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The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria

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Abstract

Background The impact of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the governmental restrictions on mental health have been reported for different countries. This study evaluated mental health during COVID-19 lockdown in Austria and the effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity. Methods An online survey was performed through Qualtrics® after four weeks of lockdown in Austria to recruit a representative sample regarding gender, age, education, and region. Indicators of mental health were quality of life (WHO-QOL BREF), well-being (WHO-5), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), stress (PSS-10), and sleep quality (ISI). Results In total, N = 1009 individuals were included (52.2% women). 21.1% scored above the cut off ≥10 points (PHQ-9) for moderate depressive symptoms, 18.7% scored above the cut-off ≥10 points (GAD-7) for moderate anxiety symptoms, and 15.8% above the cut-off ≥15 points (ISI) for clinical insomnia. ANOVAs, Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc tests, and t-tests showed highest mental health problems in adults under 35 years, women, people with no work, and low income (all p-values <.05). Conclusions Depressive symptoms (21%) and anxiety symptoms (19%) are higher during COVID-19 compared to previous epidemiological data. 16% rated over the cut-off for moderate or severe clinical insomnia. The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown seems particularly stressful for younger adults (<35 years), women, singles, people without work, and low income.

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... In such global pandemics, with tremendous infrastructural demands, limited medico-psychological resources and underequipped health facilities [13], identifying vulnerable individuals becomes crucial. Although men are twice as likely as women to be infected, hospitalized, and die of COVID-19 [14], women are at higher risk of suffering from mental distress [15], especially during the prolonged quarantine [16]. People below the age of 25-35 or those who have a low educational level [17] experience the pandemic as being significantly more stressful. ...
... Understanding population level changes in health behaviors remains understudied and should be better investigated to apprehend associated costs and potentially optimize management measures. In fact, some cost-efficient lifestyle health behaviors like adequate sleep patterns and physical activity are known to positively correlate with healthier mental functioning [15]. For instance, more efficient sleeping patterns were associated with an overall improved mental and physical well-being [21] and complaints about anxiety and somatic symptoms were diminished in students with healthy nighttime sleep [0]. ...
... The interplay between psychological, financial, and medical statuses is particularly relevant in a country where rising economic adversities have left a large segment with high unemployment rates, below the poverty line [50]. On one hand, those who are jobless or have a low income experience more stress during the pandemic [15] and on the other, those with lower anxiety of contacting the virus, were shown to have inferior concerns about losing their jobs [53]. Either way, the increased daily COVID-19-related stressors in underresourced populations have been well documented [54]. ...
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Background The COVID-19 global pandemic initiated an unprecedented medico-psychological turmoil. Our study investigates the psychological impact of the viral spread and austere lockdown, and focuses mostly on potential protective factors in a politically and economically unstable society. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to evaluate rates of mental distress in a sample of 348 Lebanese adults. Participants filled questionnaires of perceived stress (PSS), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (IES-22), as well as sleep (PSQi) and gratitude (GQ-6) immediately after 3 months of strict quarantine. Demographics included gender, age, employment and infection statuses. Correlations and regression models were used. Results Results indicated a very high prevalence of mental distress, in addition to major alterations in sleep quality and quantity. Younger age and unemployment correlated with more severe symptoms. Sleep was found to be a protective factor against all studied psychological distress, and gratitude further mitigated effects of depression. Conclusions Mental health significantly degrades post-COVID lockdown, even in the absence of direct viral threat. Yet simple behavioral and cognitive changes like sleep and attitude of gratitude could provide protective factors against these psychological distresses. Such changes should be further explored and advocated as cost-efficient self-care practices to buffer this devastating public health burden, especially in unstable socio-political environments.
... U uzorku geekova bilo je manje pojedinaca s niskim prihodima, što je povezano s višim zadovoljstvom životom tijekom pandemije (33), odnosno zbog toga je zadovoljstvo životom u uzorku geekova moglo biti veće. Međutim, u tom je uzorku također bilo i više mlađih sudionika, što je pak povezano s nižim zadovoljstvom životom tijekom pandemije (34,35). Implikacije prijašnjih istraživanja be explained by different motivations for geek activities. ...
... The geek sample had less individuals with low income, characteristic that is related to higher life satisfaction during the pandemic (33), so this might be the reason why life satisfaction in the geek sample was higher. However, it also had more participants of younger age, which is related to lower life satisfaction during the pandemic (34,35). The implications are inconsistent for psychological distress also: younger age of the geek sample za zaključivanje o psihološkoj uznemirenosti su također proturječne: mlađa dob u uzorku geekova implicira da su možda imali više razine simptoma psihičkih poremećaja, no manje sudionika s osnovnom školom i niskim prihodom implicira da su možda u prosjeku imali manje simptoma. ...
... Teško je s velikom točnošću ustvrditi bi li psihičko zdravlje čitavog uzorka bilo različito od tog poduzorka da smo imali sve podatke. Ne znamo je li razlika u dobi (2,5 godine) i manji broj zaposlenih sudionika u poduzorku onih koji nisu uključeni u analize dovoljno da psihičko zdravlje, ako bi se gledao čitav uzorak, bude niže, pogotovo zato jer su proporcije nezaposlenih i sudionika s osnovnom školom, što su oboje izraženiji rizični faktori za psihičko zdravlje tijekom pandemije (34,35), slične u oba poduzorka. ...
... Studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic have strengthened the evidence of the positive impact of physical activity on subjective psychological well-being in the significantly changed psychosocial and environmental conditions as well. The subjective psychological well-being of the inactive population and groups with low physical activity was, on average, more unfavorable than those with higher physical activity [15,52,66,72]. According to these studies, the decrease in physical activity impacts subjective psychological well-being negatively and it is independent of the individual's fitness level [15]. ...
... According to the positive association between the time spent on sports and subjective psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, our results are in line with several other studies [14,15,51,52,[72][73][74][75]. However, in this study, this association was also found in all three waves of the pandemic. ...
... Studies conducted before and during the pandemic have also provided extensive evidence that income and changes in income have a significant influence on mental wellbeing. The subjective psychological well-being of those with lower or decreasing income is worse than that of those with high or increasing income [30,51,72,115,[117][118][119]. This relationship can also be seen in our study, as changes in income was among the three most significantly associated items in each model. ...
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(1) Background: In this study, sport and subjective psychological well-being is investigated in three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: We have conducted three different representative sample surveys (n = 3600 altogether) on the Hungarian adult population and investigated the sample’s subjective psychological well-being with the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, as well as changes in their subjective well-being through the different waves of the pandemic. Sporting habits and socio-economic variables were also surveyed, and OLS regression models were created focused on the WHO-5 measures. (3) Results: The subjective psychological well-being of the Hungarian adult population decreased significantly, but in the second and third wave of pandemic restrictions, an increase in subjective psychological well-being has been measured. The relationships between the time spent on doing sports and subjective psychological well-being were significant in each pandemic waves. The highest subjective psychological well-being and its highest increase were reported by those who could increase their time spent on doing sports as well. (4) Conclusions: The relationships between the sports activities, physical health, size of settlement, changes in income and subjective psychological well-being of the Hungarian adult population were significant in all three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Psychological distress tends to have a detrimental effect on health and represents an increased mortality risk [1]. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological distress and related symptoms (anxiety, depression, and stress) among the general population [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. However, there is limited evidence on the incidence (psychological distressed during but not before the pandemic) and the persistence of psychological distress (during and before the pandemic) [9][10][11]. ...
... Psychological distress was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) [48]. This indicator is based on five questions: 2), "a good bit of the time" (3), "some of the time" (4), "a little of the time" (5), and "none of the time" (6). The scores for questions (c) and (e) were converted into the reverse order, and the points were added (summary score 5-30). ...
... Our study demonstrates that the incidence and persistence of psychological distress during a period including the first 1.5 years of the pandemic was higher among people with disability than among those without. These results extend the previous findings on the general population that mental health problems increased during the pandemic [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Our results complement previous findings that people with disability experienced more psychological distress before and during the COVID-19 pandemic than those without [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] and reported increased stress more often during the pandemic than those without [27]. ...
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Objectives We investigated the incidence (becoming distressed at the follow-up) and persistence (distressed at the baseline and the follow-up) of psychological distress among individuals with and without disability in the period from early 2017 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) to late 2020 (the second wave of the pandemic). Methods We analyzed the population-based FinHealth 2017 survey and its follow-up conducted in 2020 (number of individuals who participated in both surveys: n = 4881; age = 18+). Logistic regressions were applied to investigate differences in the incidence and persistence of psychological distress between people with and without disability. We also investigated whether age, quality of life at the baseline, and perceived increase in loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic moderated the association between disability and the incidence of distress. Results The incidence of psychological distress was higher (OR = 3.01, 95% CI:2.09–4.35) for people with disability (18.9%) than among those without (7.4%), being highest (31.5%) among the youngest participants with disability, aged 18 to 39. People with disability who had a poor quality of life at the baseline were particularly prone to become distressed during the follow-up. People who reported perceived increase in loneliness during the pandemic were prone to become distressed at the follow-up regardless of their disability status. The persistence of distress was more common (OR = 6.00, 95% CI:3.53–10.12) among people with disability (65.7%) than among those without (24.9%). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic had more negative mental health effects on people with disability, especially adults with disability who were young and had a low quality of life before the pandemic.
... One study found increased risk for negative wellbeing via Covid-19 is most strongly associated with factors of being female, being < 45 years old, and having higher education [12]. Further, Etheridge and Spantig 2020 found the effect of Covid-19 on subjective wellbeing to impact women twice as much as men [15]. Several other studies have documented those who identify as women to report disproportionately lowered wellbeing during Covid-19 [15,16]. ...
... Further, Etheridge and Spantig 2020 found the effect of Covid-19 on subjective wellbeing to impact women twice as much as men [15]. Several other studies have documented those who identify as women to report disproportionately lowered wellbeing during Covid-19 [15,16]. However, causative factors for these findings have not been strongly documented [17]. ...
... This [15]. The study showed females to be more susceptible to an overall decline in mental wellbeing than males [15]. ...
Article
Background and aims. - Healthcare workers (HCW) throughout the world have been exposed to economic and existential stress during the Covid-19 pandemic. The American Medical Association (AMA) has documented that increased healthcare burden correlates with increased HCW stress, burnout, and psychological burden. However, limits on personnel, time, and in person interactions make it challenging to assess mental health outcomes during a pandemic. This pilot test case study used virtual technology to efficiently assess these outcomes. Setting. - Data were collected based on voluntary participation in the Coping with Covid-19 for Caregiver’s survey created by AMA. The survey was sent out to approximately 300 participants who included local physicians, medical residents, medical students, and allied health professionals and students who attended a virtual Mental Health Summit. Methods. - The survey was developed by the AMA, and it included questions about demographics, overall stress, fear of infection and transmission of the virus, perceived anxiety or depression due to Covid, work overload, childcare issues, and sense of meaning and purpose. The AMA allows for up to five additional questions to be added to their survey, therefore five questions regarding support service utilization, perseverance, and resilience during Covid-19, and two items to further understand students’ areas of medical interest. The survey was administered using an online platform through the AMA. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results. - There were 81 survey respondents. Based on the results of the survey, “high stress” was found in 52 (64%) participants. 66 (81%) were afraid (moderately or to a great extent) of exposure or transmission, 61 (75%) described high levels of anxiety or depression, and 67 (84%) noted work overload. Despite this increase in stress, most respondents (77%) said they were not likely to reduce their devoted hours in clinical care or research in the next 12 months, and 81% answered that they would not leave their practice or research within two years. Conclusion. - Covid-19 has negatively affected the wellbeing of HCW. This is a similar trend seen during other times of healthcare strain. Mental health support, work modulation, and various provisions should be explored as means to reduce Covid-related negative impacts. The use of online an online summit and online data collection methods were appropriate for collecting data on the impact of Covid on mental health. This pilot study supports the larger scale implementation of this technology for health informatics research.
