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Advances in ABO gene expression regulation

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... The regulatory mechanisms between ABO blood group and human health need to be clarified. Furthermore, deeper and more extensive research on how to modulate the expression of blood group genes is also needed to help the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases [74] . ...
... In our study, the para-Bombay PCR-SSP kit was selected to confirm the para-Bombay genotype. So far, nearly 50 different FUT1 mutations capable of causing H antigen defects in RBCs have been reported [12][13][14] . The proband we found was h4/h4 genotype. ...
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Background The association of ABO blood groups with gastric cancer risk was proposed decades ago, but the results have been inconsistent. Methods We used two single nucleotide polymorphisms to determine ABO genotype in 4932 gastric cancer cases and 6158 controls of Chinese descent, and evaluated the associations of ABO blood groups and genotypes with risk of gastric cancer using multivariable logistic regression models. We also systematically reviewed published literature and performed a meta-analysis of all relevant studies. Results In the case-control study, compared with blood group O, both blood group A and AB were associated with increased gastric cancer risk (for group A, odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.24; for group AB, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02–1.36, respectively). Analyses of ABO genotypes revealed associations of AO and AB with risk of gastric cancer compared with OO genotype. Consistent with the case-control study, meta-analysis of 40 studies including 33,613 cases and 2,431,327 controls demonstrated that blood group A (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13–1.25) and AB (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03–1.16) were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Conclusions Our analyses validated the association of blood group A with risk of gastric cancer, and suggested that blood group AB was also associated with gastric cancer risk. Functional investigations are warranted to elucidate the exact mechanism of ABO blood groups in gastric carcinogenesis. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12885-019-5355-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Polymorphisms of the FUT2 gene alters glycan ABO(H) blood group and Lewis antigen expression (commonly known as non-secretor status) in the small intestinal mucosa. Whilst non-secretor status affects 20% of the population worldwide, it has been reported to be present in up to 40% of all Bangladeshis. Furthermore, Bangladeshi children are reportedly more susceptible to symptomatic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection if they are non-secretors. Therefore, in an attempt to identify a non-secretor status genotypic biomarker of altered susceptibility to ETEC infection, we used the 1000 Genomes Project to identify three population related non-synonymous FUT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We then assessed the genotypic frequency of these SNPs in Bangladeshi children who had been clinically monitored for ETEC infection. One novel missense FUT2 SNP, rs200157007-TT and the earlier established rs601338-AA SNP were shown to be causing non-secretor status, with these SNPs being associated with symptomatic but not asymptomatic ETEC infection. Moreover, rs200157007-TT and rs601338-AA were associated with symptomatic but not asymptomatic ETEC infection irrespective of the child’s Lewis secretor status, suggesting FUT2, the regulator of Lewis and ABO(H) antigens in the intestinal mucosa, could be a host genotypic feature affecting susceptibility to ETEC infection.
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The human ABO blood group system is of great importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO system is composed of complex carbohydrate structures that are biosynthesized by A- and B-transferases encoded by the ABO gene. However, the mechanisms regulating ABO gene expression in epithelial cells remain obscure. On the basis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in and around ABO in epithelial cells, we prepared reporter plasmid constructs including these sites. Subsequent luciferase assays and histone modifications indicated a novel positive regulatory element, designated the +22.6-kb site, downstream from ABO, and this was shown to enhance ABO promoter activity in an epithelial cell-specific manner. Expression of ABO and B-antigen was reduced in gastric cancer KATOIII cells by biallelic deletion of the +22.6-kb site using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the site bound to an epithelial cell-specific transcription factor, Elf5. Mutation of the Ets binding motifs to abrogate binding of this factor reduced the regulatory activity of the +22.6-kb site. Furthermore, ELF5 knockdown with shRNA reduced both endogenous transcription from ABO and B-antigen expression in KATOIII cells. Thus, Elf5 appeared to be involved in the enhancer potential of the +22.6-kb site. These results support the contention that ABO expression is dependent upon a downstream positive regulatory element functioning through a tissue-restricted transcription factor, Elf5, in epithelial cells.
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The antigens of the ABO system are expressed on red blood cell membranes as well as on the surface of several other normal and pathological cells and tissues. Following the first clinical observations more than 60 years ago, the role of ABO blood group in cancer biology has been intensely studied by several investigators, and it is now widely recognised that ABO antigens are associated with the risk of developing several types of tumours, namely pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether this association also affects the clinical outcome of cancer patients is less certain. In this narrative review, based on literature data, we discuss the role of ABO blood types as prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the association is also analysed.
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We have studied the expression of human histo-blood group ABO genes during erythroid differentiation, using an ex vivo culture of AC133(-)CD34(+) cells obtained from peripheral blood. 5'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis of RNA from those cells revealed a novel transcription start site, which appeared to mark an alternative starting exon (1a) comprising 27 bp at the 5'-end of a CpG island in ABO genes. Results from reverse transcription-PCR specific to exon 1a indicated that the cells of both erythroid and epithelial lineages utilize this exon as the transcription starting exon. Transient transfection experiments showed that the region just upstream from the transcription start site possesses promoter activity in a cell type-specific manner when placed 5' adjacent to the reporter luciferase gene. Results from bisulfite genomic sequencing and reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that hypermethylation of the distal promoter region correlated with the absence of transcripts containing exon 1a, whereas hypermethylation in the interspersed repeats 5' adjacent to the distal promoter was commonly observed in all of the cell lines examined. These results suggest that a functional alternative promoter is located between the hypermethylated region of repetitive elements and the CpG island in the ABO genes.
