trad. Pop. 72, 245–264. doi: 10.3989/
Bredemeier, B. (1991). “Morality and sport for all,” in Sport for All, eds P. Oja, and
R. Telama (Amsterdam: Elsevier), 365–372.
Brill, M., and Schwab, F. (2019). A mixed-methods approach using self-report,
observational time series data, and content analysis for process analysis of a
media reception phenomenon. Front. Psychol. 10:1666. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.
Camerino, C., Castañer, M., and Anguera, M. T. (2012). Mixed Methods Research in
the Movement Sciences: Cases in Sport, Physical Education and dance. New York,
NY: Routledge.
Cardinet, J., Johnson, S., and Pini, G. (2010). Applying Generalizability Theory using
EduG. New York, NY: Routledge.
Casal, C. A., Anguera, M. T., Maneiro, R., and Losada, J. L. (2019). Possession in
football: more than a quantitative aspect–a mixed method study. Front. Psychol.
10:501. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00501
Casarrubea, M., Aiello, S., Santangelo, A., Di Giovanni, G., and Crescimanno,
G. (2019a). Different Representation procedures originated from multivariate
temporal pattern analysis of the behavioral response to pain in wistar rats
tested in a hot-plate under morphine. Brain Sci. 9:233. doi: 10.3390/brainsci909
Casarrubea, M., Aiello, S., Di Giovanni, G., Santangelo, A., Palacino, M., and
Crescimanno, G. (2019b). Combining quantitative and qualitative data in the
study of feeding behavior in male wistar rats. Front. Psychol. 10:881. doi: 10.
Casarrubea, M., Faulisi, F., Caternicchia, F., Santangelo, A., Di Giovanni, G.,
Benigno, A., et al. (2016). Temporal patterns of rat behaviour in the central
platform of the elevated plus maze. Comparative analysis between male subjects
of strains with different basal levels of emotionality. J. Neurosci. Methods 268,
155–162. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.07.024
Casarrubea, M., Jonsson, G. K., Faulisi, F., Sorbera, F., Di Giovanni, G., Benigno,
A., et al. (2015). T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal
and human behaviour: a comprehensive review. J. Neurosci. Meth. 239, 34–46.
doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.09.024
Casarrubea, M., Magnusson, M., Anguera, M. T., Jonsson, G. K., Castañer, M.,
Santangelo, A., et al. (2018). T-pattern detection and analysis for the discovery
of hidden features of behaviour. J. Neurosci. Methods. 310, 24–32. doi: 10.1016/
Chacón-Moscoso, S., Anguera, M. T., Sanduvete-Chaves, S., Losada, J. L., Lozano-
Lozano, J. A., and Portell, M. (2019). Methodological quality checklist for
studies based on observational methodology (MQCOM). Psicothema. 31, 458–
464. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2019.116
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. Hillsdale,
NJ: Erlbaum.
Cronbach, L. J., Gleser, G. C., Nanda, H., and Rajaratnam, N. (1972). The
dependability of Behavioral Measurements: Theory of Generalizability for Scores
and Profiles. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Gibbons, S., Ebbeck, V., and Maureen, R. (1995). Fair play for kids: effects on the
morale development of children in physical education. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 66,
247–255. doi: 10.1080/02701367.1995.10608839
Gómez, M. Á, Rivas, F., Connor, J. D., and Leicht, A. S. (2019). Performance
differences of temporal parameters and point outcome between elite men’s and
women’s badminton players according to match-related contexts. Int. J. Env.
Res. Pub. 16:4057. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16214057
Gómez, M. Á, Silva, R., Lorenzo, A., Kreivyte, R., and Sampaio, J. (2017). Exploring
the effects of substituting basketball players in high-level teams. J. Sport. Sci. 35,
247–254. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1161217
Gonçalves, B., Marcelino, R., Torres-Ronda, L., Torrents, C., and Sampaio,
J. (2016). Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective
movement behaviour during football small-sided games. J. Sport. Sci. 34, 1346–
1354. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1143111
Graupensperger, S., Panza, M., and Evans, M. B. (2019). Network centrality, group
density, and strength of social identification in college club sport teams. Group.
Dyn Theor. Res. 24, 59–73. doi: 10.1037/gdn0000106
Guerreiro, C. F., Harvey, S., Hastie, P. A., and Mesquita, I. M. R. (2019). Effects
of situational constraints on students’ game-play development over three
consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. Phys. Educ. Sport. Peda.
24, 267–286. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2019.1571184
Hancock, P. A., and Block, R. A. (2012). The psychology of time: a view backward
and forward. Am. J. Psychol. 125, 267–274. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.125.3.0267
Heider, F. (1946). Attitudes and cognitive organization. J. Psychol. 21, 107–112.
doi: 10.1080/00223980.1946.9917275
Hernández-Mendo, A., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Pastrana, J. L., Morales-Sánchez, V.,
and Ramos-Pérez, F. J. (2016). SAGT: computer application for generalizability
analysis. Rev. I. Psicol. Ejerc, el Deporte 11, 77–89.
Hernández-Mendo, A., and Planchuelo-Medina, L. (2012). An observational tool
for the evaluation of moral development in primary school physical education
classes. Rev. I. Psicol. Ejercic. el Deporte 7, 287–306.