... Research conducted in different countries has consistently shown that in the first phase of the pandemic, which in all countries was marked by lockdown and very rigorous measures that radically changed the way of life, there was increased depression, anxiety and stress (e.g., Necho et al., 2021;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Parola et al., 2020). In some studies, an increase in the symptoms of trauma and stress-related disorders was also reported (Lotzin et al., 2021;Pieh et al., 2020). The first more complex analyses, as well as somewhat later meta-analyses, showed that the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly affected women, young people (<35 years), singles, the unemployed and people on low income (e.g. ...
... The first more complex analyses, as well as somewhat later meta-analyses, showed that the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic particularly affected women, young people (<35 years), singles, the unemployed and people on low income (e.g. Al Dhaheri et al., 2021;Kolakowsky-Hayner et al., 2021;Pieh et al., 2020). ...
Article
The aim of this paper was to investigate the experience of possible positive consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and their connection with indicators of mental health and well-being, and to identify themes by which people describe the positive consequences of the pandemic. As part of a broader longitudinal project, participants completed a comprehensive online survey on various aspects of the pandemic. This paper presents the results obtained from 1,201 adult participants (50.1% women) on a quantitative measure of the experienced positive consequences, and on the qualitative answers to an open question about the positive aspects of the pandemic. The quantitative measure was created for the purposes of this research. Measures of sociodemographic factors, mental health (DASS-21) and well-being (WHO-5) were also used. The results show that participants experience positive consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic through three factors: Awareness of life values, More time for oneself, and New job opportunities. Awareness of life values was ranked as the most important, then More time for oneself, and finally New job opportunities. Participants who were more aware of these three aspects of the positive effects of COVID-19 also showed significantly greater subjective well-being and resilience, while associations with depression, anxiety, and stress were negligible or low. Women were more aware of changes in their life values than men, while men had a greater experience of new job opportunities. The results of the qualitative responses show that 83.4% of participants recognised some form of positive consequences of the pandemic on their lives, on the lives of other people, and on society. Analyses revealed seven themes: better family relationships, reflection and personal growth, social well-being, digitalisation of work and education, improved personal life, environmental effects, and competent pandemic management. Together, the results point to the importance of thinking about and exploring positive consequences of crisis events in the context of individual resilience and well-being.
... With the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many mental healthcare providers discontinued face-to-face psychotherapy to reduce the risk of infection [1][2][3]. At the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia) increased in the general population [4][5][6]. Thus, it is assumed that the demand for psychotherapy increased compared to pre-pandemic times [1]. To enable the treatment of their patients, many psychotherapists replaced some of their face-to-face contacts with therapies conducted at a safe distance, i.e., via telephonic communication and videoconferencing [7]. ...
... These findings suggest a continuous rise in the need for psychotherapeutic services during the pandemic, corroborating the alarming results observed regarding the mental health status of the Austrian general population during the past 2.5 years. During the first weeks of the pandemic (April 2020; during the first COVID-19 lockdown), a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health symptoms was observed in the Austrian general population (21% depression, 19% anxiety, 16% insomnia) [6]. Mental health symptoms further increased at the end of the first year of the pandemic (December 2020/January 2021), during the third COVID-19 lockdown (26% depression, 23% anxiety, and 18% insomnia [26]). ...
Article
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This study aimed to assess patient numbers and the format in which psychotherapy was delivered by Austrian psychotherapists during different time points of the COVID-19 pandemic and to explore psychotherapists` experiences on pandemic-associated changes in their psychotherapeutic work as well as their wishes for support in their professional activities. Three cross-sectional online surveys were conducted between March 2020 and May 2022. The total number of participating psychotherapists was n = 1547 in 2020, n = 238 in 2021, and n = 510 in 2022. The number of patients treated was highest in 2022 and lowest at the beginning of the pandemic (p < 0.001). During the lockdown in 2020, only 25.0% of patients were treated in personal contact. This proportion increased in the following years, reaching 86.9% in 2022 (p < 0.001). After a substantial increase in the proportion of patients treated via the telephone and internet during the first lockdown, both proportions decreased during the pandemics’ second and third year (p < 0.001). However, a larger proportion of patients were treated via the internet in 2022 compared to pre-pandemic times (p < 0.001). Psychotherapists reported that the pandemic affected mainly the setting in which psychotherapy was provided (29.6%), the working conditions and workload (27.1%), as well as the demand for psychotherapy (26.9%). About one-third of psychotherapists expressed support wishes for their psychotherapeutic work. Results suggest that the pandemic went along with a partial shift in the provision of psychotherapy towards psychotherapy via the internet but not the telephone. The increase in patient numbers and psychotherapists` reports of increased workload suggest a rise in the demand for mental health care during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.
... Although there have been studies reporting a negative association between exercise and symptoms of depression and anxiety under COVID-19 (Deng et al., 2020;Pieh et al., 2020;Ejiri, 2022), to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of PCE with family relations and parental mental health. In the present study, therefore, using a nationwide web survey dataset, we aimed to test the hypothesis that more frequent PCE is associated with improved family relations and better parental mental health. ...
... Furthermore, more frequent PCE was associated with greater happiness, which is consistent with previous reports that regular physical exercise is associated with enhanced happiness Richards et al., 2015). Whereas previous studies have reported a negative association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms (Deng et al., 2020;Pieh et al., 2020), we did not observe such an association with PCE. It may be that exercise, when conducted together which children, tends to be limited to low intensities especially compared to when one exercises alone, which may be insufficient to achieve antidepressant effects. ...
Article
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Background: Due to COVID-19 pandemic and behavior restrictions, deterioration of family relations and mental health in child-rearing households has been reported. This study examined whether frequent parent-child exercise (PCE) is associated with improved family relations and parental mental health under COVID-19. Methods: Using data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey (JACSIS), a nationwide survey conducted in August-September 2020, we extracted respondents with children aged 6 to 18 years (n = 2960). Logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between PCE frequency and changes in family relations and parental mental health. Results: Compared with participants with 6-12-years old children, those with 13-18-years old children reported less PCE. Among participants with 6-12-years old children, compared to those without PCE, those conducted PCE more than once per week reported more improved relation with children and greater happiness (ORs ≥ 1.69), controlling covariates. Those conducted PCE 3 or more times a week also reported decreased loneliness (OR = 0.68). Whereas PCE conducted 1-2 times a month was not associated with any changes in participants with children of 6-12-years old, it was associated with more improved relations with children and spouses in parents with children of 13-18-years old (ORs ≥ 1.98). Discussion: This study is the first to investigate the association of PCE with family relations and parental mental health under COVID-19. Our results suggest that PCE may enhance family relations and parental mental health and the effect may differ according to child's age.
... At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, experts expressed several concerns about its possible impact on the functioning of forensic psychiatric hospitals (Lemieux et al., 2020). First, increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (Pieh et al., 2020;Zajacova et al., 2020) made experts await the aggravation of preexisting psychiatric conditions (Sadh et al., 2020;Valdes-Florido et al., 2020) and increased number of first psychotic episodes (Conrad et al., 2020;Kothari et al., 2020) in the general population. Given that some of these excess cases of acute psychiatric conditions might include episodes of violence or antisocial behavior, a higher number of hospitalizations in forensic psychiatric institutions during this period might have been expected. ...
... These changes might be associated with younger patients being less vulnerable to COVID-19. As such, their mental health might be less affected by the pandemic (Pieh et al., 2020;Webb, 2021). The significant heterogeneity across studies conducted in emergency departments and the low heterogeneity of hospital admissions suggest that during the lockdown, the demand for outpatient consultations decreased; this decrease in demand differed across societies. ...
Article
At the beginning of the pandemic, experts expected an increasing number of hospitalizations in forensic settings, uncontrollable outbreaks of COVID-19, and deterioration of mental health of residents within institutions. Certain publications corroborated these concerns; however, no synthesis of the results of empirical publications at the initial stage of the pandemic has yet been conducted. Three rapid reviews were conducted on these topics. Besides almost a two-fold decrease in the total number of urgent consultations/hospitalizations, there were no changes in the number of involuntary hospitalizations, suicide attempts, and psychoses. The COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates in secure institutions were compatible with the general population. However, the lockdown period was associated with a significant increase in self-harm in secure settings.
... Social and Economical Stratification. The stratification effects of Covid-19 pandemic becomes more clear when looking the death rates and unemployment growth rates (Pieh, Budimir & Probst, 2020). A research conducted in Bangladesh brought out considerable findings. ...
... Her türlü kaynağa ulaşabilen çocuklara oranla düşük gelirli ve olanakları kısıtlı olan çocuklar, pandemiden eğitimsel ve psikolojik anlamda daha çok etkilenmiştir (Singh, 2021). Avusturya'da yürütülen bir araştırmada 4 haftalık eve kapanma sonucu oluşan stres, kaygı bozukluğu ve uykusuzluk durumlarına en çok maruz kalanların çocuklar, kadınlar ve işsiz olan bireyler olduğu ifade edilmiştir (Pieh, Budimir & Probst, 2020). Bu bağlamda bireyin yaşı, iş durumu ve cinsiyeti pandemiden ne kadar olumsuz etkilenileceğini belirleyen öncelikli faktörler olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. ...
Article
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Geniş çapta yaşanan sosyotarihsel olaylardan en çok zarar gören kesim çocuklar olmaktadır. Covid-19 pandemisinin herkesin hayatını olumsuz şekilde etkilediği gibi, bu etkilerin özellikle çocukları uzun vadede bir gölge gibi takip edeceği öngörülmektedir. Mevcut çalışmada, çocukların ve ergenlerin gerek okulların kapatılması gerekse sosyal çevrelerindeki dinamiklerin değişmesi sonucu nasıl ve ne derecede etkilendiklerini farklı bir bakış açısı ile değerlendirmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, çocukların ve ergenlerin iyi oluş düzeylerini belirleyen mekanizmaların etkilerini inceleyen, 2020-2021 yıllarında yürütülmüş araştırmalar derlenmiş ve sonuçlar Yaşam Seyri Teorisi’nin merkeze aldığı; geçiş aşamaları, gelişimsel yörüngeler, bağlantılı yaşamlar ve tabakalaşma boyutları ile birlikte ele alınıp tartışılmıştır. Sonuç olarak pandeminin etkilerinin; bulunulan coğrafyaya, sosyal çevrenin tutumuna, ekonomik duruma ve hangi gelişimsel aşamada olunduğuna göre farklılık gösterdiği gözlenmiştir. Gelir seviyesi düşük olan çocukların sahip olduğu sınırlı olanakların, okulların kapanması ile daha da sınırlı hale geldiği, özel gereksinimli çocukların da sağlık ve gelişimsel takiplerinin sekteye uğradığı görülmüştür. Bunların yanında, çocuklar ile ergenlerde, pandemi sürecinde görülen psikolojik ve davranışsal etkilerin yaşa bağlı olarak değişiklik gösterdiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Son olarak araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlara yönelik araştırma ve uygulama fikirleri sunulmuştur.
... This suggests that the mental health quality of life is lower (67 vs 73) in women compared to men. This is also in line with previous studies, which found that well-being is lower for women than for men (14.5 vs 15.6) (15) (16) . ...
... This suggests that the mental health quality of life is lower (67 vs 73) in women compared to men. This is in line with previous studies, where it was found that well-being is lower for women than it is for men (14.5 vs 15.6) (15) (16) . ...