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The ABO blood group is of great importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. However, the mechanisms regulating human ABO gene expression remain obscure. On the basis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites in and upstream of ABO in K562 cells, in the present study, we prepared reporter plasmid constructs including these sites. Subsequent luciferase assays indicated a novel positive regulatory element in intron 1. This element was shown to enhance ABO promoter activity in an erythroid cell-specific manner. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that it bound to the tissue-restricted transcription factor GATA-1. Mutation of the GATA motifs to abrogate binding of this factor reduced the regulatory activity of the element. Therefore, GATA-1 appears to be involved in the cell-specific activity of the element. Furthermore, we found that a partial deletion in intron 1 involving the element was associated with B(m) phenotypes. Therefore, it is plausible that deletion of the erythroid cell-specific regulatory element could down-regulate transcription in the B(m) allele, leading to reduction of B-antigen expression in cells of erythroid lineage, but not in mucus-secreting cells. These results support the contention that the enhancer-like element in intron 1 of ABO has a significant function in erythroid cells.
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Preface In contrast to changes in protein-coding sequences, the significance of noncoding DNA variation in human disease has been minimally explored. A recent torrent of genome-wide association studies suggests that noncoding variation represents a significant risk factor for common disorders, but the mechanisms by which they contribute to disease remain largely obscure. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers - a major category of functional noncoding DNA - are likely involved in many developmental and disease-relevant processes. Genome-wide approaches for their discovery and functional characterization are now available and provide a growing knowledgebase for the systematic exploration of their role in human biology and disease susceptibility.
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Loss of A, B and H antigens from the red blood cells of patients with myeloid malignancies is a frequent occurrence. Previously, we have reported alterations in ABH antigens on the red blood cells of 55% of patients with myeloid malignancies. To determine the underlying molecular mechanisms of this loss, we assessed ABO allelic expression in 21 patients with ABH antigen loss previously identified by flow cytometric analysis as well as an additional 7 patients detected with ABH antigen changes by serology. When assessing ABO mRNA allelic expression, 6/12 (50%) patients with ABH antigen loss detected by flow cytometry and 5/7 (71%) of the patients with ABH antigen loss detected by serology had a corresponding ABO mRNA allelic loss of expression. We examined the ABO locus for copy number and DNA methylation alterations in 21 patients, 11 with loss of expression of one or both ABO alleles, and 10 patients with no detectable allelic loss of ABO mRNA expression. No loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ABO locus was observed in these patients. However in 8/11 (73%) patients with loss of ABO allelic expression, the ABO promoter was methylated compared with 2/10 (20%) of patients with no ABO allelic expression loss (P = 0.03). We have found that loss of ABH antigens in patients with hematological malignancies is associated with a corresponding loss of ABO allelic expression in a significant proportion of patients. Loss of ABO allelic expression was strongly associated with DNA methylation of the ABO promoter.
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Based on the partial amino acid sequence, the cDNA encoding UDP-GalNAc:Fuc alpha 1----2Gal alpha 1----3GalNAc transferase, the specific primary gene product of histo-blood group A gene (A transferase), was cloned and sequenced. Poly(A)+ RNA from human stomach cancer cell line MKN45, expressing high levels of A antigen, was used for construction of a lambda gt10 cDNA library. Degenerate synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides were used for polymerase chain reactions to detect the presence of the sequence of interest in cDNA (presence test) and to identify the correct clones (identification test) after screening the library with a radiolabeled polymerase chain reaction amplified fragment. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a coding region of 1062 base pairs encoding a protein of 41 kDa. Hydrophobicity plot analysis shows the existence of three domains: N-terminal short stretch, transmembranous hydrophobic region, and a long C-terminal domain (a feature common to all glycosyltransferases cloned so far). Southern hybridization analysis has shown that this DNA does not represent a multigene family. No restriction fragment length polymorphism was found to correlate with ABO blood group type. Bands were detected in Northern hybridization of mRNAs from cell lines expressing A, B, AB, or H antigens. These results suggest that sequences of ABO genes are essentially very similar (with minimal differences), and the inability of the O gene to encode A or B transferases is probably due to structural differences rather than A or B transferase expression failure.
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We have studied the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the human histo-blood group ABO genes, and identified DNAcis-elements and trans-activating protein that control the expression of these genes which are important in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. We introduced the 5′-upstream sequence of ABO genes into the promoterless reporter vector and characterized the promoter activity of deletion constructs using transient transfection assays with gastric cancer cell line KATO III cells. The sequence just upstream of the transcription start site (cap site), and an enhancer element, which is located further upstream (between −3899 and −3618 base pairs (bp) from the transcription initiation site) and contains 4 tandem copies of a 43-bp repeat unit, were shown in gastric cancer cells to be responsible for the transcriptional activity of the ABO genes. DNA binding studies have demonstrated that a transcription factor, CBF/NF-Y, bound to the 43-bp repeat unit in the minisatellite. Functional importance of these CBF/NF-Y-binding sites in enhancer activity was confirmed by transfection experiments using reporter plasmids with mutated binding sites. Thus, transcriptional regulation of the human ABO genes is dependent upon binding of CBF/NF-Y to the minisatellite.
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We have investigated the regulatory role of DNA methylation in the expression of the human histo-blood group ABO genes. The ABO gene promoter region contains a CpG island whose methylation status correlates well with gene expression in the cell lines tested. The CpG island was found hypomethylated in some cell lines that expressed ABO genes, whereas the other cell lines that did not express ABO genes were hypermethylated. Whereas constitutive transcriptional activity of the ABO gene promoter was demonstrated in both expressor and nonexpressor cell lines by transient transfection of reporter constructs containing the ABO gene promoter sequence, HhaI methylase-catalyzed in vitro methylation of the promoter region prior to DNA transfection suppressed the promoter activity when introduced into the expressor gastric cancer cell line KATOIII cells. On the other hand, in the nonexpressor gastric cancer cell line MKN28 cells, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the ABO gene promoter and appearance of A-transferase messages, as well as A-antigens synthesized by A-transferase. Taken together, these studies suggest that DNA methylation of the ABO gene promoter may play an important role in the regulation of ABO gene expression.