IBM SPSS Statistics, v. 25 (2017). International Business Machines Corp. Armonk,
Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., and Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a definition
of mixed methods research. J. Mix. Method. Res. 1, 112–133. doi: 10.1177/
Lavega, P., Alonso, J. I., Etxebeste, J., Lagardera, F., and March, J. (2014a).
Relationship between traditional games and the intensity of emotions
experienced by participants. Res. Q. Exercise. Sport. 85, 457–467. doi: 10.1080/
Lavega, P., Planas, A., and Ruiz, P. (2014b). Cooperative games and inclusion in
physical education. Rev. Int. Med. Cienc. Act. 14, 37–51.
Lavega, P., Etxebeste, J., Sáez de Ocariz, U., Serna, J., and During, B. (2016).
“Apprendre à vivre ensemble par les Jeux sportifs traditionnels,” in Égalité,
mixité, intégration par le sport, ed. G. Ferréol (Paris: Éditions l’Harmattan),
Lee, M. (1988). Values and responsibilities in children’s sports. Phys. Educ. Rev. 11,
Levi-Strauss, C. (1963). Structural Anthropology. Translated by Claire Jacobson and
Brooke Grundfest Schoepf. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Magnusson, M. (2020). T-Pattern detection and analysis (TPA) with THEME:
mixed methods approach. Front. Psychol. 10:2663. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.
Magnusson, M. S. (2000). Discovering hidden time patterns in behaviour:
T-patterns and their detection. Behav. Res. Meth. Ins. C. 32, 93–110. doi: 10.
Morin, E. (1990). Introduction to Complex Thought. Madrid: Gedisa.
Muñoz, V., Lavega, P., Serna, J., Sáez, U., and March, J. (2017). Mood states when
playing alone or in cooperation: two unequal motor and affective experiences.
An. Psicol. 33, 196–203. doi: 10.6018/analesps.33.1.233301
Navarro, V., and Triguero, C. (2009). Research and motor game in Spain. Lleida:
Universitat Lleida.
Parlebas, P. (1988). Elements of Sociology in Sport. Málaga: Unisport.
Parlebas, P. (2001). Contribution to an Annotated Vocabulary on the Science of
Motor Action. Barcelona: Paidotribo.
Parlebas, P. (2002). Réseaux dans les jeux et les sports [Networks in games and
sports]. L’Année Socio. 2, 314–349. doi: 10.3917/anso.022.0314
Parlebas, P. (2005). “The game, emblem of a culture,” in Enciclopedia Catalana
Jocs i Esports tradicionals, Tradicionari, Enciclopèdia de la cultura popular de
Catalunya: 17 (Barcelona: Enciclopedia catalana).
Parlebas, P. (2010). “Health and relationship wellness in traditional games,” in Jeux
Traditionnels et Santé Sociale, ed. C. De La Villa (Aranda de Duero: Asociación
cultural la Tanguilla), 95–101.
Parlebas, P. (2017a). A pedagogy of motor skills. Acción Motriz 20, 89–95.
Parlebas, P. (2017b). La aventura praxiológica. Cencia, acción y educación física.
Málaga: Junta de Andalucía.
Parlebas, P. (2019). Jeux traditionnels. Vers l’Educ. Nouvelle 575, 46–53.
Pic, M., Lavega-Burgués, P., and March-Llanes, J. (2019). Motor behaviour
through traditional games. Educ. Stud. 45, 742–755. doi: 10.1080/03055698.
Frontiers in Psychology | 17 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
fpsyg-11-01384 July 4, 2020 Time: 17:42 # 18
Lavega-Burgués et al. Multimodal Learning: Traditional Sporting Games
Pic, M., Navarro-Adelantado, V., and Jonsson, G. K. (2018). Detection
of ludic patterns in two triadic motor games and differences in
decision complexity. Front. Psychol. 8:2259. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.
Preciado, M., Anguera, M. T., Olarte, M., and Lapresa, D. (2019).
Observational studies in male elite football: a systematic mixed
study review. Front. Psychol. 10:2077. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.
Reimers, A. K., Schoeppe, S., Demetriou, Y., and Knapp, G.
(2018). Physical activity and outdoor play of children in public
playgrounds-do gender and social environment matter? Int. J.
Environ. Res. Public. Health. 15, 1–14. doi: 10.3390/ijerph1507
Rousseau, J.-J. (1973). in The Social Contract and Discourses, ed. G. D. J. Cole
(London: Dent Dutton).
Sackett, G. P. (1978). Observing Behavior. Vol. II: Data Collection and Analysis
Methods. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Teddie, C., and Tashakkori, A. (2010). “Overview of contemporary issues in
mixed methods research,” in The Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social
& Behavioral Research, 2nd Edn, eds A. Tashakkori, and C. Teddie (Thousand
Oaks: Sage), 1–41.
Theme (2017). Version 6) [Computer software]. Reykjavík: Pattern Vision Ltd.
Timoszyk-Tomczak, C., and Bugajska, B. (2018). Transcendent and transcendental
time perspective inventory. Front Psychol. 10:2677. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.
Troiano, R. P., Berrigan, D., Dodd, K. W., Masse, L. C., Tilert, T., and McDowell, M.
(2008). Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med.