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The Covid-19 pandemic can influence the mental condition of patients and affect their immunity levels. This article aims to investigate the mental health symptoms and disorders of Covid-19 survivors. This was observational and cross-sectional research. A total of 175 respondents participated, 84% of them being women and 16% being men. Their work history includes health workers at 75.4% and others at 24.6%. Respondents who have experienced anxiety are 32%, sadness was 25.7%, fear was 22.9%, and panic was 14.3%. The logistic regression showed that all of the tested characteristics have no significant effect on the respondents’ mental states of anxiety, fear, and panic, with p-values of 0.388, 0.893, and 0.166; 0.245, 0.691, and 0.353; 0.612, 0.410, and 0.828. However, from the test results, it was observed that gender has a significant effect on sadness with a p-value of 0.027 and OR value of 5.308 (CI = 1.204-23.399). The percentage of women respondents that experienced sadness was 29.3% and men respondents were 7.1%. Other characteristics, which are age and work history, have no significant effect on sadness, with p-values of 0.650 and 0.844 respectively. There are no variables that affect anxiety, fear, and panic. Feelings of sadness in patients are influenced by gender. Keywords: anxiety; Covid-19; mental disorder; mental health
... While most studies have reported a decrease in the total volume of exercise reflective of less frequency, duration, or intensity, some studies have further identified changes in training styles and modalities, with a decrease in resistance training and increase in aerobic activities [5,6,10]. Decreases in exercise was associated with other health implications, especially an individual's mental health [16][17][18]. While this shift to increased aerobic training, may have been driven by the limited access to equipment required for resistance training, examination of an individual's motivations to exercise have been shown to influence the individual's exercise levels and modalities [10]. ...
... This proportion varied among studies which may be due to populations and cut-off differences [4,6,9,13,14,22]. As stated earlier, this decrease in physical activity could have deeper effects on an individual's physical and mental health [16][17][18]. We observed that with each increase in HBM score the odds of a greater extent of exercise behavior change increased by 11.7%. ...
Article
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our nation's health further than the infection it causes. Physical activity levels and dietary intake have suffered while individuals grapple with the changes in behavior to reduce viral transmission. With unique nuances regarding the access to physical activity and nutrition during the pandemic, the constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) may present themselves differently in nutrition and exercise behaviors compared to precautions implemented to reduce viral transmission studied in previous research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of exercise and nutritional behavior change during the COVID-19 pandemic and explain the reason for and extent of this change using HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit of action, and barriers to action). Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design to collect 206 surveys. This survey collected information on self-reported exercise and nutrition changes during the pandemic and self-reported levels of the HBM constructs. Results: Findings showed individuals with medium or high exercise behavior change had greater odds of increased HBM score than individuals with little to no exercise behavior change (OR = 1.117, 95% CI: 1.020-1.223, SE: 0.0464, p = 0.0175). There was no association between nutritional behavior change and HBM score (OR = 1.011, 95% CI: 0.895-1.142, p = 08646). Conclusion: Individuals who reported a more drastic change in either exercise had greater odds of increased feelings of perceived susceptibility and severity related to COVID-19 and decreased perceived benefits and increased barriers to exercise. This relationship was not found regarding nutrition behavior change. These results encourage public health practitioners to understand how an individual's perceived feelings about a threat may affect exercise and nutritional behaviors.
... Gender is a set of characteristics that distinguish masculinity and femininity, people often view a person's gender as an important predictor of a person's abilities. Gender equality is a world priority in the welfare of society, especially in terms of education in the acquisition of student achievement Gender is defined as a factor that affects a person's belief in something and will ultimately affect a person's behavior (Pieh et al., 2020;Resty et al., 2019). The difference in the quality of the learning process of male students and female students based on gender class is very important to note, gender has a direct influence on student learning achievement. ...
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This study aims to analyze the differences and also the relationship between attitudes and self-efficacy of students in science lessons. This research is important because in science lessons the teacher must know the attitudes and self-efficacy of students because they affect the learning process. This type of research is quantitative with comparative type. The number of respondents used as a sample is 74 students. The data collection technique used simple random sampling. The results of the study using the T test were that there were significant differences in the attitudes and self-efficacy of students in science lessons, both female students and male students. The results of the correlation test between students' attitudes and self-efficacy towards science subjects in grade 8A showed that the two variables (attitude and self-efficacy) were related. And the results of the correlation test in class 8B showed that the two variables (attitude and self-efficacy) were related. The urgency of this research is that teachers can find out the differences in attitudes and self-efficacy between male and female students. The novelty of this research compared to previous research is that it uses Attitude and self-efficacy variables, with different indicators from previous research.
... In China when the spread of COVID-19 was very high, only weak symptoms of depression were determined (8,3 ± 6,4) (Yao, 2020). Research in Austria indicated only weak symptoms of depression (6,19 ± 5,4) in respondents, but when compared in terms of gender, it was noticed that depression symptoms were more severe among women than among men (Pieh, Budimir, & Probst, 2020). In our research no statistically significant difference was noticed when data were compared in terms of gender. ...
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Background. Nationwide lockdowns, encompassing mass quarantine under stay-at-home ordinances, have already proven effective in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. A prolonged homestay may also be associated with potential side effects, which may jeopardize people’s health. Some undesirable consequences of prolonged homestay can be physical inactivity, behavioral addiction disorders and social isolation (Henry, Bovo, & Sanchis-Gomar, 2020). The aim of the study is to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and lifestyle in the population of Kaunas city. Methods of research. anonymous online survey, which included questions on demographics, eating habits, alcohol and tobacco consumption, physical activity (Global Physical Activity Questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) and mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire – 9). Results. the study involved 388 respondents from Kaunas city. Women accounted for 80,7 %, and men for 19,3 % of respondents. Average of sedentary behavior during the pandemic – 430, 93 ± 233,47 min., before the pandemic – 324, 42 ± 216,21 min. (p <0,05). Average of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) before the pandemic 122,40 ± 148,98 min., and during the pandemic – 85,33 ± 98,08 min. (p<0,05). Average of vigorous-intensity PA during the pandemic – 21,20 ± 34,13 min, and before – 47,13 ± 104,08 (p<0,05). The consumption of fast food on daily basis before the pandemic – 0,8 %, during the pandemic – 1,5 % (p<0,05). Before the pandemic 15,7 % of respondents overate, during the pandemic – 30,2 % of respondents (p<0,05). Before the pandemic 1,8% of respondents consumed alcohol every day, during the pandemic – 3,4 % of respondents (p<0,05). Symptoms of depression: 7,26 ± 1,46 points before the pandemic and 10,40 ± 2,20 points during the pandemic (p<0,05). Quality of sleep: 5,73 ± 2,20 points before the pandemic and 6,44 ± 2,99 during the pandemic (p<0,05). Conclusion. Sedentary behavior increased, while moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity PA decreased (p<0,05) during the pandemic. The consumption of fruit and fast food increased during the pandemic (p<0,05) as well as the daily consumption of alcohol (p<0,05). The symptoms of depression were evaluated as mild (5–9 points) before the pandemic, and as moderate (10-14 points) during the pandemic (p<0,05). The quality of sleep was evaluated as worse during the pandemic than before the pandemic (p<0,05). Keywords: COVID-19, lifestyle, mental health, population of Kaunas city.
... Previous studies (Liang et al., 2020;Pieh et al., 2020;Salari et al., 2020;Shevlin et al., 2020;Sulaimani & Bagadood, 2020;Warden et al., 2021), have reported adverse mental reactions to the coronavirus pandemic (obsessive compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, depression symptoms, acute posttraumatic stress syndrome, etc.) and highlighted the prevalence of different predictors and risk factors of negative psychological response to gender,education background,marital status,location,etc.).To our knowledge, there are no studies so far, that have examined the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on the automotive industry employees (Belzung & Griebel, 2001;Lee et al., 2020). The automotive industry is one of the four dominant industrial sectors in Germany (automotive, mechanical engineering, chemical, and electrical industry) and was used as a lump sample for the German industrial sector. ...
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This study aims to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 coronavirus on employees’ psychological well-being; to explore whether socio-demographic characteristics of employees predict the negative effect of the pandemic on their well-being; to analyze factors (level of trust in the official and informal sources of information, expectations and concerns, coping activities and emotional states) associated with such negative effect. A total of 1.937 completed online surveys were gathered from May 11–June 7, 2020. After excluding participants whose psychological well-being subjectively was not affected by COVID-19 outbreak, the overall sample was divided into high (374 employees) and low-affected (762 employees) groups. Statistically significant differences between emotional states, concerns and coping activities of participants from high- and low-affected groups were found. The high intensity of the COVID-19 outbreak’s influence on employees’ psychological well-being has positive correlations with respondents’ financial circumstances, negative emotional states (tension, stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms), concerns and expectations regarding work, financial complications, health, and social issues. It also positively correlates with such coping activities as seeking support from a professional psychotherapist or psychologist.
... While older and more experienced respondents reported lower job stress and role expectation con ict, they indicated higher coworker support and work-life balance when compared to the younger, less experienced respondents. Previous studies have demonstrated higher social support for older adults and indicate that older adults are most resilient to mental ailments after an emergency, suggesting better abilities to maintain stressful situations (Pieh et al., 2020). As for gender differences, there is some variation observed in the results but can largely be asserted that both the genders experienced distress equally. ...
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Amidst the disruption of the Coronavirus pandemic the lockdown was established to curb the spread of the disease, resulting in an indirect effect on the well-being of the general populace. For working professionals, who were forced to shift to e-working from home, the home confinement, isolation and disruption of daily routine reinforced new occupational stressors which lead to a rise in reporting of anxious tendencies related to Covid-19. This study is designed to assess the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental wellbeing of remote e-workers. The study opts for a survey-based research and measures anxiety related to Covid-19 and job stress through Covid-19-related Anxiety Stress (CAS-7) and new Job Stress Scale (JSS-22) standardized instruments. For a sample of 79 respondents, a moderate Covid-19 related anxiety and Job Stress was observed. The mean score for the CAS was 18.31 ± 3.46 indicating a moderate Covid-19 related anxiety. Further, a noticeable trend was observed in the subscales of the Job Stress Scale where mean Job Stress was 12.32 ± 3.87; and Role Expectation Conflict was 13.86 ± 4.87. Coworker Support was 15.92 ± 4.54 and for Anxiety the score was 12.39 ± 5.15. The overall results of job stress scale indicate a moderate occupational anxiety and stress. Age, gender and the work experience are seen to have varied impacts on the anxiety and stress in e-workers. The study adds support to extending the literature that emphasizes implementation of policies for an improved mental and psychological well-being in the situation like COVID-19 pandemic and in such future disruptive events.
... This study adds to the evidence that women are more prone to experiencing anxiety and depression, as known in psychiatry [29]. Many previous studies are in line with these findings, such as in Cyprus from 3 to 9 April 2020 [29] and in April 2020 in Austria [30]. Women have been identified as the strongest predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after the pandemic [31]. ...
... Scientific evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced various aspects of QoL for some populations more significantly than for others. For example, international studies have identified an increased risk of deterioration in QoL during the COVID-19 pandemic for some groups including women, job seekers, and young people such as students (15)(16)(17)(18)(19). ...
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Background and Objectives: University students' quality of life (QoL) impacts on their quality of learning, academic achievement and knowledge. An increased risk of deterioration in QoL was happened during the COVID-19 pandemic for university students. The focus of this study is on the impact of university students' electronic health literacy on their QoL and its determinants during the Covid-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by two valid and reliable questionnaires on 260 health students at Semnan University of Medical Sciences in Iran in 2021. E-Health Literacy Scale and World Health Organization QoL questionnaire were used. The link of the online questionnaire was sent to the students. A reminder message was sent to the users, if the online questionnaire was not completed and answered within a specified time. Multiple logistic model regression analysis was used. Results: About 84.2% of students had sufficient e-Health literacy and 76.4% had a good QoL. The students' e-Health literacy had a significant relationship with English language skills (P=0.30, OR=1.929), Internet skills (P=0.008, OR=1.740), start searching for health information on the Internet (P <0.001, OR=4.840) and information search method in Internet (P=0.007, OR=1.650). There was a significant relationship between students' e-Health literacy and their QoL (P <0.001, OR = 3.466). Conclusion: Present study shows indicators that encourage university students to involve in electronic health tools and to improve their QoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. These indicators are worth and should be considered when developing medical education, self-management programs and formulating interventions.