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Loss of ABO blood group antigen expression has been reported in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Synthesis of the ABO blood group antigen was genetically determined by allelic variants of the ABO gene assigned on 9q34.1. We analyzed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and promoter hypermethylation of the ABO gene in TCC and compared them with alterations of A antigen expression in TCC, dysplasia and normal urothelium. A total of 81 samples of TCC of the bladder obtained from transurethral resection (TUR) (n=44) and radical cystectomy (n=37) were examined. Expression of the A antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) using anti-A antigen monoclonal antibody. LOH of the ABO gene locus was examined by blunt-end single-strand DNA conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using flouresence-based auto sequencer. Promoter hypermethylation of the ABO gene were examined by bisulfite PCR-SSCP (BiPS) analysis and/or methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Loss of A allele and/or hypermethylation were significantly associated with abnormal expression of the A antigen in cases undergoing TUR (P=0.02) and radical cystectomy (P=0.0005). For the analysis of the concomitant dysplasia in 23 cases with TCC of the bladder, the expression of the A antigen was maintained, regardless of the A allelic loss or methylation status in the tumor. In conclusion, A allelic loss and hypermethylation in the promoter region of the ABO gene showed significant correlation with reduction of A antigen expression in TCC, while the expression of the A antigen is maintained in concomitant dysplasia or normal urothelium, suggesting that loss of the ABO gene and/or its promoter hypermethylation is a specific marker for TCC.
Article
Objective This study sought to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and the risk of gastric cancer as well as clinical pathological parameters and prognosis. Methods Gastric cancer patient data were collected from January 1995 to January 2012 at Jilin Cancer Hospital, and the blood group information of the blood donors at Jilin City Blood Center was recorded. The relationships between ABO blood group and both clinicopathological parameters and the risk of gastric cancer were analyzed retrospectively. The impact of ABO blood type on the 5-year survival rate of patients with gastric cancer was evaluated through outpatient and telephone interviews. Results (1) Compared with the healthy population, the frequency distribution of gastric cancer patients with the A blood group was significantly increased (χ ² = 4.708, P = 0.000), whereas the frequency distribution of gastric cancer patients with the AB blood group was significantly decreased (χ ² = 9.630, P = 0.002). However, there was no significant difference in the distributions of the B blood group and O blood group (P > 0.05). (2) The risk of gastric cancer in people with the A blood group was higher, whereas the risk of gastric cancer in people with the AB blood group was lower. There was no significant difference in the risk of gastric cancer between type B and type O patients (P > 0.05). (3) The ABO blood group was not related to pathological factors, including the size of the gastric tumor or the T stage or N stage of the disease (P > 0.05). (4) Univariate analysis results showed that the degree of differentiation, tumor size, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and type O blood were factors affecting the 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis results showed that tumor size, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and O blood group were independent prognostic factors. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer was significantly better in patients with type O blood (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 1.67–3.92). Conclusion (1) The risk of gastric cancer was higher in patients with the A blood group and lower in those with the AB blood group. (2) The ABO blood group showed no significant effect on the clinicopathological parameters of gastric cancer. (3) The O blood group may be a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients.
Article
Objective: To investigate the impact of promoter CpG island methylation on ABO mRNA expression in leukemia. Methods: 25 cases of leukemia and 20 cases of normal control were studied, and the leukemia cell lines K562、HL-60 and Jurkat were treated with different concentrations of decitabine. PCR-SSP was used to identify ABO genotype, RQ-PCR for ABO mRNA expression and bisulfite sequencing PCR for DNA methylation status. Results: ① The methylation of ABO promoter in acute myeloid leukemia patients (10 cases) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (10 cases) were 53.85% and 18.22% respectively, which were obviously higher than those in control (20 cases, 2.33%) and chronic myeloid leukemia patients (5 cases, 2.12% ). ② ABO genotype of K562 was O1O1, which has changed little before and after decitabine treatment. ABO genotype of HL-60 and Jurkat could not been identify before treatment, but showed as O1A1 and A1O2 after treatment. ③ABO mRNA expression of K562 was 1 275.67 ± 35.86, which was obviously higher than that in HL-60 (0.54 ± 0.07, P<0.05) and Jurkat (0.82±0.16, P<0.05). ④The methylation of ABO promoter in K562, HL-60 and Jurkat were 0, 58.14%, and 96.74%. As concentration of decitabine increased, the methylation of ABO promoter were decreased and the expressions of ABO mRNA were increased in HL-60 and Jurkat, which had significant differences compared with that before treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The methylation of ABO promoter shows a negative correlation with ABO mRNA expression. DNA methylation was an important aspect of ABO antigens decrease in acute leukemia.
Article
Objective: To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of ABO promotor methylation level in adult patients with leukemia and myelodydysplastic syndrome(MDS). Methods: ABO promoter methylation level of 182 malignant hematological disease patients and 68 normal controls were detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR.Then clinical features and outcome were compared between hypermethylation group and hypomethylation group. Results: The median methylation rate of ABO promoter in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were 46.98% and 11.01% respectively, which were both higher than that in controls (2.30%, P<0.05). The methylation rates in remission AML and ALL were 1.58% and 2.30% respectively, which were comparable with that in normal group (P>0.05). As to relapse AML and ALL, methylation rates were 41.26% and 17.50% respectively, also significantly higher than that in controls (P<0.05).In patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) chronic phase, the median methylation rate was 1.00%, which was similar to normal group. But a CML patient who transformed to ALL hadextremely high methylation rate 92.56%. The median methylation rate in patients with MDS significantly elevated as 5.81% compared with that in controls (P<0.05). The median overall survival (OS) of ALL and AML (non-M3) patients with hypermethylation were 12.5 months and 15.3 months, which were significantly shorter than those with hypomethylation (24.0 months and 20.0 months)(P<0.05).The median disease-free survival (DFS) of ALL and AML (non-M3) patients with hypermethylation were 9.9 months and 12.0 months, which were significantly shorter than those with hypomethylation (22.3 months and 18.5 months), (P<0.05). Multivariable analysis suggested that ABO promoter methylation level was an independent predictive factor of OS and DFS in ALL and AML (non-M(3)) patients. Conclusion: ABO promoter hypermethylation is closely related to genesis, development and prognosis of leukemia and MDS. Hypermethylationis related to a clinical poor prognosis compare with hypomethylation.