Sci. Sport. Exer. 40, 181–188.
UNESCO (2017). Conferencia Internacional de Ministros y Altos Funcionarios
Encargados de la Educación Física. SHS/2017/PI/H/14 REV. Kazan: UNESCO.
Ward, N., Paul, E., Watson, P., Cooke, G. E., Hillman, C. H., Cohen, N. J.,
et al. (2017). Enhanced learning through multimodal training: evidence from
a comprehensive cognitive, physical fitness, and neuroscience intervention. Sci.
Rep.U. K. 7, 5808. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017- 06237-5
Ysewijn, P. (1996). About Software for Generalizability Studies (GT). Switzerland:
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the
absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a
potential conflict of interest.
Copyright © 2020 Lavega-Burgués, Luchoro-Parrilla, Serna, Salas-Santandreu,
Aires-Araujo, Rodríguez-Arregi, Muñoz-Arroyave, Ensenyat, Damian-Silva,
Machado, Prat, Sáez de Ocáriz, Rillo-Albert, Martín-Martínez and Pic. This is an
open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted,
provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the
original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic
practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply
with these terms.
Frontiers in Psychology | 18 July 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 1384
... The spaces where we live, learn, and work are more than just decorations (Moser, 2009); they shape our attitudes and actions (Fischer, 2011). Thus, the relationship between "player(s) and game structures" is therefore interesting to investigate, since it may lead us to question and analyze how TSGs (Lavega et al., 2014;Lavega-Burgués et al., 2020;Parlebas, 2020) may act as a lever for relational empathy. Furthermore, it also led us to question how it could function as an operational and dynamic revealer of empathy built through playful interactions. ...
... It offers an opportunity to enhance our knowledge concerning the concepts of "empathy" and "traditional sporting games" through the prism of motor praxeology and a systemic approach (Parlebas, 1981(Parlebas, , 1999. It also analyzes several field studies associated with TSG to feed our reflection that these sporting games are likely to stimulate, maintain, or reveal in various ways the potentialities and empathic capacities of those players (Lavega et al., 2014;Lavega-Burgués et al., 2020;Parlebas, 2020). ...
Full-text available
ABSTRACT=The aim of this study was to investigate bodily engagement and involvement in traditional sporting games (TSGs), with a focus on the development of empathy. Even though the current research on empathy has been focused on its emotional component, the name “empathy” alludes to a considerably more profound dimension than emotional engagement. Empathy refers to the ability to perceive another person’s private life through the exchange of contextual factors provided through interactive sports activities. In this study, based on real-world experiences, it has been demonstrated that traditional sporting games stimulate, preserve, or reveal empathic capacities in several ways. Games can show and sustain the full potential of empathic dispositions if they are present at a young age. Moreover, by examining empathy through the prism of a TSG, we recognized them as a source of relational empathy and feelings developed to various degrees by direct involvement. As a result, we may define empathy as an integrated pedagogy that can be more successfully conducted through TSGs which are multifaceted because of their internal and external logic systems. Essentially, the hypotheses discussed in this study allow us to postulate that the physical gaming involvement of players, such as role changes, influences the individual’s empathic dimensions. Furthermore, the characteristics of traditional sporting game interaction networks may serve as a source of encouragement or inspiration for a wide range of games (theatrical, social, etc.).
... Emotions with cognitive meaning confirm the motor intelligence that activates Marro's internal logic (Parlebas, 2001;Lavega et al. 2020). There is a great diversity of comments referring to the strategy or motor action plan that the players establish with their teammates to overcome their rivals. ...
... Emotions are a key factor to reveal the meaning of the motor conducts of the protagonists (Parlebas, 1969). This study confirms that by using the fundamentals of the science of motor action we can show part of the mystery that hides the putting into action the internal logic of any TSG, in general (Lagardera et al., 2018;Lavega et al, 2020), and in particular by playing Marro game. ...
Full-text available
Tamamı İngilizce olan bu kitap, 04 Nisan 2021 tarihinde Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University - Traditional Game and Sports Research Institute önderliğinde; United Nations (UN), World Ethnosport Confederation (WEC), Washington Bowie State University paydaşlarıyla birlikte "Impacts of Traditional Sports and Games on Global Peace and Development During and After COVİD-19 /Geleneksel Spor ve Oyunların COVİD-19 Sırasında ve Sonrasında Küresel Barış ve Kalkınma Üzerindeki Etkileri" konulu yapılan panelde sunulan bildirilerden oluşmaktadır. Geleneksel spor ve oyunların sosyal küresel ve bölgesel dayanışma ve bütünleşmedeki rolünü göstermektedir.
... El primero porque se potencia la cooperación, el trabajo en equipo, las interacciones sociales y la toma de decisiones para el beneficio del grupo. Un ejemplo de ello se puede ver en diferentes JDT como "El Marro" (Lavega-Burgués et al., 2020;Martín-Martínez et al., 2021), o el juego de la "pelota aliada", donde se trabaja la interacción intergrupos generando un clima positivo entre equipos antagonistas (Navarro-Adelantado y Pic, 2016). El segundo porque promueve la igualdad de género, bien mediante el cambio de roles o favoreciendo entornos libres de estereotipos deportivos o, también, mediante los juegos paradójicos, donde se alternan posiciones de rivalidad y cooperación que ayudan en el bienestar relacional y emocional entre géneros Lavega-Burgués et al., 2022;Muñoz-Arroyave et al., 2021;Pic et al.,2019). ...