... In 2020, early statistical accounts emerged exploring women's scientific productivity during the pandemic [10,11], and how their publishing rates appear to be falling relative to their male peers [12][13][14], particularly for women with children [15]. Other studies showing the adverse impacts of the pandemic on women and mothers more generally provide greater context for these disparities: increase in household and childcare workload [16]; greater work disruption [17] and reduction to work hours [18] due to increased childcare responsibilities; higher levels of stress [19,20]; worse sleep quality [21]; and more symptoms of mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder [22]. Indeed, accounts such as that by Guy and Arthur [23] in the U.S. show in great depth the guilt, anxiety, and frustration of women who are struggling to balance their dual roles as academics and mothers while confined to the home. ...
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This article shows how the meaning of home and 'working from home' were fundamentally transformed by the pandemic-enforced lockdown for women academics. Drawing on the experiences of more than 2,000 women academics, we show how the enduring concept of home as a place of refuge from the outside world was replaced with a new and still unsettled notion of home as a gendered space that is a congested, competitive, and constrained setting for women's academic work. In this emerging new place for living and working, home becomes a space that is claimed, conceded, and constantly negotiated between women academics and their partners as well as the children and other occupants under the same roof. Now, as before, home remains a deeply unequal place for women's work, with dire consequences for academic careers. It is therefore incumbent upon women academics and higher education institutions to develop a deep understanding of the social meanings of home for academics, and the implications for the 'new normal' of working from home.
... Epidemiological studies from before the pandemic already indicated increasingly high levels of mental health problems in young people in Austria (e.g., [10]). Yet, one study one year into the pandemic found that young people-compared to before the pandemic-had increases in clinically relevant depressive and anxiety symptoms by 4.5-5 and 1.8-threefold likelihoods, respectively [11,12]. Moreover, as was the case before the pandemic, gender differences had an impact on mental health during the pandemic as well. ...
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Abstract Background Conspiracy beliefs have become widespread throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies have shown that endorsing conspiracy beliefs leads to lower protective guideline adherence (i.e., wearing face masks), posing a threat to public health measures. The current study expands this research across the lifespan, i.e., in a sample of adolescents with mental health problems. Here, we investigated the association between conspiracy beliefs and guideline adherence while also exploring the predictors of conspiracy beliefs. Methods N = 93 adolescent psychiatric outpatients (57% female, mean age: 15.8) were assessed using anonymous paper–pencil questionnaires. Endorsement of generic and COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs was assessed, in addition to items measuring adherence to protective guidelines and mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and adverse childhood experiences). Multiple regressions and supervised machine learning (conditional random forests) were used for analyses. Results Fourteen percent of our sample fully endorsed at least one COVID-19 conspiracy theory, while protective guidelines adherence was relatively high (M = 4.92, on a scale from 1 to 7). The endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs—but not of generic conspiracy beliefs—was associated with lower guideline adherence (β = − 0.32, 95% CI − 0.53 to − 0.11, p
... A continuación, se realiza un análisis bibliométrico de los documentos (artículos científicos) incluidos en el estudio, con el fin de identificar los de mayor indica de citación, de un total de 2066 documentos, y con la característica de mínimo 10 citaciones por cada uno, se identificó que solo 392 cumplen el umbral de citaciones requeridos. En la Tabla 4, se describe el TOP 25 de documentos más citados; en donde se pueden destacar las investigaciones desarrolladas por [22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36]. Es de destacar que los documentos mencionados anteriormente en la tabla 4, cuentan con más de 66 citas y con un máximo de 579 citaciones en las bases de datos consultadas para el análisis bibliométrico. ...
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Objetivo: Analizar la producción científica en los campos de conocimiento relacionados con las variables de estrés laboral, factores de riesgo y el sector hotelero. Método: Se realizó un estudio empírico y de corte retrospectivo con línea bibliométrica, basado en el análisis estadístico para la revisión de documentos científicos y académicos relacionados con las variables de estudio entre los años 2000 y 2021. Resultados: El resultado final fue la recuperación de 2066 artículos, destacándose el dato de que, en los años 2001, 2002 y 2003, no hubo registro de artículos completos en estas temáticas. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos resaltan la importancia de analizar el estrés laboral y sus riesgos en los hoteles, para ver las implicaciones en el desempeño de los trabajadores.
... B. Einsamkeit) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen während der Pandemie, wenngleich auch Stagnationen und Verbesserungen berichtet wurden (Knowles et al., 2022;Zolopa et al., 2022). Im deutschsprachigen Raum scheinen auch junge Erwachsene von diesen Risikofaktoren und Störungen stärker betroffen zu sein als ältere Erwachsene (Berger et al., 2021;Beutel et al., 2021;Pieh et al., 2020). Demgegenüber ist die Befundlage zu externalisierenden Störungen gemischt (Zolopa et al., 2022), Substanzgebrauch stagnierte oder nahm sogar ab (Layman et al., 2022). ...
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Lesbische, schwule, bisexuelle, transgender, queere und andere Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene mit diversen sexuellen Orientierungen und Geschlechtsidentitäten (LGBTQ*) sind besonders vulnerabel in Bezug auf psychische Belastungen. Diese Vulnerabilität ist auf minderheitenspezifische Stressfaktoren, wie etwa Diskriminierung oder Verinnerlichung negativer gesellschaftlicher Einstellungen zu Minderheiten, zurückzuführen. Die COVID-19-Pandemie brachte neue minderheitenspezifische Stressfaktoren für LGBTQ* Personen mit sich (z. B. Lockdown in einem wenig unterstützenden familiären Umfeld, eingeschränkter Zugang zur LGBTQ* Community), die die Vulnerabilität von LGBTQ* Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen noch weiter verstärkt haben könnten. In diesem Beitrag präsentieren wir eine Literaturübersicht zu pandemiespezifischen Minderheitenstressoren und Ergebnisse einer Online-Umfrage unter LBT* Frauen aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum (N = 482). Theoriekonform zeigten jüngere Frauen (18-24 Jahre) eine höhere psychische Belastung als ältere Frauen (25-64 Jahre). Bei den jüngeren Frauen stellten sich eine transgender Geschlechtsidentität, eine geringere Größe des Wohnortes sowie ein pandemiespezifischer Minderheitenstressor (Stress durch ein heteronormatives Umfeld) als Risikofaktoren für die psychische Gesundheit heraus. Praktische Implikationen werden diskutiert. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other youth and young adults with diverse sexual orientations or gender identities (LGBTQ*) are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems. This vulnerability stems from minority-specific stressors, such as discrimination or internalization of negative societal attitudes towards minorities. The COVID-19 pandemic created new minority stressors for LGBTQ* people (e. g., lockdown in an unsupportive family environment, reduced access to the LGBTQ* community) that may have exacerbated the vulnerability of LGBTQ* youth and young adults further. We present a literature review of pandemic-specific minority stressors as well as findings from a survey of LBT* women from German-speaking countries (N = 482). Younger women (18-24 years) showed higher levels of mental distress than older women (25-64 years). Among young women, a transgender identity, a smaller place of domicile, and a pandemic-specific minority stressor (i. e., stress through living in a heteronormative environment) were mental health risk factors. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
... Fear of COVID-19 has different effects on undergraduates of different genders and majors (Pieh et al., 2020;Prowse et al., 2021). Studies have shown that female are more sensitive to the external environment, and fear of COVID-19 is more likely to bring them psychological problems (Gao et al., 2020;Li et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Xiao et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
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Objective Explore the influence of fear of COVID-19 on depression, with anxiety as a mediator and perceived social support and stress perception as moderates. Methods From February to March 2020, 1,196 valid data were collected online through questionnaire by cluster sampling method. Fear of COVID-19 Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and the10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used as the survey instrument, and the participants were female undergraduates from a liberal arts college of a Chinese university. Common method bias was assessed using Harman’s single-factor test in SPSS and confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS. The levels of participants’ anxiety, depression and perceived social support were described using frequency and percentage, Pearson Correlation test was used to measure the correlation between the variables. The PROCESS macro for SPSS (Model 1, Model 4, and Model 21) were applied to examine the mediating effect and moderating effect of the model. Results Fear of COVID-19 can positively influence depression, anxiety plays a mediating role between fear of COVID-19 and depression, perceived social support negatively moderates the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and anxiety, and stress perception positively moderates the relationship between anxiety and depression. These five variables can form a moderated mediating effect model. Conclusion Fear of COVID-19, anxiety and stress perception are risk factors for depression, perceived social support is a protective factor for depression. Reducing the fear of COVID-19, anxiety and stress perception and enhancing perceived social support are beneficial to reduce the level of depression.
... Starting in the spring of 2020, many countries implemented far-reaching lockdown measures, including strict social distancing and stay-at-home orders. 1 The resulting social and economic disruption was associated with stress, worries, and mental health problems among the general population. [2][3][4] This disruption was aggravated by the fact that many leisure activities that were previously pursued to regulate stress and mood (eg, meeting friends, attending cultural events) were banned because of the lockdown. Prolonged levels of heightened stress (ie, chronic stress) and impaired mood have been shown to be major risk factors for mental and somatic disorders, 5 specifically in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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Importance: Music listening is a universal human experience. People of all ages and cultures often use music to reduce stress and improve mood, particularly in times of crisis. However, ecologically valid research examining the real-time association of music listening with stress and mood during the COVID-19 pandemic is scarce. Objective: To explore the associations between listening to music and the perceptions of stress and mood using ecological momentary assessment during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Design, setting, and participants: In this cohort study conducted between April 1 and May 8, 2020, adults from the general population residing in Austria and Italy were prompted by an app on their smartphone to report data 5 times per day across 7 consecutive days. Participants provided data on their real-time and real-life experiences in their natural environment while strict lockdown measures were in place. Data analysis was performed from March 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Data on self-reported music listening were recorded by means of mobile-based assessments. Perceived chronic stress was assessed once at the end of the study. Main outcomes and measures: Perceptions of momentary stress and mood were measured using visual analog scales (score range, 0-100, where 0 indicates not at all and 100 indicates very much) by means of mobile app-based assessments. Results: The final sample comprised 711 participants (497 women [69.9%]; median age, 27.0 years [IQR, 24.0-36.0 years]). Participants provided a total of 19 641 data points, including 4677 music listening reports. Music listening was prospectively associated with lower momentary stress levels (β, -0.92; 95% CI, -1.80 to -0.04; P = .04) and improvements in mood valence (β, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.17-2.63; P < .001), especially if the music was perceived as happy. Individuals with higher levels of chronic stress reported improved mood valence after music listening (β, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.22; P = .02). Conclusions and relevance: The present findings suggest that music listening may be a means to modulate stress and mood during psychologically demanding periods. Individuals experiencing heightened momentary and/or chronic stress because of the challenges brought about by COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions might consider music as an easily accessible tool for the management of stress and mood in daily life.
... Este facto pode ser responsável por um maior stress no trabalho. Perante situações de stress, a literatura indica que as mulheres sofrem de alterações de saúde mental superiores às dos homens, nomeadamente de ansiedade, depressão e insónia (Pieh et al., 2020). Assim as exigências qualitativas ou psicológicas são determinantes na gestão das pressões do trabalho na mulher. ...
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A importância do setor fitness na oferta de oportunidades para a promoção do exercício está alicerçada em profissionais qualificados, competentes e responsáveis pela dinâmica de prescrição e motivação do exercício. Com base na teoria da autodeterminação, este estudo examinou a interação entre as pressões percecionadas no trabalho e a motivação em profissionais de fitness. Os dados foram coletados de 366 profissionais do exercício (172 mulheres), usando um desenho transversal. Questionários avaliando a Perceção da Pressão de Trabalho (PJP) (organizacional; interno e clientes) e a Satisfação das Necessidades Psicológicas Básicas (BPNS) foram preenchidos online. A análise correlacional e de regressão foi usada para testar o modelo hipotético. Os resultados demonstram não haver associação entre qualificação profissional e níveis de pressão na BPNS. No entanto, é importante destacar que os níveis de pressão organizacionais estiveram negativamente associados à satisfação do total da BPNS (autonomia, competência e relacionamento positivo). Mais anos de experiência foram associados a menores valores de pressão e maior satisfação da competência. Em relação ao gênero, pressões e sua relação na BPNS, os homens apresentam uma maior satisfação das BPNS. As pressões organizacionais apresentam associações negativas com a satisfação das BPNS nos profissionais. Os resultados têm implicações teóricas e práticas: os líderes devem estar cientes do impacto negativo da pressão organizacional e a associação negativa com a satisfação das BPNS. O desenvolvimento de equipas com profissionais mais jovens e experientes, com reconhecimento e remuneração adequados, deve ser implementado como uma estratégia inclusiva, transmitindo segurança e confiança no futuro do setor fitness. Palavras-chave: motivação do instrutor de fitness; teoria da autodeterminação; pressões de trabalho; identidade profissional.