Article
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate any possible association between ABO blood groups and lung cancer. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on 122 lung cancer patients and 1,255 matched-healthy individuals that were reviewed retrospectively. Chi-square and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant difference between lung cancer patients and the control group was recorded regarding ABO blood types and the risk of lung cancer (p = 0.055, OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-1.03). Male gender (p = 0.006, OR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.24-3.49) and smoking (p = 0.000, OR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.72-5.69) were significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer. Conclusion: No association between ABO blood types and the risk of lung cancer was observed.
Article
Antisense RNA molecule represents a unique type of DNA transcript that comprises 19-23 nucleotides and is complementary to mRNA. Antisense RNAs play the crucial role in regulating gene expression at multiple levels, such as at replication, transcription, and translation. In addition, artificial antisense RNAs can effectively regulate the expression of related genes in host cells. With the development of antisense RNA, investigating the functions of antisense RNAs has emerged as a hot research field. This review summarizes our current understanding of antisense RNAs, particularly of the formation of antisense RNAs and their mechanism of regulating the expression of their target genes. In addition, we detail the effects and applications of antisense RNAs in antivirus and anticancer treatments and in regulating the expression of related genes in plants and microorganisms. This review is intended to highlight the key role of antisense RNA in genetic research and guide new investigators to the study of antisense RNAs.
Article
Background: A weak ABO subgroup is one of the most important causes of an ABO blood grouping discrepancy. Here, we investigated the distribution of weak ABO subgroups in the Chinese population and identified ten novel weak ABO subgroup alleles. Material and methods: We performed phenotype investigations by serological studies, analysed the DNA sequence of the ABO gene by direct sequencing or sequencing after cloning, and evaluated the role of glycosyltransferase mutations by in silico analysis and in vitro expression assay. Results: Three hundred and fifty-one individuals with a weak ABO subgroup were detected among 1.45 million blood-typed subjects. Ten novel weak ABO subgroup alleles were identified. Molecular modelling and analysis of GTA mutation p.L339P suggested that the mutation may change the local conformation of GTA and reduce its stability. The in vitro expression assay showed that A antigen expression and agglutination of HeLa cells transfected with GTA mutant p.L339P decreased significantly compared to those of cells transfected with wild-type GTA. Conclusion: Ten novel weak ABO subgroup alleles were identified in the Chinese population. GTA mutant p.L339P may lead to a weak A phenotype by changing the local conformation of GTA and reducing its stability.
Article
Background An erythroid cell‐specific regulatory element (+5·8‐kb) in the first intron of ABO is responsible for the antigen differential expression and the regulatory activity of the element was affected by the nucleotide mutation in the +5·8‐kb region. Currently, many individuals with ABO subgroups were found in the Chinese population, but there was little information about the function of +5·8‐kb region in these individuals. Here, we studied the mechanism of the mutation in the +5·8‐kb region responsible for reducing of antigen expression in 30 ABO subtype Chinese individuals without mutation in the coding region or splicing site. Materials and methods The nucleotide sequence of the partial intron 1 covering the +5·8‐kb site was amplified and directly sequenced. The haplotype with the novel mutation was obtained by the TOPO TA cloning. Both of the ABO promoter and the +5·8 kb regulatory element were subcloned into the basic luciferase reporter plasmid using the double endonuclease digestion. The promoter activity was examined by the dual‐luciferase report vector with K562 cells. Results A novel nucleotide substitution +5904 C>T located at RUNX1‐binding site in the +5·8 kb site was identified from three individuals with B subtypes. +5890 T>G were found in three Bel and one Ael phenotypes. Cotransfection and luciferase assays demonstrated that the +5904 C>T could obviously reduce activity of the +5·8 kb site. Conclusion The study suggested that the transcriptional activity of the +5·8 kb site could be downregulated by the single point mutation of RUNX1 motif, leading to reduction in A or B antigen expression.
Article
Background and Objectives Dysfunctional glycosyltransferase A or B may lead to incomplete glycosylation of H antigen and atypical ABO blood group with weak A or B phenotypes, posing challenges for blood typing for transfusion. Materials and Methods Serological studies and ABO gene analysis were performed. Flow cytometry was performed on HeLa cells transfected glycosyltransferase B expressing plasmids. Agglutination of transfected cells and total glycosyltransferase B transfer capacity were examined. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore possible dynamic conformational changes around the binding pocket. Results We identified a mutation c.538C>T (p. R180C) of B allele in a Chinese donor and his father with ABw phenotype. In vitro expression study showed that mutation p.R180C, although not affecting expression of glycosyltransferase B, impaired H to B antigen conversion. The in silico analyses found that the residue Arg180 on the internal loop next to the entry of the binding pocket may have its long side chain salt‐bridged with the highly flexible C‐terminal carboxyl and contribute to the catalysis of H to B antigen conversion. Conclusion The p.R180C mutation impairs the conversion from H to B antigen and leads to weak B phenotype. Dynamic interaction between Arg180 and C‐terminal of glycosyltransferase B may stabilize its binding with UDP‐galactose and facilitate H/B antigen conversion.
Article
Among the epigenetic changes, histone acetylation has been recognized as a fundamental process that strongly affects gene expression regulation. Disrupt of this phenomenon has been linked to carcinogenesis. In this review, we analysed studies reporting the process of histone modification, the enzymes associated and affected genes concerning human malignancies and histone enzyme inhibitor drugs used in cancer treatment. Variable degrees of expression of HDACs (histone deacetylases) and HATs (histone acetyltransferases) are found in many human malignant tissues and the histones acetylation seems to influence different processes including the progression of cell cycle, the dynamics of chromosomes, DNA recombination, DNA repair and apoptosis. Thus, the control of aberrant activity and/or expression of these proteins have been favorable in treatment of diseases as cancer. HDACi have shown efficacy in clinical trials in solid and hematological malignancies. Therefore, the development and use of HDACs inhibitors are increasing, leading to continue studying these enzyme expressions and behavior, aiming to determine tumors that will respond better to this type of treatment.