Full-text available
Resumen El acceso al deporte universitario en personas con discapacidad es una cuestión por visibilizar. Esto se ha convertido en un problema para los estudiantes universitarios que, a menudo, encuentran dificultades para su acceso debido, entre otras causas, a la falta de información y formación de las propias instituciones. El objetivo de este estudio se centra en analizar cómo es el acceso y las limitaciones en la práctica deportiva para estudiantes universitarios con discapacidad en la Universidad de León. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se ha utilizado la técnica de encuesta mediante la administración de un cuestionario a 40 estudiantes con discapacidad de la Universidad de León. Los resultados analizan cuatro bloques: 1-Número de universitarios con discapacidad que realizan práctica deportiva, 2-Acceso al deporte en personas con discapacidad en la Universidad de León, 3-Recursos disponibles para realizar deporte adaptado, y 4-Factores facilitadores y barreras para acceder al deporte adaptado. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó el programa JASP realizando estadística descriptiva y correlacional. Las discusiones y conclusiones se centran en la necesidad de promover una mayor difusión sobre el acceso al deporte en personas con discapacidad. Palabras clave Educación Superior; inclusión; deporte; discapacidad.
... Para aplicar el análisis de T-Patterns, eran eliminadas las series de frecuencias repetidas en más de una ocasión seguida (Lavega-Burgués et al., 2020). ...
Full-text available
Se adopta un enfoque multidimensional de 360º, basado en situaciones naturales, para estudiar dos partidas del juego 'El Marro' (JDT), con una participación asimétrica de las/los jugadoras/es (24 participantes; M = 19.4; SD = 1.3). Una vez obtenidos indicadores fiables de calidad de los datos, se realizaron análisis descriptivos, predictivos (Modelo Chaid) y análisis de patrones temporales (TPatterns). Los resultados mostraron que los hombres emplearon una velocidad superior a la de las mujeres (p < .001). Además, el rol jugado por los participantes se reveló como la variable explicativa principal en el modelo Chaid (p < .001). Mediante el análisis de T-Patterns, se identificaron diferentes niveles de complejidad en la interpretación del juego por parte de las/los jugadoras/es. Específicamente, de los 12 jugadores/as analizados, 8 (2 chicas y 6 chicos) revelaron un nivel de complejidad 3, mientras que 4 chicos superaron estos niveles de complejidad. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el rol jugado puede ser una herramienta para modular variables orgánicas que caracterizan las diferencias entre mujeres y hombres.
... One of the possible approaches of our study can be done by the 360 • approach used (Lavega-Burgués et al., 2020;Martín-Martínez et al., 2021). Through an observational methodology and T-Patterns, we could find out differences pre-post test throughout the temporal distributions events (Pic et al., 2022). ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Swimming is composed of several phases. One of them is done underwater in apnea. Although this phase takes an important part of the performance, it is not taught much because of the risk it entails. At the same time, learning apnea can reduce the fear of immersion and, thus, reduce the number of drownings. The pedagogy used in this paper comes from game theory. This paper tested an apnea game based on the agreement between self-prediction and realization of the task. Methods: Considering the preliminary level of the 33 sports students involved, the game offered two choices: swimming apnea over 15 or 20 m with a distribution of payoffs depending on the actual achievement (15 m estimated and less than 20 m performed = + 3 points; 15 m estimated and at least 20 m realized = + 1 points; 20 m predicted and less than 20 m realized = + 2 points; 20 m estimated and at least 20 m realized = + 4 points). Results and discussion: Concordance was favored over discordance, including in the swimmer’s comfort zone (15 m). Throughout six apneas the results showed that the structure of this game supports the improvement of the estimation of the distances swum. The “Concordance Game” could be offered in Physical Education or in a sports club to learn to swim a longer distance below the surface without forcing.
... This game is played in teams consisting of two or more teams. In the game Bola Boy, one person is determined to keep the pile of stones, while the other takes turn to throw the ball at the pile of stones until it collapses [36]. When the pile falls, the keeper must pick up the ball and throw it to his playmate. ...
Full-text available
Teachers must develop learning tools that can assist students in making it easier to follow the course of learning and improve students' abilities. Teachers can integrate local wisdom into learning tools that will have an impact on increasing student competence. The purpose of this research is to produce learning tools based on local wisdom that is suitable for use. The learning tools developed to consist of the lesson plan, student worksheets, and Android media. Based on the results of the feasibility assessment by several validators consisting of two experts, two physics teachers, and three colleagues, the learning tools developed are in a good category and are suitable for use with an average score between 3.80 to 4.40. Furthermore, 30 students tested the product to determine the readability of the product, namely android media as a learning media. Based on the results of the product trial analysis, it is known that the android media product is in the very good category and is worthy of being used as a learning resource on a larger scale with an average score of 4.10. This learning tool can be used as an alternative to contextual physics learning guidelines.
... Investigations on the decisional background of team sports players were conducted in the past, utilizing several approaches that help grasp the various components of decisions [10,12]. Amongst the emerging investigation approaches, psychophenomenology begins with a subject's very own point of view. ...