... Furthermore, this reduction in PWB does not seem to be uniform, but instead accentuated among certain circumstances. Thus, groups such as women, young people and immigrants seem more prone to this deterioration (García-Álvarez et al, 2020;Pieh et al, 2020;Proto & Quintana-Domeque, 2021). Additionally, this relationship may be affected by external factors such as access to information about the pandemic, friendship quality, trust in public institutions such as the government, judiciary or mass media, or the type of confinement (self-imposed vs. lockdown) (Bittmann, 2022;Lu et al, 2021;Ye et al., 2022). ...
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In the Spring of 2020, a great number of countries introduced different restrictive measures in order to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. This article examines the labour market transitions of individuals brought about by some of those measures, and the effect of such transitions on psychological well-being. The fact that it has been possible to distinguish between unemployment transitions before the pandemic began and those resulting from the lockdowns is worth highlighting. Evidence is provided showing that unemployment due to the lockdown had a greater negative impact on psychological well-being than furloughs and teleworking. Gender differences confirm that women experienced greater adverse effects as compared to men. Specifically, women working at home exhibited greater negative effects when compared with those on furlough, probably due to a combination of work disruption and increased family obligations. Finally, on the contrary to men, women living in areas with more rigorous restrictions show a reduced probability of worse PWB when compared to those residing in areas without restrictions. This finding suggests that women are willing to sacrifice freedom of movement as long as restrictions protect their at-risk relatives.
... In order to combat the expansion of coronavirus COVID-19 in Spain, the Government decreed a state of alarm calling for social isolation and confinement at home and in the immediate neighbourhood in March 2020 [2]. These state-imposed restrictions regarding physical distancing generated an unavoidable and substantial impact on the population with different consequences in peoples' everyday life [3,4]. The reduction of social relationships and changes to the working environment have led to a range of consequences on mental health and the economy of the general population [5,6,7,8,9,10]. ...
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Objective To analyse the COVID-19-related lockdown impact on University workers, to identify groups based on this information, and to study the factors associated with each group. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods A survey was conducted 3.5 weeks after COVID-19-related lockdown in University workers in Spain. Sociodemographic variables, housing, work, health conditions, levels of anxiety, stress and depression (DASS-21), and social support (MSPSS) were collected. A cluster analysis was performed to identify groups depending on the impact of the lockdown. Differences between groups were tested using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney-U tests, and associated factors with binary logistic regression. Results We identified two groups of workers. “G1: Consequences in the daily life routine” was mainly composed of men, Research and Teaching Personnel (RTP) with more stable professional categories, higher income level, and bigger houses than people in G2. Participants in “G2: Concerns for the current and future well-being” presented worse intensity of pain than before the lockdown, more anxiety, depression, stress and less social support than people in G1. ASP (Administration and Services Personnel) had more risk of belonging to G2 than RTP (OR=5.863). A higher number of people living at home decreased the risk of being in G2 (OR=0.439). People with lower pain intensity had less risk of being in G2 (OR=0.014), and this risk decreased as friends support increased (OR=0.833). Conclusions In G1, the consequences were immediately reflected in the stress resulting from changes in their daily work routine. In G2, the concerns were related to their professional future, with worse mental health, greater intensity of pain and less social support.
... Este facto pode ser responsável por um maior stress no trabalho. Perante situações de stress, a literatura indica que as mulheres sofrem de alterações de saúde mental superiores às dos homens, nomeadamente de ansiedade, depressão e insónia (Pieh et al., 2020). Assim as exigências qualitativas ou psicológicas são determinantes na gestão das pressões do trabalho na mulher. ...
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The importance of the fitness sector in providing opportunities for exercise promotion is based on qualified, competent professionals responsible for the dynamics of exercise prescription and motivation. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examined the interplay between perceived job pressures and motivation in fitness professionals. Data was collected from 366 exercise professionals (172 women), using a cross-sectional design. Questionnaires assessing Perceived Job Pressure (organizational; internal and clients) and Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction (BPNS) were completed online. Correlational and regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized model. The results demonstrate no association between professional qualifications and pressure levels in BPNS. However, it is important to highlight that the levels of pressure from above (organizational) were negatively associated with the satisfaction of the total BPNS (autonomy, competence, and positive relationship). More years of experience were associated with lower pressure values and more satisfaction of competence. Regarding gender, pressures, and their relationship in BPNS, men have higher score in BPNS. Organizational pressures were negatively associated with the satisfaction of total BPNS in professionals. Findings have theoretical and applied implications: team leaders must be aware of the negative impact of organizational pressure and its negative associations with needs satisfaction. Developing teams with younger and experienced professionals with adequate recognition and compensation should be sought as an inclusive strategy, conveying security and trust in the future of the fitness sector.
... Our simple collateral damage model exploits the known correlation between life expectancy and health and economic development [51,52,53] and the observed economic depression [54,55] during the pandemic, which we conjecture to be caused by business and border closures. Other potential causes of collateral damage such as mental health [56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67], disrupted medical supply chains [68], skipping of early medical examinations [69] and problems for people with disabilities [70] were initially considered, but we decided to disregard them due to a lack of useful coherent data. For our economy-based collateral damage model, we first confirmed that a statistically significant (p=0.05) ...
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Compartmental models are a tool commonly used in epidemiology for the mathematical modelling of the spread of infectious diseases, with their most popular representative being the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model and its derivatives. However, current SIR models are bounded in their capabilities to model government policies in the form of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and weather effects and offer limited predictive power. More capable alternatives such as agent based models (ABMs) are computationally expensive and require specialized hardware. We introduce a neural network augmented SIR model that can be run on commodity hardware, takes NPIs and weather effects into account and offers improved predictive power as well as counterfactual analysis capabilities. We demonstrate our models improvement of the state-of-the-art modeling COVID-19 in Austria during the 03.2020 to 03.2021 period and provide an outlook for the future up to 01.2024.
... Most studies were conducted before the lockdown and during periods when the lockdown was being relaxed around the world. Some studies also reported a lower prevalence, especially those conducted in places or periods with lower cases of COVID-19 (54,58,75). Public crises can cause mental health disorders to rise way more than is naturally experienced among people, therefore, public health practitioners should be alert to the mental health of people and patients in crises. ...
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Background This scoping review assessed the COVID-19 impacts on mental health and associated risk factors. Methods A systematic literature search for relevant articles published in the period March 2020 to July 2022, was conducted in the APA PsychInfo, JBI Evidence Synthesis, Epistemonikos, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Results A total of 72 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the commonly used mental health assessment tools were the Patient Health Questionnaire (41.7%), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (36%), 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress (13.9%), Impact of Event Scale (12.5%), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (9.7%), Symptom Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (6.9% each). The prevalence rate of depression ranged from 5-76.5%, 5.6-80.5% for anxiety, 9.1-65% for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 8.3-61.7% for sleep disorders, 4.9-70.1% for stress, 7-71.5% for psychological distress, and 21.4-69.3% for general mental health conditions. The major risks included female gender, healthcare-related/frontline jobs, isolation/quarantine, poverty, lower education, COVID-19 risk, age, commodities, mental illness history, negative psychology, and higher social media exposure. The incidence of mental disorders increased along with the increasing cases of COVID-19 and the corresponding government restrictions. Conclusion Standard assessment tools were used for mental health assessment by the reviewed studies which were conducted during COVID-19. Mental health disorders like depression, anxiety, and stress increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns. Various factors impacted the prevalence of mental health disorders. Policymakers need to provide social protective measures to improve coping capacities during critical health events to avoid negative impacts on the population. Further studies should investigate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing the prevalence and risk factors for mental health conditions during a public health challenge.
... ▪ In der Rehabilitation sollten diese Trainingsempfehlungen mit einer Dauer von 40-60 Minuten in einem Umfang von 3-6 Trainingseinheiten pro Woche durchgeführt werden (vgl.[365]). Aufgrund der großen psychosozialen Relevanz von Long-/Post-COVID-Erkrankungen sollten die Potenziale der körperlichen Aktivität in diesem Kontext und einer entsprechenden therapeutischen Zielsetzung unbedingt berücksichtigt werden[369,370].Im Zuge von Long-/Post-COVID kann es zu ähnlichen Symptomen wie bei ME/CFS kommen, allerdings liegen zur Auftretenshäufigkeit bislang keine auf alle Zielgruppen übertragbaren, belastbaren epidemiologische Daten vor. Hierunter fällt auch dieInsesamt4-6 Trainingseinheiten von 40-50 Minuten pro Woche (Minimum 300 Minuten/Woche) Davon mindestens 180 Minuten Ausdauertraining (Einheiten von 5 bis 30 Minuten) bei etwa 5-8 MET Krafttraining der großen Muskelgruppen. ...
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Zusammenfassung Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie hat 2021 die AWMF S1-Leitlinie Long-/Post-COVID initiiert. In einem breiten interdisziplinären Ansatz wurde diese S1-Leitlinie basierend auf dem aktuellen Wissensstand gestaltet. Die klinische Empfehlung beschreibt die aktuellen Long- bzw. Post-COVID-Symptome, diagnostische Ansätze und Therapien. Neben der allgemeinen und konsentierten Einführung wurde ein fachspezifischer Zugang gewählt, der den aktuellen Wissensstand zusammenfasst. Die Leitlinie hat einen explizit praktischen Anspruch und wird basierend auf dem aktuellen Wissenszugewinn vom Autorenteam weiterentwickelt und adaptiert.
... Changes in the social environment inevitably affect individual development and, consequently, have an impact on public mental health. Regarding characteristic factors, gender, age, and occupation of the residents are conditions for the occurrence of depression during COVID-19 (85). For example, several meta-analytic studies on the prevalence of depression during COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers have shown that they exhibit higher levels of depression than the general population (86,87). ...
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... The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown seem particularly stressful for younger adults, women, people without work, and low income 76 . The pandemic has had a negative effect on mental health, with many people who have had COVID-19 exhibiting long-term psychiatric symptoms, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and obsessivecompulsive syndrome 23,77 . ...
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Around 10% of adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 that survive a first episode of COVID-19 appear to experience long-term clinical manifestations. The signs and symptoms of this post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) include fatigue, dyspnea, joint pain, myalgia, chest pain, cough, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, depression, anxiety, memory loss, concentration difficulties, and insomnia. These sequelae remind the constellation of clinical manifestations previously recognized as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This condition has been described following distinct infectious events, mostly acute viral illnesses. In this way, the pathophysiology of PACS might overlap with mechanisms involved in other post-infectious fatigue syndromes. The risk of PACS is more frequent in women than men. Additional host genetic factors could be involved. There is a dysregulation of multiple body organs and systems, involving the immune system, the coagulation cascade, endocrine organs, autonomic nervous system, microbiota-gut-brain axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, etc. Hypothetically, an abnormal response to certain infectious agents could trigger the development of postinfectious fatigue syndromes.
... Gualano et al. (2020), Rossi et al. (2020) and Aragona et al. (2020) all showed that, during the lockdown in Italy, people tended to suffer from higher anxiety and depression levels, worse sleep quality and more insomnia symptoms. Pieh et al. (2020) found that the general levels of depression and anxiety among Austrians increased by five and three times, respectively, compared with the pre-Covid-19 period, and people also reported lower levels of quality of life and happiness. Kumar et al. (2020) and Nanda (2020) found that migrant workers experienced worse mental health during lockdown, mainly because of lost social security due to unemployment. ...
