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Abstract

In high pressure situations, individuals may perform well below expectations. This is called “choking under pressure” and we study it in the context of a competitive sports environment. We construct a unique dataset on archery to study whether performance deteriorates at the end of a match, when two players compete in a tiebreak. Our results suggest that pressure plays a key role: overall performance deteriorates in the tiebreak. This effect is even more pronounced in the tiebreak of the most important tournaments, but only for women.

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... As a result, fin swimmers are always in a state of high tension and intensity, which puts a lot of psychological stress on them [20]. Without strong resilience and willpower, athletes will not be able to overcome their fears [21], which may lead to poor performance in training or competition, or even physical and mental trauma. ...
... It aids and enhances the memory of physical movements and behaviors by replaying the memory in the brain to simulate and reconstruct the scene of the competition. Imagery training simulates actual behaviors and feelings, accumulates real experiences, and stores them in the consciousness [20], which helps to improve mental abilities, enhance motor fluency and autonomy [21,22], and improve performance failure and psychological stress in highly stressful and intense environments for athletes. In addition, imagery training can help subjects to re-establish motivation for participation [23]. ...
... Enhancing athletic performance and achieving excellence are the ideals and goals of athletes in sports [21]. However, the intense competition [59] and the high intensity of sports can affect the psychological status of athletes in the sports arena, resulting in stress, anxiety, and loss of concentration [45]. ...
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This study analyzed the effects of imagery training on athletes’ imagery ability, physical anxiety and athletic performance. This study employed a mixed research approach. Snowball sampling was used to select 55 fin swimmers with imagery training experience and formal competition participation. Basic statistics were obtained, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0, and the results were compared with the opinions of three experts and were tested using multivariate validation methods. The results revealed that although imagery training can help athletes improve their performance and significantly reduce their anxiety during the competition, athletes can still make mistakes due to internal and environmental factors and even have negative thoughts that lead to their reduced likelihood of competition participation. By strengthening strategic and technical imagery training, we can help our fin swimmers perform at a higher level, achieve their goals, and improve overall satisfaction with their competition process and performance.
... У стрільбі з лука психологічний тиск відіграє ключову роль, про що говорять дослідження А. Буссіола та А. Кастагнетті (Bucciol & Castagnetti, 2020): загальна ефективність стрільби особливо погіршується у додатковому часі (tiebreak) як для чоловіків, так і для жінок. Цей ефект ще більш виражений у додатковий час найважливіших турнірів, але лише для жінок. ...
Article
The objective is analysis and evaluation of the psychological training component in the long-term archery training system in different countries at the present sport development stage. Materials and methods. Theoretical review of scientific and educational sources, their systematization, comparison, and results generalization were done. Through the Internet search engines Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google, scientific and educational publications were searched for "archery" and "psychological training" in different languages: Ukrainian, English, Korean, Italian, Russian, German, French. 90 sources were found, of which 65 were relevant to the subject. Results. Only in archery psychological training is not allocated to a separate type of long-term training for complex coordination sports in Ukraine. In all countries that were winners of the last Olympic Games, psychological training has been systematically introduced into the sport training of archers. Ukraine, where psychological training has not been implemented, was the last to win in 2008. Archery is a sport that differs significantly from others in monotony, subtle, slow, and low motor activity, as well as contradictions in physiological reserves management, including energy, which must be mobilized without a significant increase in heart rate and sweating. Archers face specific psychological problems, namely, "target panic". The key psychological qualities that are in demand in archery involve "4C" complex – Control, Challenge, Commitment and Confidence, and mastery of coping strategies to overcome aversive states in sports. Also important is the development of various attention types. Psychological assistance to an archer should include proven methods of cognitive and emotional control skills training. Conclusions. The development of psychological training component can help to improve results of Ukrainian national archery teams, and it is important to include it in the sport’s training plan at all stages of athlete’s long-term training.
... Such literature indicates that individuals respond differently to social pressure (e.g., Lynn and Starbuck, 2015) and the social setting itself (e.g., Galam, 1997;Lunenburg, 2010). More systematically, gender differences exist concerning the impact of pressure on performance as women's performance declines more under pressure (e.g., Shurchkov, 2012;Harb-Wu and Krumer, 2019;Bucciol and Castagnetti, 2020). ...
... To date, very little investigation carried out in a field setting has examined the anxiety characteristics of elite international archers. As previous research mentioned (Bucciol & Castagnetti, 2020), archery is an ideal setting to investigate performance deterioration by gender due to pressure. This is because the same action is performed by archers regardless of their sex and, most importantly, archery is an individual sport, in which an archer's own action is not affected by others. ...