Full-text available
Purpose. Decision-making is the process through which players choose the most appropriate action to perform in the play. Previous investigations did not clearly portray the specific decisional background of learning players considering the progressing state of their capabilities and game knowledge. The study aimed to describe significant information picked up in situ and how young soccer players applied it to make decisions in the play. Methods. Three male soccer players aged 14 years were interviewed after 2 official district championship games in Portugal. Their games were filmed; the video sequences showing offensive actions were extracted and edited for visualization. before questioning, each sequence was visualized for recalling the game actions. The explicitation interview technique was used to help the athletes describe in detail their recalled actions. In line with the recommendation in similar studies, a content analysis of the interviews was conducted to identify the decisional background and the links between elements of information picked up in situ and the decision itself. Results. The players did not perform a detailed judgement for every decision and were influenced by direct constraints such as opponent pressure. In contrast, they occasionally assessed risks and opportunities emerging in the game depending on their colleagues' actions and the pitch zone. At times, they relied on their imagination of what their teammates would do with the action outcome. Conclusions. Key elements of the decisional background are common among learning players and can be used as a reference for further investigation or practical intervention in game teaching. Citation: Petiot GH, bagatin r, Mouchet A. Describing the tactical knowledge used by young competitive soccer players: a psychophenomenological analysis. Hum Mov.
The traditional sporting games (TSGs) correspond to a set of signs full of meanings, which come to life through the motor behaviors of the players as they participate in its semiotic semantics. As a result of this exchange, interpersonal conflicts may emerge because of each person’s semiotic interpretation of the sociomotor dynamics of the game. This research aimed to analyze the comments of intense negative emotions that arise in conflicts of a praxical nature (motor conflict) in a TSG, in its different parts (generating agent, conflict response), and in the motor interventions of its protagonists (conflict management). A total of 160 university students ( M age = 20.49, SD = 2.28) participated in a competitive sociomotor traditional sporting game of cooperation-opposition: the Marro. At the end of the practice, all answered the validated GES-II questionnaire. Subsequently, a content analysis of 480 comments was performed using ATLAS.ti 8.4 software. The conclusion of this work verifies the existence of different levels of meaning in the semiotic experience, that originate interpersonal conflicts in traditional sporting games. Considering the multidimensional network of signs and meanings that emerge in any game will help to understand the meaning of the protagonists’ conflictive motor conducts.
Full-text available
Este texto apresenta a entrevista realizada com o Pere Lavega-Burgués, uma das pessoas mais influentes na promoção e salvaguarda dos jogos e esportes tradicionais (JETs) no mundo. É professor do Instituto Nacional de Educação Física da Catalunha da Universidade de Lleida/Espanha, membro do Comitê Consultivo da Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura (UNESCO) e presidente da Associação Europeia de Jogos e Esportes Tradicionais (AEJeST). A entrevista está centrada na sua atuação à frente da AEJeST, Organização não Governamental de caráter continental que atua para o reconhecimento dos JETs como Patrimônio Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade, por meio da formação de redes locais, nacionais e continentais; da promoção de eventos, festivais e formações pedagógicas; do desenvolvimento de pesquisas; da produção de materiais pedagógicos; e da intervenção em instituições globais, tais como a International Traditional Sports an Games Association e a UNESCO. Reconhecer, salvaguardar e nutrir o patrimônio cultural é fator essencial nos processos educativos e na continuidade de grupos sociais minoritários e ancestrais.
Full-text available
05 Editorial: Traditional Sporting Games and Play: Enhancing Cultural Diversity, Emotional Well-Being, Interpersonal Relationships and Intelligent Decisions Pere Lavega-Burgués, Marco Antonio Coelho Bortoleto and Miguel Pic 10 Book Review: The Story of Catch: The Story of Lancashire Catch-as-Catch-Can Wrestling Kazimierz Waluch 12 Book Review: La Aventura Praxiológica. Ciencia, Acción y Educación Física Maria Pilar Founaud and Asier Oiarbide 15 Book Review: Éléments de Sociologie du Sport Bordes Pascal 17 Book Review: Recreios Collegiaes Mário Duarte Maia Rodrigues 19 Sports Teaching, Traditional Games, and Understanding in Physical Education: A Tale of Two Stories Raúl Martínez-Santos, María Pilar Founaud, Astrid Aracama and Asier Oiarbide 31 The Universals of Games and Sports Pierre Parlebas 43 The Blows and Capoeira Movements From the Caricatures of Calixto Cordeiro Paulo Coêlho Araújo and Ana Rosa Jaqueira 51 Book Review: Games and Society in Europa Bartosz Prabucki 53 Joy in Movement: Traditional Sporting Games and Emotional Experience in Elementary