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The study intends to understand the association between teleworking and its impact on the psychological well-being of the respondents. The mediating effect of perceived stress and moderating effects of staycation and destination image on the aforementioned association is also examined. The study utilized the conservation of resource theory to understand the hypothesized relationship. The data was collected through a survey using standardized measures. In the presented study, the responses from 245 private-sector employees were analysed using PLS-SEM to test the hypotheses. The results found that perceived stress acted as a significant mediator between teleworking and psychological well-being relationship. Staycation acted as a significant moderator between perceived stress and psychological well-being. However, destination image failed to depict its moderating effect on perceived stress and psychological well-being. Travelling can help deal with mental stress and an exhaustive climate resulting in better living standards. The results of the study help in better understanding the role of work staycation with its liberating and revitalizing capabilities to prevent a continuous spiral of depression or negative emotions and strengthen psychological well-being.
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This survey study (N = 206) focused on the relationship between perceived lockdown intensity (PLI) and work engagement, the mediating role of work-family conflict (work-family and family-work conflict) and the moderating role of family supportive supervisor behaviour during the times of COVID-19. Building on insights from Organizational Behaviour (Job-Demands Resources Model), HRM [ability, motivation, and opportunity (AMO) theory], and management (telework and social isolation) literature, our mediation moderation model showed that PLI is directly related to work engagement and to work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict was not a mediator. In fact, the work-to-family conflict dimension was found to have a positive relationship with work engagement. Furthermore, family supportive supervisor behaviour in the time of COVID-19 was not a moderator, but instead was found to reduce work-life conflict and work engagement. This implies that supportive leadership styles facilitates employees in combining work and family in the time of COVID-19, which subsequently can sustain work engagement. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for future research and management practice.
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COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the corona virus. This virus can be transmitted to other people through droplets from people who have the disease. To prevent the transmission of this virus, people need to do quarantine at their house, self-isolation for those who are infected, and also implementing health protocols and recommendations set by the government. In addition, people can do physical activity to strength and maintain their immune system. Physical activity is an activity that involves the movement of skeletal muscles that requires more energy than the resting phase, and it is important for energy balance in the body. WHO also recommends the people to always keep hygiene and do physical activity to stay healthy. This study aims to determine the level of public awareness toward the importance of physical activity during the pandemic. This research used data analysis method. Researchers conducted direct interviews with residents of RT 003 RW 002, Surau Gadang, Nanggalo District, Padang City. According to the research result, it can be concluded that public awareness is low in doing physical activity to maintain body resistance during the pandemic.
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The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to high demands on the educational sector. For tertiary education, investigations mostly focused on the effects of digital teaching. However, little is known regarding health effects. Moreover, the emphasis was mainly on students, not university staff members. An international online questionnaire consisting of quantitative and qualitative items (from the LockedDown project) was translated into German and used in Austria from June to November 2020. This study reports on social and psychological health plus the perceived benefits of the pandemic. A total of 1175 students and 716 staff members participated. While staff members reported higher stress levels at the beginning of the pandemic, they were more pronounced for students from Week 5 onwards (Chi2 < 0.001). Quality of Life (QoL) decreased more in the student population, and depression/anxiety was higher and rose compared to staff. Moreover, students reported fewer benefits of the pandemic. Students perceived the burden of the pandemic later than staff members who needed to adapt their work processes immediately. Mental health interventions in a pandemic seem to be needed at different points in time depending on the target group.
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Scholars and communications practitioners worldwide have sought novel resilience models amid heightened rates of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined perceived life satisfaction as a determinant of resilience. Additionally, we investigated the assumption that perceived pandemic severity at the country/region level moderates structural relationships within our risk–resilience model. Analyzing more than 34,000 valid samples from 15 countries/regions, we found that (1) perceived life satisfaction alleviated psychological distress across all 15 countries/regions; and (2) country/region-level pandemic severity moderated the relationships among COVID-19 symptom experience, perceived life satisfaction, and psychological distress. The effects of COVID-19 symptom experience and perceived life satisfaction on psychological distress were conditional. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our findings and provide practical implications for mitigating psychological distress during public health crises.
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The COVID -19 pandemic provides a unique context for examining technostress among teachers and school counselors. This study examined teacher and school counselor technostress and the effects of COVID -19anxiety and organizational cynicism on technostress. The sample consisted of 276 teachers (x̄= 32.63) and 119 school counselors (x̄= 30.12). Results showed that after controlling for teacher gender, COVID -19 anxiety and organizational cynicism were important variance factors for teachers' technostress. Among school counselors, organizational cynicism accounted for important variance in technostress. Specifically, higher COVID -19 anxiety and organizational cynicism were associated with higher technostress in the teacher group during COVID -19. COVID -19 Anxiousness influenced technostress differently in teachers and school counselors. Results show a positive correlation between teacher and school counselor technostress, COVID -19 anxiety, and organizational cynicism. The results suggest a predictive relationship between COVID -19 anxiety and organizational cynicism in teachers, organizational cynicism in school counselors, and technostress.
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Background Older people were subjected to significant restrictions on physical contacts with others during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing impacts older people's experiences of anxiety and loneliness. Despite a large body of research on the pandemic, there is little research on its effects on older people in residential care facilities (RCF) and in home care services (HCS), who are the frailest of the older population. We aimed to investigate the effect of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March-May 2020 on experiences of anxiety and loneliness among older people living in RCF or receiving HCS and the impact of the progression of the pandemic on these experiences. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional design using data from the national user satisfaction survey (March − May 2020) by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Survey responses were retrieved from 27,872 older people in RCF (mean age 87 years) and 82,834 older people receiving HCS (mean age 84 years). Proportional-odds (cumulative logit) model was used to estimate the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. Results Loneliness and anxiety were more prevalent among the older persons living in RCF (loneliness: 69%, anxiety: 63%) than those receiving HCS (53% and 47%, respectively). Proportional odds models revealed that among the RCF and HCS respondents, the cumulative odds ratio of experiencing higher degree of anxiety increased by 1.06% and 1.04%, respectively, and loneliness by 1.13% and 1.16%, respectively, for 1% increase in the COVID-19 infection rate. Poor self-rated health was the most influential factor for anxiety in both RCF and HCS. Living alone (with HCS) was the most influential factor affecting loneliness. Experiences of disrespect from staff were more strongly associated with anxiety and loneliness in RCF than in HCS.
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Introduction The impact of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated governmental restrictions on mental health have been reported in different countries. This cross-sectional study evaluated mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria and the association with sociodemographic factors (i.e., age, sex, education, income, employment status, partnership status, and migration background). Methods A representative sample ( N = 1,031) of the Austrian general population was surveyed online end of April 2022. Indicators of mental health were depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), insomnia (ISI), alcohol abuse (CAGE), eating disorders (SCOFF), and stress (PSS-10). Results 1,031 participants completed the online survey (50.3% women; mean age: 45.6 ± 17.23 years). Cut-offs for clinically relevant depression were exceeded by 28%. 16% scored above the cut-off for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms, 15% for clinical insomnia, 18% for alcohol abuse, 26% for eating disorders, and 65% for moderate to high stress. Comparisons with another cross-sectional representative Austrian sample recruited during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria (April 2020) revealed increases in depression (from 21 to 28%) but no significant changes in anxiety, insomnia, and moderate to high stress. Multivariable logistic regression showed the strongest associations of mental health indicators with age, income, and sex. Increasing age and income were associated with lower odds of mental health symptoms. Being female compared to male increased the odds of depressive symptoms while decreasing the odds of alcohol abuse. Discussion The COVID-19 crisis seems particularly stressful for younger adults (<35 years) and people with low income (<€2,000 net household income per month). Policymakers need to consider the high social and economic costs of lockdowns and think of optimal intervention methods for mental disorders among young and low-income individuals.
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Purpose Research on the impact of social distancing on mental health during epidemics is limited, especially in India. The purpose of this study is to scale the association between anxiety and socio-demographic factors during Covid19 lockdown among the general Indian population. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive cross-sectional nationwide study was designed to enrol the general population. The inclusion criteria for this study were Indian citizens aged 18 years and above. The study was conducted from 29 th March to 12 th April 2020, using an online google questionnaire. The anxiety among respondents was detected and measured using a Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale which consists of 7 questions (in English), i.e. GAD-7. Findings Respondees were 392, and from these participants, the prevalence of anxiety was 25.3 per cent. Based on the bivariate logistic regression analysis, the predictors of anxiety were gender, religion, occupation as business/self-employed, marital status, family size, health status and sleep deprivation. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence of anxiety among Indian population who were grounded at their homes during lockdown due to coronavirus pandemic in the country. Limitations (1) The selection of participants through non-random sampling. (2) Because of the cross-sectional character of the study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn. Originality/Value This paper fulfils an identified need to study the mental health status of the population under situations like lockdown, thereby helping fill a persistent gap in Indian research on this issue.
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The COVID-19 quarantine has affected more than 860 million children and adolescents worldwide, but to date, no study has been developed within Western countries to examine the psychological impact on their lives. The present study aims to examine for the first time the emotional impact of the quarantine on children and adolescents from Italy and Spain, two of the countries most affected by COVID-19. Participants were 1,143 parents of Italian and Spanish children aged 3 to 18 years who completed a survey providing information about how the quarantine affects their children and themselves, compared to before the home confinement. Results show that 85.7% of the parents perceived changes in their children's emotional state and behaviors during the quarantine. The most frequent symptoms were difficulty concentrating (76.6%), boredom (52%), irritability (39%), restlessness (38.8%), nervousness (38%), feelings of loneliness (31.3%), uneasiness (30.4%), and worries (30.1%). Spanish parents reported more symptoms than Italians. As expected, children of both countries used monitors more frequently, spent less time doing physical activity, and slept more hours during the quarantine. Furthermore, when family coexistence during quarantine became more difficult, the situation was more serious, and the level of stress was higher, parents tended to report more emotional problems in their children. The quarantine impacts considerably on Italian and Spanish youth, reinforcing the need to detect children with problems as early as possible to improve their psychological well-being.
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Background The psychological impact of the COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and lockdown measures on the Italian population are unknown. The current study assesses rates of mental health outcomes in the Italian general population three to 4 weeks into lockdown measures and explores the impact of COVID-19 related potential risk factors.MethodsA web-based survey spread throughout the internet between March 27th and April 6th 2020. Eighteen thousand one hundred forty-seven individuals completed the questionnaire, 79.6% women. Selected outcomes were post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety, insomnia, perceived stress, and adjustment disorder symptoms (ADS). Seemingly unrelated logistic regression analysis was performed to identify COVID-19 related risk factors.ResultsEndorsement rates for PTSS were 6,604 (37%), 3,084 (17.3%) for depression, 3,700 (20.8%) for anxiety, 1,301 (7.3%) for insomnia, 3,895 (21.8%) for high perceived stress and 4,092 (22.9%) for adjustment disorder. Being woman and younger age were associated with all of the selected outcomes. Quarantine was associated with PTSS, anxiety and ADS. Any recent COVID-related stressful life event was associated with all the selected outcomes. Discontinued working activity due to the COVID-19 was associated with all the selected outcomes, except for ADS; working more than usual was associated with PTSS, Perceived stress and ADS. Having a loved one deceased by COVID-19 was associated with PTSS, depression, perceived stress, and insomnia.Conclusion We found high rates of negative mental health outcomes in the Italian general population 3 weeks into the COVID-19 lockdown measures and different COVID-19 related risk factors. These findings warrant further monitoring on the Italian population’s mental health.