Article
Background: The amino acid substitutions caused by ABO gene mutations are usually predicted to impact glycosyltransferase's function or its biosynthesis. Here we report an ABO exonic missense mutation that affects B-antigen expression by decreasing the mRNA level of the ABO gene rather than the amino acid change. Study design and methods: Serologic studies including plasma total GTB transfer capacity were performed. The exon sequences of the ABO gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. B(310) cDNA with c.28G>A (p.G10R) mutation was expressed in HeLa cells and total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant was measured. Flow cytometry was performed on these HeLa cells after transfection, and agglutination of Hela-Bweak cells was also examined. The mRNA of the ABO gene was analyzed by direct sequencing and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A minigene construct was prepared to evaluate the potential of splicing. Results: While plasma total GTB transfer capacity was undetectable in this B3 -like individual, the relative percentage of antigen-expressing cells and mean fluorescence index of the Bweak red blood cells (RBCs) were 19 and 14% of normal B RBCs, respectively. There was no significant difference of total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant and B-antigen expression on cell surfaces between HeLa cells transfected with B(310) cDNA and B cDNA. The mRNA expression level of B(310) in peripheral whole blood was significantly reduced. The amount of splicing is significantly lower in c.28G>A construct compared to that in wild-type construct after transfection in K562 cells. Conclusion: ABO c.28G>A mutation may cause B3 -like subgroup by affecting RNA splicing of the ABO gene.
Article
Background: The ABO system is of fundamental importance in the fields of transfusion and transplantation and has apparent associations with certain diseases, including cardiovascular disorders. ABO expression is reduced in the late phase of erythroid differentiation in vitro, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote cell differentiation. Therefore, whether or not HDACIs could reduce the amount of ABO transcripts and A or B antigens is an intriguing issue. Study design and methods: Quantitative polymerase chain reactions were carried out for the ABO transcripts in erythroid-lineage K562 and epithelial-lineage KATOIII cells after incubation with HDACIs, such as sodium butyrate, panobinostat, vorinostat, and sodium valproate. Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to evaluate the amounts of antigen in KATOIII cells treated with panobinostat. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and luciferase assays were performed on both cell types to examine the mechanisms of ABO suppression. Results: HDACIs reduced the ABO transcripts in both K562 and KATOIII cells, with panobinostat exerting the most significant effect. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a decrease in B-antigen expression on panobinostat-treated KATOIII cells. ChIP assays indicated that panobinostat altered the modification of histones in the transcriptional regulatory regions of ABO, and luciferase assays demonstrated reduced activity of these elements. Conclusion: ABO transcription seems to be regulated by an epigenetic mechanism. Panobinostat appears to suppress ABO transcription, reducing the amount of antigens on the surface of cultured cells.
Article
A novel A subgroup allele (c.538C>T p.Arg180Cys) showing weak A phenotype was found in a 30-year-old Korean woman with ABO discrepancy. Using 3D structural analysis, protein stability prediction and flow cytometric analysis of ABO antigen expression on HeLa cells transfected with plasmids containing the p.Arg180Cys mutant, we found that the Arg180 residue in the loop region of the A glycosyltransferases (GTA) structure plays significant role in stabilizing its closed conformation, which is required for substrate binding and catalysis study.
Chapter
The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.
Article
The Am and Bm phenotypes are characterized by weak expression of the A or B antigens, respectively, by red blood cells with a normal expression by the saliva of secretors. Deletion of the regulatory element in the first intron of the ABO gene and disruption of the GATA motif in the element were found to be responsible. In this study, we identified a novel mutation within the GATA motif (G>C substitution at position c.28 + 5830) in the regulatory element of the A allele that might diminish transcription activity causing the generation of the AmB phenotype.
Article
We developed a sequence-specific primer PCR (SSP-PCR) for detection of a 5·8-kb deletion (Bm5·8) involving an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element in intron 1 of the ABO blood group gene. Using this SSP-PCR, we performed genetic analysis of 382 individuals with Bm or ABm. The 5·8-kb deletion was found in 380 individuals, and disruption of the GATA motif in the regulatory element was found in one individual. Furthermore, a novel 3·0-kb deletion involving the element (Bm3·0) was demonstrated in the remaining individual. Comparisons of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in intron 1 between Bm5·8 and Bm3·0 suggested that these deletions occurred independently.
Article
Background and objectivesAn erythroid cell-specific regulatory element, referred to as the +5.8-kb site, has been identified in the first intron of the human ABO blood group gene. Subsequent studies have revealed involvement of deletion or mutation at the site in phenotypes Am, Bm and ABm. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the A3 and B3 phenotypes. Materials and methodsGenomic DNAs were prepared from peripheral blood of seven A3 individuals and twelve B3 or AB3 individuals, and the nucleotide sequences were investigated using PCR and sequencing. Promoter assays were performed with K562 cells. ResultsTwo single point-mutations at +5893 or +5909 in the site on the A-allele were found in A3 individuals, while promoter assays revealed decreased activity at the site as a result of each substitution. In two B3 individuals, a single point-mutation at −77 in the ABO promoter on the B-allele was found, and the substitution was demonstrated to reduce the promoter activity. Conclusion Nucleotide substitutions in the transcriptional regulatory elements such as the +5.8-kb site and the ABO promoter appear to decrease transcription from the A- and B-alleles, resulting in reduction in A- and B-antigen expression in A3 and B3, respectively.