Physical Education Verónica Alcaraz-Muñoz, María Isabel Cifo Izquierdo, Gemma Maria Gea García, José Ignacio Alonso Roque and Juan Luis Yuste Lucas 64 Book Review: Contribution à un Lexique Commenté en Science de l’Action Motrice Zhaïra Ben Chaâbane 66 Book Review: Els jocs i els esports Tradicionals. Tradicionari. [The Traditional Games and Sports. Traditionari] Gabriel Pubill 69 Book Review: La paradoja de jugar en tríada. El juego motor en tríada Raúl Martínez-Santos 71 The Commemoration of Independence Day: Recalling Indonesian Traditional Games Mustika Fitri, Hana Astria Nur and Wulandari Putri 79 The Game of Skittles on the Northern Route of the Camino de Santiago José E. Rodríguez-Fernández, Mar Lorenzo-Moledo, Jesús García-Álvarez and Gabriela Míguez-Salina 93 Influence of Traditional Sporting Games on the Development of Creative Skills in Team Sports. The Case of Football Alexandre Oboeuf, Sylvain Hanneton, Joséphine Buffet, Corinne Fantoni and Lazhar Labiadh 105 Student Moods Before and After Body Expression and Dance Assessments. Gender Perspective Mercè Mateu, Silvia Garcías, Luciana Spadafora, Ana Andrés and Eulàlia Febrer 118 Playing Ludomotor Activities in Lleida During the Spanish Civil War: An Ethnomotor Approach Enric Ormo-Ribes, Pere Lavega-Burgués, Rosa Rodríguez-Arregi, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Aaron Rillo-Albert and Miguel Pic 128 Traditional Sporting Games as Emotional Communities: The Case of Alcover and Moll’s Catalan–Valencian–Balearic Dictionary Antoni Costes, Jaume March-Llanes, Verónica Muñoz-Arroyave, Sabrine Damian-Silva, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Cristòfol Salas-Santandreu, Miguel Pic and Pere Lavega-Burgués 137 Traditional Sports and Games: Intercultural Dialog, Sustainability, and Empowerment Soraia Chung Saura and Ana Cristina Zimmermann 148 The Effect of Traditional Opposition Games on University Students’ Mood States: The Score and Group Type as Key Aspects María Isabel Cifo Izquierdo, Verónica Alcaraz-Muñoz, Gemma Maria Gea-García, Juan Luis Yuste-Lucas and José Ignacio Alonso Roque 159 Traditional Games as Cultural Heritage: The Case of Canary Islands (Spain) From an Ethnomotor Perspective Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Pere Lavega-Burgués, Sabrine Damian-Silva, Queralt Prat, Unai Sáez de Ocáriz, Enric Ormo-Ribes and Miguel Pic 170 The Emotional States Elicited in a Human Tower Performance: Case Study Sabrine Damian-Silva, Carles Feixa, Queralt Prat, Rafael Luchoro-Parrilla, Miguel Pic, Aaron Rillo-Albert, Unai Sáez de Ocáriz, Antoni Costes and Pere Lavega-Burgués 181 New Images for Old Symbols: Meanings That Children Give to a Traditional Game Alfonso García-Monge, Henar Rodríguez-Navarro and Daniel Bores-García 191 Emotional Well-Being and Traditional Cypriot Easter Games: A Qualitative Analysis Christiana Koundourou, Markella Ioannou, Chara Stephanou, Maria Paparistodemou, Theodora Katsigari, Georgios Tsitsas and Kyriaki Sotiropoulou
Full-text available
This work, which was started in the early 1970s, was inspired by social interaction analysis based on direct observation and careful coding of behaviors according to a list of behavioral (mostly ethological) categories, especially the ethological work of N. Tinbergen, K. Lorenz, and K. von Frisch, for which they shared a Nobel Prize in 1973 in Medicine or Physiology but also H. Montagner’s ethological analyses of interactions in social insects and children. S. Duncan’s psychological and linguistic research on turn-taking in human interactions provided great inspiration, and so did Chomsky’s work on syntactic structure and Skinner’s probabilistic real-time functional analysis and their consequent debate. A hypothesis concerning numerous kinds of temporal and spatial natural and especially biological structures, the T-pattern is a hierarchical self-similar fractal-like structure that recurs with significant translational symmetry on a single discrete dimension, initially real time. It also points to profound self-similarity across many levels of biological spatio-temporal organization, as it seems characteristic of molecular structures such as genes and a multitude of recurrent motives on DNA and its 3D generalization corresponding to (3D) folded proteins. Developed initially to facilitate empirical analysis, the T-pattern and its detection algorithms were first presented in AI (Magnusson, 1981) and Applied Statistics (Magnusson, 1983) through THEME (3 k Fortran IV) software using an evolution algorithm. It is now over 300 k lines of code, runs under Windows, and, more recently, uses parallel processing for increased speed. This has allowed abundant detection of hidden structure in numerous kinds of biological phenomena at highly varied scales, from human behavior at timescales of days (Hirschenhauser et al., 2002; Hirschenhauser and Frigerio, 2005) to interactions of many individual neurons simultaneously registered at a temporal resolution of 10–6 s in neuronal networks in rat brains to ongoing work on T-patterns in DNA molecules at a spatial nano-scale. T-pattern detection and analysis (TPA) thus mix qualitative and quantitative analyses, as T-patterns themselves are artificial categories composed of recurring coding categories with special real-scale statistical relations between their instances. After their detection, T-patterns are thus analyzed much as are other behavioral categories.