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The outbreak of COVID-19 might produce dramatic psychological effects on the individuals' life. In this study, we aimed to explore the elements that may reduce the negative effects on mental health of the quarantine period imposed by most governments during this worldwide crisis. We conducted an online survey to evaluate demographic, lifestyle and mental health variables in the Portuguese population. We observed that factors related with living conditions, maintaining the work either online or in the workplace, frequency of exercise and absence of a previous psychological or physic disorders are protective features of psychological well-being (anxiety, depression, stress and obsessive-compulsive symptoms). Finally, the individuals previously receiving psychotherapeutic support exhibited better psychological indicators if they did not interrupt the process as a consequence of the outbreak. Our results indicate that the practice of physical exercise, reduced consumption of COVID-19 information and the implementation of remote mental healthcare measures might prevent larger impacts on mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak.
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Aims: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have detrimental mental health consequences. However, there is limited understanding of its impact on the mental health of the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the mental health of the Japanese general population by conducting the first systematic survey during the pandemic with a particular focus on identifying the most vulnerable groups. Methods: Data was obtained from an online commercial web panel of 2000 respondents in April and May 2020. Information was collected on demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as mental health status (anxiety and depressive symptoms). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The mental health of young and middle-aged individuals was significantly worse than that of older individuals during the pandemic. There was also some indication that individuals who were not currently working were significantly more likely to report a high level of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Part-time and temporary contract-based workers were also more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our results highlight that monitoring the mental health of younger and economically vulnerable individuals may be especially important. In addition, they also indicate that population mental health might not only be affected by the direct health consequences of COVID-19, but also by the economic ramifications of the pandemic.
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Objective: We aim to provide the first evidence of mental distress and its associated predictors among adults in the ongoing COVID-19 crisis in Brazil. Methods: We conducted a primary survey of 638 adults in Brazil on March 25-28, 2020, about one month (32 days) after the first COVID-19 case in South America was confirmed in Sao Paulo. Results: In Brazil, 52% (332) of the sampled adults experienced mild or moderate distress, and 18.8% (120) suffered severe distress. Adults who were female, younger, more educated, and exercised less report-ed higher levels of distress. The distance from the Brazilian epicenter of Sao Paulo inter-acted with age and workplace attendance to predict the level of distress. The typhoon eye effect was stronger for people who were older or attended their workplace less. The most vulnerable adults were those who were far from the epicenter and did not go to their workplace in the week before the survey. Conclusion: Identifying the predictors of distress enables mental health services to better target finding and helping the more mentally vulnerable adults during the ongoing COVID-19 crisis.
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Background The psychological impact of the COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and lockdown measures on the Italian population are unknown. The current study assesses rates of mental health outcomes in the Italian general population three to four weeks into lockdown measures and explores the impact of COVID-19 related potential risk factors. Methods A web-based survey spread throughout the internet between March 27th and April 6th 2020. 18147 individuals completed the questionnaire, 79.6% women. Selected outcomes were post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety, insomnia, perceived stress and adjustment disorder symptoms (ADS). Seemingly unrelated logistic regression analysis was performed to identify COVID-19 related risk factors. Results Respondents endorsing PTSS, depression, anxiety, insomnia, high perceived stress and adjustment disorder were 6604 (37%), 3084 (17.3%), 3700 (20.8%), 1301 (7.3%), 3895 (21.8%) and 4092 (22.9%), respectively. Being woman and younger age were associated with all of the selected outcomes. Quarantine was associated with PTSS, anxiety and ADS. Any recent COVID-related stressful life event was associated with all the selected outcomes. Discontinued working activity due to the COVID-19 was associated with all the selected outcomes, except for ADS; working more than usual was associated with PTSS, Perceived stress and ADS. Having a loved one deceased by COVID-19 was associated with PTSS, depression, perceived stress and insomnia. Conclusion We found high rates of negative mental health outcomes in the Italian general population three weeks into the COVID-19 lockdown measures and different COVID-19 related risk factors. These findings warrant further monitoring on the Italian population s mental health.
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Introduction: Since the beginning of the outbreak in China, ending 2019, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread subsequently to the rest of the world causing an on-going pandemic. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19: a public health emergency of international concern. Having into consideration the lockdown and quarantine situation, we decided to do evaluate the current emotional state on the general population with a web-based survey in English and in Spanish, which was considered a useful and fast method that could help us determine how people perceived stress and worry due to the COVID-19. Methods: The survey included a 22 items, gathering information in 3 sections: Sociodemographic data, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen and additional queries that assessed the current worry and change of behaviours due to this pandemic. Results: The survey received 891 respondents from 25 countries, from March 17 to 23rd, 2020. The mean age of the respondents was 43.8 (14.2) years old, and more than two thirds were women. 12.8% were health personnel.The mean of the PSS-10 score was 17.4 (6.4). Significantly higher scores were observed among women, youth, students, and among those who expressed concern and those who perceived increased susceptibility to the COVID-19. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the health professionals and the general population. A good correlation was observed between mean relative volume (RSV) of the las 14 days and the number of cases reported (rho = 0.68, p <0.001) and deaths (rho = 0.51, p <0.001). Discussion: With these results we describe an increase of affective symptoms due to the COVID-19. This pandemic is raising the anxiety levels. The findings of our study show the affective and cognitive alterations people are going through. This survey is the first attempt to measure the psychological consequences this pandemic is having, in order to be able to later be able to provide the support to confront this global issue, addressing the mental health care that will be needed.
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Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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Depression is associated with a significant individual and social burden of disease. The European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) provides data that can be used to compare the situation in Germany to that of other European countries. Data was evaluated from 254,510 interviewees from Germany and 24 additional Member States of the European Union (EU). Depressive symptoms as defined by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used as an indicator of depression. The prevalence in Germany (9.2%) is higher than the European average (6.6%). However, when the severity of depression is taken into account, only the prevalence of mild depressive symptoms is higher (6.3% versus 4.1%). In Germany, young people display depressive symptoms more frequently (11.5% versus 5.2%) than older people (6.7% versus 9.1%). These results should be discussed against the backdrop of differences in age and social structure and point toward a need for prevention and provision of care targeting younger people in Germany, in particular.
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Background: Epidemiological studies using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) have reported inconsistencies regarding the relationship between age and total scores. To determine whether this discrepancy is due to the stability of the distribution of PHQ-9 total scores against age, we investigated whether the total score distribution remains stable during adulthood, and also investigated the mathematical patterns of the total score distribution. Methods: The present study utilized data from 15,847 participants of the 2009–2014 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, all of whom responded to all PHQ-9 items. The stability of the total score distribution among different age groups was examined using overlap coefficients and graphical analysis. Results: High overlap coefficients were observed between all age groups for the distributions of PHQ-9 total scores, suggesting that the distribution of PHQ-9 total scores remains stable against age. Graphical analysis demonstrated that distributions of PHQ-9 total scores were similar across age groups. In addition, distributions of PHQ-9 total scores exhibited an exponential pattern, except at the lower end of the distribution. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the stability of the distribution of PHQ-9 total scores throughout adulthood may underlie inconsistencies in the evidence regarding age-related changes in total depression scores.
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Background The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. Methods The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. Results The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. Conclusion The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.
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Background The Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 is a widely used instrument to screen for depression in clinical research. The first aim of this study was to psychometrically test the PHQ-9 in a large sample of cancer patients. The second aim was to calculate unbiased estimates of the depression burden for several cancer groups taking into account age and gender distributions. Methods A sample of 2,059 cancer patients with varying diagnoses were examined in this study six months after discharge from a rehabilitation clinic. A representative sample of 2,693 people from the general population served as controls. Expected PHQ-9 mean scores of the general population sample, regressed on age and gender, were calculated to enable a fair comparison of different groups of cancer patients. Results While the reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) for the PHQ-9 scale was good (alpha ≥ 0.84), the CFA fit indices of the one-dimensional solution were unsatisfactory in the patients’ sample. The factorial analysis confirmed two factors. PHQ-9 mean scores for 15 types of cancer are given, ranging from 4.0 (prostate) to 8.2 (thyroid gland). Differences between expected mean scores (derived from the general population) and raw mean scores of the cancer subsamples are reported that provide a better estimate of the depression burden. Conclusions The results confirmed that the PHQ-9 performs well in testing depression in cancer patients. Regression coefficients can be used for performing unbiased comparisons among cancer groups, not only for this study. The burden of patients with testis cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma is underestimated when age and gender are not taken into account.
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The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies all over the world. We now provide a systematic review of the literature on the WHO-5. We conducted a systematic search for literature on the WHO-5 in PubMed and PsycINFO in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. In our review of the identified articles, we focused particularly on the following aspects: (1) the clinimetric validity of the WHO-5; (2) the responsiveness/sensitivity of the WHO-5 in controlled clinical trials; (3) the potential of the WHO-5 as a screening tool for depression, and (4) the applicability of the WHO-5 across study fields. A total of 213 articles met the predefined criteria for inclusion in the review. The review demonstrated that the WHO-5 has high clinimetric validity, can be used as an outcome measure balancing the wanted and unwanted effects of treatments, is a sensitive and specific screening tool for depression and its applicability across study fields is very high. The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been applied successfully across a wide range of study fields. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Context The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was developed as a screening instrument but its administration time has limited its clinical usefulness.Objective To determine if the self-administered PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) has validity and utility for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD.Design Criterion standard study undertaken between May 1997 and November 1998.Setting Eight primary care clinics in the United States.Participants Of a total of 3000 adult patients (selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 62 primary care physicians (21 general internal medicine, 41 family practice), 585 patients had an interview with a mental health professional within 48 hours of completing the PHQ.Main Outcome Measures Patient Health Questionnaire diagnoses compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; health care use; and treatment/referral decisions.Results A total of 825 (28%) of the 3000 individuals and 170 (29%) of the 585 had a PHQ diagnosis. There was good agreement between PHQ diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any 1 or more PHQ disorder, κ = 0.65; overall accuracy, 85%; sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 90%), similar to the original PRIME-MD. Patients with PHQ diagnoses had more functional impairment, disability days, and health care use than did patients without PHQ diagnoses (for all group main effects, P<.001). The average time required of the physician to review the PHQ was far less than to administer the original PRIME-MD (<3 minutes for 85% vs 16% of the cases). Although 80% of the physicians reported that routine use of the PHQ would be useful, new management actions were initiated or planned for only 117 (32%) of the 363 patients with 1 or more PHQ diagnoses not previously recognized.Conclusion Our study suggests that the PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD, and is more efficient to use. Figures in this Article Mental disorders in primary care are common, disabling, costly, and treatable.1- 5 However, they are frequently unrecognized and therefore not treated.2- 6 Although there have been many screening instruments developed,7- 8 PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders)5 was the first instrument designed for use in primary care that actually diagnoses specific disorders using diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition9(DSM-III-R) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition10(DSM-IV). PRIME-MD is a 2-stage system in which the patient first completes a 26-item self-administered questionnaire that screens for 5 of the most common groups of disorders in primary care: depressive, anxiety, alcohol, somatoform, and eating disorders. In the original study,5 the average amount of time spent by the physician to administer the clinician evaluation guide to patients who scored positively on the patient questionnaire was 8.4 minutes. However, this is still a considerable amount of time in the primary care setting, where most visits are 15 minutes or less.11 Therefore, although PRIME-MD has been widely used in clinical research,12- 28 its use in clinical settings has apparently been limited. This article describes the development, validation, and utility of a fully self-administered version of the original PRIME-MD, called the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (henceforth referred to as the PHQ). DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ ABSTRACT | DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ | STUDY PURPOSE | METHODS | RESULTS | COMMENT | REFERENCES The 2 components of the original PRIME-MD, the patient questionnaire and the clinician evaluation guide, were combined into a single, 3-page questionnaire that can be entirely self-administered by the patient (it can also be read to the patient, if necessary). The clinician scans the completed questionnaire, verifies positive responses, and applies diagnostic algorithms that are abbreviated at the bottom of each page. In this study, the data from the questionnaire were entered into a computer program that applied the diagnostic algorithms (written in SPSS 8.0 for Windows [SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill]). The computer program does not include the diagnosis of somatoform disorder, because this diagnosis requires a clinical judgment regarding the adequacy of a biological explanation for physical symptoms that the patient has noted. A fourth page has been added to the PHQ that includes questions about menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth, and recent psychosocial stressors. This report covers only data from the diagnostic portion (first 3 pages) of the PHQ. Users of the PHQ have the choice of using the entire 4-page instrument, just the 3-page diagnostic portion, a 2-page version (Brief PHQ) that covers mood and panic disorders and the nondiagnostic information described above, or only the first page of the 2-page version (covering only mood and panic disorders) (Figure 1). Figure 1. First Page of Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Brief Patient Health QuestionnaireGrahic Jump Location+View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide (.ppt) | View in Article ContextCopyright held by Pfizer Inc, but may be photocopied ad libitum. For office coding, see the end of the article. The original PRIME-MD assessed 18 current mental disorders. By grouping several specific mood, anxiety, and somatoform categories into larger rubrics, the PHQ greatly simplifies the differential diagnosis by assessing only 8 disorders. Like the original PRIME-MD, these disorders are divided into threshold disorders (corresponding to specific DSM-IV diagnoses, such as major depressive disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorder, and bulimia nervosa) and subthreshold disorders (in which the criteria for disorders encompass fewer symptoms than are required for any specific DSM-IV diagnoses: other depressive disorder, probable alcohol abuse or dependence, and somatoform and binge eating disorders). One important modification was made in the response categories for depressive and somatoform symptoms that, in the original PRIME-MD, were dichotomous (yes/no). In the PHQ, response categories are expanded. Patients indicate for each of the 9 depressive symptoms whether, during the previous 2 weeks, the symptom has bothered them "not at all," "several days," "more than half the days," or "nearly every day." This change allows the PHQ to be not only a diagnostic instrument but also to yield a measure of depression severity that can be of aid in initial treatment decisions as well as in monitoring outcomes over time. Patients indicate for each of the 13 physical symptoms whether, during the previous month, they have been "not bothered," "bothered a little," or "bothered a lot" by the symptom. Because physical symptoms are so common in primary care, the original PRIME-MD dichotomous-response categories often led patients to endorse physical symptoms that were not clinically significant. An item was added to the end of the diagnostic portion of the PHQ asking the patient if he or she had checked off any problems on the questionnaire: "How difficult have these problems made it for you to do your work, take care of things at home, or get along with other people?" As with the original PRIME-MD, before making a final diagnosis, the clinician is expected to rule out physical causes of depression, anxiety and physical symptoms, and, in the case of depression, normal bereavement and history of a manic episode. STUDY PURPOSE ABSTRACT | DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ | STUDY PURPOSE | METHODS | RESULTS | COMMENT | REFERENCES Our major purpose was to test the validity and utility of the PHQ in a multisite sample of family practice and general internal medicine patients by answering the following questions: Are diagnoses made by the PHQ as accurate as diagnoses made by the original PRIME-MD, using independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals (MHPs) as the criterion standard?Are the frequencies of mental disorders found by the PHQ comparable to those obtained in other primary care studies?Is the construct validity of the PHQ comparable to the original PRIME-MD in terms of functional impairment and health care use?Is the PHQ as effective as the original PRIME-MD in increasing the recognition of mental disorders in primary care patients?How valuable do primary care physicians find the diagnostic information in the PHQ?How comfortable are patients in answering the questions on the PHQ, and how often do they believe that their answers will be helpful to their physicians in understanding and treating their problems?