Article
An erythroid cell-specific regulatory element, referred to as the +5·8-kb site, had been identified in the first intron of the human ABO blood group gene. Subsequent studies revealed that either a 5·8-kb deletion including the +5·8-kb site or disruption of a GATA factor binding motif at the site was present in all Bm and ABm individuals examined. We investigated the molecular mechanism of the Am phenotype, which is analogous to the Bm phenotype. Genomic DNAs were prepared from peripheral blood of two Am individuals, and the nucleotide sequences were investigated using PCR and direct sequencing. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and promoter assay with K562 cells were carried out. A novel 23-bp nucleotide deletion was found at the +5·8-kb site in both individuals. EMSAs demonstrated binding of the transcription factor RUNX1 to the nucleotides within the deletion. Promoter assays showed that the deletion reduced the transcriptional activity of the +5·8-kb site. Deletion of the 23-bp nucleotides including the RUNX1 binding site decreases transcription of the A allele, resulting in the reduction in A antigen expression in the Am phenotype.
Article
Background The ABO blood group is important in blood transfusion. Recently, an erythroid cell-specific regulatory element has been identified in the first intron of ABO using luciferase reporter assays with K562 cells. The erythroid cell-specific regulatory activity of the element was dependent upon GATA-1 binding. In addition, partial deletion of Intron 1 including the element was observed in genomic DNAs obtained from 111 B-m and AB(m) individuals, except for one, whereas the deletion was never found among 1005 individuals with the common phenotypes. Study Design and Methods In this study, further investigation was performed to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for reduction of B antigen expression in the exceptional B-m individual. Peptide nucleic acid-clamping polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the B-related allele, followed by sequence determination. Electrophoretic mobility assays and promoter assays were performed to examine whether a nucleotide substitution reduced the binding of a transcription factor and induced loss of function of the element. ResultsSequence determination revealed one point mutation of the GATA motif in the element. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the mutation abolished the binding of GATA transcription factors, and the promoter assays demonstrated complete loss of enhancer activity of the element. Conclusion These observations suggest that the mutation in the GATA motif of the erythroid-specific regulatory element may diminish the binding of GATA transcription factors and down regulate transcriptional activity of the element on the B allele, leading to reduction of B antigen expression in erythroid lineage cells of the B-m individual.
Article
The antigens of the ABO system (A, B, and H determinants, respectively) consist of complex carbohydrate molecules. It has been known for nearly half a century that the ABO blood group exerts a major influence on plasma levels of the von Willebrand factor (VWF)-factor VIII (FVIII) complex and that normal group O individuals have significantly lower levels of VWF and FVIII than do non-O individuals. As a consequence, several investigators have studied the association between ABO blood group and the risk of developing bleeding or thrombotic events. A number of epidemiological studies have also analyzed the biologic relevance of this interaction by assessing whether the ABO blood group could influence human longevity through the regulation of VWF-FVIII plasma levels. In this review, the molecular mechanisms by which the ABO blood group determines plasma VWF and consequently, FVIII levels, the possible clinical implications, and the current knowledge on the association between the ABO blood group and the risk of developing certain cancers will be reviewed.
Article
This year commemorates the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner. His findings of red cell agglutination by serum and recognition of blood groups laid the scientific basis for safe practice of blood transfusion. Even though dozens of blood systems have been identified, the ABO system still remains to be one of the most important systems in transfusion medicine. In 1990, we elucidated the molecular genetic basis of three major alleles at the ABO locus. Since then we have witnessed the progress in our understanding of ABO genes and A and B glycosyltransferases specified by a variety of functional alleles at this locus. Mutations affecting the activity and specificity of the enzymes have been identified. Not only has ABO genotyping become possible, but it has also become possible to genetically engineer the activity and specificity of the enzymes. We are now at a point of embarking upon the quest of understanding the functional significance of ABO polymorphism.
Article
Background The human ABO blood group system is important in transfusion and organ transplantation. Although the molecular basis of the ABO gene has been established, recent studies have begun to characterize the mechanism of the ABO gene expression. Materials and Methods Transient transfection assays were carried out in human erythroleukaemia HEL cells and human gastric cancer KATOIII cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed using nuclear extracts derived from both cells. Results Our characterization of the 5′-upstream sequence of the ABO genes indicated that the region between −117 and +31 is essential to direct expression of a reporter gene in erythroid cells. We show that a sequence located between positions −22 and −14 of the ABO promoter binds a ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 or Sp1-like protein(s). Mutation of this site abrogates binding of those factors and reduces the ability of the ABO promoter to function in erythroleukaemia cells and gastric cancer cells. Conclusion The expression of the ABO promoter appears to be influenced by the binding of Sp1 or Sp1-like protein(s) in both erythroid and epithelial cell lineages.
Article
In the scientific literature, contradictory results has been published on the prognostic value of the loss of expression of blood group antigen A (BAA) in lung cancer. The objective of our study was to analyze this fact in our surgical series. In a multicenter study, 402 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included. All were classified as stage-I according to the last 2009-TNM classification. We analyzed the prognostic influence of the loss of expression of BAA in the 209 patients expressing blood group A or AB. The 5-year cumulative survival was 73% for patients expressing BAA vs 53% for patients with loss of expression (P=.03). When patients were grouped into stages IA and IB, statistical significance was only observed in stage I-A (P=.038). When we analyzed the survival according to histologic type, those patients with adenocarcinoma and loss of expression of BAA had a lower survival rate that was statistically very significant (P=.003). The multivariate analysis showed that age, gender and expression of BAA were independent prognostic factors. The loss of expression of blood group antigen A has a negative prognostic impact in stage I NSCLC, especially in patients with adenocarcinoma.
Article
Gene expression is driven by promoters, enhancers, silencers, and other cis-regulatory elements upstream and downstream of the gene. Previous studies of the regulation of human ABO gene transcription have focused mainly on the 5' region, including the core promoter and the region proximal to it. However, as the involvement of the 3' flanking region in transcriptional regulation has not yet been examined, we focused on this issue. The 3' region approximately 2.2kb downstream of the ABO gene was PCR-amplified and inserted into a cloning vector, followed by sequence determination and preparation of luciferase reporter vectors. Transient transfections into KATOIII and K562 cells were performed using various reporter plasmids containing the 3' region. The 3' region of the ABO gene, which was characterized by a high degree of sequence repetition, was effectively cloned by a single-copy cloning method. Transfections in KATOIII and K562 cells showed that negative elements were demonstrable within the 3' region. These observations suggest that negative regulatory elements seem to be present in the 3' region of ABO in both epithelial and erythroid lineages. As we had observed a negative region just upstream of the ABO promoter, transcription from ABO could be negatively regulated by repressive regions just upstream of the promoter and downstream of the gene. Further studies of the enhancer will be required for elucidating the molecular basis of ABO gene expression.