Full-text available
Background: the aim of the present study was to identify the temporal and notational performance differences between elite men's and women's badminton players according to match type and set. Methods: the sample was composed of 60 men's and 60 women's matches classified by match type or duration: short (lower quartile), long (upper quartile) and regular matches (interquartile range). Temporal and notational variables were analysed for each match and compared between sexes accounting for match duration. Results: greater intensity for most variables (i.e., rally time, rest time, density, and strokes per match/rally) was exhibited in men's matches compared with women's matches (i.e., higher frequency between strokes). In addition, the greater intensity for men compared to women was more pertinent during long matches (13 significant variables) and less evident during short matches (six significant variables). Point outcome displayed similar trends for each sex during matches with more winners for men's players when serving and more unforced errors for women's players. Lastly, based on each match type, fewer sex differences were noted during sets 2 and 3, as the match progressed. Conclusion: men's players performed at a greater intensity than women's players for different match and set contexts, with this sex difference enhanced when controlling for match type and set. The development of sex- and match-specific scenarios will assist coaches and trainers in the design of specific training drills to enhance the athletic performance of elite badminton players.
Full-text available
Objective: This systematic mixed study review, focuses on the use of observation methodology in elite men's football matches, which constitutes an innovative approach, that opens up a new panorama of useful and productive research. Method: The methods used in this study follow the recommendations for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The search was carried out in five databases. Ninety-four articles out of 3,195 were selected and analyzed. In order to achieve a quality assessment, the guide was used to inform evaluations based on observation methodology (GREOM) (Portell et al., 2015), recognized by the EQUATOR network. Results: From the methodological review analysis, information obtained indicates that 97% of the researches used direct observation and 3% indirect observation. On the other hand, 56.5% of the articles explain the instrument used and 77% justify the applied observational design. A quantitative comparison of the proportions was made in several methodological aspects, which resulted in only 15.21% reviewing the quality of the data, and that 67.3% of the articles contributed to the mixed methods approach. The methodological review allowed us to establish procedural profiles. The results indicate that 67% of the articles have been published in English, and of these, 77% were published in journals that have an impact factor. The majority of the researchers, 53.26%, belong to Spanish entities. The most studied substantive aspects were goal (34%), possession of the ball (28%), and corner (27%). The most observed events were Leagues, World Cups, individual players and other events. Conclusions: The results obtained refer to both substantive and methodological aspects and allow us to configure a systematic review of mixed studies, in which we emphasize the aspects of a “systematic review” and a “mixed study,” within an integrated perspective.
Full-text available
Temporal pattern analysis is an advanced multivariate technique able to investigate the structure of behavior by unveiling the existence of statistically significant constraints among the interval length separating events in sequence. If on the one hand, such an approach allows investigating the behavioral response to pain in its most intimate and inner features, on the other hand, due to the meaning of the studies on pain, it is of relevant importance that the results utilize intuitive and easily comprehensible ways of representation. The aim of this paper is to show various procedures useful to represent the results originating from the multivariate T-pattern analysis of the behavioral response to pain in Wistar rats tested in a hot-plate and IP injected morphine or saline as a control.
Full-text available
Objective: With the underlying rationale that social identification is related to psychological health and well-being, we aimed to understand how social connections and group structure within college club sport teams relate to students' perceptions of social identification. Method: We sampled 852 student-athletes from 35 intact same-sex college club sport teams. Using social network analyses derived from teammates' reports of connections with one another (i.e., time spent outside of sport, and teammate friendships), we computed: outdegree centrality (i.e., self-reported connections with teammates), indegree centrality (i.e., nominations from others), and group-level density. Multilevel models were fit to test the relative effects of outdegree centrality, indegree centrality, and group-level team density on athletes' social identification strength. Results: Outdegree centrality, indegree centrality, and team density were all positively related to the strength of athletes' social identification with their sport team. Examining model results step-by-step, incoming nominations of social connections (i.e., indegree) were associated with social identification beyond the effects of self-reported outdegree centrality. Furthermore, team-level density was significantly related to social identification after accounting for the individual-level effects of centrality. Conclusion: Sport is a domain where participants can build social connections with peers, and sport groups offer a salient source for social identification. The current findings indicate that athletes who have greater social connections with teammates may form a stronger sense of social identification. Alongside theoretical contributions to a social identity approach to studying small groups, the current study highlights the utility of studying small groups using social network methodologies.
Full-text available
Due to the complexityof research objects, theoretical concepts, and stimuli in media research, researchers in psychology and communications presumably need sophisticated measures beyond self-report scales to answer research questions on media use processes. The present study evaluates stimulus-dependent structure in spontaneous eye-blink behavior as an objective, corroborative measure for the media use phenomenon of spatial presence. To this end, a mixed methods approach is used in an experimental setting to collect, combine, analyze, and interpret data from standardized participant self-report, observation of participant behavior, and content analysis of the media stimulus. T-pattern detection is used to analyze stimulus-dependent blinking behavior, and this structural data is then contrasted with self-report data. The combined results show that behavioral indicators yield the predicted results, while self-report data shows unpredicted results that are not predicted by the underlying theory. The use of a mixed methods approach offered insights that support further theory development and theory testing beyond a traditional, mono-method experimental approach.