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Aims: To provide 12-month prevalence and disability burden estimates of a broad range of mental and neurological disorders in the European Union (EU) and to compare these findings to previous estimates. Referring to our previous 2005 review, improved up-to-date data for the enlarged EU on a broader range of disorders than previously covered are needed for basic, clinical and public health research and policy decisions and to inform about the estimated number of persons affected in the EU. Method: Stepwise multi-method approach, consisting of systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of existing data sets, national surveys and expert consultations. Studies and data from all member states of the European Union (EU-27) plus Switzerland, Iceland and Norway were included. Supplementary information about neurological disorders is provided, although methodological constraints prohibited the derivation of overall prevalence estimates for mental and neurological disorders. Disease burden was measured by disability adjusted life years (DALY). Results: Prevalence: It is estimated that each year 38.2% of the EU population suffers from a mental disorder. Adjusted for age and comorbidity, this corresponds to 164.8million persons affected. Compared to 2005 (27.4%) this higher estimate is entirely due to the inclusion of 14 new disorders also covering childhood/adolescence as well as the elderly. The estimated higher number of persons affected (2011: 165m vs. 2005: 82m) is due to coverage of childhood and old age populations, new disorders and of new EU membership states. The most frequent disorders are anxiety disorders (14.0%), insomnia (7.0%), major depression (6.9%), somatoform (6.3%), alcohol and drug dependence (>4%), ADHD (5%) in the young, and dementia (1-30%, depending on age). Except for substance use disorders and mental retardation, there were no substantial cultural or country variations. Although many sources, including national health insurance programs, reveal increases in sick leave, early retirement and treatment rates due to mental disorders, rates in the community have not increased with a few exceptions (i.e. dementia). There were also no consistent indications of improvements with regard to low treatment rates, delayed treatment provision and grossly inadequate treatment. Disability: Disorders of the brain and mental disorders in particular, contribute 26.6% of the total all cause burden, thus a greater proportion as compared to other regions of the world. The rank order of the most disabling diseases differs markedly by gender and age group; overall, the four most disabling single conditions were: depression, dementias, alcohol use disorders and stroke. Conclusion: In every year over a third of the total EU population suffers from mental disorders. The true size of "disorders of the brain" including neurological disorders is even considerably larger. Disorders of the brain are the largest contributor to the all cause morbidity burden as measured by DALY in the EU. No indications for increasing overall rates of mental disorders were found nor of improved care and treatment since 2005; less than one third of all cases receive any treatment, suggesting a considerable level of unmet needs. We conclude that the true size and burden of disorders of the brain in the EU was significantly underestimated in the past. Concerted priority action is needed at all levels, including substantially increased funding for basic, clinical and public health research in order to identify better strategies for improved prevention and treatment for disorders of the brain as the core health challenge of the 21st century.
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Background: Although insomnia is a prevalent complaint with significant morbidity, it often remains unrecognized and untreated. Brief and valid instruments are needed both for screening and outcome assessment. This study examined psychometric indices of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to detect cases of insomnia in a population-based sample and to evaluate treatment response in a clinical sample. Methods: Participants were 959 individuals selected from the community for an epidemiological study of insomnia (Community sample) and 183 individuals evaluated for insomnia treatment and 62 controls without insomnia (Clinical sample). They completed the ISI and several measures of sleep quality, fatigue, psychological symptoms, and quality of life; those in the Clinical sample also completed sleep diaries, polysomnography, and interviews to validate their insomnia/good sleep status and assess treatment response. In addition to standard psychometric indices of reliability and validity, item response theory analyses were computed to examine ISI item response patterns. Receiver operating curves were used to derive optimal cutoff scores for case identification and to quantify the minimally important changes in relation to global improvement ratings obtained by an independent assessor. Results: ISI internal consistency was excellent for both samples (Cronbach α of 0.90 and 0.91). Item response analyses revealed adequate discriminatory capacity for 5 of the 7 items. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between total ISI score and measures of fatigue, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. A cutoff score of 10 was optimal (86.1% sensitivity and 87.7% specificity) for detecting insomnia cases in the community sample. In the clinical sample, a change score of -8.4 points (95% CI: -7.1, -9.4) was associated with moderate improvement as rated by an independent assessor after treatment. Conclusion: These findings provide further evidence that the ISI is a reliable and valid instrument to detect cases of insomnia in the population and is sensitive to treatment response in clinical patients.
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There has been increasing concern about the impact of the global economic recession on mental health. To date, findings on the relationship between income and mental illness have been mixed. Some studies have found that lower income is associated with mental illness, while other studies have not found this relationship. To examine the relationship between income, mental disorders, and suicide attempts. Prospective, longitudinal, nationally representative survey. United States general population. A total of 34,653 noninstitutionalized adults (aged ≥20 years) interviewed at 2 time points 3 years apart. Lifetime DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II mental disorders and lifetime suicide attempts, as well as incident mental disorders and change in income during the follow-up period. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of most of the lifetime Axis I and Axis II mental disorders was associated with lower levels of income. Participants with household income of less than $20,000 per year were at increased risk of incident mood disorders during the 3-year follow-up period in comparison with those with income of $70,000 or more per year. A decrease in household income during the 2 time points was also associated with an increased risk of incident mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 99% confidence interval, 1.06-1.60) in comparison with respondents with no change in income. Baseline presence of mental disorders did not increase the risk of change in personal or household income in the follow-up period. Low levels of household income are associated with several lifetime mental disorders and suicide attempts, and a reduction in household income is associated with increased risk for incident mental disorders. Policymakers need to consider optimal methods of intervention for mental disorders and suicidal behavior among low-income individuals.
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Quality of life (QOL) assessments that are easily administered and which do not impose a great burden on the respondent are needed for use in large epidemiological surveys, clinical settings and clinical trials. Using data from the WHOQOL-BREF field trials, the objectives of this work are to examine the performance of the WHOQOL-BREF as an integrated instrument, and to test its main psychometric properties. The WHOQOL-BREF is a 26-item version of the WHOQOL-100 assessment. Its psychometric properties were analysed using cross-sectional data obtained from a survey of adults carried out in 23 countries (n = 11,830). Sick and well respondents were sampled from the general population, as well as from hospital, rehabilitation and primary care settings, serving patients with physical and mental disorders and with respect to quotas of important socio-demographic variables. The WHOQOL-BREF self-assessment was completed, together with socio-demographic and health status questions. Analyses of internal consistency, item-total correlations, discriminant validity and construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis, indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF has good to excellent psychometric properties of reliability and performs well in preliminary tests of validity. These results indicate that overall, the WHOQOL-BREF is a sound, cross-culturally valid assessment of QOL, as reflected by its four domains: physical, psychological, social and environment.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
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Background: The COVID-19 quarantine has affected more than 860 million children and adolescents worldwide but, to date, no study has been developed to examine the psychological impact on their lives. The present study aims to examine for the first time the emotional impact of the quarantine on children and adolescents from Italy and Spain, two of the most affected countries by COVID-19.Methods: 1,143 parents of Italian and Spanish children aged 3 to 18 years completed a survey providing information about how the quarantine affects their children and themselves, compared to before the home confinement. Findings: 85.7% of the parents perceived changes in their children´s emotional state and behaviors during the quarantine. The most frequent symptoms were difficulty concentrating (76.6%), boredom (52%), irritability (39%), restlessness (38.8%), nervousness (38%), feelings of loneliness (31.3%), uneasiness (30.4%), and worries (30.1%), and Spanish parents reported more symptoms than Italians. As expected, children of both countries used monitors more frequently, spent less time doing physical activity, and slept more hours during the quarantine. Furthermore, when family coexistence during quarantine became more difficult, the situation was more serious, and the level of stress was higher, parents tended to report more emotional problems in their children.Interpretation: The quarantine impacts considerably on Italian and Spanish youth, reinforcing the need to detect children with emotional and behavioral problems as early as possible to improve their psychological well-being.
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This study is aimed to assess the anxiety level of Iranian general population during COVID-19 outbreak. The online questionnaire surveyed 10,754 individuals from the general population of 31 provinces of Iran who completed the questionnaire on social networks from March 1 to March 9, 2020. The inferential statistics suggests that the level of anxiety was higher among women (95% CI [0.1, 81.36], p < 0.001), people who more followed corona-related news (p < 0.001) and the age group of 21-40 years (p < 0.001). Ultimately, the level of anxiety was significantly higher among people who had at least one family member, relative, or friend who contracted COVID-19 disease (95% CI [1.2, 35.03], p < 0.001). The health care system should adopt a package of psychosocial interventions to reduce the anxiety of high risk groups.
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China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Young people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Young people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.