Article
The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.
Article
Mithramycin induces a reversible inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis without affecting DNA synthesis. The authors have shown this drug induces myeloid differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and is an effective agent in certain patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia. In order to investigate the mechanism by which this drug inhibits RNA synthesis we have compared the effect of mithramycin on RNA synthesis by whole cells, isolated nuclei, and RNA synthesis by isolated E. coli RNA polymerase and eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. Exposure of HL-60 cells to mithramycin at concentrations of 4.6 X 10(-7) m or higher for 48 hours causes an almost immediate inhibition of RNA synthesis (up to 85% at 4 hours) with only modest cytotoxicity at these concentrations. Endogenous RNA synthesis by isolated nuclei can be inhibited by mithramycin only at high concentrations (greater than 10(-5) m), suggesting that mithramycin primarily may inhibit initiation, rather than elongation. Mithramycin inhibits in vitro transcription of salmon sperm DNA by E. coli RNA polymerase at DNA:drug ratios similar to those required for RNA synthesis inhibition in whole cells. Similar DNA binding studies with synthetic oligonucleotides demonstrate that mithramycin is a potent inhibitor of transcription of Poly dG.dC by E. coli RNA polymerase but has no effect on transcription of Poly dA.dT. The rapid inhibition of whole cell and isolated RNA polymerase transcription, and the relative insensitivity of isolated nuclei, suggest mithramycin may interact with specific DNA sequences in order to inhibit the initiation of RNA synthesis in intact cells.
Article
Since the cloning in 1990 of cDNA corresponding to mRNA transcribed at the blood group ABO locus, polymorphisms at the ABO locus and phenotype-genotype correlation have been analysed by several investigators. An enhancer-active minisatellite motif reported to contain four 43-bp repeats has been analysed by PCR in blood samples from 160 random Swedish blood donors. Different sizes of the DNA fragments obtained led to further analysis by direct sequencing. Fragments with either one or four 43-bp repeats were identified. A nucleotide substitution (G-->A) at nt. 41 of 43 was found in all alleles with only one repeat. Correlation with the ABO genotypes of the samples, as determined by a panel of ABO genotyping techniques, revealed an allele-related variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The A1 and the infrequent O2 allele had only one repeat whilst A2, B, O1 and O1v had four repeats and thus generated longer (by 129 bp) fragments. A further 74 samples obtained from various geographical areas/ethnic groups indicated a widespread correlation with few exceptions. In conclusion, a novel ABO polymorphism located in the 5'-nontranslated region involved in transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene is reported and its relationship to common alleles at this locus defined.
Article
The human ABO(H) blood group antigens are produced by specific glycosyltransferase enzymes. An N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) uses a UDP-GalNAc donor to convert the H-antigen acceptor to the A antigen, whereas a galactosyltransferase (GTB) uses a UDP-galactose donor to convert the H-antigen acceptor to the B antigen. GTA and GTB differ only in the identity of four critical amino acid residues. Crystal structures at 1.8-1.32 A resolution of the GTA and GTB enzymes both free and in complex with disaccharide H-antigen acceptor and UDP reveal the basis for donor and acceptor specificity and show that only two of the critical amino acid residues are positioned to contact donor or acceptor substrates. Given the need for stringent stereo- and regioselectivity in this biosynthesis, these structures further demonstrate that the ability of the two enzymes to distinguish between the A and B donors is largely determined by a single amino acid residue.
Article
Using the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique with the ex vivo culture of AC133-CD34+ cells, a transcription start site was recently identified approximately 0.7 kb upstream from the transcription start sites previously determined. The transcripts from the alternative starting exon 1a were demonstrated in the cells of both erythroid and epithelial lineages. Because the nucleotide sequence of exon 1a does not contain an ATG codon, we examined whether transcription starting from exon 1a leads to production of a functional glycosyltransferase. Stable transfection experiments into the human gastric cancer MKN28 cells were performed using the various A transferase expression plasmids. Large amounts of A antigens were demonstrated on the cells transfected with the A transferase expression plasmid containing the entire cDNA from exon 1a or the 5'-truncated cDNA leading to the production of the N-truncated protein with deletion of the cytoplasmic tail and a portion of the transmembrane domain. However, negligible amounts of A antigens were observed on the cells transfected with the A transferase expression plasmids containing the 5'-truncated cDNA leading to the production of the N-truncated proteins without the cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane domain. This study suggests that a functional A transferase could be produced by the transcription from exon 1a.
Article
Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also examined DNA from these tumors for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at markers surrounding the ABO locus at chromosome 9q34, for loss of specific ABO alleles, and for hypermethylation of the ABO promoters. Loss of A or B antigen expression was found in 21 of 25 tumors (84%) and was a consistent feature of tumors lacking expression of A/B glycosyltransferases. LOH at 9q34 was found in 7 of 27 cases (26%), and one case showed microsatellite instability. Among 20 AO/BO cases, 3 showed loss of the A/B allele and 3 showed loss of the O allele. Analysis of the proximal ABO promoter by methylation-specific PCR and melting curve analysis showed hypermethylation in 10 of 30 tumors (33.3%), which was associated with loss of A/B antigen expression. ABO promoter hypermethylation was also found in hyperplastic or dysplastic tissues adjacent to the tumors, suggesting that it is an early event in tumorigenesis. Collectively, we have identified molecular events that may account for loss of A/B antigen expression in 67% of oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Article
Our previous studies of the transcriptional regulation of the human ABO gene indicated that negative regulatory elements are present in the sequence just upstream from the proximal promoter. The role of the -275 to -118 region in regulation of ABO gene transcription is further characterized. Transient transfection experiments into various cells were performed with luciferase reporter plasmids carrying ABO upstream sequences, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay was carried out with a nuclear extract prepared from the human gastric cancer KATOIII cells. It is shown that the -202 to -118 region is involved in the negative regulation of ABO gene transcription in all cell lines examined. Transient transfection experiments in KATOIII cells with a reporter plasmid carrying mutated N box at -196 to -191 demonstrate that the N box is a negative regulatory element in the -202 to -118 sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that the N box binds with a nuclear factor from KATOIII cells. These results indicate that repression of transcription from the ABO proximal promoter is partially dependent upon the N box. Therefore, reduced binding of the protein with the N box might play a direct role in ABO gene expression.