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This study compares the levels of felt arousal and cognitive anxiety between male and female archers across different competition stages. Fifty-seven professional recurve archers (28 men, 29 women) who participated in the Asian Archery Championships were recruited as participants. Their levels of felt arousal and cognitive anxiety were recorded during the stages of qualifying, individual elimination, and team competition using the Sport Grid-Revised. The results showed no sex-based differences in competitive anxiety when competition stages were considered. However, the female archers demonstrated higher levels of felt arousal and cognitive anxiety than the male archers across the different stages. Further, all archers regardless of sex showed higher cognitive anxiety in the individual elimination and team competition stages than the qualifying stage. The findings show sex-based differences in felt arousal and cognitive anxiety before competitions. In addition, increasing cognitive anxiety is likely associated with fundamental differences in levels of competition pressure at various stages of a match. It seems beneficial for athletes to focus on reducing gender stereotypes through preventive interventions and developing effective coping strategies toward competitive anxiety.
... Based on the sport characteristics, we choose five typical sports as the studying objects, including basketball, swimming, tennis, taekwondo, and archery. Skill-oriented sports include basketball in the same field [13], tennis across the net [14], taekwondo in fighting [15], and archery in performance accuracy [16]. Swimming is chosen by the class dominated by physical ability [17]. ...
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This work studied the health promotion by the typical sports using self-efficacy and sports commitment questionnaires for 804 teenagers, who were from different interest-oriented sport classes. Five typical interest-oriented sport classes were selected due to the difference in sport characteristics: basketball, swimming, tennis, taekwondo, and archery. Statistical analyses, ANOVA analysis, and multiple comparisons (with least significant difference, LSD) were applied to the collected data. It has been found that boys and girls have similar self-efficacy of adolescent sports health. Adolescents' self-efficacy of sports health has significant differences among different sports items, where the basketball group scored the highest. Adolescents in the professional level have the highest self-efficacy of sports health, whereas the skillful level and beginner level have no significant difference. The male students are more enthusiastic and fond of sports than female students. There are significant differences between sports commitment and sports health of adolescents in different sports, where the basketball group scored the highest. Exercise induces higher score of sports commitment; however, no significant difference is observed for the skillful level and the beginner level. The significant positive correlation is found between sports health and self-efficacy and sports commitment, self-efficacy, and sports commitment. Besides, the role of self-efficacy is partial intermediary between sports health and sports commitment.
... We are unable to say whether this was the case but regardless our results add to existing research (Fuccillo et al., 2015;Katrak-Adeforowa et al., 2020) that indicates high accuracy levels can be achieved through low-input training methods. The improved accuracy may reflect the fact that some people perform worse under pressure (Toma, 2017;Bucciol and Castagnetti, 2020) and being in the presence of experts at public workshops may decrease participants' confidence in their abilities and their accuracy. This is similar to the 'white coat syndrome' (Pioli et al., 2018) where some people experience higher blood pressure in a clinical environment than they do in other settings, such as their home. ...
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• Citizen science is widely used in ecological research. Data verification of citizen collected data continues to be an issue, and confirming accurate species identification reported by citizens can be especially difficult. • Here, we determine the efficacy of using remote learning to identify UK social wasp (Vespinae) species. Citizen scientists (N = 559) collected wasps and identified specimens to species level using a series of online videos and support material. • A pre- and post-identification questionnaire, and a post-identification assessment test, obtained both qualitative and quantitative data for engagement and changes in identification skills. Some (13.5%) of the participants sent their samples in for expert verification of species identification. • Self-assessed skill ratings increased from 2.2/5 pre-identification to 3.5/5 post-identification process. Identification accuracy was high, with 85.6% of assessment test images and 96% of the verified specimens being identified correctly. In previous years, face-to-face public ID workshops with expert trainers yielded an identification accuracy of 91.3%. Eighty-seven percent of participants reported enjoying the experience and would take part again. • Remote learning of identification skills in non-specialists can produce greater identification accuracy than face-to-face expert-led workshops, with lower resource requirements and enhanced engagement.
... En línea con trabajos anteriores (Bucciol y Castagnetti, 2020;Buceta, 2017;Palmir-Guerrero y Riera-Riera, 2017;Pintanel-Basset et al., 1992, 1994 Tras la intervención llevada a cabo con el deportista, este ha aprendido a manejar la presión en las competiciones deportivas lo que ha sido determinante para una mejora en su rendimiento deportivo. ...