Full-text available
The first step in a behavioral study is represented by the organization of a suitable ethogram, that is, a formal description of individual components of the behavior. Then, each component of such a behavioral repertoire can be quantified (e.g., how many times it occurs, its duration, percent distribution, latency, etc.). However, it is our contention that the possibility to describe the behavior of a living being by means of hundreds or even thousands of numbers concerning isolated components, disjointed from the comprehensive behavioral architecture, does not imply the possibility to use those numbers to reconstruct the meaning of behavior. Such a level of comprehension requires a qualitative approach based on the analysis of behavioral structure and its underlying dynamics. By means of synergic utilization of quantitative and qualitative data a more complete description of a given behavior becomes available. In present study we discuss results obtained from observations of feeding behavior in two groups of male Wistar rats: a control group, under standard diet, and a second group, under hyperglycidic one. Results have been presented both in terms of quantitative evaluations and in terms of structural/qualitative ones, the latter obtained by means of T-pattern detection and analysis. As to quantitative results, mean durations showed a significant reduction of Walking and Feeding and an increase of Hind-Paw Licking and Body Grooming; concerning mean occurrences, a significant increase of Front-Paw Licking, Hind-Paw Licking, and Body Grooming was present; percent distributions showed significant reductions for Walking and Feeding and a significant increase for all grooming activities. As to qualitative assessments, T-pattern analysis unveiled a clear-cut behavioral reorganization induced by the hyperglycidic diet. If on the one hand, 50 different T-patterns were detected in subjects under standard diet, on the other hand, 703 different T-patterns were discovered in animals under hyperglycidic treatment, with a highly significant increase of mean lengths and a significant reduction of mean occurrences of T-patterns. Synergic evaluation of results in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects shows, in rats fed with hyperglycidic diet, an increased anxiety condition, likely dependent on food-related stimuli and suggestive of a pervasive craving-related behavior.
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to identify and differentiate the factors that determine the possession times of successful and unsuccessful elite football teams, with the purpose of identifying a more effective possession model. For this, match corresponding to the round of eighth-finals, quarter-finals, semi-finals and final of the 2016 UEFA Euro France in which 2,636 offensive sequences occurred, were analyzed. Video recordings of matches were analyzed and coded post-event using systematic observation. The performance indicators recorded and analyzed were: phase; match period; type of start-up; interaction context; intention; field zone; possession time, passes, attack outcome; match status and final outcome. An ANOVA was performed to analyze data in order to study the influence of a set of variables. A Box–Cox transformation was applied on the variable explained to achieve normal conditions. A study of the main effects and significant interactions was also carried out, complemented with a set of predictions with the variables that were more significant. It is hypothesized that possession analysis from a mixed methods perspective will identify a more effective offensive playstyle. Results show how, in successful teams, possession time is influenced by: Type of start-up, intention and field zone. On the other hand, in unsuccessful teams, possession time is determined fundamentally by intention and match status. In terms of the results of the predictive models, in the case of successful teams, they will have longer possessions in the offensive zone with the score in favor and, in the defensive zone with a draw score, in both situations, initiated with the intention of progressing by means of a transition. For unsuccessful teams, possessions will be of longer duration in the defensive zone with a draw score, regardless of the type of start-up and, in the offensive zone, losing and initiating the play by means of a set ball action and winning by means of a transition. Results obtained in this work identify key factors that determine possession time in teams and allow to differentiate the possessions of successful and unsuccessful teams, identifying a more effective ball possession model. This information can be used to design a possession model with greater probabilities of success and increase the offensive performance of teams.
Aim of the present review is to offer an outline of the application of T-pattern analysis (TPA) in the study of neurological disorders characterized by anomalies of movement and, more in general, of behavior. TPA is a multivariate technique to detect real time patterns of behavior on the basis of statistically significant constraints among the events in sequence. TPA is particularly suitable to analyse the structure of behavior. The application of TPA to study movement and behavioral disorders is able to offer, with a high level of detail, hidden characteristics of behavior otherwise impossible to detect. For its intrinsic features, TPA is completely different not only from quantitative evaluations of behavior such as assessments of frequencies, durations, percent distributions etc. of individual behavioral components, but also from the largest extent of multivariate approaches based, for instance, on the analysis of transition matrices. Various applications of TPA in the study of behavior in human patients and in animal models of neurological disorders are discussed. TPA is a suitable tool to study the movement and behavioral disorders. This review represents a useful background for researchers, therapists, physicians etc. who intend to use this technique.
Background: No existing instrument addresses the minimum number of items that guarantee methodological quality in studies based on observational methodology. Consequently, professionals who are not experts in observational methodology do not have a basic framework to guide their practice in this type of study. This study developed a checklist to measure the minimum number of items for methodological quality that studies based on observational methodology should consider and provided evidence of their validity based on test content and intercoder reliability. Method: Fifty-four judges with at least 1 year of experience in observational methodology and research based on this methodology evaluated the items of the developed checklist in terms of relevance, usefulness, and feasibility. Items were selected if they obtained at least .5 in the Osterlind indexes of the three aspects evaluated. Two coders applied the selected items to a random selection of articles that used observational methodology to investigate soccer, and intercoder reliability was examined using Cohen’s kappa (k) coefficients. Results: The final checklist included 16 items grouped into 11 criteria/dimensions, with adequate reliability coefficients. Conclusions: This study developed a useful instrument for non-expert professionals to enhance the methodological quality of studies based on observational methodology.