Article
The human genome uses alternative pre-mRNA splicing as an important mechanism to encode a complex proteome from a relatively small number of genes. An unknown number of these genes also possess multiple transcriptional promoters and alternative first exons that contribute another layer of complexity to gene expression mechanisms. Using a collection of more than 100 erythroid-expressed genes as a test group, we used genome browser tools and genetic databases to assess the frequency of alternative first exons in the genome. Remarkably, 35% of these erythroid genes show evidence of alternative first exons. The majority of the candidate first exons are situated upstream of the coding exons, whereas a few are located internally within the gene. Computational analyses predict transcriptional promoters closely associated with many of the candidate first exons, supporting their authenticity. Importantly, the frequent presence of consensus translation initiation sites among the alternative first exons suggests that many proteins have alternative N-terminal structures whose expression can be coupled to promoter choice. These findings indicate that alternative promoters and first exons are more widespread in the human genome than previously appreciated and that they may play a major role in regulating expression of selected protein isoforms in a tissue-specific manner.
Article
It has been demonstrated that the 43-bp minisatellite sequence in the 5' region of the ABO gene plays an important role in its transcriptional regulation. It was determined in previous investigations that the structure of the minisatellite enhancer was specific to A, B, and O alleles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection and a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) strategy were used to compare the quantities of the A and B transcripts in AB-genotype cells, including peripheral blood cells and cancer cell line with the group AB phenotype. The 5' 3.7-kb regions of the A and B genes were cloned and the sequences compared. The transcriptional activities of the 5' segments of the A and B genes were compared with luciferase reporter assay. Both real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP analyses show that there is evidently more of the B transcript in the AB-genotype cells. It was demonstrated that the 5' segment of the B gene had a markedly higher transcription-activation activity relative to the A gene. This difference in transcription capability appears to result from the variation in minisatellite-enhancer structures in the A and B genes, which contain one and four repeats of the 43-bp enhancer unit, respectively. Our study indicates that the majority of steady-state mRNA within AB-genotype cells is composed of the B transcript and that this phenomenon is due to the predominant expression of the B gene relative to the A gene.
Article
Binding of CCAAT-binding factor NF-Y (CBF/NF-Y) to a 43-bp repeat unit in the minisatellite region in the 5' region of the ABO gene (CBF/NF-Y enhancer region) plays an important role in regulating the transcription of ABO genes. The common ABO alleles were found to have CBF/NF-Y enhancer regions with specific numbers of 43-bp minisatellite repeats. Blood samples from four healthy blood donors with weak B phenotypes were subjected to extensive ABO genotyping, including nucleotide sequencing of the 5' regulatory region containing the CBF/NF-Y enhancer. The coding region of the ABO genes exhibited common ABO*B101-heterozygous genotypes in all samples, but unexpected variations were observed in the CBF/NF-Y enhancer region. In two cases, the CBF/NF-Y enhancer motifs did not exhibit the expected ABO allele dependency. One, an AB(weak) sample was heterozygous for ABO*A101 and ABO*B101 but homozygous for the ABO*B101-specific CBF/NF-Y motif. The second had a common ABO*B101/ABO*O01 genotype but was heterozygous for ABO*A101- and ABO*O01-specific enhancer motifs. In the other two samples, novel CBF/NF-Y motifs were found. One contained a shortened version of an otherwise ABO*B101-specific CBF/NF-Y motif, and the other had a single-base substitution located 12 bp upstream from the beginning of the first 43-bp repeat of an ABO*B101-specific CBF/NF-Y enhancer sequence. The frequency of variations in the CBF/NF-Y region of the ABO gene in these samples with presumably common ABO*B101 alleles suggests that weak blood group B phenotypes may be caused by sequence variations in the CBF/NF-Y regulatory region.
Article
Mechanisms regulating the ABO gene are unclear, especially in the hematopoietic compartment. The number of 43-bp repeats in the CBF/NF-Y-binding enhancer region is considered to have a major influence on transcription. Transcript levels in peripheral blood and in erythropoietic culture of CD34+ cells from marrow donors were measured with TaqMan assays. The 5'-regulatory region and 3'-downstream sequences were investigated to determine if allelic variations occur. Surprisingly, transcripts from A(1) and A(2) alleles could not be detected in peripheral blood, although transcripts from B/O(1)/O(1v)/O(2) alleles were readily observed. Sequencing of approximately 4 kb upstream and 1.8 kb downstream of the coding region showed multiple novel allele-specific and allele-related motifs. No correlation between these sequence variations and transcript levels was found, however. Contradictory to the results with peripheral blood, in erythropoietic culture of CD34+ cells from healthy marrow donors transcripts from A(1) and A(2) alleles were found at higher levels than transcripts from B/O(1)/O(1v) alleles. These data do not support previous suggestions that nonsense-mutated O(1)/O(1v) transcripts are eliminated first. Furthermore, our results contradict the notion that the number of repeats in the upstream CBF/NF-Y-binding enhancer region, which contains four 43-bp repeats in A(2)/B/O(1)/O(1v) but only one 43-bp unit in A(1)/O(2) alleles, determines the transcription rate. The reason for the remarkable discrepancy between blood and marrow remains to be elucidated.