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El presente trabajo muestra una intervención psicológica con un tirador con arco, modalidad poleas, de 22 años de edad. El deportista acudió a consulta con los objetivos de mejorar la fluidez de su disparo, controlar su miedo a fallar y ganar en confianza. Se le instruyó en estrategias como la visualización, el mindfulness, el establecimiento de objetivos, el control del foco atencional y el nivel óptimo de activación durante una temporada deportiva. Se concluye que el deportista no solo alcanza los objetivos que se planteó al acudir al psicólogo deportivo, sino que, además, mejoró en planificación, gestión, afrontamiento y resiliencia, tanto en el ámbito deportivo como personal.
... Fokus diartikan yaitu pada proses bukan hasil, ini merupakan point penting karena pada saat fokus pada proses maka hasil akan mengikuti dari hasil tersebut (Bucciol & Castagnetti, 2020). Pada saat proses dilakukan dengan maksimal dan sungguh-sungguh maka hasil juga pasti bagus (Klein, 2014). ...
... Analyzing CUP in archery, Bucciol and Castagnetti (2020) observe that the players' performance significantly drops in tiebreaks, especially for women in the most prestigious tournament. Likewise, Dilmaghani (2020) finds that time pressure in chess leads to underperformance, especially for female elite players. ...
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... Failing to do so, especially when pressure is high, can result in reduced performance. For example, analyzing a large data set of elimination matches, Bucciol and Castagnetti (2020) found that archers' performance deteriorated in the tiebreak-the most stressful and important phase of the performance. They also found that choking under pressure-a significant and meaningful deterioration of shooting performance under pressure conditions-is highest in the most competitive tournaments. ...
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Choking under pressure is defined as performance decrements under circumstances that increase the importance of good or improved performance. A model for choking on coordination and skill tasks is proposed, holding that the pressure increases the conscious attention to the performer's own process of performance and that this increased conscious attention disrupts the automatic or overlearned nature of the execution. Six experiments provided data consistent with this model. Three studies showed that increased attention to one's own process of performance resulted in performance decrements. Three other studies showed similar decrements produced by situational manipulations of pressure (i.e., implicit competition, a cash incentive, and audience-induced pressure). Individuals low in dispositional self-consciousness were shown to be more susceptible to choking under pressure than those high in it.
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In 3 experiments, supportive audiences were associated with unexpected performance decrements (i.e., "choking" under pressure). On a difficult, skill-based task, participants were more likely to fail when observed by supportive audiences than when observed by nonsupportive audiences. When the criterion for success was easy, supportive audiences had no effect. With a difficult criterion, supportive audiences elicited cautious, protective strategies that were associated with poor performance: Speed decreased without improving accuracy. Despite impairments caused by supportive audiences, performers found supportive audiences more helpful and less stressful than neutral or adversarial audiences, and participants believed (wrongly) that they performed better with a supportive audience. Results suggest that people are not aware of debilitating effects of supportive audiences and may opt for emotional comfort rather than objective success.
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This paper uses data from nine tennis Grand Slam tournaments played between 2005 and 2007 to assess whether men and women respond differently to competitive pressure in a setting with large monetary rewards. In particular, it asks whether the quality of the game deteriorates as the stakes become higher. The paper conducts two parallel analyses, one based on aggregate set-level data, and one based on detailed point-by-point data, which is available for a selected subsample of matches in four of the nine tournaments under examination. The set-level analysis indicates that both men and women perform less well in the final and decisive set of the match. This result is robust to controls for the length of the match and to the inclusion of match and player-specific fixed effects. The drop in performance of women in the decisive set is slightly larger than that of men, but the difference is not statistically significant at conventional levels. On the other hand, the detailed point-by-point analysis reveals that, relative to men, women are substantially more likely to make unforced errors at crucial junctures of the match. Data on serve speed, on first serve percentages and on rally length suggest that women play a more conservative and less aggressive strategy as points become more important. I present a simple game-theoretic model that shows that a less aggressive strategy may be a player’s best response to an increase in the intrinsic probability of making unforced errors.
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High rewards or the threat of severe punishment provide strong motivation but also create psychological pressure, which might induce performance decrements. By analyzing the performance of professional football players in penalty kick situations, the paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of detrimental incentive effects. Two pressure variables are considered in particular: (1) the importance of success and (2) the presence of spectators. There are plenty of situations in which pressure arises in the workplace. Knowing how individuals perform under pressure conditions is crucial because it has implications for the design of the workplace and the design of incentive schemes.
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